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Sample records for additional genetic mutations

  1. Accounting for additive genetic mutations on litter size in Ripollesa sheep.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about mutational variability in livestock, among which only a few mutations with relatively large effects have been reported. In this manuscript, mutational variability was analyzed in 1,765 litter size records from 404 Ripollesa ewes to characterize the magnitude of this genetic source of variation and check the suitability of including mutational effects in genetic evaluations of this breed. Threshold animal models accounting for additive genetic mutations were preferred to models without mutational contributions, with an average difference in the deviance information criterion of more than 5 units. Moreover, the statistical relevance of the additive genetic mutation term was checked through a Bayes factor approach, which showed that the models with mutational variability were 8.5 to 22.7 times more probable than the others. The mutational heritability (percentage of the phenotypic variance accounted for by mutational variance) was 0.6 or 0.9%, depending on whether genetic dominance effects were accounted for by the analytical model. The inclusion of mutational effects in the genetic model for evaluating litter size in Ripollesa ewes called for some minor modifications in the genetic merit order of the individuals evaluated, which suggested that the continuous uploading of new additive mutations could be taken into account to optimize the selection scheme. This study is the first attempt to estimate mutational variances in a livestock species and thereby contribute to better characterization of the genetic background of productive traits of interest.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Additive and Mutational Genetic Variance in an Outbred Population of Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Katrina; Aguirre, J. David; Blows, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    How new mutations contribute to genetic variation is a key question in biology. Although the evolutionary fate of an allele is largely determined by its heterozygous effect, most estimates of mutational variance and mutational effects derive from highly inbred lines, where new mutations are present in homozygous form. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, middle-class neighborhood (MCN) experiments have been used to assess the fitness effect of new mutations in heterozygous form. However, because MCN populations harbor substantial standing genetic variance, estimates of mutational variance have not typically been available from such experiments. Here we employ a modification of the animal model to analyze data from 22 generations of Drosophila serrata bred in an MCN design. Mutational heritability, measured for eight cuticular hydrocarbons, 10 wing-shape traits, and wing size in this outbred genetic background, ranged from 0.0006 to 0.006 (with one exception), a similar range to that reported from studies employing inbred lines. Simultaneously partitioning the additive and mutational variance in the same outbred population allowed us to quantitatively test the ability of mutation-selection balance models to explain the observed levels of additive and mutational genetic variance. The Gaussian allelic approximation and house-of-cards models, which assume real stabilizing selection on single traits, both overestimated the genetic variance maintained at equilibrium, but the house-of-cards model was a closer fit to the data. This analytical approach has the potential to be broadly applied, expanding our understanding of the dynamics of genetic variance in natural populations. PMID:26384357

  3. Additive genetic breeding values correlate with the load of partially deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Joseph L; Penrose, Marissa A; Greeff, Johan; LeBas, Natasha R

    2010-05-14

    The mutation-selection-balance model predicts most additive genetic variation to arise from numerous mildly deleterious mutations of small effect. Correspondingly, "good genes" models of sexual selection and recent models for the evolution of sex are built on the assumption that mutational loads and breeding values for fitness-related traits are correlated. In support of this concept, inbreeding depression was negatively genetically correlated with breeding values for traits under natural and sexual selection in the weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. The correlations were stronger in males and strongest for condition. These results confirm the role of existing, partially recessive mutations in maintaining additive genetic variation in outbred populations, reveal the nature of good genes under sexual selection, and show how sexual selection can offset the cost of sex.

  4. Discovery Genetics - The History and Future of Spontaneous Mutation Research.

    PubMed

    Davisson, Muriel T; Bergstrom, David E; Reinholdt, Laura G; Donahue, Leah Rae

    2012-06-01

    Historically, spontaneous mutations in mice have served as valuable models of heritable human diseases, contributing substantially to our understanding of both disease mechanisms and basic biological pathways. While advances in molecular technologies have improved our ability to create mouse models of human disease through targeted mutagenesis and transgenesis, spontaneous mutations continue to provide valuable research tools for discovery of novel genes and functions. In addition, the genetic defects caused by spontaneous mutations are molecularly similar to mutations in the human genome and, therefore often produce phenotypes that more closely resemble those characteristic of human disease than do genetically engineered mutations. Due to the rarity with which spontaneous mutations arise and the animal intensive nature of their genetic analysis, large-scale spontaneous mutation analysis has traditionally been limited to large mammalian genetics institutes. More recently, ENU mutagenesis and new screening methods have increased the rate of mutant strain discovery, and high-throughput DNA sequencing has enabled rapid identification of the underlying genes and their causative mutations. Here, we discuss the continued value of spontaneous mutations for biomedical research.

  5. The population genetics of beneficial mutations

    PubMed Central

    Orr, H. Allen

    2010-01-01

    The population genetic study of advantageous mutations has lagged behind that of deleterious and neutral mutations. But over the past two decades, a number of significant developments, both theoretical and empirical, have occurred. Here, I review two of these developments: the attempt to determine the distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations and the attempt to determine their average dominance. Considering both theory and data, I conclude that, while considerable theoretical progress has been made, we still lack sufficient data to draw confident conclusions about the distribution of effects or the dominance of beneficial mutations. PMID:20308094

  6. An Overview of Mutation Detection Methods in Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Rabbani, Bahareh

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disorders are traditionally categorized into three main groups: single-gene, chromosomal, and multifactorial disorders. Single gene or Mendelian disorders result from errors in DNA sequence of a gene and include autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR), X-linked dominant and Y-linked (holandric) disorders. Chromosomal disorders are due to chromosomal aberrations including numerical and structural damages. Molecular and cytogenetic techniques have been applied to identify genetic mutations leading to diseases. Accurate diagnosis of diseases is essential for appropriate treatment of patients, genetic counseling and prevention strategies. Characteristic features of patterns of inheritance are briefly reviewed and a short description of chromosomal disorders is also presented. In addition, applications of cytogenetic and molecular techniques and different types of mutations are discussed for genetic diagnosis of the pediatric genetic diseases. The purpose is to make pediatricians familiar with the applications of cytogenetic and molecular techniques and tools used for genetic diagnosis. PMID:24427490

  7. Cancers related to genetic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Power, Tara E.; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review psychosocial issues family physicians might wish to be aware of when discussing genetic testing for predisposition for cancer with their patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles from academic journals were reviewed. Studies provided level II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Family physicians should be prepared to explore their patients’ decisions for or against genetic testing, as well as to discuss the possible outcomes of a decision to test. While genetic testing has many potential benefits, patients are at risk of having psychosocial problems at many stages in a genetic testing inquiry. To minimize these problems, family physicians should discuss motivation for testing and the potential psychosocial effect of both deciding to undergo and deciding to forgo genetic testing for cancer-related genes. Also important are deciding whether patients qualify for the tests; coping with the waiting period before testing can be done; and discussing positive, negative, and inconclusive outcomes of testing. CONCLUSION Family physicians are likely in the best position to discuss genetic testing for predisposition for cancer with their patients given their knowledge of both the tests and their patients’ ability to cope with testing. PMID:17279200

  8. Genetic mutations associated with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, M; Shorvon, S

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary search of the literature aimed at identifying the genetic mutations reported to be strongly associated with status epilepticus. Genetic mutations were selected for inclusion if status epilepticus was specifically mentioned as a consequence of the mutation in standard genetic databases or in a case report or review article. Mutations in 122 genes were identified. The genetic mutations identified were found in only rare conditions (sometimes vanishingly rare) and mostly in infants and young children with multiple other handicaps. Most of the genetic mutations can be subdivided into those associated with cortical dysplasias, inborn errors of metabolism, mitochondrial disease, or epileptic encephalopathies and childhood syndromes. There are no identified 'pure status epilepticus genes'. The range of genes underpinning status epilepticus differs in many ways from the range of genes underpinning epilepsy, which suggests that the processes underpinning status epilepticus differ from those underpinning epilepsy. It has been frequently postulated that status epilepticus is the result of a failure of 'seizure termination mechanisms', but the wide variety of genes affecting very diverse biochemical pathways identified in this survey makes any unitary cause unlikely. The genetic influences in status epilepticus are likely to involve a wide range of mechanisms, some related to development, some to cerebral energy production, some to diverse altered biochemical pathways, some to transmitter and membrane function, and some to defects in networks or systems. The fact that many of the identified genes are involved with cerebral development suggests that status epilepticus might often be a system or network phenomenon. To date, there are very few genes identified which are associated with adult-onset status epilepticus (except in those with preexisting neurological damage), and this is disappointing as the cause of many adult

  9. Genetic mutations and mechanisms in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Golbus, Jessica R; Puckelwartz, Megan J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mutations account for a significant percentage of cardiomyopathies, which are a leading cause of congestive heart failure. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac output is limited by the thickened myocardium through impaired filling and outflow. Mutations in the genes encoding the thick filament components myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C (MYH7 and MYBPC3) together explain 75% of inherited HCMs, leading to the observation that HCM is a disease of the sarcomere. Many mutations are "private" or rare variants, often unique to families. In contrast, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is far more genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. DCM is characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions and impaired systolic and diastolic function. Private mutations account for most DCMs, with few hotspots or recurring mutations. More than 50 single genes are linked to inherited DCM, including many genes that also link to HCM. Relatively few clinical clues guide the diagnosis of inherited DCM, but emerging evidence supports the use of genetic testing to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.

  10. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.R. )

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  11. Addition of molecular methods to mutation studies with Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lee, W R

    1989-01-01

    For 80 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a major tool in analyzing Mendelian genetics. By using chromosome inversions that suppress crossing over, geneticists have developed a large number of stocks for mutation analysis. These stocks permit numerous tests for specific locus mutations, lethals at multiple loci on any chromosome, chromosome exchanges, insertions, and deletions. The entire genome can be manipulated for a degree of genetic control not found in other germ-line systems. Recombinant DNA techniques now permit analysis of mutations to the nucleotide level. By combining classical genetic analysis with recombinant DNA techniques, it is possible to analyze mutations that range from chromosome aberrations and multilocus deficiencies to single nucleotide transitions.

  12. BRCA mutation genetic testing implications in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Soley; Arun, Banu

    2017-02-01

    BRCA mutation carriers have a very high risk of breast and ovarian cancer by age 70, in the ranges 47%-66% and 40%-57%, respectively. Additionally, women with BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer also have an elevated risk of other or secondary malignancies. Fortunately, the breast and ovarian cancer outcome for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is at least as good as for non-carriers with chemoprevention, prophylactic surgeries and appropriate use of therapies. Therefore, identification of those who might have a mutation is important so that genetic counseling, testing, screening and prevention strategies can be applied in a timely manner. This article reviews the impact of genetic testing in general, timing of genetic testing after diagnosis and prior knowledge of mutation status in BRCA carriers with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Additionally, risk-reducing surgeries including the prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the sensitivity of BRCA-defective breast cancer cell lines to differential chemotherapeutic agents will be discussed.

  13. Genetic mutations in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daneswari, Muthumula; Reddy, Mutjumula Swamy Ranga

    2013-07-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal at a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is mainly characterized by basal cell carcinoma, odontogenic keratocyst and skeletal anomalies. Diagnosis is based upon established major and minor clinical and radiographic criteria and gene mutation analysis. This article presents a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, its genetic predisposition, diagnosis and management.

  14. Polygenic mutation in Droosophila melanogaster: Genetic analysis of selection lines

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, J.D.; deRonde, K.A.; Mackay, T.F.C.

    1995-03-01

    The authors have conducted genetic analyses of 12 long-term selection lines of Drosophila melanogaster derived from a highly inbred base population, containing new mutations affecting abdominal and sternopleural bristle number. Biometric analysis of the number of effective factors differentiating the selected lines from the base inbred indicated that with the exception of the three lines selected for increased number of abdominal bristles, three or more mutations contributed to the responses of the selection lines. Analysis of the chromosomal distribution of effects revealed that mutations affecting abdominal bristle number occurred on all three major chromosomes. In addition, Y-linked mutations with effects ranging from one to three bristles occurred in all three lines selected for decreased number of abdominal bristles, as well as in one line selected for increased abdominal bristle number. Mutations affecting sternopleural bristle number were mainly on the X and third chromosomes. One abdominal and one sternopleural selection line showed evidence of a segregating lethal with large effects on bristle number. As an indirect test for allelism of mutations occurring in different selection lines, the three lines selected in the same direction for the same trait were crossed in all possible combinations, and selection continued from the F{sub 2} hybrides. Responses of the hybrid lines usually did not exceed those of the most extreme parental lines, indicating that the responses of the parental lines may have been partly due to mutations at the same loci, although other interpretations are possible.

  15. Additional mechanisms conferring genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Miguel; Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Calero, Olga; Soriano, Eduardo; Avila, Jesús; Medina, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mostly associated with early onset, is caused by mutations in three genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) involved in the production of the amyloid β peptide. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the most common late onset sporadic AD remain largely unknown. With the implementation of an increasing number of case-control studies and the upcoming of large-scale genome-wide association studies there is a mounting list of genetic risk factors associated with common genetic variants that have been associated with sporadic AD. Besides apolipoprotein E, that presents a strong association with the disease (OR∼4), the rest of these genes have moderate or low degrees of association, with OR ranging from 0.88 to 1.23. Taking together, these genes may account only for a fraction of the attributable AD risk and therefore, rare variants and epistastic gene interactions should be taken into account in order to get the full picture of the genetic risks associated with AD. Here, we review recent whole-exome studies looking for rare variants, somatic brain mutations with a strong association to the disease, and several studies dealing with epistasis as additional mechanisms conferring genetic susceptibility to AD. Altogether, recent evidence underlines the importance of defining molecular and genetic pathways, and networks rather than the contribution of specific genes. PMID:25914626

  16. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  17. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members.

  18. Human Metabolic Enzymes Deficiency: A Genetic Mutation Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Swati; Singh, Ashok K.; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta

    2016-01-01

    One of the extreme challenges in biology is to ameliorate the understanding of the mechanisms which emphasize metabolic enzyme deficiency (MED) and how these pretend to have influence on human health. However, it has been manifested that MED could be either inherited as inborn error of metabolism (IEM) or acquired, which carries a high risk of interrupted biochemical reactions. Enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of toxic compounds that may disrupt normal organ functions and cause failure in producing crucial biological compounds and other intermediates. The MED related disorders cover widespread clinical presentations and can involve almost any organ system. To sum up the causal factors of almost all the MED-associated disorders, we decided to embark on a less traveled but nonetheless relevant direction, by focusing our attention on associated gene family products, regulation of their expression, genetic mutation, and mutation types. In addition, the review also outlines the clinical presentations as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27051561

  19. Dissecting genetic and environmental mutation signatures with model organisms.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Romulo; Tam, Annie S; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    Deep sequencing has impacted on cancer research by enabling routine sequencing of genomes and exomes to identify genetic changes associated with carcinogenesis. Researchers can now use the frequency, type, and context of all mutations in tumor genomes to extract mutation signatures that reflect the driving mutational processes. Identifying mutation signatures, however, may not immediately suggest a mechanism. Consequently, several recent studies have employed deep sequencing of model organisms exposed to discrete genetic or environmental perturbations. These studies exploit the simpler genomes and availability of powerful genetic tools in model organisms to analyze mutation signatures under controlled conditions, forging mechanistic links between mutational processes and signatures. We discuss the power of this approach and suggest that many such studies may be on the horizon.

  20. Bypass of genetic constraints during mutator evolution to antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Couce, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2015-04-07

    Genetic constraints can block many mutational pathways to optimal genotypes in real fitness landscapes, yet the extent to which this can limit evolution remains to be determined. Interestingly, mutator bacteria elevate only specific types of mutations, and therefore could be very sensitive to genetic constraints. Testing this possibility is not only clinically relevant, but can also inform about the general impact of genetic constraints in adaptation. Here, we evolved 576 populations of two mutator and one wild-type Escherichia coli to doubling concentrations of the antibiotic cefotaxime. All strains carried TEM-1, a β-lactamase enzyme well known by its low availability of mutational pathways. Crucially, one of the mutators does not elevate any of the relevant first-step mutations known to improve cefatoximase activity. Despite this, both mutators displayed a similar ability to evolve more than 1000-fold resistance. Initial adaptation proceeded in parallel through general multi-drug resistance mechanisms. High-level resistance, in contrast, was achieved through divergent paths; with the a priori inferior mutator exploiting alternative mutational pathways in PBP3, the target of the antibiotic. These results have implications for mutator management in clinical infections and, more generally, illustrate that limits to natural selection in real organisms are alleviated by the existence of multiple loci contributing to fitness.

  1. Discovery Genetics – The History and Future of Spontaneous Mutation Research

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, Muriel T.; Bergstrom, David E.; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Donahue, Leah Rae

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spontaneous mutations in mice have served as valuable models of heritable human diseases, contributing substantially to our understanding of both disease mechanisms and basic biological pathways. While advances in molecular technologies have improved our ability to create mouse models of human disease through targeted mutagenesis and transgenesis, spontaneous mutations continue to provide valuable research tools for discovery of novel genes and functions. In addition, the genetic defects caused by spontaneous mutations are molecularly similar to mutations in the human genome and, therefore often produce phenotypes that more closely resemble those characteristic of human disease than do genetically engineered mutations. Due to the rarity with which spontaneous mutations arise and the animal intensive nature of their genetic analysis, large-scale spontaneous mutation analysis has traditionally been limited to large mammalian genetics institutes. More recently, ENU mutagenesis and new screening methods have increased the rate of mutant strain discovery, and high-throughput DNA sequencing has enabled rapid identification of the underlying genes and their causative mutations. Here, we discuss the continued value of spontaneous mutations for biomedical research. PMID:25364627

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    MedlinePlus

    ... terminal C/EBPalpha mutation. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010 Mar;49(3):237-41. doi: 10.1002/gcc. ... EBPalpha), in acute myeloid leukemia. Nat Genet. 2001 Mar;27(3):263-70. Citation on PubMed Renneville ...

  3. A Mutation Model from First Principles of the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a neutral Codons Probability Mutations (CPM) model of molecular evolution and genetic decay of an organism. The CPM model uses a Markov process with a 20-dimensional state space of probability distributions over amino acids. The transition matrix of the Markov process includes the mutation rate and those single point mutations compatible with the genetic code. This is an alternative to the standard Point Accepted Mutation (PAM) and BLOcks of amino acid SUbstitution Matrix (BLOSUM). Genetic decay is quantified as a similarity between the amino acid distribution of proteins from a (group of) species on one hand, and the equilibrium distribution of the Markov chain on the other. Amino acid data for the eukaryote, bacterium, and archaea families are used to illustrate how both the CPM and PAM models predict their genetic decay towards the equilibrium value of 1. A family of bacteria is studied in more detail. It is found that warm environment organisms on average have a higher degree of genetic decay compared to those species that live in cold environments. The paper addresses a new codon-based approach to quantify genetic decay due to single point mutations compatible with the genetic code. The present work may be seen as a first approach to use codon-based Markov models to study how genetic entropy increases with time in an effectively neutral biological regime. Various extensions of the model are also discussed.

  4. Near East University Genetic Mutation Database (NEU-GD): The first mutation database of Northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Pirzada, Rameez Hassan; Arici, Mustafa; Serakinci, Nedime

    2015-10-15

    The health care system is negatively affected by the genetic disorders that lead to an increasing rate of morbidity and neonatal deaths and affect adults as well. These create a substantial government's psychosocial and economic burden on clinicians, patients and their families with the advancement in the field of genetics. There has been a tremendous increase in the rate in which diseases associated with variant DNA sequences are being sought and identified. The goal behind the creation of Near East University Genetic Mutation Database (NEU-GD) is to map and apprehend the patterns of common genetic diversity in the human genetic makeup in order to accelerate the search for the genetic causes of human disease. NEU-GD will allow scientists to generate extraordinarily useful information such as allelic variations among population, and description of the genetic blueprint of mutations occurring in human beings. In this communication we report the construction of the first genetic mutation database for the people belonging to different ethnic groups living in North Cyprus (http://genetics-db.neu.edu.tr/). Therefore NEU-GD can serve as an important tool available online for molecular genetic testing of inherited disorder and persuade for further investigation of novel genetic disorders in North Cyprus population.

  5. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  6. The population genetics of mutations: good, bad and indifferent.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Laurence; Hill, William G

    2010-04-27

    Population genetics is fundamental to our understanding of evolution, and mutations are essential raw materials for evolution. In this introduction to more detailed papers that follow, we aim to provide an oversight of the field. We review current knowledge on mutation rates and their harmful and beneficial effects on fitness and then consider theories that predict the fate of individual mutations or the consequences of mutation accumulation for quantitative traits. Many advances in the past built on models that treat the evolution of mutations at each DNA site independently, neglecting linkage of sites on chromosomes and interactions of effects between sites (epistasis). We review work that addresses these limitations, to predict how mutations interfere with each other. An understanding of the population genetics of mutations of individual loci and of traits affected by many loci helps in addressing many fundamental and applied questions: for example, how do organisms adapt to changing environments, how did sex evolve, which DNA sequences are medically important, why do we age, which genetic processes can generate new species or drive endangered species to extinction, and how should policy on levels of potentially harmful mutagens introduced into the environment by humans be determined?

  7. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T Ashton; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, J Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  9. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  10. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  12. Older paternal age and fresh gene mutation: data on additional disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; Smith, D W; Harvey, M A; Hall, B D; Quan, L

    1975-01-01

    Older paternal age has previously been documented as a factor in sporadic fresh mutational cases of several autosomal dominant disorders. In this collaborative study, an older mean paternal age has been documented in sporadic cases of at least five additional dominantly inheritable disorders; the basal cell nevus syndrome, the Waardenburg syndrome, the Crouzon syndrome, the oculo-dental-digital sysdrome, and the Treacher-Collins syndrome. It was also found to be a factor in acrodysostosis and progeria, suggesting a fresh mutant gene etiology for these two conditions in which virtually all cases have been sporadic and the mode of genetic etiology has been unknown.

  13. Clinical Significance of Epigenetic Alterations in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Association with Genetic Mutations.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations is a hallmark of cancer genomes, including those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, in human HCC, epigenetic changes are more frequently observed than genetic changes in a variety of cancer-related genes, suggesting a potential role for epigenetic alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis. Several environmental factors, such as inflammation, obesity, and steatosis, are reported to affect the epigenetic status in hepatocytes, which could play a role in HCC development. In addition, genetic mutations in histone modulators and chromatin regulators would be critical for the acceleration of epigenetic alteration. It is also possible that major genetic mutations of HCC, such as TP53 and CNTTB1 mutations, are associated with the disturbance of epigenetic integrity. For example, specific TP53 mutations frequently induced by aflatoxin B1 exposure might affect histone modifiers and nucleosome remodelers. Generally, epigenetic alteration is reversible, because of which dysregulation of transcription takes place, without affecting protein structure. Therefore, differentiation therapy is one of the potential approaches for HCC with advanced epigenetic alterations. On the other hand, a tumor carrying an accumulation of genetic mutations would result in many abnormal proteins that could be recognized as non-self and could be targets for immune reactions; thus, immune-checkpoint blockers should be effective for HCCs with genetic hypermutation. Although the emergence of genetic and epigenetic alterations could be linked to each other and there could be some crossover or convergence between these cancer pathways, characterization of the mutation spectrum of genetic and epigenetic alterations could influence future HCC treatment.

  14. Low incidence of SCN1A genetic mutation in patients with hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Byung Chan; Kim, Ki Joong; Chae, Jong Hee; Lee, Ran; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-10-01

    Genetic mutations in SCN1A account for more than two-thirds of patients with classic Dravet syndrome. A role for SCN1A genetic mutations in the development of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome was recently suggested based on the observation that HHE syndrome and classic Dravet syndrome share many clinical features. We previously identified a 2 bp-deletion mutation in SCN1A in a Dravet patient, and we found out the patient also had HHE syndrome upon clinical re-evaluation. We subsequently screened 10 additional HHE patients for SCN1A. Among the 11 patients who were diagnosed with HHE syndrome, six patients had no other etiology with the exception of prolonged febrile illness, therefore classified as idiopathic HHE syndrome, whereas five patients were classified as symptomatic HHE syndrome. Direct sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the SCN1A gene was performed, but we failed to identify additional mutations in 10 patients. The patient with SCN1A mutation had the earliest onset of febrile convulsion and hemiparesis. Our study suggests that SCN1A genetic mutation is only a rare predisposing cause of HHE syndrome.

  15. Molecular Genetics of Cystinuria: Identification of Four New Mutations and Seven Polymorphisms, and Evidence for Genetic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Paolo; Calonge, Maria Julia; Bisceglia, Luigi; Purroy, Jesus; Dianzani, Irma; Notarangelo, Angelo; Rousaud, Ferran; Gallucci, Michele; Testar, Xavier; Ponzone, Alberto; Estivill, Xavier; Zorzano, Antonio; Palacin, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia; Zelante, Leopoldo

    1995-01-01

    A cystinuria disease gene (rBAT) has been recently identified, and some mutations causing the disease have been described. The frequency of these mutations has been investigated in a large sample of 51 Italian and Spanish cystinuric patients. In addition, to identify new mutated alleles, genomic DNA has been analyzed by an accurate and sensitive method able to detect nucleotide changes. Because of the lack of information available on the genomic structure of rBAT gene, the study was carried out using the sequence data so far obtained by us. More than 70% of the entire coding sequence and 8 intron-exon boundaries have been analyzed. Four new mutations and seven intragenic polymorphisms have been detected. All mutations so far identified in rBAT belong only to cystinuria type I alleles, accounting for ∼44% of all type I cystinuric chromosomes. Mutation M467T is the most common mutated allele in the Italian and Spanish populations. After analysis of 70% of the rBAT coding region, we have detected normal sequences in cystinuria type II and type III chromosomes. The presence of rBAT mutated alleles only in type I chromosomes of homozygous (type I/I) and heterozygous (type I/III) patients provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity where rBAT would be responsible only for type I cystinuria and suggests a complementation mechanism to explain the intermediate type I/type III phenotype. PMID:7573036

  16. A second common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene: an additional risk factor for neural-tube defects?

    PubMed Central

    van der Put, N M; Gabreëls, F; Stevens, E M; Smeitink, J A; Trijbels, F J; Eskes, T K; van den Heuvel, L P; Blom, H J

    1998-01-01

    Recently, we showed that homozygosity for the common 677(C-->T) mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, causing thermolability of the enzyme, is a risk factor for neural-tube defects (NTDs). We now report on another mutation in the same gene, the 1298(A-->C) mutation, which changes a glutamate into an alanine residue. This mutation destroys an MboII recognition site and has an allele frequency of .33. This 1298(A-->C) mutation results in decreased MTHFR activity (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] P < .0001), which is more pronounced in the homozygous than heterozygous state. Neither the homozygous nor the heterozygous state is associated with higher plasma homocysteine (Hcy) or a lower plasma folate concentration-phenomena that are evident with homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation. However, there appears to be an interaction between these two common mutations. When compared with heterozygosity for either the 677(C-->T) or 1298(A-->C) mutations, the combined heterozygosity for the 1298(A-->C) and 677(C-->T) mutations was associated with reduced MTHFR specific activity (ANOVA P < .0001), higher Hcy, and decreased plasma folate levels (ANOVA P <.03). Thus, combined heterozygosity for both MTHFR mutations results in similar features as observed in homozygotes for the 677(C-->T) mutation. This combined heterozygosity was observed in 28% (n =86) of the NTD patients compared with 20% (n =403) among controls, resulting in an odds ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval: .9-4.7). These data suggest that the combined heterozygosity for the two MTHFR common mutations accounts for a proportion of folate-related NTDs, which is not explained by homozygosity for the 677(C-->T) mutation, and can be an additional genetic risk factor for NTDs. PMID:9545395

  17. Mutation and Human Exceptionalism: Our Future Genetic Load.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Although the human germline mutation rate is higher than that in any other well-studied species, the rate is not exceptional once the effective genome size and effective population size are taken into consideration. Human somatic mutation rates are substantially elevated above those in the germline, but this is also seen in other species. What is exceptional about humans is the recent detachment from the challenges of the natural environment and the ability to modify phenotypic traits in ways that mitigate the fitness effects of mutations, e.g., precision and personalized medicine. This results in a relaxation of selection against mildly deleterious mutations, including those magnifying the mutation rate itself. The long-term consequence of such effects is an expected genetic deterioration in the baseline human condition, potentially measurable on the timescale of a few generations in westernized societies, and because the brain is a particularly large mutational target, this is of particular concern. Ultimately, the price will have to be covered by further investment in various forms of medical intervention. Resolving the uncertainties of the magnitude and timescale of these effects will require the establishment of stable, standardized, multigenerational measurement procedures for various human traits.

  18. Gene mutations and actionable genetic lesions in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Makhdum; Zhang, Leo; Nomie, Krystle; Lam, Laura; Wang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mutations and epigenetic alterations are key events in transforming normal cells to cancer cells. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the B-cell, is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis especially for those patients who are resistant to the frontline drugs. There is a great need to describe the molecular basis and mechanism of drug resistance in MCL to develop new strategies for treatment. We reviewed frequent somatic mutations and mutations involving the B-cell pathways in MCL and discussed clinical trials that attempted to disrupt these gene pathways and/or epigenetic events. Recurrent gene mutations were discussed in the light of prognostic and therapeutic opportunity and also the challenges of targeting these lesions. Mutations in the ATM, CCND1, TP53, MLL2, TRAF2 and NOTCH1 were most frequently encountered in mantle cell lymphoma. Translational models should be built that would assess mutations longitudinally to identify important compensatory, pro-survival and anti-apoptic pathways and actionable genetic targets. PMID:27449094

  19. Mutation and Human Exceptionalism: Our Future Genetic Load

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Although the human germline mutation rate is higher than that in any other well-studied species, the rate is not exceptional once the effective genome size and effective population size are taken into consideration. Human somatic mutation rates are substantially elevated above those in the germline, but this is also seen in other species. What is exceptional about humans is the recent detachment from the challenges of the natural environment and the ability to modify phenotypic traits in ways that mitigate the fitness effects of mutations, e.g., precision and personalized medicine. This results in a relaxation of selection against mildly deleterious mutations, including those magnifying the mutation rate itself. The long-term consequence of such effects is an expected genetic deterioration in the baseline human condition, potentially measurable on the timescale of a few generations in westernized societies, and because the brain is a particularly large mutational target, this is of particular concern. Ultimately, the price will have to be covered by further investment in various forms of medical intervention. Resolving the uncertainties of the magnitude and timescale of these effects will require the establishment of stable, standardized, multigenerational measurement procedures for various human traits. PMID:26953265

  20. Genetic mapping of a mutation that causes ribonucleases III deficiency in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Studier, F W

    1975-01-01

    the mutation that causes ribonuclease III (RNase III) deficiency in strain AB301-105 of Kindler et al. (1973) has been mapped by use of F' merodiploids, Hfr matings, and P1 transduction. This mutation, rnc-105, lies close to nadB, near 49 min on the genetic map of Escherichia coli. The rnc-105 mutation has been transferred from its original genetic background by transduction and conjugation, and these new strains have the same defects in ribonucleic acid processing reported previously for AB301-105. Strains that carry rnc-105 grow more slowly than parental rnc+ strains, but the difference in growth rate seems to depend on the genetic background of each strain. Bacteriophage T7 grows about equally well in RNase III+ and III- female strains of E. coli, even though the specific cuts that RNase III makes in T7 ribonucleic acid are not made in the RNase III- strains. A low-phosphate defined medium in which most E. coli strains seem to grow well was developed. This medium is equally useful for labeling ribonucleic acids with 32PO4 and as a selective medium for genetic manipulations. It was used to determine the growth requirements of strain AB301-105, which are biotin and succinate in addition to the methionine and histidine requirements of the parental strain. The biotin mutation lies near the position expected from known mutations of E. coli, but the succinate mutation apparently does not. The possibility that the succinate requirement could be due to the RNase III deficiency is discussed. A uraP mutation was isolated for use in transferring rnc-105 between strains by conjugation. It lies near 47 min, somewhat removed from the commonly accepted position for uraP. PMID:1100605

  1. G protein-coupled receptor mutations and human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Miles D; Hendy, Geoffrey N; Percy, Maire E; Bichet, Daniel G; Cole, David E C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPCRs) disrupt GPCR function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases. In vitro strategies and animal models have been used to identify the molecular pathologies underlying naturally occurring GPCR mutations. Inactive, overactive, or constitutively active receptors have been identified that result in pathology. These receptor variants may alter ligand binding, G protein coupling, receptor desensitization and receptor recycling. Receptor systems discussed include rhodopsin, thyrotropin, parathyroid hormone, melanocortin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRHR), adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, endothelin-β, purinergic, and the G protein associated with asthma (GPRA or neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1)). The role of activating and inactivating calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations is discussed in detail with respect to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and autosomal dominant hypocalemia (ADH). The CASR mutations have been associated with epilepsy. Diseases caused by the genetic disruption of GPCR functions are discussed in the context of their potential to be selectively targeted by drugs that rescue altered receptors. Examples of drugs developed as a result of targeting GPCRs mutated in disease include: calcimimetics and calcilytics, therapeutics targeting melanocortin receptors in obesity, interventions that alter GNRHR loss from the cell surface in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and novel drugs that might rescue the P2RY12 receptor congenital bleeding phenotype. De-orphanization projects have identified novel disease-associated receptors, such as NPSR1 and GPR35. The identification of variants in these receptors provides genetic reagents useful in drug screens. Discussion of the variety of GPCRs that are disrupted in monogenic Mendelian disorders provides the basis for examining the significance of common

  2. Portal Vein Embolization: Impact of Chemotherapy and Genetic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Deipolyi, Amy R.; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Khademhosseini, Ali; Naidu, Sailendra; Borad, Mitesh; Sahin, Burcu; Mathur, Amit K.; Oklu, Rahmi

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the effect of systemic therapy given after portal vein embolization (PVE) and before hepatectomy on hepatic tumor and functional liver remnant (FLR) volumes. All 76 patients who underwent right PVE from 2002–2016 were retrospectively studied. Etiologies included colorectal cancer (n = 44), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 17), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), and other metastases (n = 5). Imaging before and after PVE was assessed. Chart review revealed systemic therapy administration, SNaPshot genetic profiling, and comorbidities. Nine patients received systemic therapy; 67 did not. Tumor volume increased 28% in patients who did not receive and decreased −24% in patients who did receive systemic therapy (p = 0.026), with no difference in FLR growth (28% vs. 34%; p = 0.645). Among 30 patients with genetic profiling, 15 were wild type and 15 had mutations. Mutations were an independent predictor of tumor growth (p = 0.049), but did not impact FLR growth (32% vs. 28%; p = 0.93). Neither cirrhosis, hepatic steatosis, nor diabetes impacted changes in tumor or FLR volume (p > 0.20). Systemic therapy administered after PVE before hepatic lobectomy had no effect on FLR growth; however, it was associated with decreasing tumor volumes. Continuing systemic therapy until hepatectomy may be warranted, particularly in patients with genetic mutations. PMID:28257031

  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, somatic mutations and candidate genetic risk variants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katie M; Orlow, Irene; Antonescu, Cristina R; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; DeMatteo, Ronald; Engel, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or "signatures" in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836) and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836). CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic origins and

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Somatic Mutations and Candidate Genetic Risk Variants

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Katie M.; Orlow, Irene; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; DeMatteo, Ronald; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare but treatable soft tissue sarcomas. Nearly all GISTs have somatic mutations in either the KIT or PDGFRA gene, but there are no known inherited genetic risk factors. We assessed the relationship between KIT/PDGFRA mutations and select deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 279 participants from a clinical trial of adjuvant imatinib mesylate. Given previous evidence that certain susceptibility loci and carcinogens are associated with characteristic mutations, or “signatures” in other cancers, we hypothesized that the characteristic somatic mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes in GIST tumors may similarly be mutational signatures that are causally linked to specific mutagens or susceptibility loci. As previous epidemiologic studies suggest environmental risk factors such as dioxin and radiation exposure may be linked to sarcomas, we chose 208 variants in 39 candidate genes related to DNA repair and dioxin metabolism or response. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each variant and 7 categories of tumor mutation using logistic regression. We also evaluated gene-level effects using the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Although none of the association p-values were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, SNPs in CYP1B1 were strongly associated with KIT exon 11 codon 557-8 deletions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for rs2855658 and OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7 for rs1056836) and wild type GISTs (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8 for rs1800440 and OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 for rs1056836). CYP1B1 was also associated with these mutations categories in the SKAT analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Other potential risk variants included GSTM1, RAD23B and ERCC2. This preliminary analysis of inherited genetic risk factors for GIST offers some clues about the disease's genetic origins

  5. On genetic information uncertainty and the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the existence of a mutator phenotype in cancer cells, although the mechanistic basis remains unknown. In this paper, it is shown that this enhanced genetic instability is generated by an amplified measurement uncertainty on genetic information during DNA replication. At baseline, an inherent measurement uncertainty implies an imprecision of the recognition, replication and transfer genetic information, and forms the basis for an intrinsic genetic instability in all biological cells. Genetic information is contained in the sequence of DNA bases, each existing due to proton tunnelling, as a coherent superposition of quantum states composed of both the canonical and rare tautomeric forms until decoherence by interaction with DNA polymerase. The result of such a quantum measurement process may be interpreted classically as akin to a Bernoulli trial, whose outcome X is random and can be either of two possibilities, depending on whether the proton is tunnelled (X=1) or not (X=0). This inherent quantum uncertainty is represented by a binary entropy function and quantified in terms of Shannon information entropy H(X)=-P(X=1)log(2)P(X=1)-P(X=0)log(2)P(X=0). Enhanced genetic instability may either be directly derived from amplified uncertainty induced by increases in quantum and thermodynamic fluctuation, or indirectly arise from the loss of natural uncertainty reduction mechanisms.

  6. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

  7. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  8. Genetic epidemiology of muscular dystrophies resulting from sarcoglycan gene mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Fanin, M; Duggan, D J; Mostacciuolo, M L; Martinello, F; Freda, M P; Sorarù, G; Trevisan, C P; Hoffman, E P; Angelini, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous muscle diseases characterised by progressive proximal limb muscle weakness. Six different loci have been mapped and pathogenetic mutations in the genes encoding the sarcoglycan complex components (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan) have been documented. LGMD patients affected with primary "sarcoglycanopathies" are classified as LGMD2D, 2E, 2C, and 2F, respectively. METHODS: A geographical area in north east Italy (2,319,147 inhabitants) was selected for a genetic epidemiological study on primary sarcoglycanopathies. Within the period 1982 to 1996, all patients living in this region and diagnosed with muscular dystrophy were seen at our centre. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot screening for alpha-sarcoglycan protein deficiency was performed on all muscle biopsies from patients with a progressive muscular dystrophy of unknown aetiology and normal dystrophin. Sarcoglycan mutation analyses were conducted on all patient muscle biopsies shown to have complete or partial absence of alpha-sarcoglycan immunostaining or a decreased quantity of alpha-sarcoglycan protein on immunoblotting. RESULTS: Two hundred and four patient muscle biopsies were screened for alpha-sarcoglycan protein deficiency and 18 biopsies showed a deficiency. Pathogenetic mutations involving one gene for sarcoglycan complex components were identified in 13 patients: alpha-sarcoglycan in seven, beta-sarcoglycan in two, gamma-sarcoglycan in four, and none in the delta-sarcoglycan gene. The overall prevalence of primary sarcoglycanopathies, as of 31 December 1996, was estimated to be 5.6 x 10(-6) inhabitants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate estimated in this study is the first to be obtained after biochemical and molecular genetic screening for sarcoglycan defects. PMID:9429136

  9. Genetic basis of congenital erythrocytosis: mutation update and online databases.

    PubMed

    Bento, Celeste; Percy, Melanie J; Gardie, Betty; Maia, Tabita Magalhães; van Wijk, Richard; Perrotta, Silverio; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Almeida, Helena; Rossi, Cedric; Girodon, François; Aström, Maria; Neumann, Drorit; Schnittger, Susanne; Landin, Britta; Minkov, Milen; Randi, Maria Luigia; Richard, Stéphane; Casadevall, Nicole; Vainchenker, William; Rives, Susana; Hermouet, Sylvie; Ribeiro, M Leticia; McMullin, Mary Frances; Cario, Holger; Chauveau, Aurelie; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Altindirek, Didem; Lorenzo, Felipe; Lambert, Frederic; Dan, Harlev; Gad-Lapiteau, Sophie; Catarina Oliveira, Ana; Rossi, Cédric; Fraga, Cristina; Taradin, Gennadiy; Martin-Nuñez, Guillermo; Vitória, Helena; Diaz Aguado, Herrera; Palmblad, Jan; Vidán, Julia; Relvas, Luis; Ribeiro, Maria Leticia; Luigi Larocca, Maria; Luigia Randi, Maria; Pedro Silveira, Maria; Percy, Melanie; Gross, Mor; Marques da Costa, Ricardo; Beshara, Soheir; Ben-Ami, Tal; Ugo, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Congenital erythrocytosis (CE), or congenital polycythemia, represents a rare and heterogeneous clinical entity. It is caused by deregulated red blood cell production where erythrocyte overproduction results in elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Primary congenital familial erythrocytosis is associated with low erythropoietin (Epo) levels and results from mutations in the Epo receptor gene (EPOR). Secondary CE arises from conditions causing tissue hypoxia and results in increased Epo production. These include hemoglobin variants with increased affinity for oxygen (HBB, HBA mutations), decreased production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate due to BPGM mutations, or mutations in the genes involved in the hypoxia sensing pathway (VHL, EPAS1, and EGLN1). Depending on the affected gene, CE can be inherited either in an autosomal dominant or recessive mode, with sporadic cases arising de novo. Despite recent important discoveries in the molecular pathogenesis of CE, the molecular causes remain to be identified in about 70% of the patients. With the objective of collecting all the published and unpublished cases of CE the COST action MPN&MPNr-Euronet developed a comprehensive Internet-based database focusing on the registration of clinical history, hematological, biochemical, and molecular data (http://www.erythrocytosis.org/). In addition, unreported mutations are also curated in the corresponding Leiden Open Variation Database.

  10. The Expression of Additive and Nonadditive Genetic Variation under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Blows, M. W.; Sokolowski, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental lines of Drosophila melanogaster derived from a natural population, which had been isolated in the laboratory for ~70 generations, were crossed to determine if the expression of additive, dominance and epistatic genetic variation in development time and viability was associated with the environment. No association was found between the level of additive genetic effects and environmental value for either trait, but nonadditive genetic effects increased at both extremes of the environmental range for development time. The expression of high levels of dominance and epistatic genetic variation at environmental extremes may be a general expectation for some traits. The disruption of the epistatic gene complexes in the parental lines resulted in hybrid breakdown toward faster development and there was some indication of hybrid breakdown toward higher viability. A combination of genetic drift and natural selection had therefore resulted in different epistatic gene complexes being selected after ~70 generations from a common genetic base. After crossing, the hybrid populations were observed for 10 generations. Epistasis contributed on average 12 hr in development time. Fluctuating asymmetry in sternopleural bristle number also evolved in the hybrid populations, decreasing by >18% in the first seven generations after hybridization. PMID:7672585

  11. Skeleton Genetics: a comprehensive database for genes and mutations related to genetic skeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Jiang, Yi; Xu, Chenyang; Liu, Xinting; Hu, Lin; Xiang, Yanbao; Chen, Qingshuang; Chen, Denghui; Li, Huanzheng; Xu, Xueqin; Tang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSD) involving the skeletal system arises through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. Over the past decades, tremendous effort platforms have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive new genes and mutations have been identified in different GSD, but the information supplied by literature is still limited and it is hard to meet the further needs of scientists and clinicians. In this study, combined with Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders, we developed the first comprehensive and annotated genetic skeletal disorders database, named ‘SkeletonGenetics’, which contains information about all GSD-related knowledge including 8225 mutations in 357 genes, with detailed information associated with 481 clinical diseases (2260 clinical phenotype) classified in 42 groups defined by molecular, biochemical and/or radiographic criteria from 1698 publications. Further annotations were performed to each entry including Gene Ontology, pathways analysis, protein–protein interaction, mutation annotations, disease–disease clustering and gene–disease networking. Furthermore, using concise search methods, intuitive graphical displays, convenient browsing functions and constantly updatable features, ‘SkeletonGenetics’ could serve as a central and integrative database for unveiling the genetic and pathways pre-dispositions of GSD. Database URL: http://101.200.211.232/skeletongenetics/ PMID:27580923

  12. The genetic heterogeneity and mutational burden of engineered melanomas in zebrafish models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Expression of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS, which are frequently mutated in human melanomas, promote the formation of nevi but are not sufficient for tumorigenesis. Even with germline mutated p53, these engineered melanomas present with variable onset and pathology, implicating additional somatic mutations in a multi-hit tumorigenic process. Results To decipher the genetics of these melanomas, we sequence the protein coding exons of 53 primary melanomas generated from several BRAFV600E or NRASQ61K driven transgenic zebrafish lines. We find that engineered zebrafish melanomas show an overall low mutation burden, which has a strong, inverse association with the number of initiating germline drivers. Although tumors reveal distinct mutation spectrums, they show mostly C > T transitions without UV light exposure, and enrichment of mutations in melanogenesis, p53 and MAPK signaling. Importantly, a recurrent amplification occurring with pre-configured drivers BRAFV600E and p53-/- suggests a novel path of BRAF cooperativity through the protein kinase A pathway. Conclusion This is the first analysis of a melanoma mutational landscape in the absence of UV light, where tumors manifest with remarkably low mutation burden and high heterogeneity. Genotype specific amplification of protein kinase A in cooperation with BRAF and p53 mutation suggests the involvement of melanogenesis in these tumors. This work is important for defining the spectrum of events in BRAF or NRAS driven melanoma in the absence of UV light, and for informed exploitation of models such as transgenic zebrafish to better understand mechanisms leading to human melanoma formation. PMID:24148783

  13. Genetic heterogeneity in primary and relapsed mantle cell lymphomas: Impact of recurrent CARD11 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenglin; Mansouri, Larry; Jurczak, Wojciech; Galazka, Krystyna; Dlugosz-Danecka, Monika; Machaczka, Maciej; Zhang, Huilai; Peng, Roujun; Morin, Ryan D.; Rosenquist, Richard; Sander, Birgitta; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying disease progression, relapse and therapy resistance in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain largely unknown. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 27 MCL samples from 13 patients, representing the largest analyzed series of consecutive biopsies obtained at diagnosis and/or relapse for this type of lymphoma. Eighteen genes were found to be recurrently mutated in these samples, including known (ATM, MEF2B and MLL2) and novel mutation targets (S1PR1 and CARD11). CARD11, a scaffold protein required for B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced NF-κB activation, was subsequently screened in an additional 173 MCL samples and mutations were observed in 5.5% of cases. Based on in vitro cell line-based experiments, overexpression of CARD11 mutants were demonstrated to confer resistance to the BCR-inhibitor ibrutinib and NF-κB-inhibitor lenalidomide. Genetic alterations acquired in the relapse samples were found to be largely non-recurrent, in line with the branched evolutionary pattern of clonal evolution observed in most cases. In summary, this study highlights the genetic heterogeneity in MCL, in particular at relapse, and provides for the first time genetic evidence of BCR/NF-κB activation in a subset of MCL. PMID:27224912

  14. Clonal analysis of delayed karyotypic abnormalities and gene mutations in radiation-induced genetic instability.

    PubMed Central

    Grosovsky, A J; Parks, K K; Giver, C R; Nelson, S L

    1996-01-01

    Many tumors exhibit extensive chromosomal instability, but karyotypic alterations will be significant in carcinogenesis only by influencing specific oncogenes or tumor suppressor loci within the affected chromosomal segments. In this investigation, the specificity of chromosomal rearrangements attributable to radiation-induced genomic instability is detailed, and a qualitative and quantitative correspondence with mutagenesis is demonstrated. Chromosomal abnormalities preferentially occurred near the site of prior rearrangements, resulting in complex abnormalities, or near the centromere, resulting in deletion or translocation of the entire chromosome arm, but no case of an interstitial chromosomal deletion was observed. Evidence for chromosomal instability in the progeny of irradiated cells also included clonal karyotypic heterogeneity. The persistence of instability was demonstrated for at least 80 generations by elevated mutation rates at the heterozygous, autosomal marker locus tk. Among those TK- mutants that showed a loss of heterozygosity, a statistically significant increase in mutation rate was observed only for those in which the loss of heterozygosity encompasses the telomeric region. This mutational specificity corresponds with the prevalence of terminal deletions, additions, and translocations, and the absence of interstitial deletions, in karyotypic analysis. Surprisingly, the elevated rate of TK- mutations is also partially attributable to intragenic base substitutions and small deletions, and DNA sequence analysis of some of these mutations is presented. Complex chromosomal abnormalities appear to be the most significant indicators of a high rate of persistent genetic instability which correlates with increased rates of both intragenic and chromosomal-scale mutations at tk. PMID:8887655

  15. Performance impact of mutation operators of a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm for multi-robot task allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems.

  16. Influence of a Small Fraction of Individuals with Enhanced Mutations on a Population Genetic Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    It has been observed that a higher mutation load could be introduced into the genomes of children conceived by assisted reproduction technology (fertilization in-vitro). This generates two effects — slightly higher mutational pressure on the whole genetic pool of population and inhomogeneity of mutation distributions in the genetic pool. Computer simulations of the Penna ageing model suggest that already a small fraction of births with enhanced number of new mutations can negatively influence the whole population.

  17. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  18. Additive and nonadditive genetic variation in avian personality traits.

    PubMed

    van Oers, K; Drent, P J; de Jong, G; van Noordwijk, A J

    2004-11-01

    Individuals of all vertebrate species differ consistently in their reactions to mildly stressful challenges. These typical reactions, described as personalities or coping strategies, have a clear genetic basis, but the structure of their inheritance in natural populations is almost unknown. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of two personality traits (exploration and boldness) and the combination of these two traits (early exploratory behaviour). This study was carried out on the lines resulting from a two-directional artificial selection experiment on early exploratory behaviour (EEB) of great tits (Parus major) originating from a wild population. In analyses using the original lines, reciprocal F(1) and reciprocal first backcross generations, additive, dominance, maternal effects ands sex-dependent expression of exploration, boldness and EEB were estimated. Both additive and dominant genetic effects were important determinants of phenotypic variation in exploratory behaviour and boldness. However, no sex-dependent expression was observed in either of these personality traits. These results are discussed with respect to the maintenance of genetic variation in personality traits, and the expected genetic structure of other behavioural and life history traits in general.

  19. Capillary Malformation–Arteriovenous Malformation, a New Clinical and Genetic Disorder Caused by RASA1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Iiro; Boon, Laurence M.; Mulliken, John B.; Burrows, Patricia E.; Dompmartin, Anne; Watanabe, Shoji; Vanwijck, Romain; Vikkula, Miikka

    2003-01-01

    Capillary malformation (CM), or “port-wine stain,” is a common cutaneous vascular anomaly that initially appears as a red macular stain that darkens over years. CM also occurs in several combined vascular anomalies that exhibit hypertrophy, such as Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and Parkes Weber syndrome. Occasional familial segregation of CM suggests that there is genetic susceptibility, underscored by the identification of a large locus, CMC1, on chromosome 5q. We used genetic fine mapping with polymorphic markers to reduce the size of the CMC1 locus. A positional candidate gene, RASA1, encoding p120-RasGAP, was screened for mutations in 17 families. Heterozygous inactivating RASA1 mutations were detected in six families manifesting atypical CMs that were multiple, small, round to oval in shape, and pinkish red in color. In addition to CM, either arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, or Parkes Weber syndrome was documented in all the families with a mutation. We named this newly identified association caused by RASA1 mutations “CM-AVM,” for capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation. The phenotypic variability can be explained by the involvement of p120-RasGAP in signaling for various growth factor receptors that control proliferation, migration, and survival of several cell types, including vascular endothelial cells. PMID:14639529

  20. Single-cell genetic expression of mutant GABAA receptors causing Human genetic epilepsy alters dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation in a mutation-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Choudhury, Mayukh; Stoica, Ana; Di Cristo, Graziella; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding for GABAA receptor subunits is a well-established cause of genetic generalized epilepsy. GABA neurotransmission is implicated in several developmental processes including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Alteration in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic activities plays a critical role in epilepsy, thus here we investigated whether mutations in α1 subunit of GABAA receptor may affect dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation. In particular, we examined the effects of three mutations of the GABRA1 gene (D219N, A322D and K353delins18X) that were found in a cohort of French Canadian families with genetic generalized epilepsy. We used a novel single-cell genetic approach, by preparing cortical organotypic cultures from GABRA1 (flox/flox) mice and simultaneously inactivating endogenous GABRA1 and transfecting mutant α1 subunits in single glutamatergic pyramidal cells and basket GABAergic interneurons by biolistic transfection. We found that GABRA1 (-/-) GABAergic cells showed reduced innervation field, which was rescued by co-expressing α1-A322D and α1-WT but not α1-D219N. We further found that the expression of the most severe GABRA1 missense mutation (α1-A322D) induced a striking increase of spine density in pyramidal cells along with an increase in the number of mushroom-like spines. In addition, α1-A322D expression in GABAergic cells slightly increased perisomatic bouton density, whereas other mutations did not alter bouton formation. All together, these results suggest that the effects of different GABAAR mutations on GABAergic bouton and dendritic spine formation are specific to the mutation and cannot be always explained by a simple loss-of-function gene model. The use of single cell genetic manipulation in organotypic cultures may provide a better understanding of the specific and distinct neural circuit alterations caused by different GABAA receptor subunit mutations and will help define the pathophysiology of genetic

  1. Single-cell genetic expression of mutant GABAA receptors causing Human genetic epilepsy alters dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation in a mutation-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Choudhury, Mayukh; Stoica, Ana; Di Cristo, Graziella; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding for GABAA receptor subunits is a well-established cause of genetic generalized epilepsy. GABA neurotransmission is implicated in several developmental processes including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Alteration in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic activities plays a critical role in epilepsy, thus here we investigated whether mutations in α1 subunit of GABAA receptor may affect dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation. In particular, we examined the effects of three mutations of the GABRA1 gene (D219N, A322D and K353delins18X) that were found in a cohort of French Canadian families with genetic generalized epilepsy. We used a novel single-cell genetic approach, by preparing cortical organotypic cultures from GABRA1flox/flox mice and simultaneously inactivating endogenous GABRA1 and transfecting mutant α1 subunits in single glutamatergic pyramidal cells and basket GABAergic interneurons by biolistic transfection. We found that GABRA1−/− GABAergic cells showed reduced innervation field, which was rescued by co-expressing α1-A322D and α1-WT but not α1-D219N. We further found that the expression of the most severe GABRA1 missense mutation (α1-A322D) induced a striking increase of spine density in pyramidal cells along with an increase in the number of mushroom-like spines. In addition, α1-A322D expression in GABAergic cells slightly increased perisomatic bouton density, whereas other mutations did not alter bouton formation. All together, these results suggest that the effects of different GABAAR mutations on GABAergic bouton and dendritic spine formation are specific to the mutation and cannot be always explained by a simple loss-of-function gene model. The use of single cell genetic manipulation in organotypic cultures may provide a better understanding of the specific and distinct neural circuit alterations caused by different GABAA receptor subunit mutations and will help define the pathophysiology of genetic

  2. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options.

  3. Genetical study of mutation in maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-qing; Hu, Feng-lan; Cheng, Qiong; Hao, Jian-hua; Zhang, Jian-hua; Lin, Xue-na; Zheng, Bao; Fa, Ping-ping; Yu, Su-yan; Hu, Li-hua

    2015-04-01

    This study looked into a family involving a rare mother-child ABO blood type inconsistency and explored its genetic and molecular basis. In the family, the mother had type AB blood and the father was blood type B and they gave birth to a baby of blood type O. Their blood types were phenotypically identified by using different techniques, including micro-column gel test, immune inhibition test, absorption and elution tests. The sequences of all 7 exons of ABO allele from the core family members were determined by using PCR and clone-based sequencing. The loci of mutated gene were compared against normal human genes. The result showed that the mother's erythrocytes were agglutinable with monoclonal anti-A antibody (2+) and had agglutination reaction with anti-B antibody (4+). The mother's serum registered agglutination action with standard blood type A cells. The findings showed an ABO inconsistency. When domestic antibodies were used, the mother's erythrocytes yielded agglutination reaction with humanized anti-B serum (4+) and anti-B monoclonal antibody but were non-agglutinable with humanized anti-A serum and anti-A monoclonal antibody. Upon absorption and elution, the titer of anit-A antibody was 128 both before and after the absorption test, with no significant difference found between pre- and post-absorption values. Our results confirmed that the mother's allelic gene was type B and contained type A. The father's blood type was type B, and son's blood type was type O. Clone-based sequencing revealed that the mother carried a heterozygous gene of B101.01 (ntA640→G)/O01, which contained an M214→V mutation that could express a weak expression of antigen A, resulting in blood type AB. However, their son did not have the M214→V mutation, which yielded a false ABO-inconsistency between him and his mother. We were led to conclude that type B gene with a M214→V mutation can encode both antigen B and weak antigen B that can lead to false ABO-inconsistencies.

  4. A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma Driven by Mutated ALK and MYCN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0220 TITLE: A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma ...CONTRACT NUMBER A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma Driven by Mutated ALK and MYCN 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0220 5c...common ALK mutations in neuroblastoma , F1174L and R1275Q. We have determined that in tumors cells expressing mutated ALK, different downstream

  5. Efficient Improvement of Silage Additives by Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe S.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Merry, Roger J.; Kell, Douglas B.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Griffith, Gareth W.

    2000-01-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e., no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a “fitness” value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a “cost” element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage

  6. Efficient improvement of silage additives by using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Davies, Z S; Gilbert, R J; Merry, R J; Kell, D B; Theodorou, M K; Griffith, G W

    2000-04-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e. , no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a "fitness" value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a "cost" element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage fermentation. We

  7. A multiparametric computational algorithm for comprehensive assessment of genetic mutations in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (Sanfilippo syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ugrinov, Krastyu G; Freed, Stefan D; Thomas, Clayton L; Lee, Shaun W

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS-IIIA, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a Lysosomal Storage Disease caused by cellular deficiency of N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH). Given the large heterogeneity of genetic mutations responsible for the disease, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which these mutations affect enzyme function is needed to guide effective therapies. We developed a multiparametric computational algorithm to assess how patient genetic mutations in SGSH affect overall enzyme biogenesis, stability, and function. 107 patient mutations for the SGSH gene were obtained from the Human Gene Mutation Database representing all of the clinical mutations documented for Sanfilippo syndrome. We assessed each mutation individually using ten distinct parameters to give a comprehensive predictive score of the stability and misfolding capacity of the SGSH enzyme resulting from each of these mutations. The predictive score generated by our multiparametric algorithm yielded a standardized quantitative assessment of the severity of a given SGSH genetic mutation toward overall enzyme activity. Application of our algorithm has identified SGSH mutations in which enzymatic malfunction of the gene product is specifically due to impairments in protein folding. These scores provide an assessment of the degree to which a particular mutation could be treated using approaches such as chaperone therapies. Our multiparametric protein biogenesis algorithm advances a key understanding in the overall biochemical mechanism underlying Sanfilippo syndrome. Importantly, the design of our multiparametric algorithm can be tailored to many other diseases of genetic heterogeneity for which protein misfolding phenotypes may constitute a major component of disease manifestation.

  8. EAST syndrome: Clinical, pathophysiological, and genetic aspects of mutations in KCNJ10

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Daniela; Stanescu, Horia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT EAST syndrome is a recently described autosomal recessive disorder secondary to mutations in KCNJ10 (Kir4.1), a gene encoding a potassium channel expressed in the brain, eye, ear and kidney. This condition is characterized by 4 cardinal features; Epilepsy, Ataxia, Sensorineural deafness, and (a renal salt-wasting) Tubulopathy, hence the acronym EAST syndrome. Here we review reported clinical manifestations, in particular the neurological signs and symptoms which typically have the most impact on the quality of life of patients. In addition we review the pathophysiology and genetic aspects of the disease. So far 14 different KCNJ10 mutations have been published which either directly affect channel function or may lead to mislocalisation. Investigations of the pathophysiology may provide clues to potential treatments. PMID:27500072

  9. Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD): Taking Advantage from Founder Mutations in Genetics Diagnosis, Genetic Diversity and Migration History of the Mediterranean Population.

    PubMed

    Charoute, Hicham; Bakhchane, Amina; Benrahma, Houda; Romdhane, Lilia; Gabi, Khalid; Rouba, Hassan; Fakiri, Malika; Abdelhak, Sonia; Lenaers, Guy; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean basin has been the theater of migration crossroads followed by settlement of several societies and cultures in prehistoric and historical times, with important consequences on genetic and genomic determinisms. Here, we present the Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD), established to offer web-based access to founder mutation information in the Mediterranean population. Mutation data were collected from the literature and other online resources and systematically reviewed and assembled into this database. The information provided for each founder mutation includes DNA change, amino-acid change, mutation type and mutation effect, as well as mutation frequency and coalescence time when available. Currently, the database contains 383 founder mutations found in 210 genes related to 219 diseases. We believe that MFMD will help scientists and physicians to design more rapid and less expensive genetic diagnostic tests. Moreover, the coalescence time of founder mutations gives an overview about the migration history of the Mediterranean population. MFMD can be publicly accessed from http://mfmd.pasteur.ma.

  10. A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma Driven by Mutated ALK and MYCN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0220 TITLE: A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma Driven by Mutated ALK and MYCN PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma Driven by Mutated ALK and MYCN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anaplastic lymphoma kinase, neuroblastoma, ALK, ALKF1174L, MYCN, CDK7

  11. Genetic Interactions among Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutations That Confer Resistance to anti-Microtubule Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    James, S. W.; Lefebvre, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described two types of genetic interactions among recessive mutations in the APM1 and APM2 loci of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that may reflect a physical association of the gene products or their involvement in a common structure/process: (1) allele-specific synthetic lethality, and (2) unlinked noncomplementation, or dominant enhancement. To further investigate these interactions, we isolated revertants in which the heat sensitivity caused by the apm2-1 mutation is lost. The heat-insensitive revertants were either fully or partially suppressed for the drug-resistance caused by the apm2-1 allele. In recombination tests the revertants behaved as if the suppressing mutation mapped within the APM2 locus; the partial suppressors of apm2-1 herbicide resistance failed to complement apm2-1, leading to the conclusion that they were likely to be intragenic pseudorevertants. The apm2-1 partial suppressor mutations reversed apm1(-)apm2-1 synthetic lethality in an allele-specific manner with respect both to apm1(-) alleles and apm2-1 suppressor mutations. Those apm1(-) apm2-1(rev) strains that regained viability also regained heat sensitivity characteristic of the original apm2-1 mutation, even though the apm2-1 suppressor strains were fully heat-insensitive. The Hs(+) phenotypes of apm2-1 partial suppressors were also reversed by treatment with the microtubule-stabilizing agent deuterium oxide (D(2)O). In addition to the above interactions, we observed interallelic complementation and phenotypic enhancement of temperature conditionality among apm1(-) alleles. Evidence of a role for the products of the two genes in microtubule-based processes was obtained from studying flagellar assembly in apm1(-) and apm2(-) mutants. PMID:1311696

  12. Chediak-Higashi syndrome mutation and genetic testing in Japanese black cattle (Wagyu).

    PubMed

    Yamakuchi, H; Agaba, M; Hirano, T; Hara, K; Todoroki, J; Mizoshita, K; Kubota, C; Tabara, N; Sugimoto, Y

    2000-02-01

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects several species including mice, humans, and cattle. Evidence based on clinical characteristics and somatic cell genetics suggests that mutations in a common gene cause CHS in the three species. The CHS locus on human chromosome 1 and mouse chromosome 13 encodes a lysosomal trafficking regulator formerly known as LYST, now known as CHS1, and is defective in CHS patients and beige mice, respectively. We have mapped the CHS locus to the proximal region of bovine chromosome 28 by linkage analysis using microsatellite markers previously mapped to this chromosome. Furthermore, we have identified a missense A:T-->G:C mutation that results in replacement of a histidine with an arginine residue at codon 2015 of the CHS1 gene. This mutation is the most likely cause of CHS in Wagyu cattle. In addition, we describe quick, inexpensive, PCR based tests that will permit elimination of the CHS mutation from Wagyu breeding herds.

  13. Genetic repair of mutations in plant cell-free extracts directed by specific chimeric oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Rice, M C; May, G D; Kipp, P B; Parekh, H; Kmiec, E B

    2000-06-01

    Chimeric oligonucleotides are synthetic molecules comprised of RNA and DNA bases assembled in a double hairpin conformation. These molecules have been shown to direct gene conversion events in mammalian cells and animals through a process involving at least one protein from the DNA mismatch repair pathway. The mechanism of action for gene repair in mammalian cells has been partially elucidated through the use of a cell-free extract system. Recent experiments have expanded the utility of chimeric oligonucleotides to plants and have demonstrated genotypic and phenotypic conversion, as well as Mendelian transmission. Although these experiments showed correction of point and frameshift mutations, the biochemical and mechanistic aspects of the process were not addressed. In this paper, we describe the establishment of cell-free extract systems from maize (Zea mays), banana (Musa acuminata cv Rasthali), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Using a genetic readout system in bacteria and chimeric oligonucleotides designed to direct the conversion of mutations in antibiotic-resistant genes, we demonstrate gene repair of point and frameshift mutations. Whereas extracts from banana and maize catalyzed repair of mutations in a precise fashion, cell-free extracts prepared from tobacco exhibited either partial repair or non-targeted nucleotide conversion. In addition, an all-DNA hairpin molecule also mediated repair albeit in an imprecise fashion in all cell-free extracts tested. This system enables the mechanistic study of gene repair in plants and may facilitate the identification of DNA repair proteins operating in plant cells.

  14. Genetic (Co)Variation for Life Span in Rhabditid Nematodes: Role of Mutation, Selection, and History

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ambuj; Salomon, Matthew P.; Grigaltchik, Veronica; Baer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms maintaining genetic variation in life span, particularly post-reproductive life span, are poorly understood. We characterized the effects of spontaneous mutations on life span in the rhabditid nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and standing genetic variance for life span and correlation of life span with fitness in C. briggsae. Mutations decreased mean life span, a signature of directional selection. Mutational correlations between life span and fitness were consistently positive. The average selection coefficient against new mutations in C. briggsae was approximately 2% when homozygous. The pattern of phylogeographic variation in life span is inconsistent with global mutation–selection balance (MSB), but MSB appears to hold at the local level. Standing genetic correlations in C. briggsae reflect mutational correlations at a local scale but not at a broad phylogeographic level. At the local scale, results are broadly consistent with predictions of the “mutation accumulation” hypothesis for the evolution of aging. PMID:19671885

  15. Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Rettew, David C; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2008-05-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12-18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20-23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31-33%) in addition to unshared environment (46-48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

  16. An Individual with Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) and Additional Features Expands the Phenotype Associated with Mutations in KAT6B

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H.; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2 bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and Genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject’s phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes. PMID:24458743

  17. An individual with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and additional features expands the phenotype associated with mutations in KAT6B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-04-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject's phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes.

  18. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, D Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2015-10-20

    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML.

  19. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome – additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Koenighofer, Martin; Hung, Christina Y.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Dallman, Julia; Back, Emma J.; Mihalek, Ivana; Gripp, Karen W.; Sol-Church, Katia; Rusconi, Paolo; Zhang, Zhaiyi; Shi, Geng-Xian; Andres, Douglas A.; Bodamer, Olaf A.

    2015-01-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in one of sixteen proteins in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and, p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins, however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. PMID:25959749

  20. Incidence and mutation rates of Huntington's disease in Spain: experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Arroyo, M; Moreno, S; Valiente, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prior to the discovery of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation, the prevalence, incidence, and new mutation rates for this disease were based on the presence of progressive choreic movements and a positive family history. Objective: To evaluate the uptake of the HD genetic analysis in Spain, and to provide additional information on the epidemiology of this disease from the experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing. Methods: From 1994 to 2002, CAG repeat length was determined in 317 patients with symptoms compatible with HD. In all cases, demographic, clinical, and family data were carefully reviewed. Results: HD diagnosis (CAG repeat length ⩾36) was confirmed in 166 (52%) symptomatic cases. Of these, 76 (45.8%) reported a positive family history and in 21 cases (12.7%) family history was negative. New mutation events were genetically proven in three families and highly suspected in another, estimating that the minimum new mutation rate for HD in our population is >4%, with a potential mutation rate of 8%. More than 16% of all HD cases had late onset (>59 years) of symptoms, and in three quarters of these the family history was negative. The incidence rate for the autonomous communities of Navarra and the Basque country, based on the number of newly diagnosed cases by genetic testing, was 4.7 per million per year. Conclusions: Direct HD genetic testing shows that the incidence and mutation rates of the disease are 2–3 times higher than previously reported. We also demonstrated the relevance of CAG repeat length assessment in diagnosing patients with late onset of symptoms and negative family history for HD. PMID:15716522

  1. Fly-TILL: reverse genetics using a living point mutation resource.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer L; Till, Bradley J; Henikoff, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenesis with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) has been the standard for traditional genetic screens, and in recent years has been applied to reverse genetics. However, reverse-genetic strategies require maintaining a viable germline library so that mutations that are discovered can subsequently be recovered. In applying our TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) method to establish a Drosophila reverse-genetic service (Fly-TILL), we chose to screen the Zuker lines, a large collection of EMS-mutagenized second- and third-chromosome balanced lines that had been established for forward-genetic screening. For the past four years, our Fly-TILL service has screened this collection to provide approximately 150 allelic series of point mutations for the fly community. Our analysis of >2000 point mutations and indels have provided a glimpse into the population dynamics of this valuable genetic resource. We found evidence for selection and differential recovery of mutations, depending on distance from balancer breakpoints. Although this process led to variable mutational densities, we have nevertheless been able to deliver potentially valuable mutations in genes selected by Fly-TILL users. We anticipate that our findings will help guide the future implementation of point-mutation resources for the Drosophila community.

  2. Genetic Code Evolution Reveals the Neutral Emergence of Mutational Robustness, and Information as an Evolutionary Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The standard genetic code (SGC) is central to molecular biology and its origin and evolution is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, the elucidation of which promises to reveal much about the origins of life. In addition, we propose that study of its origin can also reveal some fundamental and generalizable insights into mechanisms of molecular evolution, utilizing concepts from complexity theory. The first is that beneficial traits may arise by non-adaptive processes, via a process of “neutral emergence”. The structure of the SGC is optimized for the property of error minimization, which reduces the deleterious impact of point mutations. Via simulation, it can be shown that genetic codes with error minimization superior to the SGC can emerge in a neutral fashion simply by a process of genetic code expansion via tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase duplication, whereby similar amino acids are added to codons related to that of the parent amino acid. This process of neutral emergence has implications beyond that of the genetic code, as it suggests that not all beneficial traits have arisen by the direct action of natural selection; we term these “pseudaptations”, and discuss a range of potential examples. Secondly, consideration of genetic code deviations (codon reassignments) reveals that these are mostly associated with a reduction in proteome size. This code malleability implies the existence of a proteomic constraint on the genetic code, proportional to the size of the proteome (P), and that its reduction in size leads to an “unfreezing” of the codon – amino acid mapping that defines the genetic code, consistent with Crick’s Frozen Accident theory. The concept of a proteomic constraint may be extended to propose a general informational constraint on genetic fidelity, which may be used to explain variously, differences in mutation rates in genomes with differing proteome sizes, differences in DNA repair capacity and genome GC content

  3. Genetic characterization of T-PLL reveals two major biologic subgroups and JAK3 mutations as prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Anna; Kern, Wolfgang; Zenger, Melanie; Perglerová, Karolína; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten; Haferlach, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare post-thymic T-cell neoplasm with aggressive clinical course and short overall survival. So far, due to the rareness of this disease, genetic data are available only from individual cases or small cohorts. In our study, we aimed at performing a comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of T-PLL comprising the largest cohort of patients with T-PLL analyzed so far, including correlations between the respective markers and their impact on prognosis. Genetic abnormalities were found in all 51 cases with T-PLL, most frequently involving the TCRA/D locus (86%). Deletions were detected for ATM (69%) and TP53 (31%), whereas i(8)(q10) was observed in 61% of cases. Mutations in ATM, TP53, JAK1, and JAK3 were detected in 73, 14, 6, and 21% of patients, respectively. Additionally, BCOR mutations were observed for the first time in a lymphoid malignancy (8%). Two distinct genetic subgroups of T-PLL were identified: A large subset (86% of patients) showed abnormalities involving the TCRA/D locus activating the proto-oncogenes TCL1 or MTCP1, while the second group was characterized by a high frequency of TP53 mutations (4/7 cases). Further, analyses of overall survival identified JAK3 mutations as important prognostic marker, showing a significant negative impact.

  4. Managing genetic discrimination: strategies used by individuals found to have the Huntington disease mutation.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Y; Penziner, E; Decolongon, J; Klimek, M L N; Creighton, S; Suchowersky, O; Guttman, M; Paulsen, J S; Bottorff, J L; Hayden, M R

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD) over 20 years ago has led to the advent of a new group of individuals found to have the HD mutation that are currently asymptomatic, yet destined in all likelihood to become affected at some point in the future. Genetic discrimination, a social risk associated with predictive testing, is the differential treatment of individuals based on genotypic difference rather than physical characteristics. While evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about how individuals found to have the HD mutation cope with the potential for or experiences of genetic discrimination. The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals found to have the HD mutation manage the risk and experience of genetic discrimination. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 37 individuals who were found to have the HD mutation and analysed using grounded theory methods. The findings suggest four main strategies: "keeping low", minimizing, pre-empting and confronting genetic discrimination. Strategies varied depending on individuals' level of engagement with genetic discrimination and the nature of the experience (actual experience of genetic discrimination or concern for its potential). This exploratory framework may explain the variation in approaches and reactions to genetic discrimination among individuals living with an increased risk for HD and may offer insight for persons at risk for other late-onset genetic diseases to cope with genetic discrimination.

  5. Aceruloplasminemia in an asymptomatic patient with a new mutation. Diagnosis and family genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Fernando; Burguera, Juan A; Benlloch, Salvador; Berenguer, Marina; Rayón, Jose M

    2005-06-01

    A 39-year-old asymptomatic man showed elevated serum ferritin levels, mild hypertransaminasemia and serum ceruloplasmin almost undetectable. There was histological iron accumulation within the hepatocytes and also in the central nervous system (MRI). A genetic analysis revealed a new missense mutation in the ceruloplasmin gene. Two of the other four siblings were also affected by this mutation.

  6. Molecular basis of inherited antithrombin deficiency in Portuguese families: identification of genetic alterations and screening for additional thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    David, Dezsö; Ribeiro, Sofia; Ferrão, Lénia; Gago, Teresa; Crespo, Francisco

    2004-06-01

    Antithrombin (AT), the most important coagulation serine proteases inhibitor, plays an important role in maintaining the hemostatic balance. Inherited AT deficiency, mainly characterized by predisposition to recurrent venous thromboembolism, is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. In this study, we analyzed the underlying genetic alterations in 12 unrelated Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency. At the same time, the modulating effect of the FV Leiden mutation, PT 20210A, PAI-1 4G, and MTHFR 677T allelic variants, on the thrombotic risk of AT deficient patients was also evaluated. Three novel frameshift alterations, a 4-bp deletion in exon 4 and two 1-bp insertions in exon 6, were identified in six unrelated type I AT deficient families. A novel missense mutation in exon 3a, which changes the highly conserved F147 residue, and a novel splice site mutation in the invariant acceptor AG dinucleotide of intron 2 were also identified in unrelated type I AT deficient families. In addition to these, two previously reported missense mutations changing the AT reactive site bond (R393-S394) and leading to type II-RS deficiency, and a previously reported cryptic splice site mutation (IVS4-14G-->A), were also identified. In these families, increased thrombotic risk associated with co-inheritance of the FV Leiden mutation and of the PAI-1 4G variant was also observed. In conclusion, we present the first data regarding the underlying genetic alterations in Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency, and confirm that the FV Leiden mutation and probably the PAI-1 4G variant represent additional thrombotic risk factors in these families.

  7. mStruct: inference of population structure in light of both genetic admixing and allele mutations.

    PubMed

    Shringarpure, Suyash; Xing, Eric P

    2009-06-01

    Traditional methods for analyzing population structure, such as the Structure program, ignore the influence of the effect of allele mutations between the ancestral and current alleles of genetic markers, which can dramatically influence the accuracy of the structural estimation of current populations. Studying these effects can also reveal additional information about population evolution such as the divergence time and migration history of admixed populations. We propose mStruct, an admixture of population-specific mixtures of inheritance models that addresses the task of structure inference and mutation estimation jointly through a hierarchical Bayesian framework, and a variational algorithm for inference. We validated our method on synthetic data and used it to analyze the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP-CEPH) cell line panel of microsatellites and HGDP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. A comparison of the structural maps of world populations estimated by mStruct and Structure is presented, and we also report potentially interesting mutation patterns in world populations estimated by mStruct.

  8. Estimation of the incidence of a rare genetic disease through a two-tier mutation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Srinivasan, M.R. ); Raskin, S. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attempts to detect mutations involving single base changes or small deletions that are specific to genetic diseases provide an opportunity to develop a two-tier mutation-screening program through which incidence of rare genetic disorders and gene carriers may be precisely estimated. A two-tier survey consists of mutation screening in a sample of patients with specific genetic disorders and in a second sample of newborns from the same population in which mutation frequency is evaluated. The authors provide the statistical basis for evaluating the incidence of affected and gene carriers in such two-tier mutation-screening surveys, from which the precision of the estimates is derived. Sample-size requirements of such two-tier mutation-screening surveys are evaluated. Considering examples of cystic fibrosis (CF) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD), the two most frequent autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasian populations and the two most frequent mutations ([Delta]F508 and G985) that occur on these disease allele-bearing chromosomes, the authors show that, with 50--100 patients and a 20-fold larger sample of newborns screened for these mutations, the incidence of such diseases and their gene carriers in a population may be quite reliably estimated. The theory developed here is also applicable to rare autosomal dominant diseases for which disease-specific mutations are found. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Breast Cancer, BRCA Mutations, and Attitudes Regarding Pregnancy and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Ashley H.; Muse, Kimberly I.; Lin, Heather; Jackson, Michelle; Mattair, Danielle N.; Schover, Leslie; Woodard, Terri; McKenzie, Laurie; Theriault, Richard L.; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N.; Arun, Banu; Peterson, Susan K.; Profato, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background. Women with premenopausal breast cancer may face treatment-related infertility and have a higher likelihood of a BRCA mutation, which may affect their attitudes toward future childbearing. Methods. Premenopausal women were invited to participate in a questionnaire study administered before and after BRCA genetic testing. We used the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to evaluate the pre- and post-testing impact of cancer or carrying a BRCA mutation on attitudes toward future childbearing. The likelihood of pursuing prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was also assessed in this setting. Univariate analyses determined factors contributing to attitudes toward future childbearing and likelihood of PND or PGD. Results. One hundred forty-eight pretesting and 114 post-testing questionnaires were completed. Women with a personal history of breast cancer had less change in IES than those with no history of breast cancer (p = .003). The 18 BRCA-positive women had a greater change in IES than the BRCA-negative women (p = .005). After testing, 31% and 24% of women would use PND and PGD, respectively. BRCA results did not significantly affect attitudes toward PND/PGD. Conclusion. BRCA results and history of breast cancer affect the psychological impact on future childbearing. Intentions to undergo PND or PGD do not appear to change after disclosure of BRCA results. Additional counseling for patients who have undergone BRCA testing may be warranted to educate patients about available fertility preservation options. PMID:24951607

  10. Prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a Brazilian population sample at-risk for hereditary breast cancer and characterization of its genetic ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Paula, André E.; Pereira, Rui; Andrade, Carlos E.; Felicio, Paula S.; Souza, Cristiano P.; Mendes, Deise R.P.; Volc, Sahlua; Berardinelli, Gustavo N.; Grasel, Rebeca S.; Sabato, Cristina S.; Viana, Danilo V.; Machado, José Carlos; Costa, José Luis; Mauad, Edmundo C.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Arun, Banu; Reis, Rui M.; Palmero, Edenir I.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are very few data about the mutational profile of families at-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) from Latin America (LA) and especially from Brazil, the largest and most populated country in LA. Results Of the 349 probands analyzed, 21.5% were BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated, 65.3% at BRCA1 and 34.7% at BRCA2 gene. The mutation c.5266dupC (former 5382insC) was the most frequent alteration, representing 36.7% of the BRCA1 mutations and 24.0% of all mutations identified. Together with the BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG mutation, these mutations constitutes about 35% of the identified mutations and more than 50% of the BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. Interestingly, six new mutations were identified. Additionally, 39 out of the 44 pathogenic mutations identified were not previously reported in the Brazilian population. Besides, 36 different variants of unknown significance (VUS) were identified. Regarding ancestry, average ancestry proportions were 70.6% European, 14.5% African, 8.0% Native American and 6.8% East Asian. Materials and methods This study characterized 349 Brazilian families at-risk for HBOC regarding their germline BRCA1/BRCA2 status and genetic ancestry. Conclusions This is the largest report of BRCA1/BRCA2 assessment in an at-risk HBOC Brazilian population. We identified 21.5% of patients harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and characterized the genetic ancestry of a sample group at-risk for hereditary breast cancer showing once again how admixed is the Brazilian population. No association was found between genetic ancestry and mutational status. The knowledge of the mutational profile in a population can contribute to the definition of more cost-effective strategies for the identification of HBOC families. PMID:27741520

  11. Developmental Genetic Analysis of Contrabithorax Mutations in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, M. A.; Micol, J. L.; Garcia-Bellido, A.

    1990-01-01

    A developmental analysis of the Contrabithorax (Cbx) alleles offers the opportunity to examine the role of the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene in controlling haltere, as alternative to wing, morphogenesis in Drosophila. Several Cbx alleles are known with different spatial specificity in their wing toward haltere homeotic transformation. The molecular data on these mutations, however, does not readily explain differences among mutant phenotypes. In this work, we have analyzed the ``apogenetic'' mosaic spots of transformation in their adult phenotype, in mitotic recombination clones and in the spatial distribution of Ubx proteins in imaginal discs. The results suggest that the phenotypes emerge from early clonality in some Cbx alleles, and from cell-cell interactions leading to recruitment of cells to Ubx gene expression in others. We have found, in addition, mutual interactions between haltere and wing territories in pattern and dorsoventral symmetries, suggesting short distance influences, ``accommodation,'' during cell proliferation of the anlage. These findings are considered in an attempt to explain allele specificity in molecular and developmental terms. PMID:1977655

  12. Spectrum of novel mutations found in Waardenburg syndrome types 1 and 2: implications for molecular genetic diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Wildhardt, Gabriele; Zirn, Birgit; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Wechtenbruch, Juliane; Suckfüll, Markus; Buske, Annegret; Bohring, Axel; Kubisch, Christian; Vogt, Stefanie; Strobl-Wildemann, Gertrud; Greally, Marie; Bartsch, Oliver; Steinberger, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Till date, mutations in the genes PAX3 and MITF have been described in Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is clinically characterised by congenital hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. Our study intended to determine the frequency of mutations and deletions in these genes, to assess the clinical phenotype in detail and to identify rational priorities for molecular genetic diagnostics procedures. Design Prospective analysis. Patients 19 Caucasian patients with typical features of WS underwent stepwise investigation of PAX3 and MITF. When point mutations and small insertions/deletions were excluded by direct sequencing, copy number analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect larger deletions and duplications. Clinical data and photographs were collected to facilitate genotype–phenotype analyses. Setting All analyses were performed in a large German laboratory specialised in genetic diagnostics. Results 15 novel and 4 previously published heterozygous mutations in PAX3 and MITF were identified. Of these, six were large deletions or duplications that were only detectable by copy number analysis. All patients with PAX3 mutations had typical phenotype of WS with dystopia canthorum (WS1), whereas patients with MITF gene mutations presented without dystopia canthorum (WS2). In addition, one patient with bilateral hearing loss and blue eyes with iris stroma dysplasia had a de novo missense mutation (p.Arg217Ile) in MITF. MITF 3-bp deletions at amino acid position 217 have previously been described in patients with Tietz syndrome (TS), a clinical entity with hearing loss and generalised hypopigmentation. Conclusions On the basis of these findings, we conclude that sequencing and copy number analysis of both PAX3 and MITF have to be recommended in the routine molecular diagnostic setting for patients, WS1 and WS2. Furthermore, our genotype–phenotype analyses indicate that WS2 and TS correspond to a clinical spectrum

  13. Epilepsy in hemiplegic migraine: Genetic mutations and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Prontera, P; Sarchielli, P; Caproni, S; Bedetti, C; Cupini, L M; Calabresi, P; Costa, C

    2017-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review on the comorbidities of familial/sporadic hemiplegic migraine (F/SHM) with seizure/epilepsy in patients with CACNA1A, ATP1A2 or SCN1A mutations, to identify the genotypes associated and investigate for the presence of mutational hot spots. Methods We performed a search in MEDLINE and in the Human Gene Mutation and Leiden Open Variation Databases for mutations in the CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A genes. After having examined the clinical characteristics of the patients, we selected those having HM and seizures, febrile seizures or epilepsy. For each gene, we determined both the frequency and the positions at protein levels of these mutations, as well as the penetrance of epilepsy within families. Results Concerning F/SHM-Epilepsy1 (F/SHME1) and F/SHME2 endophenotypes, we observed a prevalent involvement of the transmembrane domains, and a strong correlation in F/SHME1 when the positively charged amino acids were involved. The penetrance of epilepsy within the families was highest for patients carrying mutation in the CACNA1A gene (60%), and lower in those having SCN1A (33.3%) and ATP1A2 (30.9%) mutations. Conclusion Among the HM cases with seizure/epilepsy, we observed mutational hot spots in the transmembrane domains of CACNA1A and ATP1A2 proteins. These findings could lead to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying migraine and epilepsy, therein guaranteeing the most appropriate therapeutic approach.

  14. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, Der-Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML. PMID:26375248

  15. Genetic mutations in the K1 and K10 genes of patients with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Correlation between location and disease severity.

    PubMed Central

    Syder, A J; Yu, Q C; Paller, A S; Giudice, G; Pearson, R; Fuchs, E

    1994-01-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) is a skin disease caused by mutations in the genes encoding K1 and K10, the differentiation-specific keratins of epidermis. To explore the heterogeneity of mutations and to assess whether a correlation exists between disease severity and the extent to which a mutation interferes with keratin network formation, we determined the genetic bases of four severe incidences of EH and one unusually mild case. Two severe cases have the same mutation, K10-R156:C, at a conserved arginine that we previously showed was mutated to a histidine in two unrelated EH families. An additional severe case has a mutation six residues away, still within the amino end of the alpha-helical rod domain of K10. The other severe case has a mutation in the conserved carboxy end of the K1 rod. In contrast, affected members of the atypically mild family have a mutation just proximal to the conserved carboxy end of the K10 rod. By genetic engineering and gene transfection, we demonstrate that each mutation is functionally responsible for the keratin filament aberrations that are typical of keratinocytes cultured from these patients. Moreover, we show that the mild EH mutation less severely affects filament network formation. Taken together, our studies strengthen the link between filament perturbations, cell fragility, and degeneration. Images PMID:7512983

  16. Human Genetic Disorders Caused by Mutations in Genes Encoding Biosynthetic Enzymes for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans*

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Ikegawa, Shiro; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    A number of genetic disorders are caused by mutations in the genes encoding glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans, including chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate. The phenotypes of these genetic disorders reflect disturbances in crucial biological functions of GAGs in human. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes cause various disorders of connective tissues. This minireview focuses on growing glycobiological studies of recently described genetic diseases caused by disturbances in biosynthetic enzymes for sulfated GAGs. PMID:23457301

  17. Genetic mutations in certain head and neck conditions of interest to the dentist.

    PubMed

    Sàndor, G K; Carmichael, R P; Coraza, L; Clokie, C M; Jordan, R C

    2001-11-01

    This article identifies certain syndromes of the head and neck, which a dentist may see in clinical practice, and relates these syndromes to their sites of mutation on involved genes. This paper is timely with the near completion of the Human Genome Project, the mapping of the entire human genetic material. Knowing the site of the genetic lesion is important in helping clinicians understand the genetic basis for these conditions, and may help in our future understanding of remedies and treatments.

  18. Germline mutations of the INK4a-ARF gene in patients with suspected genetic predisposition to melanoma.

    PubMed

    Soufir, N; Lacapere, J J; Bertrand, G; Matichard, E; Meziani, R; Mirebeau, D; Descamps, V; Gérard, B; Archimbaud, A; Ollivaud, L; Bouscarat, F; Baccard, M; Lanternier, G; Saïag, P; Lebbé, C; Basset-Seguin, N; Crickx, B; Cave, H; Grandchamp, B

    2004-01-26

    Germline anomalies of the INK4a-ARF and Cdk4 genes were sought in a series of 89 patients suspected of having a genetic predisposition to melanoma. Patients were selected based on the following criteria: (a) familial melanoma (23 cases), (b) multiple primary melanoma (MPM; 18 cases), (c) melanoma and additional unrelated cancers (13 cases), (d) age at diagnosis less than 25 years (21 cases), and (e) nonphoto-induced melanoma (NPIM; 14 cases). Mutations of INK4a-ARF and Cdk4 were characterised by automated sequencing, and germline deletions of INK4a-ARF were also examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Seven germline changes of INK4a-ARF, five of which were novel, were found in seven patients (8%). Four were very likely to be pathogenic mutations and were found in three high-risk melanoma families and in a patient who had a pancreatic carcinoma in addition to melanoma. Three variants of uncertain significance were detected in one MPM patient, one patient <25 years, and one NPIM patient. No germline deletion of INK4a-ARF was found in 71 patients, and no Cdk4 mutation was observed in the 89 patients. This study confirms that INK4a-ARF mutations are infrequent outside stringent familial criteria, and that germline INK4a-ARF deletions are rarely involved in genetic predisposition to melanoma.

  19. Phosphate homeostasis and genetic mutations of familial hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Razali, Nurul Nadirah; Hwu, Ting Tzer; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2015-09-01

    Hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is a syndrome of hypophosphatemia and rickets that resembles vitamin D deficiency, which is caused by malfunction of renal tubules in phosphate reabsorption. Phosphate is an essential mineral, which is important for bone and tooth structure. It is regulated by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and fibroblast-growth-factor 23 (FGF23). X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant HR (ADHR), and autosomal recessive HR (ARHR) are examples of hereditary forms of HR, which are mainly caused by mutations in the phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked (PHEX), FGF23, and, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and ecto-nucleotide pyro phosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) genes, respectively. Mutations in these genes are believed to cause elevation of circulating FGF23 protein. Increase in FGF23 disrupts phosphate homeostasis, leading to HR. This review aims to summarize phosphate homeostasis and focuses on the genes and mutations related to XLH, ADHR, and ARHR. A compilation of XLH mutation hotspots based on the PHEX gene database and mutations found in the FGF23, DMP1, and ENPP1 genes are also made available in this review.

  20. 'RetinoGenetics': a comprehensive mutation database for genes related to inherited retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xia; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Xiu-Feng; Liu, Qi; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Wu, Jinyu; Jin, Zi-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD), a leading cause of human blindness worldwide, is exceptionally heterogeneous with clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. During the past decades, tremendous efforts have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive mutations have been identified in different genes underlying IRD with the significant advancement of sequencing technology. In this study, we developed a comprehensive database, 'RetinoGenetics', which contains informative knowledge about all known IRD-related genes and mutations for IRD. 'RetinoGenetics' currently contains 4270 mutations in 186 genes, with detailed information associated with 164 phenotypes from 934 publications and various types of functional annotations. Then extensive annotations were performed to each gene using various resources, including Gene Ontology, KEGG pathways, protein-protein interaction, mutational annotations and gene-disease network. Furthermore, by using the search functions, convenient browsing ways and intuitive graphical displays, 'RetinoGenetics' could serve as a valuable resource for unveiling the genetic basis of IRD. Taken together, 'RetinoGenetics' is an integrative, informative and updatable resource for IRD-related genetic predispositions. Database URL: http://www.retinogenetics.org/.

  1. Clinical and genetic analyses reveal novel pathogenic ABCA4 mutations in Stargardt disease families

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bing; Cai, Xue-Bi; Zheng, Zhi-Li; Huang, Xiu-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qu, Jia; Jin, Zi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a juvenile macular degeneration predominantly inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, characterized by decreased central vision in the first 2 decades of life. The condition has a genetic basis due to mutation in the ABCA4 gene, and arises from the deposition of lipofuscin-like substance in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) with secondary photoreceptor cell death. In this study, we describe the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from four unrelated Chinese cohorts. The targeted exome sequencing (TES) was carried out in four clinically confirmed patients and their family members using a gene panel comprising 164 known causative inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) genes. Genetic analysis revealed eight ABCA4 mutations in all of the four pedigrees, including six mutations in coding exons and two mutations in adjacent intronic areas. All the affected individuals showed typical manifestations consistent with the disease phenotype. We disclose two novel ABCA4 mutations in Chinese patients with STGD disease, which will expand the existing spectrum of disease-causing variants and will further aid in the future mutation screening and genetic counseling, as well as in the understanding of phenotypic and genotypic correlations. PMID:27739528

  2. Detecting novel genetic mutations in Chinese Usher syndrome families using next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ling-Hui; Jin, Xin; Xu, Hai-Wei; Li, Shi-Ying; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of combined blindness and deafness inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Molecular diagnosis is of great significance in revealing the molecular pathogenesis and aiding the clinical diagnosis of this disease. However, molecular diagnosis remains a challenge due to high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in USH. This study explored an approach for detecting disease-causing genetic mutations in candidate genes in five index cases from unrelated USH families based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Through systematic data analysis using an established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, 10 pathogenic mutations in the USH disease genes were identified in the five USH families. Six of these mutations were novel: c.4398G > A and EX38-49del in MYO7A, c.988_989delAT in USH1C, c.15104_15105delCA and c.6875_6876insG in USH2A. All novel variations segregated with the disease phenotypes in their respective families and were absent from ethnically matched control individuals. This study expanded the mutation spectrum of USH and revealed the genotype-phenotype relationships of the novel USH mutations in Chinese patients. Moreover, this study proved that targeted NGS is an accurate and effective method for detecting genetic mutations related to USH. The identification of pathogenic mutations is of great significance for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of USH.

  3. Population Genetics Study of Isoniazid Resistance Mutations and Evolution of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; Brimacombe, Michael; Bobadilla del Valle, Miriam; Cavatore, Magali; Guerrero, Marta Inírida; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; Lavender, Caroline; Fyfe, Janet; García-García, Lourdes; León, Clara Inés; Bose, Mridula; Chaves, Fernando; Murray, Megan; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Cave, M. Donald; Ponce de León, Alfredo; Alland, David

    2006-01-01

    The molecular basis for isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is complex. Putative isoniazid resistance mutations have been identified in katG, ahpC, inhA, kasA, and ndh. However, small sample sizes and related potential biases in sample selection have precluded the development of statistically valid and significant population genetic analyses of clinical isoniazid resistance. We present the first large-scale analysis of 240 alleles previously associated with isoniazid resistance in a diverse set of 608 isoniazid-susceptible and 403 isoniazid-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. We detected 12 mutant alleles in isoniazid-susceptible isolates, suggesting that these alleles are not involved in isoniazid resistance. However, mutations in katG, ahpC, and inhA were strongly associated with isoniazid resistance, while kasA mutations were associated with isoniazid susceptibility. Remarkably, the distribution of isoniazid resistance-associated mutations was different in isoniazid-monoresistant isolates from that in multidrug-resistant isolates, with significantly fewer isoniazid resistance mutations in the isoniazid-monoresistant group. Mutations in katG315 were significantly more common in the multidrug-resistant isolates. Conversely, mutations in the inhA promoter were significantly more common in isoniazid-monoresistant isolates. We tested for interactions among mutations and resistance to different drugs. Mutations in katG, ahpC, and inhA were associated with rifampin resistance, but only katG315 mutations were associated with ethambutol resistance. There was also a significant inverse association between katG315 mutations and mutations in ahpC or inhA and between mutations in kasA and mutations in ahpC. Our results suggest that isoniazid resistance and the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains are complex dynamic processes that may be influenced by interactions between genes and drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:16870753

  4. Targeted sequencing approach to identify genetic mutations in Nasu-Hakola disease

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Yanaizu, Motoaki; Tosaki, Youhei; Sakai, Kenji; Kino, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sclerosing leukoencephalopathy and multifocal bone cysts, caused by a loss-of-function mutation of either TYROBP (DAP12) or TREM2. TREM2 and DAP12 constitute a receptor/adaptor signaling complex expressed exclusively on osteoclasts, dendritic cells, macrophages, and microglia. Premortem molecular diagnosis of NHD requires genetic analysis of both TYROBP and TREM2, in which 20 distinct NHD-causing mutations have been reported. Due to genetic heterogeneity, it is often difficult to identify the exact mutation responsible for NHD. Recently, the revolution of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly advanced the field of genome research. A targeted sequencing approach allows us to investigate a selected set of disease-causing genes and mutations in a number of samples within several days. By targeted sequencing using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel, we resequenced genetic mutations of seven NHD cases with known molecular diagnosis and two control subjects. We identified homozygous variants of TYROBP or TREM2 in all NHD cases, composed of a frameshift mutation of c.141delG in exon 3 of TYROBP in four cases, a missense mutation of c.2T>C in exon 1 of TYROBP in two cases, or a splicing mutation of c.482+2T>C in intron 3 of TREM2 in one case. The results of targeted resequencing corresponded to those of Sanger sequencing. In contrast, causative variants were not detected in control subjects. These results indicate that targeted sequencing is a useful approach to precisely identify genetic mutations responsible for NHD in a comprehensive manner. PMID:27904822

  5. Genetics and pathology of alpha-secretase site AbetaPP mutations in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Development of therapeutics begins with delineating the precise disease pathology along with a reasonable understanding of the sequence of events responsible for the development of disease, or disease pathogenesis. For Alzheimer's disease (AD), the classical pathology is now known for quite some time; however, the disease pathogenesis has eluded our understanding for a complete century. This review, in addition to providing a brief overview of all primary events, will highlight those aspects of AD genetics and novel pathological descriptions linked to unique mutations within AbetaPP that have led to our better understanding of the pathogenesis of AD. Specifically, we will discuss how pathologies linked to the Dutch (E693Q) and Flemish AbetaPP (A692G) mutations have helped in understanding the role of CAA in dementia and in the development of dense-core plaques. In addition, this review will also point directions that warrant additional studies.

  6. Genetic Background and Environment Influence the Effects of Mutations in pykF and Help Reveal Mechanisms Underlying Their Benefit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    authorized to U.S. Government agencies only. Genetic Background and Environment Influence the Effects of Mutations in pykF and Help Reveal Mechanisms...OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Canterbury 20 Kirkwood Ave Ilam - ABSTRACT Genetic Background...were evolved. Differences in mutation × background interactions were found to be driven by different suites of mutations in each genetic background

  7. Mutations in metabolic pathways, what role does genetic background play?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) is a key enzyme for the synthesis of urea and the endogenous synthesis of arginine. OTC is present in hepatocytes and enterocytes and catalyzes the synthesis of citrulline. Although the spf-ash mutation results in a reduction in enzyme abundance, ureagenesis is maint...

  8. Genetic Assessment of Additional Endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Calkins, Monica E.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  9. Rapid growth of a hepatocellular carcinoma and the driving mutations revealed by cell-population genetic analysis of whole-genome data.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Ruan, Jue; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Lu, Xuemei; Wang, Yu; Zhai, Weiwei; Cai, Jun; Ling, Shaoping; Gong, Qiang; Chong, Zecheng; Qu, Zhengzhong; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Jin; Zheng, Caihong; Zeng, Changqing; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sheng-Han; Hao, Lingtong; Dong, Lili; Li, Wenjie; Sun, Min; Zou, Wei; Yu, Caixia; Li, Chaohua; Liu, Guojing; Jiang, Lan; Xu, Jin; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Chunyan; Mi, Shuangli; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Baoxian; Zhao, Wenming; Hu, Songnian; Zhuang, Shi-Mei; Shen, Yang; Shi, Suhua; Brown, Christopher; White, Kevin P; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer; Wu, Chung-I

    2011-07-19

    We present the analysis of the evolution of tumors in a case of hepatocellular carcinoma. This case is particularly informative about cancer growth dynamics and the underlying driving mutations. We sampled nine different sections from three tumors and seven more sections from the adjacent nontumor tissues. Selected sections were subjected to exon as well as whole-genome sequencing. Putative somatic mutations were then individually validated across all 9 tumor and 7 nontumor sections. Among the mutations validated, 24 were amino acid changes; in addition, 22 large indels/copy number variants (>1 Mb) were detected. These somatic mutations define four evolutionary lineages among tumor cells. Separate evolution and expansion of these lineages were recent and rapid, each apparently having only one lineage-specific protein-coding mutation. Hence, by using a cell-population genetic definition, this approach identified three coding changes (CCNG1, P62, and an indel/fusion gene) as tumor driver mutations. These three mutations, affecting cell cycle control and apoptosis, are functionally distinct from mutations that accumulated earlier, many of which are involved in inflammation/immunity or cell anchoring. These distinct functions of mutations at different stages may reflect the genetic interactions underlying tumor growth.

  10. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Significance of IDH mutations varies with tumor histology, grade, and genetics in Japanese glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Mukasa, Akitake; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Saito, Kuniaki; Shibahara, Junji; Tabei, Yusuke; Furuya, Kazuhide; Ide, Takafumi; Narita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Ryo; Ueki, Keisuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found frequently in malignant gliomas and are likely involved in early gliomagenesis. To understand the prevalence of these mutations and their relationship to other genetic alterations and impact on prognosis for Japanese glioma patients, we analyzed 250 glioma cases. Mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 were found in 73 (29%) and 2 (1%) cases, respectively. All detected mutations were heterozygous, and most mutations were an Arg132His (G395A) substitution. IDH mutations were frequent in oligodendroglial tumors (37/52, 71%) and diffuse astrocytomas (17/29, 59%), and were less frequent in anaplastic astrocytomas (8/29, 28%) and glioblastomas (13/125, 10%). The pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas did not have either mutation. Notably, 28 of 30 oligodendroglial tumors harboring the 1p/19q co-deletion also had an IDH mutation, and these alterations were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). The association between TP53 and IDH mutation was significant in diffuse astrocytomas (P = 0.0018). MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with IDH mutation in grade 2 (P < 0.001) and grade 3 (P = 0.02) gliomas. IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion were independent favorable prognostic factors for patients with grade 3 gliomas. For patients with grade 3 gliomas and without 1p/19q co-deletion, IDH mutation was strongly associated with increased progression-free survival (P < 0.0001) and overall survival (P < 0.0001), but no such marked correlation was observed with grade 2 gliomas or glioblastomas. Therefore, IDH mutation would be most useful when assessing prognosis of patients with grade 3 glioma with intact 1p/19q; anaplastic astrocytomas account for most of these grade 3 gliomas.

  12. The genetic background of generalized pustular psoriasis: IL36RN mutations and CARD14 gain-of-function variants.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Kazumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is often present in patients with existing or prior psoriasis vulgaris (PV; "GPP with PV"). However, cases of GPP have been known to arise without a history of PV ("GPP alone"). There has long been debate over whether GPP alone and GPP with PV are distinct subtypes that are etiologically different from each other. We recently reported that the majority of GPP alone cases is caused by recessive mutations of IL36RN. In contrast, only a few exceptional cases of GPP with PV were found to have recessive IL36RN mutations. Very recently, we also reported that CARD14 p.Asp176His, a gain-of-function variant, is a predisposing factor for GPP with PV; in contrast, the variant is not associated with GPP alone in the Japanese population. These results suggest that GPP alone is genetically different from GPP with PV. IL36RN mutations are also found in some patients with severe acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, palmar-plantar pustulosis, and acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau. CARD14 mutations and variants are causal or disease susceptibility factors of PV, GPP, or pityriasis rubra pilaris, depending on the mutation or variant position of CARD14. It is clinically important to analyze IL36RN mutations in patients with sterile pustulosis. For example, identifying recessive IL36RN mutations leads to early diagnosis of GPP, even at the first episode of pustulosis. In addition, individuals with IL36RN mutations are very susceptible to GPP or GPP-related generalized pustulosis induced by drugs (e.g., amoxicillin), infections, pregnancy, or menstruation.

  13. Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingchu; Xie, Yajing Angela; Abouzeid, Hana; Gordon, Christopher T; Fiorentino, Alessia; Sun, Zixi; Lehman, Anna; Osman, Ihab S; Dharmat, Rachayata; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Bapst-Wicht, Linda; Babino, Darwin; Arno, Gavin; Busetto, Virginia; Zhao, Li; Li, Hui; Lopez-Martinez, Miguel A; Azevedo, Liliana F; Hubert, Laurence; Pontikos, Nikolas; Eblimit, Aiden; Lorda-Sanchez, Isabel; Kheir, Valeria; Plagnol, Vincent; Oufadem, Myriam; Soens, Zachry T; Yang, Lizhu; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Pfundt, Rolph; Allaman-Pillet, Nathalie; Nitschké, Patrick; Cheetham, Michael E; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Agrawal, Smriti A; Li, Huajin; Pinton, Gaëtan; Michaelides, Michel; Besmond, Claude; Li, Yumei; Yuan, Zhisheng; von Lintig, Johannes; Webster, Andrew R; Le Hir, Hervé; Stoilov, Peter; Amiel, Jeanne; Hardcastle, Alison J; Ayuso, Carmen; Sui, Ruifang; Chen, Rui; Allikmets, Rando; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2017-04-06

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors play a fundamental role in regulating transcript diversity both temporally and spatially. Genetic defects in several spliceosome components have been linked to a set of non-overlapping spliceosomopathy phenotypes in humans, among which skeletal developmental defects and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are frequent findings. Here we report that defects in spliceosome-associated protein CWC27 are associated with a spectrum of disease phenotypes ranging from isolated RP to severe syndromic forms. By whole-exome sequencing, recessive protein-truncating mutations in CWC27 were found in seven unrelated families that show a range of clinical phenotypes, including retinal degeneration, brachydactyly, craniofacial abnormalities, short stature, and neurological defects. Remarkably, variable expressivity of the human phenotype can be recapitulated in Cwc27 mutant mouse models, with significant embryonic lethality and severe phenotypes in the complete knockout mice while mice with a partial loss-of-function allele mimic the isolated retinal degeneration phenotype. Our study describes a retinal dystrophy-related phenotype spectrum as well as its genetic etiology and highlights the complexity of the spliceosomal gene network.

  14. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    mediated signal transduction pathway during C. elegans vulval development. Mutations in sur-8 were identified as suppressors of an activated let-60...positively regulates an RTK-Ras-MAP kinase signaling cascade during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction. Although reduction of sur-6 PP2A-B function...Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and also positively regulates an RTK-Ras-MAP kinase signaling cascade during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction

  15. Quantifying genetic diversity under a broad spectrum of deleterious mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Benjamin; Desai, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that selection against deleterious mutations may play a major role in shaping observed patterns of sequence variation in natural populations. However, our understanding of these patterns remains limited, since selection creates correlations along the genome that are difficult to disentangle from each other. Previous theoretical work has focused on the qualitative effects of selection on sequence diversity, using simplified models in which all selected mutations have the same fitness cost. Yet is known that deleterious mutations follow a wide distribution in most organisms, so it is necessary to extend our theoretical predictions to this more general case before we can make quantitative connections with existing data. The evolutionary dynamics of this regime are complicated: extant mutant lineages represent large, correlated fluctuations away from the background expectation, which hinders efforts to apply existing methods based on deterministic or ``mean-field'' approximations. Here, we will describe recent progress towards this goal, which is based on a ``coarse-graining'' of the underlying distribution of fitnesses in the population.

  16. A pedigree-based genetic appraisal of Boxer ARVC and the role of the Striatin mutation.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, B M; Dukes-McEwan, J; Wotton, P R; Stephenson, H M; Hamilton, R M

    2015-05-09

    The objective of this paper was to investigate by pedigree-based genetic means the origins and inheritance of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in UK Boxers and assess the role of the proposed causal mutation in the gene, Striatin (STRN). All ARVC cases traced back to a small number of imported American dogs deriving from the group of Boxers studied by Harpster (1983) to define the disease, strongly suggesting that the disease is the same in the two countries. Dogs with and without the STRN mutation were found in both ARVC affected and normal Boxers showing that the mutation is not responsible for the disease. Evidence was found that the STRN mutation is, however, genetically linked with the gene responsible on the same chromosome. The linkage implies that the two genes can separate by meiotic recombination such that both ARVC-affected and ARVC-unaffected lines of dogs may carry either the STRN mutation or its wild-type allele. These have been found. Homozygotes for the STRN mutation tended to be severely affected at early ages, suggesting that there is an interaction between the known effects of the STRN mutation on the cardiomyocyte and ARVC.

  17. A pedigree-based genetic appraisal of Boxer ARVC and the role of the Striatin mutation

    PubMed Central

    Cattanach, B. M.; Dukes-McEwan, J.; Wotton, P. R.; Stephenson, H. M.; Hamilton, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate by pedigree-based genetic means the origins and inheritance of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in UK Boxers and assess the role of the proposed causal mutation in the gene, Striatin (STRN). All ARVC cases traced back to a small number of imported American dogs deriving from the group of Boxers studied by Harpster (1983) to define the disease, strongly suggesting that the disease is the same in the two countries. Dogs with and without the STRN mutation were found in both ARVC affected and normal Boxers showing that the mutation is not responsible for the disease. Evidence was found that the STRN mutation is, however, genetically linked with the gene responsible on the same chromosome. The linkage implies that the two genes can separate by meiotic recombination such that both ARVC-affected and ARVC-unaffected lines of dogs may carry either the STRN mutation or its wild-type allele. These have been found. Homozygotes for the STRN mutation tended to be severely affected at early ages, suggesting that there is an interaction between the known effects of the STRN mutation on the cardiomyocyte and ARVC. PMID:25661582

  18. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  19. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm epimutations promote genetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Haque, M Muksitul

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. This involves the germline transmission of epigenetic information between generations. Exposure specific transgenerational sperm epimutations have been previously observed. The current study was designed to investigate the potential role genetic mutations have in the process, using copy number variations (CNV). In the first (F1) generation following exposure, negligible CNV were identified; however, in the transgenerational F3 generation, a significant increase in CNV was observed in the sperm. The genome-wide locations of differential DNA methylation regions (epimutations) and genetic mutations (CNV) were investigated. Observations suggest the environmental induction of the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm epimutations promote genome instability, such that genetic CNV mutations are acquired in later generations. A combination of epigenetics and genetics is suggested to be involved in the transgenerational phenotypes. The ability of environmental factors to promote epigenetic inheritance that subsequently promotes genetic mutations is a significant advance in our understanding of how the environment impacts disease and evolution.

  20. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization: common variants, rare mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes; Milner, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided information about shared genetics between allergy, related phenotypes and autoimmunity. Studies of monogenic diseases have elucidated critical cellular pathways and protein functions responsible for allergy. These complementary approaches imply genetic mechanisms involved in Th2 immunity, T-cell differentiation, TGFβ signaling, regulatory T-cell function and skin/mucosal function as well as yet unknown mechanisms associated with newly identified genes. Future studies, in combination with data on gene expression and epigenetics, are expected to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of allergy. PMID:26386198

  1. Genetic mapping of the mouse neuromuscular mutation kyphoscoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Skynner, M.J.; Coulton, G.R.; Mason, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ky mouse mutant, kyphoscoliosis, exhibits a degenerative muscle disease resulting in chronic deformation of the spinal column. Using an interspecific backcross segregating the ky mutation, we have mapped the ky locus to a small region of mouse chromosome 9. ky is nonrecombinant with the microsatellites D9Mit24 and D9Mit169 and lies in a conserved linkage group that encompasses human chromosome 3. s-Laminin (LAMS) and the gene for dystrophin-associated glycoprotein 1 (DAG1), which map to human chromosome 3, are both recombinant with ky, ruling them out as candidates. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. cis-Regulatory Mutations Are a Genetic Cause of Human Limb Malformations

    PubMed Central

    VanderMeer, Julia E.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    The underlying mutations that cause human limb malformations are often difficult to determine, particularly for limb malformations that occur as isolated traits. Evidence from a variety of studies shows that cis-regulatory mutations, specifically in enhancers, can lead to some of these isolated limb malformations. Here, we provide a review of human limb malformations that have been shown to be caused by enhancer mutations and propose that cis-regulatory mutations will continue to be identified as the cause of additional human malformations as our understanding of regulatory sequences improves. PMID:21509892

  3. LRRK2 mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sardinia--A Mediterranean genetic isolate.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giovanni; van Doeselaar, Marina; Deriu, Marcello; Melis, Maurizio; Molari, Andrea; Di Fonzo, Alessio; Oostra, Ben A; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2007-02-01

    The Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Gly2019Ser mutation is frequent among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients from the Arab, Jewish, and Iberian populations, while another mutation, Arg1441Gly, is common in the Basque population. We studied the prevalence of these mutations in Sardinia, a Mediterranean genetic isolate with peculiar structure and similarities with the Basque population. Among 98 Sardinian PD probands we detected one heterozygous Gly2019Ser carrier. This mutation was also found in one of 55 Sardinian controls, an 85-year-old man, later shown to have a positive family history of parkinsonism. No carriers of Arg1441Gly, Arg1441Cys, or Arg1441His mutations were found among cases and controls. Our results suggest that the "Basque"LRRK2 mutation is absent or very rare in Sardinia. The Gly2019Ser mutation is present but its frequency is lower than that in Iberian, Arab, or Jewish populations. The identification of an 85-year-old, healthy Gly2019Ser carrier supports the concept that this mutation displays incomplete penetrance.

  4. Genetic Heterogeneity of Beta Globin Mutations among Asian-Indians and Importance in Genetic Counselling and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Singh, Kritanjali; Panigrahi, Inusha; Agarwal, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 45 million carriers of β-thalassemia trait and about 12,000-15,000 infants with β-thalassemia major are born every year in India. Thalassemia major constitutes a significant burden on the health care system. The burden of thalassemia major can be decreased by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis. The success of prenatal diagnosis requires proper knowledge of spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations. In present study, β-thalassemia mutations were characterized in 300 thalassemia cases from 2007 to 2010 using ARMS-PCR and DNA sequencing. The five most common mutations accounted 78.9% of the studied chromosomes that includes IVS1-5(G>C), Cod 41-42(-TCTT), Cod8-9(+G), Cod16(-C) and 619bp del. Though IVS1-5(G>C) is most common mutation in all the communities, the percentage prevalence were calculated on sub caste basis and found that IVS1-5(G>C) percentage prevalence varied from 25 to 60 in Aroras & Khatris and Thakur respectively. Interestingly Cod41-42(-TCTT) mutation which is the second commonest among the mutations reported was totally absent in Kayasthas and Muslim community. These findings have implications for providing molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to high risk couples of β-thalassemia.

  5. Cumulative BRCA mutation analysis in the Greek population confirms that homogenous ethnic background facilitates genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Tsigginou, Alexandra; Vlachopoulos, Fotios; Arzimanoglou, Iordanis; Zagouri, Flora; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Screening for BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations has long moved from the research lab to the clinic as a routine clinical genetic testing. BRCA molecular alteration pattern varies among ethnic groups which makes it already a less straightforward process to select the appropriate mutations for routine genetic testing on the basis of known clinical significance. The present report comprises an in depth literature review of the so far reported BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 molecular alterations in Greek families. Our analysis of Greek cumulative BRCA 1 and 2 molecular data, produced by several independent groups, confirmed that six recurrent deleterious mutations account for almost 60 % and 70 % of all BRCA 1 and 2 and BRCA 1 mutations, respectively. As a result, it makes more sense to perform BRCA mutation analysis in the clinic in two sequential steps, first conventional analysis for the six most prevalent pathogenic mutations and if none identified, a second step of New Generation Sequencing-based whole genome or whole exome sequencing would follow. Our suggested approach would enable more clinically meaningful, considerably easier and less expensive BRCA analysis in the Greek population which is considered homogenous.

  6. A familial case of Blau syndrome caused by a novel NOD2 genetic mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojoong; Park, Eujin; Ahn, Yo Han; Lee, Jiwon M.; Kang, Hee Gyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Ha, Il-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal dominant, inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by the clinical triad of granulomatous dermatitis, symmetric arthritis, and recurrent uveitis. Mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are responsible for causing BS. To date, up to 30 Blau-associated genetic mutations have been identified within this gene. We report a novel NOD2 genetic mutation that causes BS. A girl, aged 8 years, and her brother, aged 10 years, developed erythematous skin rashes and uveitis. The computed tomography angiogram of the younger sister showed features of midaortic dysplastic syndrome. The brother had more prominent joint involvement than the sister. Their father (38 years) was also affected by uveitis; however, only minimal skin involvement was observed in his case. The paternal aunt (39 years) and her daughter (13 years) were previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Mutational analysis revealed a novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene in both siblings. The novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene was found in a familial case of BS. Although BS is rare, it should always be considered in patients presenting with sarcoidosis-like features at a young age. Early diagnosis of BS and prompt multisystem workup including the eyes and joints can improve the patient's outcome. PMID:28018435

  7. Genetic spectrum and clinical correlates of somatic mutations in aldosterone-producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Rosa, Fabio Luiz; Williams, Tracy Ann; Riester, Anna; Steichen, Olivier; Beuschlein, Felix; Boulkroun, Sheerazed; Strom, Tim M; Monticone, Silvia; Amar, Laurence; Meatchi, Tchao; Mantero, Franco; Cicala, Maria-Verena; Quinkler, Marcus; Fallo, Francesco; Allolio, Bruno; Bernini, Giampaolo; Maccario, Mauro; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Mulatero, Paolo; Reincke, Martin; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2014-08-01

    Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D have been described in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in these genes in unselected patients with APA (n=474), collected through the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. Correlations with clinical and biochemical parameters were first analyzed in a subset of 199 patients from a single center and then replicated in 2 additional centers. Somatic heterozygous KCNJ5 mutations were present in 38% (180/474) of APAs, whereas ATP1A1 mutations were found in 5.3% (25/474) and ATP2B3 mutations in 1.7% (8/474) of APAs. Previously reported somatic CACNA1D mutations as well as 10 novel CACNA1D mutations were identified in 44 of 474 (9.3%) APAs. There was no difference in the cellular composition of APAs or in CYP11B2, CYP11B1, KCNJ5, CACNA1D, or ATP1A1 gene expression in APAs across genotypes. Patients with KCNJ5 mutations were more frequently female, diagnosed younger, and with higher minimal plasma potassium concentrations compared with CACNA1D mutation carriers or noncarriers. CACNA1D mutations were associated with smaller adenomas. These associations were largely dependent on the population structure of the different centers. In conclusion, recurrent somatic mutations were identified in 54% of APAs. Young women with APAs are more likely to be KCNJ5 mutation carriers; identification of specific characteristics or surrogate biomarkers of mutation status may lead to targeted treatment options.

  8. Mobile genetic elements and cancer. From mutations to gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kozeretska, I A; Demydov, S V; Ostapchenko, L I

    2011-12-01

    In the present review, an association between cancer and the activity of the non-LTR retroelements L1, Alu, and SVA, as well as endogenous retroviruses, in the human genome, is analyzed. Data suggesting that transposons have been involved in embryogenesis and malignization processes, are presented. Events that lead to the activation of mobile elements in mammalian somatic cells, as well as the use of mobile elements in genetic screening and cancer gene therapy, are reviewed.

  9. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials.

  10. A Semantic Web-based System for Mining Genetic Mutations in Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Sambhawa; Jiang, Guoqian; Dasari, Surendra; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Wang, Chen; Heflin, Jeff; Chute, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Textual eligibility criteria in clinical trial protocols contain important information about potential clinically relevant pharmacogenomic events. Manual curation for harvesting this evidence is intractable as it is error prone and time consuming. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based system that captures and manages mutation evidences and related contextual information from cancer clinical trials. The system has 2 main components: an NLP-based annotator and a Semantic Web ontology-based annotation manager. We evaluated the performance of the annotator in terms of precision and recall. We demonstrated the usefulness of the system by conducting case studies in retrieving relevant clinical trials using a collection of mutations identified from TCGA Leukemia patients and Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. In conclusion, our system using Semantic Web technologies provides an effective framework for extraction, annotation, standardization and management of genetic mutations in cancer clinical trials. PMID:26306257

  11. Genetics of unstable alleles of the X chromosome genes isolated from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster during the outburst of mutation yellow in 1982 to 1991 in Uman`

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, I.K.; Skibitskii, E.E.

    1995-08-01

    In 1982, a local increase of frequency of mutation yellow-2, which lasted for a decade, occurred in a population of Drosophila melanogaster from Uman` (Ukraine). Genetic properties (phenotypic difference, mutability, and pecularities of complementation) of alleles yellow-2, isolated from the population during the mutation outburst, and of their revertants, were studied. Allelic diversity, which reflected molecular differences in allele structure, was shown to appear. In addition to mutation yellow, isolated in 1990 from the Uman` population, mutational properties of other sex-linked genes (dusky, miniature, rudimentary, singed, and vermilion) isolated from natural populations in 1986 to 1990, were analyzed. Based on these data, the conclusion was drawn that the presence of unstable alleles in populations is not a sufficient condition for mutation outbursts. Comparative analysis of properties of yellow alleles obtained in different periods of the outburst continues. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in sporadic breast/ovarian cancer patients and identification of a novel de novo BRCA1 mutation in a patient diagnosed with late onset breast and ovarian cancer: implications for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    De Leeneer, Kim; Coene, Ilse; Crombez, Brecht; Simkens, Justine; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Bols, Alain; Stragier, Barbara; Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Paepe, Anne; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen

    2012-02-01

    In order to adequately evaluate the clinical relevance of genetic testing in sporadic breast and ovarian cancer patients, we offered comprehensive BRCA1/2 mutation analysis in patients without a family history for the disease. We evaluated the complete coding and splice site regions of BRCA1/2 in 193 sporadic patients. In addition, a de novo mutation was further investigated with ultra deep sequencing and microsatellite marker analysis. In 17 patients (8.8%), a deleterious germline BRCA1/2 mutation was identified. The highest mutation detection ratio (3/7 = 42.9%) was obtained in sporadic patients diagnosed with breast and ovarian cancer after the age of 40. In 21 bilateral breast cancer patients, two mutations were identified (9.5%). Furthermore, 140 sporadic patients with unilateral breast cancer were investigated. Mutations were only identified in patients diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 (12/128 = 9.4% vs. 0/12 with Dx > 40). No mutations were detected in 17 sporadic male breast cancer and 6 ovarian cancer patients. BRCA1 c.3494_3495delTT was identified in a patient diagnosed with breast and ovarian cancer at the age of 52 and 53, respectively, and was proven to have occurred de novo at the paternal allele. Our study shows that the mutation detection probability in specific patient subsets can be significant, therefore mutation analysis should be considered in sporadic patients. As a consequence, a family history for the disease and an early age of onset should not be used as the only criteria for mutation analysis of BRCA1/2. The relatively high mutation detection ratio suggests that the prevalence of BRCA1/2 may be underestimated, especially in sporadic patients who developed breast and ovarian cancer. In addition, although rare, the possibility of a de novo occurrence in a sporadic patient should be considered.

  13. Prediction of Cochlear Implant Performance by Genetic Mutation: The Spiral Ganglion Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Eppsteiner, Robert W.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Hildebrand, Michael S.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Ji, Haihong; Dunn, Camille C.; Black-Ziegelbein, Elizabeth A.; Casavant, Thomas L.; Braun, Terry A.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Scherer, Steven E.; Hansen, Marlan R.; Gantz, Bruce J.; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 7% of patients with severe-to-profound deafness do not benefit from cochlear implantation. Given the high surgical implantation and clinical management cost of cochlear implantation (> $1 million lifetime cost), prospective identification of the worst performers would reduce unnecessary procedures and healthcare costs. Because cochlear implants bypass the membranous labyrinth but rely on the spiral ganglion for functionality, we hypothesize that cochlear implant (CI) performance is dictated in part by the anatomic location of the cochlear pathology that underlies the hearing loss. As a corollary, we hypothesize that because genetic testing can identify sites of cochlear pathology, it may be useful in predicting CI performance. Methods 29 adult CI recipients with idiopathic adult-onset severe-to-profound hearing loss were studied. DNA samples were subjected to solution-based sequence capture and massively parallel sequencing using the OtoSCOPE® platform. The cohort was divided into three CI performance groups (good, intermediate, poor) and genetic causes of deafness were correlated with audiometric data to determine whether there was a gene-specific impact on CI performance. Results The genetic cause of deafness was determined in 3/29 (10%) individuals. The two poor performers segregated mutations in TMPRSS3, a gene expressed in the spiral ganglion, while the good performer segregated mutations in LOXHD1, a gene expressed in the membranous labyrinth. Comprehensive literature review identified other good performers with mutations in membranous labyrinth-expressed genes; poor performance was associated with spiral ganglion-expressed genes. Conclusions Our data support the underlying hypothesis that mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion portend poor CI performance while mutations in genes expressed in the membranous labyrinth portend good CI performance. Although the low mutation rate in known deafness genes in this cohort

  14. Optical detection and discrimination of cystic fibrosis-related genetic mutations using oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre; Redmond, Gareth

    2005-03-01

    Novel methods for application of oligonucleotide-gold nanoparticle conjugates to selective colorimetric detection and discrimination of cystic fibrosis (CF) related genetic mutations in model oligonucleotide systems are presented. Three-strand oligonucleotide complexes are employed, wherein two probe oligonucleotide-gold nanoparticle conjugates are linked together by a third target oligonucleotide strand bearing the CF-related mutation(s). By monitoring the temperature dependence of the optical properties of the complexes, either in solution or on silica gel plates, melting behaviors may be accurately and reproducibly compared. Using this approach, fully complementary sequences are successfully distinguished from mismatched sequences, with single base mismatch resolution, for Delta F 508, M470V, R74W and R75Q mutations.

  15. Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal Epithelium from Women with BRCA1 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-14

    Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal Epithelium from Women with BRCA1 Mutations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anton Krumm, Ph.D...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sept 2009 – 14 Sept 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal 5a...Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 8-33 10/14/2010 Anton Krumm 1 Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal Epithelium from Women

  16. Genetic testing in familial AD and FTD: mutation and phenotype spectrum in a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, S G; Schwartz, M; Batbayli, M; Waldemar, G; Nielsen, J E

    2009-08-01

    Autosomal dominantly transmitted Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are genetically heterogeneous disorders. To date, three genes have been identified in which mutations cause early-onset autosomal dominant inherited AD: APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. Mutations in two genes on chromosome 17, the MAPT and the PGRN genes, are associated with autosomal dominant inherited FTD. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutation spectrum and describe genotype-phenotype correlations in families with inherited dementia. The identification of novel mutations and/or atypical genotype-phenotype correlations contributes to further characterizing the disorders. DNA-samples from the 90 index cases from a Danish referral-based cohort representing families with presumed autosomal dominant inherited AD or FTD were screened for mutations in the known genes with sequencing, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. Seven presumed pathogenic mutations (two PSEN1, one PSEN2, one APP, one MAPT, and two PGRN) were identified, including a novel PSEN2 mutation (V393M). No dosage aberrations were identified.

  17. Genetic and molecular analysis of chlorambucil-induced germ-line mutations in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M; Bangham, J W; Hunsicker, P R; Cacheiro, N L; Kwon, B S; Jackson, I J; Russell, L B

    1990-02-01

    Eighteen variants recovered from specific locus mutation rate experiments involving the mutagen chlorambucil were subjected to several genetic and molecular analyses. Most mutations were found to be homozygous lethal. Because lethality is often presumptive evidence for multilocus-deletion events, 10 mutations were analyzed by Southern blot analysis with probes at, or closely linked to, several of the specific locus test markers, namely, albino (c), brown (b), and dilute (d). All eight mutations (two c; three b; two d; and one dilute-short ear [Df(d se)]) that arose in post-spermatogonial germ cells were deleted for DNA sequences. No evidence for deletion of two d-se region probes was obtained for the remaining two d mutations that arose in stem-cell spermatogonia. Six of the primary mutants also produced low litter sizes ("semisterility"). Karyotypic analysis has, to date, confirmed the presence of reciprocal translocations in four of the six. The high frequency of deletions and translocations among the mutations induced in post-spermatogonial stages by chlorambucil, combined with its overall high efficiency in inducing mutations in these stages, should make chlorambucil mutagenesis useful for generating experimentally valuable germ-line deletions throughout the mouse genome.

  18. A genetic screen of the mutations in the Korean patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    An, Seong Soo; Park, Sun Ah; Bagyinszky, Eva; Bae, Sun Oh; Kim, Yoon-Jeong; Im, Ji Young; Park, Kyung Won; Park, Kee Hyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Han, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has distinct clinical characteristics in comparison to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The genetic contribution is suggested to be more potent in EOAD. However, the frequency of causative mutations in EOAD could be variable depending on studies. Moreover, no mutation screening study has been performed yet employing large population in Korea. Previously, we reported that the rate of family history of dementia in EOAD patients was 18.7% in a nationwide hospital-based cohort study, the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. This rate is much lower than in other countries and is even comparable to the frequency of LOAD patients in our country. To understand the genetic characteristics of EOAD in Korea, we screened the common Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations in the consecutive EOAD subjects from the CREDOS study from April 2012 to February 2014. We checked the sequence of APP (exons 16-17), PSEN1 (exons 3-12), and PSEN2 (exons 3-12) genes. We identified different causative or probable pathogenic AD mutations, PSEN1 T116I, PSEN1 L226F, and PSEN2 V214L, employing 24 EOAD subjects with a family history and 80 without a family history of dementia. PSEN1 T116I case demonstrated autosomal dominant trait of inheritance, with at least 11 affected individuals over 2 generations. However, there was no family history of dementia within first-degree relation in PSEN1 L226F and PSEN2 V214L cases. Approximately, 55.7% of the EOAD subjects had APOE ε4 allele, while none of the mutation-carrying subjects had the allele. The frequency of genetic mutation in this study is lower compared to the studies from other countries. The study design that was based on nationwide cohort, which minimizes selection bias, is thought to be one of the contributors to the lower frequency of genetic mutation. However, the possibility of the greater likeliness of earlier onset of sporadic AD in Korea cannot be excluded. We

  19. Population genetics inside a cell: Mutations and mitochondrial genome maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Sidhartha; Shraiman, Boris; Gottschling, Dan

    2012-02-01

    In realistic ecological and evolutionary systems natural selection acts on multiple levels, i.e. it acts on individuals as well as on collection of individuals. An understanding of evolutionary dynamics of such systems is limited in large part due to the lack of experimental systems that can challenge theoretical models. Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are subjected to selection acting on cellular as well as organelle levels. It is well accepted that mtDNA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unstable and can degrade over time scales comparable to yeast cell division time. We utilize a recent technology designed in Gottschling lab to extract DNA from populations of aged yeast cells and deep sequencing to characterize mtDNA variation in a population of young and old cells. In tandem, we developed a stochastic model that includes the essential features of mitochondrial biology that provides a null model for expected mtDNA variation. Overall, we find approximately 2% of the polymorphic loci that show significant increase in frequency as cells age providing direct evidence for organelle level selection. Such quantitative study of mtDNA dynamics is absolutely essential to understand the propagation of mtDNA mutations linked to a spectrum of age-related diseases in humans.

  20. Systematic Molecular Genetic Analysis of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia: Evidence for Genetic Heterogeneity and Identification of Novel Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Anke K.; Campagna, Dean R.; McLoughlin, Erin M.; Agarwal, Suneet; Fleming, Mark D.; Bottomley, Sylvia S.; Neufeld, Ellis J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sideroblastic anemias are heterogeneous congenital and acquired bone marrow disorders characterized by pathologic iron deposits in mitochondria of erythroid precursors. Among the congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs), the most common form is X-linked sideroblastic anemia, due to mutations in 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2). A novel autosomal recessive CSA, caused by mutations in the erythroid specific mitochondrial transporter SLC25A38, was recently defined. Other known etiologies include mutations in genes encoding the thiamine transporter (SLC19A2), the RNA-modifying enzyme pseudouridine synthase 1 (PUS1), a mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCB7), glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5), as well as mitochondrial DNA deletions. Despite these known diverse causes, in a substantial portion of CSA cases a presumed genetic defect remains unknown. Procedure In the context of the recent discovery of SLC25A38 as a major novel cause, we systematically analyzed a large cohort of previously unreported CSA patients. Sixty CSA probands (28 females, 32 males) were examined for ALAS2, SLC25A38, PUS1, GLRX5, and ABCB7 mutations. SLC19A2 and mitochondrial DNA were only analyzed if characteristic syndromic features were apparent. Results Twelve probands had biallelic mutations in SLC25A38. Seven ALAS2 mutations were detected in eight sporadic CSA cases, two being novel. We also identified a novel homozygous null PUS1 mutation and novel mitochondrial DNA deletions in two patients with Pearson syndrome. No mutationswere encountered in GLRX5, ABCB7, or SLC19A2. Conclusions The remaining undefined probands (43%) can be grouped according to gender, family and clinical characteristics, suggesting novel X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of CSA. PMID:19731322

  1. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-11-09

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility.

  2. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  3. E-cadherin germline mutation carriers: clinical management and genetic implications.

    PubMed

    Corso, Giovanni; Figueiredo, Joana; Biffi, Roberto; Trentin, Chiara; Bonanni, Bernardo; Feroce, Irene; Serrano, Davide; Cassano, Enrico; Annibale, Bruno; Melo, Soraia; Seruca, Raquel; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Ferrara, Francesco; Piagnerelli, Riccardo; Roviello, Franco; Galimberti, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomic dominant syndrome associated with E-cadherin protein (CDH1) gene germline mutations. Clinical criteria for genetic screening were revised in 2010 by the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium at the Cambridge meeting. About 40 % of families fulfilling clinical criteria for this inherited disease present deleterious CDH1 germline mutations. Lobular breast cancer is a neoplastic condition associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. E-cadherin constitutional mutations have been described in both settings, in gastric and breast cancers. The management of CDH1 asymptomatic mutation carriers requires a multidisciplinary approach; the only life-saving procedure is the prophylactic total gastrectomy after thorough genetic counselling. Several prophylactic gastrectomies have been performed to date; conversely, no prophylactic mastectomies have been described in CDH1 mutant carriers. However, the recent discovery of novel germline alterations in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast cancer opens up a new debate in the management of these individuals. In this critical review, we describe the clinical management of CDH1 germline mutant carriers providing specific recommendations for genetic counselling, clinical criteria, surveillance and/ or prophylactic surgery.

  4. Mutation-selection balance accounting for genetic variation for viability in Drosophila melanogaster as deduced from an inbreeding and artificial selection experiment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, S T; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, B; Fernández, J; Caballero, A

    2004-05-01

    We carried out an experiment of inbreeding and upward artificial selection for egg-to-adult viability in a recently captured population of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as computer simulations of the experimental design, in order to obtain information on the nature of genetic variation for this important fitness component. The inbreeding depression was linear with a rate of 0.70 +/- 0.11% of the initial mean per 1% increase in inbreeding coefficient, and the realized heritability was 0.06 +/- 0.07. We compared the empirical observations of inbreeding depression and selection response with computer simulations assuming a balance between the occurrence of partially recessive deleterious mutations and their elimination by selection. Our results suggest that a model assuming mutation-selection balance with realistic mutational parameters can explain the genetic variation for viability in the natural population studied. Several mutational models are incompatible with some observations and can be discarded. Mutational models assuming a low rate of mutations of large average effect and highly recessive gene action, and others assuming a high rate of mutations of small average effect and close to additive gene action, are compatible with all the observations.

  5. PIK3CA Mutation in Colorectal Cancer: Relationship with Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations1

    PubMed Central

    Nosho, Katsuhiko; Kawasaki, Takako; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Zepf, Dimity; Yan, Liying; Longtine, Janina A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    Somatic PIK3CA mutations are often present in colorectal cancer. Mutant PIK3CA activates AKT signaling, which up-regulates fatty acid synthase (FASN). Microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) are important molecular classifiers in colorectal cancer. However, the relationship between PIK3CA mutation, MSI and CIMP remains uncertain. Using Pyrosequencing technology, we detected PIK3CA mutations in 91 (15%) of 590 population-based colorectal cancers. To determine CIMP status, we quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight). PIK3CA mutation was significantly associated with mucinous tumors [P = .0002; odds ratio (OR) = 2.44], KRAS mutation (P < .0001; OR = 2.68), CIMP-high (P = .03; OR = 2.08), phospho-ribosomal protein S6 expression (P = .002; OR = 2.19), and FASN expression (P = .02; OR = 1.85) and inversely with p53 expression (P = .01; OR = 0.54) and β-catenin (CTNNB1) alteration (P = .004; OR = 0.43). In addition, PIK3CA G-to-A mutations were associated with MGMT loss (P = .001; OR = 3.24) but not with MGMT promoter methylation. In conclusion, PIK3CA mutation is significantly associated with other key molecular events in colorectal cancer, and MGMT loss likely contributes to the development of PIK3CA G>A mutation. In addition, Pyrosequencing is useful in detecting PIK3CA mutation in archival paraffin tumor tissue. PIK3CA mutational data further emphasize heterogeneity of colorectal cancer at the molecular level. PMID:18516290

  6. Clinical features, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South Africans

    PubMed Central

    Ntusi, Ntobeko AB; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Badri, Motasim; Mayosi, Bongani M; Badri, Motasim; Gumedze, Freedom

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Little is known about the clinical characteristics, spectrum of causal genetic mutations and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Africans. The objective of this study was to delineate the clinical and genetic features and outcome of HCM in African patients. Methods Information on clinical presentation, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, and outcome of cases with HCM was collected from the Cardiac Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital over a mean duration of follow up of 9.1 ± 3.4 years. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations in 15 genes that cause HCM, i.e. cardiac myosinbinding protein C (MYBPC3), cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7), cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2), cardiac troponin I (TNNI3), regulatory light chain of myosin (MYL2), essential light chain of myosin (MYL3), tropomyosin 1 (TPM1), phospholamban (PLN), α-actin (ACTC1), cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAG2), α-galactosidase (GLA), four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL1), lamin A/C (LMNA) and lysosomeassociated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). Survival and its predictors were analysed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods, respectively. Results Forty-three consecutive patients [mean age 38.5 ± 14.3 years; 25 (58.1%) male; and 13 (30.2%) black African] were prospectively enrolled in the study from January 1996 to December 2012. Clinical presentation was similar to that reported in other studies. The South African founder mutations that cause HCM were not found in the 42 probands. Ten of 35 index cases (28.6%) tested for mutations in 15 genes had disease-causing mutations in MYH7 (six cases or 60%) and MYBPC3 (four cases or 40%). No disease-causing mutation was found in the other 13 genes screened. The annual mortality rate was 2.9% per annum and overall survival was 74% at 10 years, which was similar to the general South African population. Cox’s proportional hazards regression showed

  7. Homozygous mutation in TXNRD1 is associated with genetic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kudin, Alexei P; Baron, Gregor; Zsurka, Gábor; Hampel, Kevin G; Elger, Christian E; Grote, Alexander; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Schulz, Herbert; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Sander, Thomas; Cheng, Qing; Arnér, Elias Sj; Schomburg, Lutz; Seeher, Sandra; Fradejas-Villar, Noelia; Schweizer, Ulrich; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2017-02-21

    Increased oxidative stress has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis in various forms of human epilepsy. Here, we report a homozygous mutation in TXNRD1 (thioredoxin reductase 1) in a family with genetic generalized epilepsy. TXNRD1 is an essential selenium-containing enzyme involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox signaling. The TXNRD1 mutation p.Pro190Leu affecting a highly conserved amino acid residue was identified by whole-exome sequencing of blood DNA from the index patient. The detected mutation and its segregation within the family - all siblings of the index patient were homozygous and the parents heterozygous - were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. TXNRD1 activity was determined in subcellular fractions from a skeletal muscle biopsy and skin fibroblasts of the index patient and the expression levels of the mutated protein were assessed by (75)Se labeling and Western blot analysis. As result of the mutation, the activity of TXNRD1 was reduced in the patient's fibroblasts and skeletal muscle (to 34±3% and 16±8% of controls, respectively). In fibroblasts, we detected reduced (75)Se-labeling of the enzyme (41±3% of controls). An in-depth in vitro kinetic analysis of the recombinant mutated TXNRD1 indicated 30-40% lowered kcat/Se values. Therefore, a reduced activity of the enzyme in the patient's tissue samples is explained by (i) lower enzyme turnover and (ii) reduced abundance of the mutated enzyme as confirmed by Western blotting and (75)Se labeling. The mutant fibroblasts were also found to be less resistant to a hydrogen peroxide challenge. Our data agree with a potential role of insufficient ROS detoxification for disease manifestation in genetic generalized epilepsy.

  8. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality.

  9. POLE and POLD1 mutations in 529 kindred with familial colorectal cancer and/or polyposis: review of reported cases and recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bellido, Fernando; Pineda, Marta; Aiza, Gemma; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Navarro, Matilde; Puente, Diana A.; Pons, Tirso; González, Sara; Iglesias, Silvia; Darder, Esther; Piñol, Virginia; Soto, José Luís; Valencia, Alfonso; Blanco, Ignacio; Urioste, Miguel; Brunet, Joan; Lázaro, Conxi; Capellá, Gabriel; Puente, Xose S.; Valle, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 have been recently associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the phenotypic characteristics of this syndrome to establish specific criteria for POLE and POLD1 mutation screening and to help define the clinical management of mutation carriers. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Methods: The exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 were studied in 529 kindred, 441 with familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 with polyposis, by using pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Results: Seven novel or rare genetic variants were identified. In addition to the POLE p.L424V recurrent mutation in a patient with polyposis, CRC and oligodendroglioma, six novel or rare POLD1 variants (four of them, p.D316H, p.D316G, p.R409W, and p.L474P, with strong evidence for pathogenicity) were identified in nonpolyposis CRC families. Phenotypic data from these and previously reported POLE/POLD1 carriers point to an associated phenotype characterized by attenuated or oligo-adenomatous colorectal polyposis, CRC, and probably brain tumors. In addition, POLD1 mutations predispose to endometrial and breast tumors. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Conclusion: Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of the POLE/POLD1-associated syndrome and identify novel pathogenic variants. We propose guidelines for genetic testing and surveillance recommendations. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. PMID:26133394

  10. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Adank, Muriel A; Hes, Frederik J; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; van den Tol, M Petrousjka; Seynaeve, Caroline; Oosterwijk, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2-gene may explain the occurrence of breast cancer in about 5% of non-BRCA1/2 families in the Netherlands. In the general population the CHEK2*1100delC mutation confers a slightly increased breast cancer risk, but in a familial breast cancer setting this risk is between 35-55% for first degree female carriers. Female breast cancer patients with the CHEK2*1100delC mutation are at increased risk of contralateral breast cancer and may have a less favourable prognosis. Female heterozygous CHEK2*1100delC mutation carriers are offered annual mammography and specialist breast surveillance between the ages of 35-60 years. Prospective research in CHEK2-positive families is essential in order to develop more specific treatment and screening strategies.

  11. Frequent mutations of KRAS in addition to BRAF in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stefanius, Karoliina; Ylitalo, Laura; Tuomisto, Anne; Kuivila, Rami; Kantola, Tiina; Sirniö, Päivi; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Mäkinen, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Aims To define the occurrence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma. Methods and results KRAS codon 12/13 and 59/61 and BRAF V600E mutations, MSI, and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in 42 serrated adenocarcinomas and 17 serrated adenomas were compared with those in 59 non-serrated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and nine adenomas. KRAS and BRAF mutations were observed in 45% and 33% of serrated adenocarcinomas and in 27% and 0% of non-serrated CRCs (P < 0.001). The KRAS c12G→A transition was the predominant type of mutation in serrated adenocarcinomas. Forty-two per cent of BRAF-mutated serrated adenocarcinomas showed high-level MSI (MSI-H) (P = 0.075), 100% showed hMLH1 methylation (P = 0.001) and 90.9% showed MGMT methylation (P = 0.019). Fifty-six per cent of serrated adenocarcinomas with microsatellite stability/low-level microsatellite instability harboured KRAS mutations. In non-serrated cancers, KRAS mutations were not associated with MSI status. Conclusions A high combined mutation rate (79–82%) of KRAS and BRAF in serrated adenomas and adenocarcinomas indicates that mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is a crucial part of the serrated pathway. BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H. A high frequency of KRAS mutations in serrated adenocarcinomas suggests that a significant proportion of KRAS-mutated CRCs originate from serrated precursors, thus challenging the traditional model of Vogelstein. PMID:21457162

  12. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients’ clinical pathology characteristic. PMID:26309716

  13. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.

  14. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment.

  15. Limited family structure and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype as predictors of BRCA mutations in a genetic counseling cohort of early-onset sporadic breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Manzano, Arancha; Blanco, Ignacio; Vega, Ana; Custodio, Ana; Teulé, Alex; Fachal, Laura; Martínez, Beatriz; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús; Chirivella, Isabel; Garcés, Vicente; Garre, Pilar; Romero, Atocha; Caldés, Trinidad; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; de la Hoya, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset diagnosis is an eligibility criterion for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) testing in sporadic breast cancer patients. Limited family structure has been proposed as a predictor of BRCA mutation status in this group of patients. An overwhelming amount of data supports a strong association between BRCA1 mutations and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we analyze the feasibility of using limited family structure and TNBC as predictors of BRCA mutation status in early-onset breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. We have conducted the study in a cohort of sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients (N = 341) previously selected for BRCA genetic testing in Academic Hereditary Cancer Clinics from Spain. A retrospective review of medical records available at the time of risk assessment allowed us classifying patients according to family structure and TNBC. In addition, BRCAPRO score was calculated for all patients. Association between categorical variables was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Limited family structure (OR 3.61, p = 0.013) and TNBC (OR 3.14, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of BRCA mutation status. Mutation prevalence in the subgroup of patients with at least one positive predictor was 14%, whereas it dropped to 3% in non-TNBCs with adequate family history (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.38-23.89, p = 0.006). BRCAPRO correctly discerned between limited and adequate family structures. Limited family structure and TNBC are feasible predictors of BRCA mutation status in sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. The low prevalence of mutations observed in non-TNBCs with adequate family structure suggests that this subgroup of patients might be excluded from genetic testing.

  16. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    PubMed

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  17. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  18. Ontogeny of additive and maternal genetic effects: lessons from domestic mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Reale, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of size and growth depends on heritable variation arising from additive and maternal genetic effects. Levels of heritable (and nonheritable) variation might change over ontogeny, increasing through "variance compounding" or decreasing through "compensatory growth." We test for these processes using a meta-analysis of age-specific weight traits in domestic ungulates. Generally, mean standardized variance components decrease with age, consistent with compensatory growth. Phenotypic convergence among adult sheep occurs through decreasing environmental and maternal genetic variation. Maternal variation similarly declines in cattle. Maternal genetic effects are thus reduced with age (both in absolute and relative terms). Significant trends in heritability (decreasing in cattle, increasing in sheep) result from declining maternal and environmental components rather than from changing additive variation. There was no evidence for increasing standardized variance components. Any compounding must therefore be masked by more important compensatory processes. While extrapolation of these patterns to processes in natural population is difficult, our results highlight the inadequacy of assuming constancy in genetic parameters over ontogeny. Negative covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects was common. Negative correlations with additive and maternal genetic variances indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy (between additive and maternal genetic effects) may maintain genetic variance and limit responses to selection.

  19. First systematic experience of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for de-novo mutations.

    PubMed

    Rechitsky, Svetlana; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Pakhalchuk, Tatiana; Pauling, Dana; Verlinsky, Oleg; Kuliev, Anver

    2011-04-01

    Standard preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cannot be applied for de-novo mutations (DNM), because neither origin nor relevant haplotypes are available for testing in single cells. PGD strategies were developed for 80 families with 38 genetic disorders, determined by 33 dominant, three recessive and two X-linked DNM. All three recessive mutations were of paternal origin, while of 93 dominant mutations, 40 were paternal, 46 maternal and seven detected in affected children. The development of specific PGD strategy for each couple involved DNA analysis of the parents and affected children prior to PGD, including a mutation verification, polymorphic marker evaluation, whole and single sperm testing to establish the normal and mutant haplotypes and PGD by polar body analysis and/or embryo biopsy. Overall, 151 PGD cycles were performed for 80 families, for which a specific PGD design has been established. The application of these protocols resulted in pre-selection and transfer of 219 (1.72 per cycle) DNM-free embryos in 127 (84.1%) PGD cycles, yielding 63 (49.6%) unaffected pregnancies and birth of 59 (46.5%) healthy children, confirmed to be free of DNM. The data show feasibility of PGD for DNM, which may routinely be performed with accuracy of over 99%, using the established PGD strategy.

  20. De novo Mutations in Schizophrenia Implicate Chromatin Remodeling and Support a Genetic Overlap with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Shane E.; Gillis, Jesse; Kramer, Melissa; Lihm, Jayon; Yoon, Seungtai; Berstein, Yael; Mistry, Meeta; Pavlidis, Paul; Solomon, Rebecca; Ghiban, Elena; Antoniou, Eric; Kelleher, Eric; O’Brien, Carol; Donohoe, Gary; Gill, Michael; Morris, Derek W.; McCombie, W. Richard.; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder with a broadly undiscovered genetic etiology. Recent studies of de novo mutations (DNM) in schizophrenia and autism have reinforced the hypothesis that rare genetic variation contributes to risk. We carried out exome sequencing on 57 trios with sporadic or familial schizophrenia. In sporadic trios, we observed a ~3.5-fold increase in the proportion of nonsense de novo mutations (DNMs) (0.101 vs. 0.031, empirical P=0.01, BH-corrected P=0.044). These mutations were significantly more likely to occur in genes with highly ranked probabilities of haploinsufficiency (P=0.0029, corrected P=0.006). DNMs of potential functional consequence were also found to occur in genes predicted to be less tolerant to rare variation (P=2.01×10−5, corrected P =2.1×10−3). Genes with DNMs overlapped with genes implicated in autism (e.g. AUTS2, CDH8, MECP2) and intellectual disability (ID) (e.g. HUWE1 and TRAPPC9), supporting a shared genetic etiology between these disorders. Functionally CHD8, MECP2 and HUWE1 converge on epigenetic regulation of transcription suggesting that this may be an important risk mechanism. Our results were consistent in an analysis of additional exome based sequencing studies of other neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings suggest that perturbations in genes which function in the epigenetic regulation of brain development and cognition could have a central role in the susceptibility to, pathogenesis, and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24776741

  1. Indian-subcontinent NBIA: unusual phenotypes, novel PANK2 mutations, and undetermined genetic forms.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Schneider, Susanne A; Houlden, Henry; Silverdale, Monty; Paudel, Reema; Paisan-Ruiz, Coro; Desai, Shrinivas; Munshi, Mihir; Sanghvi, Darshana; Hardy, John; Bhatia, Kailash P; Bhatt, Mohit

    2010-07-30

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is etiologically, clinically, and by imaging a heterogeneous group including NBIA types 1 [pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN)] and 2 (PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration), neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminaemia. Data on genetically defined Indian-subcontinent NBIA cases are limited. We report 6 patients from the Indian-subcontinent with a movement disorder and MRI basal ganglia iron deposition, compatible with diagnosis of an NBIA syndrome. All patients were screened for abnormalities in serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin levels and mutations in NBIA-associated genes [pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2), PLA2G6 and ferritin light chain (exon 4)]. We present clinical, imaging and genetic data correlating phenotype-genotype relations. Four patients carried PANK2 mutations, two of these were novel. The clinical phenotype was mainly dystonic with generalized dystonia and marked orobulbar features in the 4 adolescent-onset cases. One of the four had a late-onset (age 37) unilateral jerky postural tremor. His mutation, c.1379C>T, appears associated with a milder phenotype. Interestingly, he developed the eye-of-the-tiger sign only 10 years after onset. Two of the six presented with adult-onset levodopa (L-dopa)-responsive asymmetric re-emergent rest tremor, developing L-dopa-induced dyskinesias, and good benefit to deep brain stimulation (in one), thus resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Both had an eye-of-the-tiger sign on MRI but were negative for known NBIA-associated genes, suggesting the existence of further genetic or sporadic forms of NBIA syndromes. In conclusion, genetically determined NBIA cases from the Indian subcontinent suggest presence of unusual phenotypes of PANK2 and novel mutations. The phenotype of NBIA of unknown cause includes a PD-like presentation.

  2. Blue genes: An integrative laboratory to differentiate genetic transformation from gene mutation for underclassmen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Kevin T; Chang, Ming-Mei; Simon, Robert D; Lazatin, Justine C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of students to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and the mechanisms by which genotypes and phenotypes can change is essential for students studying genetics. To this end, we have developed a four-week laboratory called Blue Genes, which is designed to help novice students discriminate between two mechanisms by which the genetic material can be altered: genetic transformation and gene mutation. In the first week of the laboratory, students incubate a plasmid DNA with calcium chloride-treated Escherichia coli JM109 cells and observe a phenotype change from ampicillin sensitive to ampicillin resistant and from white color to blue color on plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) and isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Over the course of the next three weeks, students use a battery of approaches including plasmid DNA isolation experiments, restriction maps, and PCR to differentiate between mutation and transformation. The students ultimately come to the conclusion that the changes in phenotypes are due to genetic transformation and not mutation based on the evidence generated over the four-week period. Pre-laboratory tests and post-laboratory tests indicate that this set of exercises is successful in helping students differentiate between transformation and mutation. The laboratory is designed for underclassmen and is a good prerequisite for an apprentice-based research opportunity, although it is not designed as a class based research experience. Potential modifications and future directions of the laboratory based upon student experiences and assessment are presented.

  3. A genetic predisposition for bovine neonatal pancytopenia is not due to mutations in coagulation factor XI.

    PubMed

    Krappmann, K; Weikard, R; Gerst, S; Wolf, C; Kühn, Ch

    2011-11-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a newly emerging disease in many European countries that causes haemorrhagic diathesis and mortality in neonatal calves. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic factors might be involved in BNP, since genetic defects resulting in coagulation disorders have been described in many species, including cattle. A familial pattern of occurrence of BNP cases was observed in an experimental population of cattle in Germany and BNP was diagnosed in nine calves on an experimental dairy herd from May 2007 to December 2009. All affected calves were descendents of a single F(1) sire in a specific F(2) resource population generated from Charolais and German Holstein bloodlines. Sequence analysis of the bovine coagulation factor XI (F11) gene as a functional candidate gene for BNP revealed an unusually high number of non-synonymous mutations within the gene compared to a whole genome mutation screen in cattle targetting random sequences. However, none of the mutations in the F11 gene were concordant with BNP status. Although these data and further pedigree analysis excluded a simple mode of inheritance of the BNP phenotype, there was a statistically significant (P=0.0001) accumulation of BNP cases in the specific pedigree examined, suggesting that a genetic component is involved in the development of BNP.

  4. ‘My funky genetics’: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers’ understanding of genetic inheritance and reproductive merger in the context of new repro-genetic technologies

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Lisa R.; Doyle, Maya; Stern, Rikki; Savin, Katie; Hurley, Karen; Sagi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Deleterious mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes elevate lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Each child of a mutation-positive parent has a 50% chance of inheriting it. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) permits prospective parents to avoid transmitting a BRCA1/2 mutation to a child, introducing predictability into a process historically defined by chance. This investigation explored how BRCA1/2 mutation carriers understand genetic inheritance and consider a child’s inheritance of a BRCA1/2 mutation, given the opportunities that exist to pursue PGD. METHOD 39 female and male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of reproductive age were recruited from urban cancer and reproductive medical centers. Participants completed a standardized educational presentation on PGD and prenatal diagnosis, with pre- and post-test assessments. An interdisciplinary team of qualitative researchers analyzed data using grounded theory techniques. FINDINGS Participants expressed the belief that reproduction yields children with unique genetic strengths and challenges, including the BRCA1/2 mutation, family traits for which predictive tests do not exist, and hypothetical genetic risks. Participants expressed preference for biologically-related children, yet stated their genetically ‘well’ partner’s lineage would be marred through reproductive merger, requiring the well partner to assume the burden of the BRCA1/2 mutation via their children. Participants expressed diverse views of genetically ‘well’ partners’ participation in family planning and risk management decisions. DISCUSSION Pressure to use reprogenetic technology may grow as genetic susceptibility testing becomes more widely available. Work with individuals and couples across the disease spectrum must be attuned to they ways beliefs about genetic inheritance play into reproductive decision making. PMID:22709328

  5. The Human Gene Mutation Database: towards a comprehensive repository of inherited mutation data for medical research, genetic diagnosis and next-generation sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Stenson, Peter D; Mort, Matthew; Ball, Edward V; Evans, Katy; Hayden, Matthew; Heywood, Sally; Hussain, Michelle; Phillips, Andrew D; Cooper, David N

    2017-03-27

    The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD(®)) constitutes a comprehensive collection of published germline mutations in nuclear genes that underlie, or are closely associated with human inherited disease. At the time of writing (March 2017), the database contained in excess of 203,000 different gene lesions identified in over 8000 genes manually curated from over 2600 journals. With new mutation entries currently accumulating at a rate exceeding 17,000 per annum, HGMD represents de facto the central unified gene/disease-oriented repository of heritable mutations causing human genetic disease used worldwide by researchers, clinicians, diagnostic laboratories and genetic counsellors, and is an essential tool for the annotation of next-generation sequencing data. The public version of HGMD ( http://www.hgmd.org ) is freely available to registered users from academic institutions and non-profit organisations whilst the subscription version (HGMD Professional) is available to academic, clinical and commercial users under license via QIAGEN Inc.

  6. Genetic Correlations Greatly Increase Mutational Robustness and Can Both Reduce and Enhance Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Greenbury, Sam F.; Schaper, Steffen; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Louis, Ard A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutational neighbourhoods in genotype-phenotype (GP) maps are widely believed to be more likely to share characteristics than expected from random chance. Such genetic correlations should strongly influence evolutionary dynamics. We explore and quantify these intuitions by comparing three GP maps—a model for RNA secondary structure, the HP model for protein tertiary structure, and the Polyomino model for protein quaternary structure—to a simple random null model that maintains the number of genotypes mapping to each phenotype, but assigns genotypes randomly. The mutational neighbourhood of a genotype in these GP maps is much more likely to contain genotypes mapping to the same phenotype than in the random null model. Such neutral correlations can be quantified by the robustness to mutations, which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of the null model, and crucially, above the critical threshold for the formation of large neutral networks of mutationally connected genotypes which enhance the capacity for the exploration of phenotypic novelty. Thus neutral correlations increase evolvability. We also study non-neutral correlations: Compared to the null model, i) If a particular (non-neutral) phenotype is found once in the 1-mutation neighbourhood of a genotype, then the chance of finding that phenotype multiple times in this neighbourhood is larger than expected; ii) If two genotypes are connected by a single neutral mutation, then their respective non-neutral 1-mutation neighbourhoods are more likely to be similar; iii) If a genotype maps to a folding or self-assembling phenotype, then its non-neutral neighbours are less likely to be a potentially deleterious non-folding or non-assembling phenotype. Non-neutral correlations of type i) and ii) reduce the rate at which new phenotypes can be found by neutral exploration, and so may diminish evolvability, while non-neutral correlations of type iii) may instead facilitate evolutionary exploration and so

  7. The genetic spectrum and the evaluation of CADASIL screening scale in Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Yuehuan; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Huang, Yining; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small artery disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutation. Here we report clinical, pathological and genetic profiles of 29 newly-diagnosed CADASIL patients, evaluation of the CADASIL scale in Chinese CADASIL patients, and reanalysis of all reported mainland Chinese patients with identified NOTCH3 gene mutation. We found two novel mutations (p.C134G and p.C291Y) and 13 reported NOTCH3 mutations in the newly-diagnosed group. CADASIL scale score was less than the cutoff score in 19 of 53 Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutation, generating only a sensitivity of 64.1%. At the time of study, the total number of genetically confirmed CADASIL cases reached 158 from 97 unrelated mainland Chinese families, with 9/97 (9.3%) sporadic patients. The NOTCH3 gene mutation profile showed 43 mutations, with hotspots in exon 4, followed by exon 3. The considerable variability in onset age and CADASIL scale score in patients carrying the same NOTCH3 missense mutation suggested no obvious phenotype-genotype correlation. In conclusion, we report two novel mutations which expand the NOTCH3 mutational spectrum. Exons 4 and 3 are hotspots in mainland Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutation. The low sensitivity of CADASIL scale in our patients group indicated that the CADASIL scale should be refined according to the clinical characteristics of Chinese CADASIL patients when used in Chinese populations.

  8. Molecular Analysis of Collagen XVIII Reveals Novel Mutations, Presence of a Third Isoform, and Possible Genetic Heterogeneity in Knobloch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, O. T.; Sertié, A. L.; Der Kaloustian, V. M.; Kok, F.; Carpenter, M.; Murray, J.; Czeizel, A. E.; Kliemann, S. E.; Rosemberg, S.; Monteiro, M.; Olsen, B. R.; Passos-Bueno, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Knobloch syndrome (KS) is a rare disease characterized by severe ocular alterations, including vitreoretinal degeneration associated with retinal detachment and occipital scalp defect. The responsible gene, COL18A1, has been mapped to 21q22.3, and, on the basis of the analysis of one family, we have demonstrated that a mutation affecting only one of the three COL18A1 isoforms causes this phenotype. We report here the results of the screening of both the entire coding region and the exon-intron boundaries of the COL18A1 gene (which includes 43 exons), in eight unrelated patients with KS. Besides 20 polymorphic changes, we identified 6 different pathogenic changes in both alleles of five unrelated patients with KS (three compound heterozygotes and two homozygotes). All are truncating mutations leading to deficiency of one or all collagen XVIII isoforms and endostatin. We have verified that, in exon 41, the deletion c3514-3515delCT, found in three unrelated alleles, is embedded in different haplotypes, suggesting that this mutation has occurred more than once. In addition, our results provide evidence of nonallelic genetic heterogeneity in KS. We also show that the longest human isoform (NC11-728) is expressed in several tissues (including the human eye) and that lack of either the short variant or all of the collagen XVIII isoforms causes similar phenotypes but that those patients who lack all forms present more-severe ocular alterations. Despite the small sample size, we found low endostatin plasma levels in those patients with mutations leading to deficiency of all isoforms; in addition, it seems that absence of all collagen XVIII isoforms causes predisposition to epilepsy. PMID:12415512

  9. Developing genetic reagents to facilitate recovery, analysis, and maintenance of mouse mutations.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M

    2000-07-01

    Because the mouse has become the pre-eminent model system for functional genomics and analysis of complex-systems/pathways in mammals, there has been an escalation of interest in the generation and analysis of mouse mutations to use as tools in these analyses. I argue here for a parallel investment in continuing the development of appropriately marked chromosomal rearrangements to use as genetic reagents in mutation recovery, analysis, and maintenance crosses. Specifically, visibly marked interstitial chromosomal deletions can be valuable for regional mutagenesis screens for recessives based on hemizygosity, and they can also be used to simplify genetic fine-mapping as a prelude to gene identification based on positional cloning/candidacy strategies. Dominantly marked chromosomal inversions that also manifest some kind of recessive phenotype can be exploited in more extensive regional mutagenesis screens based on homozygosity, and are invaluable for simplified, low-cost and error-reduced mutant-stock maintenance. Also discussed are several issues concerning genetic background, particularly from the point of view of genetic-reagent resource development.

  10. A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the formation of F-actin-rich dendritic filopodia or dendritic spines. We developed a forward genetic screen utilizing transgenic Drosophila second instar larvae expressing an actin, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (actin∷GFP) in subsets of sensory neurons. Utilizing this fluorescent transgenic reporter, we conducted a forward genetic screen of >4000 mutagenized chromosomes bearing lethal mutations that affected multiple aspects of larval dendrite development. We isolated 13 mutations on the X and second chromosomes composing 11 complementation groups affecting dendrite outgrowth/branching, dendritic filopodia formation, or actin∷GFP localization within dendrites in vivo. In a fortuitous observation, we observed that the structure of dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendritic filopodia changes in response to a changing environment. PMID:16415365

  11. Mutation-Based Learning to Improve Student Autonomy and Scientific Inquiry Skills in a Large Genetics Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinlu

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a "mutation" method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could…

  12. Mild CFTR mutations and genetic predisposition to lactase persistence in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mądry, Edyta; Fidler, Ewa; Sobczyńska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Krzyżanowska, Patrycja; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Minarowski, Łukasz; Oralewska, Beata; Mojs, Ewa; Sapiejka, Ewa; Marciniak, Ryszard; Sands, Dorota; Korzon-Burakowska, Anna; Kwiecień, Jarosław; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2011-07-01

    Taking into account the reported incidence of hypolactasia in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the possible impact of milk products on nutritional status we aimed to assess the genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) and its incidence in CF. Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) was assessed in 289 CF patients. In subject with -13910C/C genotype (C/C) predisposing to ATH, hydrogen-methane breath test (BT) with lactose loading was conducted and clinical symptoms typical for lactose malabsorption were assessed. The percentage of CF patients with C/C was similar to that observed in healthy subjects (HS) (31.5 vs 32.5% ). Eleven out of 52 (24.5%) CF C/C patients had abnormal BT results. The recalculated frequency of lactose malabsorption was similar for the entire CF and HS populations (6.9 vs 7.2%). Similarly as in the control group, few CF patients have identified and linked to lactose consumption clinical symptoms. The frequency of LCT polymorphic variants in CF patients having and not having severe mutations of CFTR gene showed significant differences. The C allele was more frequent in homozygotes of the severe mutations than in patients carrying at least one mild/unknown mutation (P<0.0028) and in patients with at least one mild mutation (P < 0.0377). In conclusion, CF patients carrying mild CFTR mutations seem to have lower genetic predisposition to ATH. Lactose malabsorption due to ATH in CF is not more frequent than in the general population. Symptomatic assessment of lactose malabsorption in CF is not reliable.

  13. GENETIC MUTATIONS AFFECTING THE FIRST LINE ERADICATION THERAPY OF Helicobacter pylori-INFECTED EGYPTIAN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    RAMZY, Iman; ELGAREM, Hassan; HAMZA, Iman; GHAITH, Doaa; ELBAZ, Tamer; ELHOSARY, Waleed; MOSTAFA, Gehan; ELZAHRY, Mohammad A. Mohey Eldin

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Several genetic mutations affect the first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to study the most common genetic mutations affecting the metronidazole and clarithromycin therapy for H. pylori-infected Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods: In our study, we included 100 successive dyspeptic patients scheduled for diagnosis through upper gastroscopy at Cairo's University Hospital, Egypt. Gastric biopsies were tested for the presence of H. pylori by detection of the 16S rRNA gene. Positive biopsies were further studied for the presence of the rdxA gene deletion by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while clarithromycin resistance was investigated by the presence of nucleotide substitutions within H. pylori 23S rRNA V domain using MboII and BsaI to carry out a Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Results: Among 70 H. pylori positive biopsies, the rdxA gene deletion was detected in 44/70 (62.9%) samples, while predominance of the A2142G mutations within the H. pylori 23S rRNA V domain was evidenced in 39/70 (55.7%) of the positive H. pylori cases. No statistically significant difference was found between the presence of gene mutations and different factors such as patients 'age, gender, geographic distribution, symptoms and endoscopic findings. Conclusion: Infection with mutated H. pylori strains is considerably high, a finding that imposes care in the use of the triple therapy to treat H. pylori in Egypt, since the guidelines recommend to abandon the standard triple therapy when the primary clarithromycin resistance rate is over 20%1. PMID:27982354

  14. Mutational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome branches into the realm of bacterial genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, N.

    1996-10-01

    This is shaping up as a vintage year for studies of the genetics and evolution of the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In a theoretical and experimental tour de force, Shenkar et al. (1996), on pages 772-780 of this issue, derive the mutation rate of the 4,977-bp (or {open_quotes}common{close_quotes}) deletion in the human mtDNA through refinement and extension of fluctuation analysis, a technique that was first used >50 years ago. Shenkar et al., in essence, have solved or bypassed many of the difficulties that are inherent in the application of fluctuation analysis to human mitochondrial gene mutations. Their study is important for two principal reasons. In the first place, high levels of this deletion cause a variety of pathological disorders, including Kearns-Sayre syndrome and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Their current report, therefore, is a major step in the elucidation of the molecular genetic pathogenesis of this group of mitochondrial disorders. For example, it now may be feasible to analyze the effects of selection on transmission and segregation of this deletion and, perhaps, other mtDNA mutations as well. Second, and at a broader level, the approach of Shenkar et al. should find widespread applicability to the study of other mtDNA mutations. It has been recognized for several years that mammalian mtDNA mutates much more rapidly than nuclear DNA, a phenomenon with potentially profound evolutionary implications. It is exciting and useful, both experimentally and theoretically, that this {open_quotes}old{close_quotes} approach can be used for {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} applications. 56 refs.

  15. Essential Genes Embody Increased Mutational Robustness to Compensate for the Lack of Backup Genetic Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Osher; Oberhardt, Matthew; Yizhak, Keren; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic robustness is a hallmark of cells, occurring through many mechanisms and at many levels. Essential genes lack the common robustness mechanism of genetic redundancy (i.e., existing alongside other genes with the same function), and thus appear at first glance to leave cells highly vulnerable to genetic or environmental perturbations. Here we explore a hypothesis that cells might protect against essential gene loss through mechanisms that occur at various cellular levels aside from the level of the gene. Using Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as models, we find that essential genes are enriched over non-essential genes for properties we call “coding efficiency” and “coding robustness”, denoting respectively a gene’s efficiency of translation and robustness to non-synonymous mutations. The coding efficiency levels of essential genes are highly positively correlated with their evolutionary conservation levels, suggesting that this feature plays a key role in protecting conserved, evolutionarily important genes. We then extend our hypothesis into the realm of metabolic networks, showing that essential metabolic reactions are encoded by more “robust” genes than non-essential reactions, and that essential metabolites are produced by more reactions than non-essential metabolites. Taken together, these results testify that robustness at the gene-loss level and at the mutation level (and more generally, at two cellular levels that are usually treated separately) are not decoupled, but rather, that cellular vulnerability exposed due to complete gene loss is compensated by increased mutational robustness. Why some genes are backed up primarily against loss and others against mutations still remains an open question. PMID:27997585

  16. Benefit of transferred mutations is better predicted by the fitness of recipients than by their ecological or genetic relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinhua; Diaz Arenas, Carolina; Stoebel, Daniel M.; Flynn, Kenneth; Knapp, Ethan; Dillon, Marcus M.; Wünsche, Andrea; Hatcher, Philip J.; Moore, Francisco B.-G.; Cooper, Vaughn S.; Cooper, Tim F.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a mutation depends on its interaction with the genetic background in which it is assessed. Studies in experimental systems have demonstrated that such interactions are common among beneficial mutations and often follow a pattern consistent with declining evolvability of more fit genotypes. However, these studies generally examine the consequences of interactions between a small number of focal mutations. It is not clear, therefore, that findings can be extrapolated to natural populations, where new mutations may be transferred between genetically divergent backgrounds. We build on work that examined interactions between four beneficial mutations selected in a laboratory-evolved population of Escherichia coli to test how they interact with the genomes of diverse natural isolates of the same species. We find that the fitness effect of transferred mutations depends weakly on the genetic and ecological similarity of recipient strains relative to the donor strain in which the mutations were selected. By contrast, mutation effects were strongly inversely correlated to the initial fitness of the recipient strain. That is, there was a pattern of diminishing returns whereby fit strains benefited proportionally less from an added mutation. Our results strengthen the view that the fitness of a strain can be a major determinant of its ability to adapt. They also support a role for barriers of transmission, rather than differential selection of transferred DNA, as an explanation of observed phylogenetically determined patterns of restricted recombination among E. coli strains. PMID:27091964

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of factor XI deficiency: identification of five novel gene alterations and the origin of type II mutation in Portuguese families.

    PubMed

    Ventura, C; Santos, A I; Tavares, A; Gago, T; Lavinha, J; McVey, J H; David, D

    2000-11-01

    Coagulation factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive mild bleeding disorder. In this study, we report the molecular genetic analysis of FXI deficiency in six unrelated families of Portuguese origin. The Jewish type II mutation was found in two families, of seemingly Portuguese origin. Haplotype analysis in these families demonstrated that this mutation is of Jewish origin. In the remaining families, five novel FXI mutations have been identified. Two of these mutations (FXI IVS K -10T-->A and FXI 1026G-->T, cd 324) affect the FXI pre-mRNA splicing. A further two (FXI 307 ins AAGCAAT, cd 85 and FXI 1072 del A, cd 340) introduce frameshifts leading to premature termination codons. The FXI splicing mutation, 1026G-->T cd 324, was found in compound heterozygosity with missense mutation FXI K518N. Analysis of the FXI mRNA from the latter genotype demonstrated new donor splice site usage. All reported mutations most likely result in functional null-alleles. In addition, three novel polymorphisms have been identified: at nt -138 in intron A, at codon D125 in exon 5 and at codon T249 in exon 8.

  18. A study of deafness-related genetic mutations as a basis for strategies to prevent hereditary hearing loss in Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junzhen; Cao, Qinying; Zhang, Ning; Ge, Jun; Sun, Donglan; Feng, Qingqi

    2015-08-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder, and at least 50% of cases are due to a genetic etiology. Two-thirds of individuals with congenital deafness are nonsyndromic. Among the nonsyndromic forms, the large majority are monogenic autosomal recessive traits. The current work summarizes mutations in the GJB2, SLC26A4, 12SrRNA, and GJB3 and their prevalence in 318 students with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss at schools for the deaf or special needs schools in 9 cities in Hebei Province, China. Deafness gene mutations were identified in 137 students via a gene chip, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and gene sequencing. Mutations were detected at a rate of 43.08%. A homozygous mutation of the GJB2 gene was found in 16 students (5.03%), a heterozygous mutation of that gene was found in 38 (11.95%), a homozygous mutation of the SLC26A4 gene was found in 22 (6.92%), a heterozygous mutation of that gene was found in 59 (18.55%), and a heterozygous mutation of the mitochondrial 12SrRNA gene was found in 2 (0.63%). In addition, there were 15 families in which a student's parents had normal hearing. Compound heterozygous mutations of the GJB2 gene were found in 3 families (20%) and mutations of the SLC26A4 gene were found in 9 (60%). Thus, this study has provided a molecular diagnostic basis for the causes of deafness, and this study has also provided a scientific basis for the early prevention of and intervention in deafness.

  19. Two buffer PAGE system-based SSCP/HD analysis: a general protocol for rapid and sensitive mutation screening in cystic fibrosis and any other human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Liechti-Gallati, S; Schneider, V; Neeser, D; Kraemer, R

    1999-07-01

    The large size of many disease genes and the multiplicity of mutations complicate the design of an adequate assay for the identification of disease-causing variants. One of the most successful methods for mutation detection is the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. By varying temperature, gel composition, ionic strength and additives, we optimised the sensitivity of SSCP for all 27 exons of the CFTR gene. Using simultaneously SSCP and heteroduplex (HD) analysis, a total of 80 known CF mutations (28 missense, 22 frameshift, 17 nonsense, 13 splicesite) and 20 polymorphisms was analysed resulting in a detection rate of 97.5% including the 24 most common mutations worldwide. The ability of this technique to detect mutations independent of their nature, frequency, and population specificity was confirmed by the identification of five novel mutations (420del9, 1199delG, R560S, A613T, T1299I) in Swiss CF patients, as well as by the detection of 41 different mutations in 198 patients experimentally analysed. We present a three-stage screening strategy allowing analysis of seven exons within 5 hours and analysis of the entire coding region within 1 week, including sequence analysis of the variants. Additionally, our protocol represents a general model for point mutation analysis in other genetic disorders and has already been successfully established for OTC deficiency, collagene deficiency, X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD), Wilson disease (WD), Neurofibromatosis I and II, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, and defects in mitochondrial DNA. No other protocol published so far presents standard SSCP/HD conditions for mutation screening in different disease genes.

  20. Application of a New Genetic Deafness Microarray for Detecting Mutations in the Deaf in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Feng, Yong; Jiang, Lu; Pan, Qian; Liu, Yalan; Liu, Chang; He, Chufeng; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Xueming; Hu, Chang; Hu, Yiqiao; Mei, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the GoldenGate microarray as a diagnostic tool and to elucidate the contribution of the genes on this array to the development of both nonsyndromic and syndromic sensorineural hearing loss in China. Methods We developed a microarray to detect 240 mutations underlying syndromic and nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. The microarray was then used for analysis of 382 patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (including 15 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome), 21 patients with Waardenburg syndrome, and 60 unrelated controls. Subsequently, we analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of this new approach after Sanger sequencing-based verification, and also determined the contribution of the genes on this array to the development of distinct hearing disorders. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the microarray chip were 98.73% and 98.34%, respectively. Genetic defects were identified in 61.26% of the patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, and 9 causative genes were identified. The molecular etiology was confirmed in 19.05% and 46.67% of the patients with Waardenburg syndrome and enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, respectively. Conclusion Our new mutation-based microarray comprises an accurate and comprehensive genetic tool for the detection of sensorineural hearing loss. This microarray-based detection method could serve as a first-pass screening (before next-generation-sequencing screening) for deafness-causing mutations in China. PMID:27018795

  1. The million mutation project: A new approach to genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Owen; Edgley, Mark; Strasbourger, Pnina; Flibotte, Stephane; Ewing, Brent; Adair, Ryan; Au, Vinci; Chaudhry, Iasha; Fernando, Lisa; Hutter, Harald; Kieffer, Armelle; Lau, Joanne; Lee, Norris; Miller, Angela; Raymant, Greta; Shen, Bin; Shendure, Jay; Taylor, Jon; Turner, Emily H.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Moerman, Donald G.; Waterston, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    We have created a library of 2007 mutagenized Caenorhabditis elegans strains, each sequenced to a target depth of 15-fold coverage, to provide the research community with mutant alleles for each of the worm's more than 20,000 genes. The library contains over 800,000 unique single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with an average of eight nonsynonymous changes per gene and more than 16,000 insertion/deletion (indel) and copy number changes, providing an unprecedented genetic resource for this multicellular organism. To supplement this collection, we also sequenced 40 wild isolates, identifying more than 630,000 unique SNVs and 220,000 indels. Comparison of the two sets demonstrates that the mutant collection has a much richer array of both nonsense and missense mutations than the wild isolate set. We also find a wide range of rDNA and telomere repeat copy number in both sets. Scanning the mutant collection for molecular phenotypes reveals a nonsense suppressor as well as strains with higher levels of indels that harbor mutations in DNA repair genes and strains with abundant males associated with him mutations. All the strains are available through the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center and all the sequence changes have been deposited in WormBase and are available through an interactive website. PMID:23800452

  2. The inherited ataxias: genetic heterogeneity, mutation databases, and future directions in research and clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hersheson, Joshua; Haworth, Andrea; Houlden, Henry

    2012-09-01

    The inherited cerebellar ataxias are a diverse group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. Inheritance patterns of these disorders can be complex with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and mitochondrial inheritance demonstrated by one or more ataxic syndromes. The broad range of mutation types found in inherited ataxia contributes to the complex genetic etiology of these disorders. The majority of inherited ataxias are caused by repeat expansions; however, conventional mutations are important causes of the rarer dominant and recessive ataxias. Advances in sequencing technology have allowed for much broader testing of these rare ataxia genes. This is relevant to the aims of the Human Variome Project, which aims to collate and store gene variation data through mutation databases. Variant data is currently located in a range of public and commercial resources. Few locus-specific databases have been created to catalogue variation in the dominant ataxia genes although there are several databases for some recessive genes. Developing these resources will facilitate a better understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype relationships in these disorders and assist interpretation of gene variants as testing for rarer ataxia genes becomes commonplace.

  3. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance Mutations Among Treatment-Naive Adult Patients in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Abdoel Wahid, Firoz; Sno, Rachel; Darcissac, Edith; Lavergne, Anne; Adhin, Malti R; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    The molecular epidemiologic profile of HIV-1 in Suriname was determined through protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences obtained from HIV-1 strains collected from 100 drug-naive HIV-1-infected persons. Subtype determination revealed that most viruses were of subtype B (94.9%) in both PR and RT genomic regions, followed by B/D recombinants (5.1%). Analysis of drug resistance mutations showed only one transmitted dug resistance mutation (TDRM) (V75M) in a single strain. The genetic data obtained can serve as a baseline for Suriname to monitor emerging mutations. This study reveals that the HIV-1 epidemic in Suriname is still characterized by a low TDRM rate (1%) and a low level of subtype diversity. However, both genes display a high genetic polymorphism. This high polymorphism may ultimately lead to drug resistance. Continuous monitoring of the baseline resistance is therefore a prerequisite to safeguard effective long-term treatment for people living with HIV-1 in Suriname.

  4. Estimation of Additive, Dominance, and Imprinting Genetic Variance Using Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Marcos S.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Janss, Luc; Knol, Egbert F.; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, exploration of genetic variance in humans, plants, and livestock species has been limited mostly to the use of additive effects estimated using pedigree data. However, with the development of dense panels of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the exploration of genetic variation of complex traits is moving from quantifying the resemblance between family members to the dissection of genetic variation at individual loci. With SNPs, we were able to quantify the contribution of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance to the total genetic variance by using a SNP regression method. The method was validated in simulated data and applied to three traits (number of teats, backfat, and lifetime daily gain) in three purebred pig populations. In simulated data, the estimates of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance were very close to the simulated values. In real data, dominance effects account for a substantial proportion of the total genetic variance (up to 44%) for these traits in these populations. The contribution of imprinting to the total phenotypic variance of the evaluated traits was relatively small (1–3%). Our results indicate a strong relationship between additive variance explained per chromosome and chromosome length, which has been described previously for other traits in other species. We also show that a similar linear relationship exists for dominance and imprinting variance. These novel results improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of the evaluated traits and shows promise to apply the SNP regression method to other traits and species, including human diseases. PMID:26438289

  5. The contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation: heritability of personality.

    PubMed

    Dochtermann, Ned A; Schwab, Tori; Sih, Andrew

    2015-01-07

    Individual animals frequently exhibit repeatable differences from other members of their population, differences now commonly referred to as 'animal personality'. Personality differences can arise, for example, from differences in permanent environmental effects--including parental and epigenetic contributors--and the effect of additive genetic variation. Although several studies have evaluated the heritability of behaviour, less is known about general patterns of heritability and additive genetic variation in animal personality. As overall variation in behaviour includes both the among-individual differences that reflect different personalities and temporary environmental effects, it is possible for personality to be largely genetically influenced even when heritability of behaviour per se is quite low. The relative contribution of additive genetic variation to personality variation can be estimated whenever both repeatability and heritability are estimated for the same data. Using published estimates to address this issue, we found that approximately 52% of animal personality variation was attributable to additive genetic variation. Thus, while the heritability of behaviour is often moderate or low, the heritability of personality is much higher. Our results therefore (i) demonstrate that genetic differences are likely to be a major contributor to variation in animal personality and (ii) support the phenotypic gambit: that evolutionary inferences drawn from repeatability estimates may often be justified.

  6. Genetic algorithm-guided discovery of additive combinations that direct quantum dot assembly.

    PubMed

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A; Ihli, Johannes; Comyn, Timothy P; Critchley, Kevin; Empson, Christopher J; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2015-01-14

    The use of combinations of organic additives to control crystallization, as occurs in biomineralization, is rarely investigated due to the vast potential reaction space. It is demonstrated here that combinatorial approaches led by genetic algorithm heuristics can enable identification of active additive combinations, and four key organic molecules are rapidly identified, which generate highly fluorescent CdS quantum dot superstructures.

  7. Cochlear Implant Outcomes and Genetic Mutations in Children with Ear and Brain Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Busi, Micol; Rosignoli, Monica; Castiglione, Alessandro; Minazzi, Federica; Trevisi, Patrizia; Aimoni, Claudia; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Martini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Specific clinical conditions could compromise cochlear implantation outcomes and drastically reduce the chance of an acceptable development of perceptual and linguistic capabilities. These conditions should certainly include the presence of inner ear malformations or brain abnormalities. The aims of this work were to study the diagnostic value of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with sensorineural hearing loss who were candidates for cochlear implants and to analyse the anatomic abnormalities of the ear and brain in patients who underwent cochlear implantation. We also analysed the effects of ear malformations and brain anomalies on the CI outcomes, speculating on their potential role in the management of language developmental disorders. Methods. The present study is a retrospective observational review of cochlear implant outcomes among hearing-impaired children who presented ear and/or brain anomalies at neuroimaging investigations with MRI and HRCT. Furthermore, genetic results from molecular genetic investigations (GJB2/GJB6 and, additionally, in selected cases, SLC26A4 or mitochondrial-DNA mutations) on this study group were herein described. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis was conducted using statistical tests. Results. Between January 1, 1996 and April 1, 2012, at the ENT-Audiology Department of the University Hospital of Ferrara, 620 cochlear implantations were performed. There were 426 implanted children at the time of the present study (who were <18 years). Among these, 143 patients (64 females and 79 males) presented ear and/or brain anomalies/lesions/malformations at neuroimaging investigations with MRI and HRCT. The age of the main study group (143 implanted children) ranged from 9 months and 16 years (average = 4.4; median = 3.0). Conclusions. Good outcomes with cochlear implants are possible in patients who present with inner ear or brain abnormalities, even if central

  8. Genetic Code Mutations: The Breaking of a Three Billion Year Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Mat, Wai-Kin; Xue, Hong; Wong, J. Tze-Fei

    2010-01-01

    The genetic code has been unchanging for some three billion years in its canonical ensemble of encoded amino acids, as indicated by the universal adoption of this ensemble by all known organisms. Code mutations beginning with the encoding of 4-fluoro-Trp by Bacillus subtilis, initially replacing and eventually displacing Trp from the ensemble, first revealed the intrinsic mutability of the code. This has since been confirmed by a spectrum of other experimental code alterations in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To shed light on the experimental conversion of a rigidly invariant code to a mutating code, the present study examined code mutations determining the propagation of Bacillus subtilis on Trp and 4-, 5- and 6-fluoro-tryptophans. The results obtained with the mutants with respect to cross-inhibitions between the different indole amino acids, and the growth effects of individual nutrient withdrawals rendering essential their biosynthetic pathways, suggested that oligogenic barriers comprising sensitive proteins which malfunction with amino acid analogues provide effective mechanisms for preserving the invariance of the code through immemorial time, and mutations of these barriers open up the code to continuous change. PMID:20808824

  9. Exact Markov chain and approximate diffusion solution for haploid genetic drift with one-way mutation.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A; Miloh, Touvia

    2016-02-01

    The classical Kimura solution of the diffusion equation is investigated for a haploid random mating (Wright-Fisher) model, with one-way mutations and initial-value specified by the founder population. The validity of the transient diffusion solution is checked by exact Markov chain computations, using a Jordan decomposition of the transition matrix. The conclusion is that the one-way diffusion model mostly works well, although the rate of convergence depends on the initial allele frequency and the mutation rate. The diffusion approximation is poor for mutation rates so low that the non-fixation boundary is regular. When this happens we perturb the diffusion solution around the non-fixation boundary and obtain a more accurate approximation that takes quasi-fixation of the mutant allele into account. The main application is to quantify how fast a specific genetic variant of the infinite alleles model is lost. We also discuss extensions of the quasi-fixation approach to other models with small mutation rates.

  10. BRCA Genetic Screening in Middle Eastern and North African: Mutational Spectrum and Founder BRCA1 Mutation (c.798_799delTT) in North African

    PubMed Central

    Laraqui, Abdelilah; Uhrhammer, Nancy; EL Rhaffouli, Hicham; Sekhsokh, Yassine; Lahlou-Amine, Idriss; Bajjou, Tahar; Hilali, Farida; El Baghdadi, Jamila; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahmane; Bakri, Youssef; Amzazi, Said; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. Methods. To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. Results. Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71%) patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. Conclusion. The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling. PMID:25814778

  11. Genetic anticipation of familial breast cancer with or without BRCA mutation in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Baek, Hyejin; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho; Haffty, Bruce G

    2014-04-01

    We investigated genetic anticipation of breast or ovarian cancer in patients with familial breast cancer. Among 201 patients with breast cancer who had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, 95 families had affected familial members in the previous generation. Of these families, 2 were excluded because of insufficient data. From the 93 eligible families, 112 and 111 members were identified in the previous and proband generations, respectively. BRCA mutations were detected in 26 (28.0%) of the 93 probands. The median age at diagnosis of the first generation was 57 years and of the second generation was 40 years, which was a significant difference. The result from the mixed-effects model also demonstrated significant genetic anticipation (P < 0.0001). The expected age difference at onset of breast or ovarian cancer between the two generations was 17.06 years. BRCA mutation status did not influence the generational difference in age at diagnosis (17.99 vs. 16.62 y, P = 0.3973). Genetic counseling and early screening should be provided to women whose parent had a breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis.

  12. Genetic localization and transmission of the mouse osteopetrotic grey-lethal mutation.

    PubMed

    Vacher, J; Bernard, H

    1999-03-01

    The grey-lethal (gl) mouse is the most relevant animal model for recessive osteopetrosis, a genetic defect affecting bone resorption. To localize the gl gene, two novel backcrosses between the gl mutant strain GL/Le dlJ +/+ gl and with the Mus spretus or the Mus m. molossinus have been generated and typed with 19 DNA markers representative of genes or microsatellites. In the Mus m. molossinus backcross, the gl locus cosegregates with the D10Mit108,109,184,193, 254,255 markers within a 1 centimorgan genetic interval between the markers (D10Mit54,55,215,Cd24a) and D10Mit148. Our results have also eliminated all the five candidate genes previously localized to this region (Braf-rs1, Fyn, Cd24a, Ros1, and Gja1). On the Mus spretus background, segregation distortion due to a approximately threefold differential survival resulted in a severe deficit in gl/gl animals, indicating the presence of modifier genes. We have also characterized nine cosegregating microsatellite markers closely linked to gl as defined by their specific polymorphisms for the Chromosome (Chr) 10 harboring the gl mutation. Screening of several mouse inbred strains for these polymorphic markers revealed an identical pattern between gl and 129/SvEms, suggesting that the gl mutation arose on this genetic background. The linkage between this polymorphic region and the gl locus provides an entry point to produce a physical map to isolate the gl gene.

  13. Alleles versus mutations: Understanding the evolution of genetic architecture requires a molecular perspective on allelic origins.

    PubMed

    Remington, David L

    2015-12-01

    Perspectives on the role of large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the evolution of complex traits have shifted back and forth over the past few decades. Different sets of studies have produced contradictory insights on the evolution of genetic architecture. I argue that much of the confusion results from a failure to distinguish mutational and allelic effects, a limitation of using the Fisherian model of adaptive evolution as the lens through which the evolution of adaptive variation is examined. A molecular-based perspective reveals that allelic differences can involve the cumulative effects of many mutations plus intragenic recombination, a model that is supported by extensive empirical evidence. I discuss how different selection regimes could produce very different architectures of allelic effects under a molecular-based model, which may explain conflicting insights on genetic architecture from studies of variation within populations versus between divergently selected populations. I address shortcomings of genome-wide association study (GWAS) practices in light of more suitable models of allelic evolution, and suggest alternate GWAS strategies to generate more valid inferences about genetic architecture. Finally, I discuss how adopting more suitable models of allelic evolution could help redirect research on complex trait evolution toward addressing more meaningful questions in evolutionary biology.

  14. Direct detection of common and rare inversion mutations in the genetic diagnosis of severe hemophilia A

    SciTech Connect

    Windsor, A.S.; Lillicrap, D.P.; Taylor, S.A.M.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 50% of the cases of severe hemophilia A (factor VIII:C < 0.01 units/ml) may be due to gross rearrangements of the factor VIII gene. The mutation involves homologous sequences upstream of the factor VIII locus and within intron 22 in an intrachromosomal recombination, inversion, event. The rearrangements can readily be detected on a Southern blot using a probe that is complementary to sequences from within intron 22. We describe here the analysis of this mutation in 71 severe hemophilia A patients. Thirty two of the patients (45%) showed evidence of a rearrangement. Five different patterns of rearrangements were seen, two of which have previously been described and account for the majority of cases (pattern 1, 70% and pattern 2, 16%). Three other abnormal patterns were observed. The inversion mechanism does not usually result in the loss or gain of any genetic material, but in one patient, in whom a unique rearrangement pattern was observed (pattern 3), we have previously documented a gross deletion which removes exons 1-22 of the factor VII gene as well as sequences 5{prime} to the gene. In another individual a fourth pattern in which an extra 19.0 kb band is present was detected. In this case it is unclear as to whether the rearrangement is responsible for the disease or is simply coincident normal variation. A fifth pattern, in which an extra 16.0 kb band was detected, was observed in a family with a new mutation causing hemophilia A. The affected individual and his mother inherited a de novo rearrangement of the factor VIII gene from his unaffected grandfather, implicating it as the cause of the disease. In conclusion, testing for the factor VIII inversion mutation was positive in approximately 45% of severe hemophiliacs, 72% of whom were isolated cases, and as such should constitute the initial stage in the genetic testing protocol for these patients` families.

  15. Mouse germ cell mutation tests in genetic risk evaluation of chemical mutagens.

    PubMed

    Generoso, W M

    1988-12-01

    That certain environmental chemicals can induce transmissible mutations in germ cells of experimental mammal is clear. The assumption that under certain conditions these chemicals are also likely to be mutagenic to human germ cells is not detectable. However, it is a difficult challenge to determine the level of human exposure at which such chemicals can be produced and used economically without significantly harming human health. Data on transmitted genetic effects in mice are necessary, not only as a measure of endpoints that are considered directly in genetic risk assessment, but also as the standard for evaluating the usefulness of non-germ-cell effects as predictors in genetic risk assessment. To carry out a "real world" genetic risk assessment exercise, in vivo mouse data are being obtained for two model chemicals--ethylene oxide and acrylamide. Both chemicals are capable of inducing transmissible genetic effects in mice; their production and use involve measurable human exposures; and, because they are socially and economically important, they are not likely to be banned altogether despite their mutagenicity. For both chemicals, data are not sufficient for accurate low-dose and low-dose-rate extrapolations.

  16. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation.

    PubMed

    Michaud, E J; Bultman, S J; Klebig, M L; van Vugt, M J; Stubbs, L J; Russell, L B; Woychik, R P

    1994-03-29

    Lethal yellow (Ay) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for Ay results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The Ay mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3' end of the agouti gene. We present a model for the structure of the Ay allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

  17. Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nicole A; Kearney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel genes cause several types of human epilepsies. Often, individuals with the same sodium channel mutation exhibit diverse phenotypes. This suggests that factors beyond the primary mutation influence disease severity, including genetic modifiers. Mouse epilepsy models with voltage-gated sodium channel mutations exhibit strain-dependent phenotype variability, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn2a(Q54) (Q54) mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Q54 mice on the C57BL/6J (B6) strain exhibit delayed seizure onset and improved survival compared to [B6xSJL/J]F1.Q54 mice. We previously mapped two dominant modifier loci that influence Q54 seizure susceptibility and identified Hlf (hepatic leukemia factor) as a candidate modifier gene at one locus. Hlf and other PAR bZIP transcription factors had previously been associated with spontaneous seizures in mice thought to be caused by down-regulation of the pyridoxine pathway. An Hlf targeted knockout mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of Hlf deletion on Q54 phenotype severity. Hlf(KO/KO);Q54 double mutant mice exhibited elevated frequency and reduced survival compared to Q54 controls. To determine if direct modulation of the pyridoxine pathway could alter the Q54 phenotype, mice were maintained on a pyridoxine-deficient diet for 6 weeks. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency resulted in elevated seizure frequency and decreased survival in Q54 mice compared to control diet. To determine if Hlf could modify other epilepsies, Hlf(KO/+) mice were crossed with the Scn1a(KO/+) Dravet syndrome mouse model to examine the effect on premature lethality. Hlf(KO/+);Scn1a(KO/+) offspring exhibited decreased survival compared to Scn1a(KO/+) controls. Together these results demonstrate that Hlf is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations and that modulation of the pyridoxine pathway can also influence phenotype

  18. NOTCH1 mutations identify a genetic subgroup of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with high risk of transformation and poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Villamor, N; Conde, L; Martínez-Trillos, A; Cazorla, M; Navarro, A; Beà, S; López, C; Colomer, D; Pinyol, M; Aymerich, M; Rozman, M; Abrisqueta, P; Baumann, T; Delgado, J; Giné, E; González-Díaz, M; Hernández, J M; Colado, E; Payer, A R; Rayon, C; Navarro, B; José Terol, M; Bosch, F; Quesada, V; Puente, X S; López-Otín, C; Jares, P; Pereira, A; Campo, E; López-Guillermo, A

    2013-04-01

    NOTCH1 has been found recurrently mutated in a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To analyze biological features and clinical impact of NOTCH1 mutations in CLL, we sequenced this gene in 565 patients. NOTCH1 mutations, found in 63 patients (11%), were associated with unmutated IGHV, high expression of CD38 and ZAP-70, trisomy 12, advanced stage and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Sequential analysis in 200 patients demonstrated acquisition of mutation in one case (0.5%) and disappearance after treatment in two. Binet A and B patients with NOTCH1-mutated had a shorter time to treatment. NOTCH1-mutated patients were more frequently refractory to therapy and showed shorter progression-free and overall survival after complete remission. Overall survival was shorter in NOTCH1-mutated patients, although not independently from IGHV. NOTCH1 mutation increased the risk of transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma independently from IGHV, with this being validated in resampling tests of replicability. In summary, NOTCH1 mutational status, that was rarely acquired during the course of the disease, identify a genetic subgroup with high risk of transformation and poor outcome. This recently identified genetic subgroup of CLL patients deserves prospective studies to define their best management.

  19. Genetic evidence for an additional function of phage T4 gene 32 protein: interaction with ligase.

    PubMed

    Mosig, G; Breschkin, A M

    1975-04-01

    Gene 32 of bacteriophage T4 is essential for DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In an attempt to clarify the role of the corresponding gene product, we have looked for mutations that specifically inactivate one but not all of its functions and for compensating suppressor mutations in other genes. Here we describe a gene 32 ts mutant that does not produce progeny, but in contrast to an am mutant investigated by others, is capable of some primary and secondary DNA replication and of forming "joint" recombinational intermediates after infection of Escherichia coli B at the restrictive temperature. However, parental and progeny DNA strands are not ligated to covalently linked "recombinant" molecules, and single strands of vegetative DNA do not exceed unit length. Progeny production as well as capacity for covalent linkage in this gene 32 ts mutant are partially restored by additional rII mutations. Suppression by rII depends on functioning host ligase [EC 6.5.1.2; poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide) ligase (AMP-forming, NMN-forming)]. This gene 32 ts mutation (unlike some others) in turn suppresses the characteristic plaque morphology of rII mutants. We conclude that gene 32 protein, in addition to its role in DNA replication and in the formation of "joint" recombinational intermediates, interacts with T4 ligase [EC 6.5.1.1; poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide) ligase (AMP-forming)] when recombining DNA strands are covalently linked. The protein of the mutant that we describe here is mainly defective in this interaction, thus inactivating T4 ligase in recombination. Suppressing rII mutations facilitate substitution of host ligase. There is suggestive evidence that these interactions occur at the membrane.

  20. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  1. 3D resistivity inversion using an improved Genetic Algorithm based on control method of mutation direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Li, S. C.; Nie, L. C.; Wang, J.; L, X.; Zhang, Q. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional inversion method is the most commonly used procedure for three-dimensional (3D) resistivity inversion, which usually takes the linearization of the problem and accomplish it by iterations. However, its accuracy is often dependent on the initial model, which can make the inversion trapped in local optima, even cause a bad result. Non-linear method is a feasible way to eliminate the dependence on the initial model. However, for large problems such as 3D resistivity inversion with inversion parameters exceeding a thousand, main challenges of non-linear method are premature and quite low search efficiency. To deal with these problems, we present an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. In the improved GA method, smooth constraint and inequality constraint are both applied on the object function, by which the degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning is decreased. Some measures are adopted from others by reference to maintain the diversity and stability of GA, e.g. real-coded method, and the adaptive adjustment of crossover and mutation probabilities. Then a generation method of approximately uniform initial population is proposed in this paper, with which uniformly distributed initial generation can be produced and the dependence on initial model can be eliminated. Further, a mutation direction control method is presented based on the joint algorithm, in which the linearization method is embedded in GA. The update vector produced by linearization method is used as mutation increment to maintain a better search direction compared with the traditional GA with non-controlled mutation operation. By this method, the mutation direction is optimized and the search efficiency is improved greatly. The performance of improved GA is evaluated by comparing with traditional inversion results in synthetic example or with drilling columnar sections in practical example. The synthetic and practical examples illustrate that with the improved GA method we can eliminate

  2. Comparing GWAS Results of Complex Traits Using Full Genetic Model and Additive Models for Revealing Genetic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Monir, Md. Mamun; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Most of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for human complex diseases have ignored dominance, epistasis and ethnic interactions. We conducted comparative GWASs for total cholesterol using full model and additive models, which illustrate the impacts of the ignoring genetic variants on analysis results and demonstrate how genetic effects of multiple loci could differ across different ethnic groups. There were 15 quantitative trait loci with 13 individual loci and 3 pairs of epistasis loci identified by full model, whereas only 14 loci (9 common loci and 5 different loci) identified by multi-loci additive model. Again, 4 full model detected loci were not detected using multi-loci additive model. PLINK-analysis identified two loci and GCTA-analysis detected only one locus with genome-wide significance. Full model identified three previously reported genes as well as several new genes. Bioinformatics analysis showed some new genes are related with cholesterol related chemicals and/or diseases. Analyses of cholesterol data and simulation studies revealed that the full model performs were better than the additive-model performs in terms of detecting power and unbiased estimations of genetic variants of complex traits. PMID:28079101

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Suprasellar Immature Teratoma : Mutation of Exon 4 P53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Udin, Nujaimin; Ahmad, Ku Asmarina Ku; Ahmad, Farizan; Omar, Effat; Aziz, Mohd Ezanee; Kumar, Raj; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2008-01-01

    We described an intracranial immature teratoma in a 13 year old Malay boy who presented with history of chronic headache and blurring of vision. Physical findings revealed bilateral papilloedema but no other localizing sign. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain revealed a suprasellar well defined lobulated midline heterogenous mass which was intraoperatively described as mainly solid tumour with multiple small cystic component filled with yellowish jelly like material. Histopathological finding confirmed the case as immature teratoma. Molecular genetic analysis of p53 and p27 genes revealed substitution of nucleotide G to C at location nucleotide 12139, exon 4 of gene p53. No alteration was detected at exon 5–6 and 8 of p53 gene and exon 1 and 2 of p27 gene. This is the first case report of an intracranial immature teratoma with genetic mutation occuring in a Malay boy. PMID:22589625

  5. Clinical, histological and genetic characterization of reducing body myopathy caused by mutations in FHL1

    PubMed Central

    Schessl, Joachim; Taratuto, Ana L.; Sewry, Caroline; Battini, Roberta; Chin, Steven S.; Maiti, Baijayanta; Dubrovsky, Alberto L.; Erro, Marcela G.; Espada, Graciela; Robertella, Monica; Saccoliti, Maria; Olmos, Patricia; Bridges, Leslie R.; Standring, Peter; Hu, Ying; Zou, Yaqun; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Scavina, Mena; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Mitchell, Christina A.; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Muntoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We recently identified the X-chromosomal four and a half LIM domain gene FHL1 as the causative gene for reducing body myopathy, a disorder characterized by progressive weakness and intracytoplasmic aggregates in muscle that exert reducing activity on menadione nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT). The mutations detected in FHL1 affected highly conserved zinc coordinating residues within the second LIM domain and lead to the formation of aggregates when transfected into cells. Our aim was to define the clinical and morphological phenotype of this myopathy and to assess the mutational spectrum of FHL1 mutations in reducing body myopathy in a larger cohort of patients. Patients were ascertained via the detection of reducing bodies in muscle biopsy sections stained with menadione-NBT followed by clinical, histological, ultrastructural and molecular genetic analysis. A total of 11 patients from nine families were included in this study, including seven sporadic patients with early childhood onset disease and four familial cases with later onset. Weakness in all patients was progressive, sometimes rapidly so. Respiratory failure was common and scoliosis and spinal rigidity were significant in some of the patients. Analysis of muscle biopsies confirmed the presence of aggregates of FHL1 positive material in all biopsies. In two patients in whom sequential biopsies were available the aggregate load in muscle sections appeared to increase over time. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that cytoplasmic bodies were regularly seen in conjunction with the reducing bodies. The mutations detected were exclusive to the second LIM domain of FHL1 and were found in both sporadic as well as familial cases of reducing body myopathy. Six of the nine mutations affected the crucial zinc coordinating residue histidine 123. All mutations in this residue were de novo and were associated with a severe clinical course, in particular in one male patient (H123Q). Mutations in the zinc coordinating residue

  6. Product versus additive threshold models for analysis of reproduction outcomes in animal genetics.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bodin, L; Gianola, D; Legarra, A; Manfredi, E; Robert-Granié, C

    2009-08-01

    The phenotypic observation of some reproduction traits (e.g., insemination success, interval from lambing to insemination) is the result of environmental and genetic factors acting on 2 individuals: the male and female involved in a mating couple. In animal genetics, the main approach (called additive model) proposed for studying such traits assumes that the phenotype is linked to a purely additive combination, either on the observed scale for continuous traits or on some underlying scale for discrete traits, of environmental and genetic effects affecting the 2 individuals. Statistical models proposed for studying human fecundability generally consider reproduction outcomes as the product of hypothetical unobservable variables. Taking inspiration from these works, we propose a model (product threshold model) for studying a binary reproduction trait that supposes that the observed phenotype is the product of 2 unobserved phenotypes, 1 for each individual. We developed a Gibbs sampling algorithm for fitting a Bayesian product threshold model including additive genetic effects and showed by simulation that it is feasible and that it provides good estimates of the parameters. We showed that fitting an additive threshold model to data that are simulated under a product threshold model provides biased estimates, especially for individuals with high breeding values. A main advantage of the product threshold model is that, in contrast to the additive model, it provides distinct estimates of fixed effects affecting each of the 2 unobserved phenotypes.

  7. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  8. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  9. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-06-09

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  10. Genetic interaction analysis of point mutations enables interrogation of gene function at a residue-level resolution: exploring the applications of high-resolution genetic interaction mapping of point mutations.

    PubMed

    Braberg, Hannes; Moehle, Erica A; Shales, Michael; Guthrie, Christine; Krogan, Nevan J

    2014-07-01

    We have achieved a residue-level resolution of genetic interaction mapping - a technique that measures how the function of one gene is affected by the alteration of a second gene - by analyzing point mutations. Here, we describe how to interpret point mutant genetic interactions, and outline key applications for the approach, including interrogation of protein interaction interfaces and active sites, and examination of post-translational modifications. Genetic interaction analysis has proven effective for characterizing cellular processes; however, to date, systematic high-throughput genetic interaction screens have relied on gene deletions or knockdowns, which limits the resolution of gene function analysis and poses problems for multifunctional genes. Our point mutant approach addresses these issues, and further provides a tool for in vivo structure-function analysis that complements traditional biophysical methods. We also discuss the potential for genetic interaction mapping of point mutations in human cells and its application to personalized medicine.

  11. A Genotypic-Oriented View of CFTR Genetics Highlights Specific Mutational Patterns Underlying Clinical Macrocategories of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Marco; Bruno, Sabina Maria; Pierandrei, Silvia; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Stamato, Antonella; Narzi, Fabiana; Amato, Annalisa; Cimino, Giuseppe; Bertasi, Serenella; Quattrucci, Serena; Strom, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The genotype–phenotype relationship in this disease is still unclear, and diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic challenges persist. We enrolled 610 patients with different forms of CF and studied them from a clinical, biochemical, microbiological and genetic point of view. Overall, there were 125 different mutated alleles (11 with novel mutations and 10 with complex mutations) and 225 genotypes. A strong correlation between mutational patterns at the genotypic level and phenotypic macrocategories emerged. This specificity appears to largely depend on rare and individual mutations, as well as on the varying prevalence of common alleles in different clinical macrocategories. However, 19 genotypes appeared to underlie different clinical forms of the disease. The dissection of the pathway from the CFTR mutated genotype to the clinical phenotype allowed to identify at least two components of the variability usually found in the genotype–phenotype relationship. One component seems to depend on the genetic variation of CFTR, the other component on the cumulative effect of variations in other genes and cellular pathways independent from CFTR. The experimental dissection of the overall biological CFTR pathway appears to be a powerful approach for a better comprehension of the genotype–phenotype relationship. However, a change from an allele-oriented to a genotypic-oriented view of CFTR genetics is mandatory, as well as a better assessment of sources of variability within the CFTR pathway. PMID:25910067

  12. Life insurance and genetic test results: a mutation carrier's fight to achieve full cover.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2013-09-02

    Currently, there is debate about life insurance companies' use of genetic information for assessing applicants. In his early 20s, James (pseudonym) was denied full life insurance cover because he revealed that he had discussed genetic testing with a genetic counsellor. He was later tested and found to carry a mutation in the MSH6 gene; after disclosing this, he was denied cover for cancer by two other life insurance companies. Unsatisfied with the insurance companies' risk assessments, and based on his understanding that regular colonoscopy significantly reduced his risk of cancer, James made a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission. After informing the third insurance company that he had done so, he was offered full coverage, which suggests that the company did not have actuarial data to justify its decision. This case provides evidence of the high level of initiative and proactivity required for a consumer to achieve a fair result. Few Australians would be in a position to pursue the level of research and advocacy undertaken by James (a professional with scientific training). We call on a collaborative approach between industry, government and researchers to address the issues that James's case raises about genetic testing and life insurance.

  13. Human teratogens and genetic phenocopies. Understanding pathogenesis through human genes mutation.

    PubMed

    Cassina, Matteo; Cagnoli, Giulia A; Zuccarello, Daniela; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Clementi, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to teratogenic drugs during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of embryo-fetal anomalies and sometimes results in recurrent and recognizable patterns of malformations; however, the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of drug-induced birth defects is difficult, since teratogenesis is a multifactorial process which is always the result of a complex interaction between several environmental factors and the genetic background of both the mother and the fetus. Animal models have been extensively used to assess the teratogenic potential of pharmacological agents and to study their teratogenic mechanisms; however, a still open issue concerns how the information gained through animal models can be translated to humans. Instead, significant information can be obtained by the identification and analysis of human genetic syndromes characterized by clinical features overlapping with those observed in drug-induced embryopathies. Until now, genetic phenocopies have been reported for the embryopathies/fetopathies associated with prenatal exposure to warfarin, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, fluconazole, thalidomide and ACE inhibitors. In most cases, genetic phenocopies are caused by mutations in genes encoding for the main targets of teratogens or for proteins belonging to the same molecular pathways. The aim of this paper is to review the proposed teratogenic mechanisms of these drugs, by the analysis of human monogenic disorders and their molecular pathogenesis.

  14. Mutational analyses of molecularly cloned satellite tobacco mosaic virus during serial passage in plants: Evidence for hotspots of genetic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The high level of genetic diversity and rapid evolution of viral RNA genomes are well documented, but few studies have characterized the rate and nature of ongoing genetic change over time under controlled experimental conditions, especially in plant hosts. The RNA genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was used as an effective model for such studies because of advantageous features of its genome structure and because the extant genetic heterogeneity of STMV has been characterized previously. In the present study, the process of genetic change over time was studied by monitoring multiple serial passage lines of STMV populations for changes in their consensus sequences. A total of 42 passage lines were initiated by inoculation of tobacco plants with a helper tobamovirus and one of four STMV RNA inocula that were transcribed from full-length infectious STMV clones or extracted from purified STMV type strain virions. Ten serial passages were carried out for each line and the consensus genotypes of progeny STMV populations were assessed for genetic change by RNase protection analyses of the entire 1,059-nt STMV genome. Three different types of genetic change were observed, including the fixation of novel mutations in 9 of 42 lines, mutation at the major heterogeneity site near nt 751 in 5 of the 19 lines inoculated with a single genotype, and selection of a single major genotype in 6 of the 23 lines inoculated with mixed genotypes. Sequence analyses showed that the majority of mutations were single base substitutions. The distribution of mutation sites included three clusters in which mutations occurred at or very near the same site, suggesting hot spots of genetic change in the STMV genome. The diversity of genetic changes in sibling lines is clear evidence for the important role of chance and random sampling events in the process of genetic diversification of STMV virus populations.

  15. Mutation analyses of molecularly cloned satellite tobacco mosaic virus during serial passage in plants: evidence for hotspots of genetic change.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G; Dodds, J A

    1995-07-01

    The high level of genetic diversity and rapid evolution of viral RNA genomes are well documented, but few studies have characterized the rate and nature of ongoing genetic change over time under controlled experimental conditions, especially in plant hosts. The RNA genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was used as an effective model for such studies because of advantageous features of its genome structure and because the extant genetic heterogeneity of STMV has been characterized previously. In the present study, the process of genetic change over time was studied by monitoring multiple serial passage lines of STMV populations for changes in their consensus sequences. A total of 42 passage lines were initiated by inoculation of tobacco plants with a helper tobamovirus and one of four STMV RNA inocula that were transcribed from full-length infectious STMV clones or extracted from purified STMV type strain virions. Ten serial passages were carried out for each line and the consensus genotypes of progeny STMV populations were assessed for genetic change by RNase protection analyses of the entire 1,059-nt STMV genome. Three different types of genetic change were observed, including the fixation of novel mutations in 9 of 42 lines, mutation at the major heterogeneity site near nt 751 in 5 of the 19 lines inoculated with a single genotype, and selection of a single major genotype in 6 of the 23 lines inoculated with mixed genotypes. Sequence analyses showed that the majority of mutations were single base substitutions. The distribution of mutation sites included three clusters in which mutations occurred at or very near the same site, suggesting hot spots of genetic change in the STMV genome. The diversity of genetic changes in sibling lines is clear evidence for the important role of chance and random sampling events in the process of genetic diversification of STMV virus populations.

  16. Hyperferritinaemia-cataract syndrome: Worldwide mutations and phenotype of an increasingly diagnosed genetic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The hereditary hyperferritinaemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS) is characterised by an autosomal dominant cataract and high levels of serum ferritin without iron overload. The cataract develops due to L-ferritin deposits in the lens and its pulverulent aspect is pathognomonic. The syndrome is caused by mutations within the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin. These mutations prevent efficient binding of iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 to the IRE in L-ferritin mRNA, resulting in an unleashed ferritin translation. This paper reviews all 31 mutations (27 single nucleotide transitions and four deletions) that have been described since 1995. Laboratory test showing hyperferritinaemia, normal serum iron and normal transferrin saturation are indicative for HHCS after exclusion of other causes of increased ferritin levels (inflammation, malignancy, alcoholic liver disease) and should prompt an ophthalmological consultation for diagnostic confirmation. Invasive diagnostics such as liver biopsy are not indicated. HHCS is an important differential diagnosis of hyperferritinaemia. Haematologists, gastroenterologists and ophthalmologists should be aware of this syndrome to spare patients from further invasive diagnosis (liver biopsy), and also from a false diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis followed by venesections. Patients diagnosed with HHCS should be counselled regarding the relative harmlessness of this genetic disease, with early cataract surgery as the only clinical consequence. PMID:20511138

  17. The Roles of Competition and Mutation in Shaping Antigenic and Genetic Diversity in Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zinder, Daniel; Bedford, Trevor; Gupta, Sunetra; Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A (H3N2) offers a well-studied, yet not fully understood, disease in terms of the interactions between pathogen population dynamics, epidemiology and genetics. A major open question is why the virus population is globally dominated by a single and very recently diverged (2–8 years) lineage. Classically, this has been modeled by limiting the generation of new successful antigenic variants, such that only a small subset of progeny acquire the necessary mutations to evade host immunity. An alternative approach was recently suggested by Recker et al. in which a limited number of antigenic variants are continuously generated, but most of these are suppressed by pre-existing host population immunity. Here we develop a framework spanning the regimes described above to explore the impact of rates of mutation and levels of competition on phylodynamic patterns. We find that the evolutionary dynamics of the subtype H3N2 influenza is most easily generated within this framework when it is mutation limited as well as being under strong immune selection at a number of epitope regions of limited diversity. PMID:23300455

  18. Evaluation of the genetic parameters and mutation analysis of 22 STR loci in the central Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Hongdan, Wang; Bing, Kang; Ning, Su; Miao, He; Bo, Zhang; Yuxin, Guo; Bofeng, Zhu; Shixiu, Liao; Zhaoshu, Zeng

    2017-01-01

    At present, the Han nationality is China's main ethnic group and also the most populous nation in the world. This is a great resource to study microsatellite mutations and for the study of ethnogeny. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 22 autosomal STR loci in 2475 individuals from Henan province, China. DNA is amplified and genotyped using PowerPlex™24 system. The gene frequencies, forensic parameters, and the mutation rate of the 22 STR loci are analyzed. A total of 295 alleles are observed in this Henan Han population, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0003 to 0.5036. In order to investigate the genetic relationships between the Henan Han and the other 14 different populations, our present data were compared with previously published data for the same 15 STR loci. The results indicated that the Henan Han had closer genetic relationships the groups including Minnan Han, Maonan, Yi and Guangdong Han groups while the South morocco population, the Moroccan population, the Malay group, and the Uigur stand away from Henan Han. Except of D2S441, D13S317, PentaE, D2S1338, D5S818, TPOX and D19S433, the mutation events are found in the other 15 STR loci. A total of 40 mutation events are observed in the 15 STR loci. The mutation rates are ranged from 0 to 4.85 × 10(-3). In this study, 39 mutations are single-step mutations, and only one at FGA comprised two steps. STR mutation is commonly existed in paternity testing, while there are no STR mutation studies of the 22 STR loci in the Henan Han population. It is of great importance in forensic individual discrimination and paternal testing.

  19. Mutation extraction tools can be combined for robust recognition of genetic variants in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Verspoor, Karin

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the amount of data being collected and studied for the purpose of understanding the genetic basis of disease is increasing dramatically. Much of the source information relevant to such efforts is available only from unstructured sources such as the scientific literature, and significant resources are expended in manually curating and structuring the information in the literature. As such, there have been a number of systems developed to target automatic extraction of mutations and other genetic variation from the literature using text mining tools. We have performed a broad survey of the existing publicly available tools for extraction of genetic variants from the scientific literature. We consider not just one tool but a number of different tools, individually and in combination, and apply the tools in two scenarios. First, they are compared in an intrinsic evaluation context, where the tools are tested for their ability to identify specific mentions of genetic variants in a corpus of manually annotated papers, the Variome corpus. Second, they are compared in an extrinsic evaluation context based on our previous study of text mining support for curation of the COSMIC and InSiGHT databases. Our results demonstrate that no single tool covers the full range of genetic variants mentioned in the literature. Rather, several tools have complementary coverage and can be used together effectively. In the intrinsic evaluation on the Variome corpus, the combined performance is above 0.95 in F-measure, while in the extrinsic evaluation the combined recall performance is above 0.71 for COSMIC and above 0.62 for InSiGHT, a substantial improvement over the performance of any individual tool. Based on the analysis of these results, we suggest several directions for the improvement of text mining tools for genetic variant extraction from the literature. PMID:25285203

  20. Predictors of cognitive appraisals following genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Schwartz, Marc D; Wenzel, Lari; Narod, Steven; Peshkin, Beth N; Cella, David; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe perceptions of stress and confidence following genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and (2) to identify predictors of these processes. Participants were 130 high-risk women affected with cancer who received BRCA1/2 test results. Individual difference characteristics and interpersonal factors were measured by self-report before genetic counseling and perceptions of stress and confidence were evaluated by self-report 1 month following disclosure of test results. BRCA1/2 test results had a significant effect only on perceptions of stress (beta = 0.38, p = 0.0001), while trait anxiety had a significant effect on both perceptions of stress (beta = 0.44, p = 0.0001) and confidence (beta = -0.41, p = 0.001). These results suggest that interventions designed to address perceptions of stress related to medical decision-making and familial concerns may need to be targeted to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and individuals who are highly anxious.

  1. The impact of reactive oxygen species and genetic mitochondrial mutations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Motherwell, Michael S

    2013-12-10

    The exact pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown and proper mechanisms that correspond to the disease remain unidentified. It is understood that PD is age-related; as age increases, the chance of onset responds accordingly. Although there are no current means of curing PD, the understanding of reactive oxygen species (ROS) provides significant insight to possible treatments. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neural apoptosis generation in PD. Dopaminergic neurons are severely damaged as a result of the deficiency. Symptoms such as inhibited cognitive ability and loss of smooth motor function are the results of such impairment. The genetic mutations of Parkinson's related proteins such as PINK1 and LRRK2 contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes ROS formation. Various pathways are inhibited by these mutations, and inevitably causing neural cell damage. Antioxidants are known to negate the damaging effects of free radical overexpression. This paper expands on the specific impact of mitochondrial genetic change and production of free radicals as well as its correlation to the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Genetic suppression of intronic +1G mutations by compensatory U1 snRNA changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Zahler, Alan M; Tuttle, John D; Chisholm, Andrew D

    2004-01-01

    Mutations to the canonical +1G of introns, which are commonly found in many human inherited disease alleles, invariably result in aberrant splicing. Here we report genetic findings in C. elegans that aberrant splicing due to +1G mutations can be suppressed by U1 snRNA mutations. An intronic +1G-to-U mutation, e936, in the C. elegans unc-73 gene causes aberrant splicing and loss of gene function. We previously showed that mutation of the sup-39 gene promotes splicing at the mutant splice donor in e936 mutants. We demonstrate here that sup-39 is a U1 snRNA gene; suppressor mutations in sup-39 are compensatory substitutions in the 5' end, which enhance recognition of the mutant splice donor. sup-6(st19) is an allele-specific suppressor of unc-13(e309), which contains an intronic +1G-to-A transition. The e309 mutation activates a cryptic splice site, and sup-6(st19) restores splicing to the mutant splice donor. sup-6 also encodes a U1 snRNA and the mutant contains a compensatory substitution at its 5' end. This is the first demonstration that U1 snRNAs can act to suppress the effects of mutations to the invariant +1G of introns. These findings are suggestive of a potential treatment of certain alleles of inherited human genetic diseases. PMID:15342508

  3. NF1 mutation rather than individual genetic variability is the main determinant of the NF1-transcriptional profile of mutations affecting splicing.

    PubMed

    Pros, Eva; Larriba, Sara; López, Eva; Ravella, Anna; Gili, M Lluïsa; Kruyer, Helena; Valls, Joan; Serra, Eduard; Lázaro, Conxi

    2006-11-01

    A significant number of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mutations result in exon skipping. The majority of these mutations do not occur in the canonical splice sites and can produce different aberrant transcripts whose proportions have not been well studied. It has been hypothesized that differences in the mutation-determined NF1-transcriptional profile could partially explain disease variability among patients bearing the same NF1 splice defect. In order to gain insight into these aspects, we analyzed the proportion of the different transcripts generated by nine NF1-splicing mutations in 30 patients. We assessed the influence of the mutation in the NF1-related transcriptional profiles and investigated the existence of individual differences in a global manner. We analyzed potential differences in tissue-specific transcriptional profiles and evaluated the influence of sample processing and mRNA nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Small transcriptional differences were found in neurofibromas and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells (SC) compared to blood. We also detected a higher cell culture-dependent NMD. We observed that mutation per se explains 93.5% of the profile variability among mutations studied. However, despite the importance of mutation in determining the proportion of NF1 transcripts generated, we found certain variability among patients with the same mutation. From our results, it seems that genetic factors influencing RNA processing play a minor role in determining the NF1-transcriptional profile. Nevertheless neurofibromin studies would clarify whether these small differences translate into significant functional changes that could explain the great clinical expressivity observed in the disease or any of the disease-related traits.

  4. Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia due to Mutations in an Armadillo Repeat Containing 5 (ARMC5) Gene: A Clinical and Genetic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Faucz, Fabio R.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lodish, Maya B.; Szarek, Eva; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Sinaii, Ninet; Berthon, Annabel; Libé, Rossella; Assié, Guillaume; Espiard, Stéphanie; Drougat, Ludivine; Ragazzon, Bruno; Bertherat, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inactivating germline mutations of the probable tumor suppressor gene, armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5), have recently been identified as a genetic cause of macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH). Objective: We searched for ARMC5 mutations in a large cohort of patients with MAH. The clinical phenotype of patients with and without ARMC5 mutations was compared. Methods: Blood DNA from 34 MAH patients was genotyped using Sanger sequencing. Diurnal serum cortisol measurements, plasma ACTH levels, urinary steroids, 6-day Liddle's test, adrenal computed tomography, and weight of adrenal glands at adrenalectomy were assessed. Results: Germline ARMC5 mutations were found in 15 of 34 patients (44.1%). In silico analysis of the mutations indicated that seven (20.6%) predicted major implications for gene function. Late-night cortisol levels were higher in patients with ARMC5-damaging mutations compared with those without and/or with nonpathogenic mutations (14.5 ± 5.6 vs 6.7 ± 4.3, P < .001). All patients carrying a pathogenic ARMC5 mutation had clinical Cushing's syndrome (seven of seven, 100%) compared with 14 of 27 (52%) of those without or with mutations that were predicted to be benign (P = .029). Repeated-measures analysis showed overall higher urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and free cortisol values in the patients with ARMC5-damaging mutations during the 6-day Liddle's test (P = .0002). Conclusions: ARMC5 mutations are implicated in clinically severe Cushing's syndrome associated with MAH. Knowledge of a patient's ARMC5 status has important clinical implications for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and genetic counseling of patients and their families. PMID:24601692

  5. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: the importance of functional analysis of potential splice-site mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Duarte, M A; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Marques, L; Soutar, A K

    2009-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity, mainly due to LDLR gene defects. Of the many different LDLR mutations found in patients with FH, about 6% of single base substitutions are located near or within introns, and are predicted to result in exon skipping, retention of an intron, or activation of cryptic sites during mRNA splicing. This paper reports on the Portuguese FH Study, which found 10 such mutations, 6 of them novel. For the mutations that have not been described before or those whose effect on function have not been analysed, their effect on splicing was investigated, using reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of LDLR mRNA from freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells. Two of these variants (c.313+6 T-->C, c.2389G-->T (p.V776L)) caused exon skipping, and one caused retention of an intron (c.1359-5C-->G), whereas two others (c.2140+5 G-->A and c.1061-8T-->C) had no apparent effect. Any effect of c.1185G-->C (p.V374V) on splicing could not be determined because it was on an allele with a promoter mutation (-42C-->G) that was probably not transcribed. Variants in four patients lost to follow-up could not be tested experimentally, but they almost certainly affect splicing because they disrupt the invariant AG or GT in acceptor (c.818-2A-->G) or donor (c.1060+1G-->A, c.1845+1delG and c.2547+1G-->A) spice sites. These findings emphasise that care must be taken before reporting the presence or absence of a splice-site mutation in the LDLR gene for diagnostic purposes. The study also shows that relatively simple, quick and inexpensive RNA assays can evaluate putative splicing mutations that are not always predictable by available software, thereby reducing genetic misdiagnosis of patients with FH.

  6. Genetic analysis of suppressors of the PF10 mutation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, S.K.; Gibbons, W.; Inwood, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A mutation at the PF10 locus of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii leads to abnormal cell motility. The asymmetric form of the ciliary beat stroke characteristic of wild-type flagella is modified by this mutation to a nearly symmetric beat. We report here that this abnormal motility is a conditional phenotype that depends on light intensity. In the absence of light or under low light intensities, the motility is more severely impaired than at higher light intensities. By UV mutagenesis we obtained 11 intragenic and 70 extragenic strains that show reversion of the pf10 motility phenotype observed in low light. The intragenic events reverted the motility phenotype of the pf10 mutation completely. The extragenic events define at least seven suppressor loci; these map to linkage groups IV, VII, IX, XI, XII and XVII. Suppressor mutations at two of the seven loci (LIS1 and LIS2) require light for their suppressor activity. Forty-eight of the 70 extragenic suppressors were examined in heterozygous diploid cells; 47 of these mutants were recessive to the wild-type allele and one mutant (bop5-1) was dominant to the wild-type allele. Complementation analysis of the 47 recessive mutants showed unusual patterns. Most mutants within a recombinationally defined group failed to complement one another, although there were pairs that showed intra-allelic complementation. Additionally, some of the mutants at each recombinationally defined locus failed to complement mutants at other loci. They define dominant enhancers of one another.

  7. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  8. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, Nikita Y; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  9. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S.; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, V. N.; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, N. Y.; Afonso, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  10. A specific superoxide dismutase mutation is on the same genetic background in sporadic and familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, C.; Brock, D.J.H.; Swingler, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease of motor neurons, causing progressive muscular atrophy, weakness, and death from respiratory failure, often within 2-3 years. Although most cases are sporadic, some 5%-10% are inherited as autosomal dominants with age-dependent penetrance. An ALS locus has been mapped to chromosome 21q, and causative mutations identified in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. A majority of SOD1 mutations have been found in cases with a clear family history of ALS. However, we and others have also described SOD1 mutations in patients where the disease appears to be sporadic. This is especially true for the missense mutation in codon 113 of the SOD1 gene, which substitutes threonine for isoleucine (I113T). One explanation for this finding is that this codon is a mutational hot spot with sporadic cases representing new mutations. Another is that the inherited nature of the cases is disguised by the reduced penetrance of this specific mutation. We have now shown that each of six unrelated cases of I113T mutation that we have collected in the Scottish population occurs on the same genetic background. Association analysis of multiple flanking loci on chromosome 21q supports the conclusion of a founder effect, with the original mutational event occurring {ge}10 generations ago. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. A Nonsyndromic Autosomal Dominant Oligodontia with A Novel Mutation of PAX9-A Clinical and Genetic Report

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Praveen; Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; Puttashamachari, Yogish

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia is congenital absence of one or more teeth which has familial abnormality and attributable to various mutations or polymorphisms of genes often associated with malformative syndromes. The present case reports a rare case of non syndromic oligodontia in an 8-year-old girl with missing 14 permanent teeth excluding third molars in mixed dentition. It is a rare finding which has not been frequently documented in Indian children. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 have been described in families in which inherited oligodontia characteristically involves permanent incisors, lateral incisors, premolars and molars. Our study analysed one large family with dominantly inherited oligodontia clinically and genetically. This phonotype is distinct from oligodontia phenotypes associated with mutations in PAX9. Sequencing of the PAX9 revealed a novel mutation in the paired domain of the molecule. The multiple sequence alignment and SNP analysis of the PAX9 exon 2 revealed two mutations. PMID:26266225

  12. Structural analysis of chloroplast DNA in Prunus (Rosaceae): evolution, genetic diversity and unequal mutations.

    PubMed

    Katayama, H; Uematsu, C

    2005-11-01

    In order to understand the evolutionary aspects of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) structures in Rosaceous plants, a physical map of peach (Prunus persica cv. Hakuhou) cpDNA was constructed. Fourteen lambda phage clones which covered the entire sequence of the peach cpDNA were digested by restriction enzymes (SalI, XhoI, BamHI, SacI, and PstI) used singly or in combination. The molecular size of peach cpDNA was estimated to be about 152 kb. The gene order and contents were revealed to be equivalent to those of standard type of angiosperms by the localization of 31 genes on the physical map. Eighteen accessions from 14 Prunus species (P. persica, P. mira, P. davidiana, P. cerasis, P. cerasifera, P. domestica, P. insititia, P. spinosa, P. salicina, P. maritima, P. armeniaca, P. mume, P. tomentosa, P. zippeliana, and P. salicifolia) and one interspecific hybrid were used for the structural analysis of cpDNAs. Seventeen mutations (16 recognition site changes and one length mutation) were found in the cpDNA of these 18 accessions by RFLP analysis allowing a classification into 11 genome types. Although the base substitution rate in the recognition site (100p = 0.72) of cpDNA in Prunus was similar to that of other plants, i.e., Triticum-Aegilops, Brassica, and Pisum, it differed from Pyrus (100p = 0.15) in Rosaceae. Seven mutations including one length mutation were densely located within a region of about 9.1 kb which includes psbA and atpA in the left border of a large single-copy region of Prunus cpDNAs. The length mutation was detected only in P. persica and consisted of a 277 bp deletion which occurred in a spacer region between the trnS and trnG genes within the 9.1 kb region. Additional fragment length mutations (insertion/deletion), which were not detected by RFLP analysis, were revealed by PCR and sequence analyses in P. zippeliana and P. salicifolia. All of these length mutations occurred within the 9.1 kb region between psbA and atpA. This region could be an intra

  13. Impact of Mutation Type and Amplicon Characteristics on Genetic Diversity Measures Generated Using a High-Resolution Melting Diversity Assay

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Matthew M.; Donnell, Deborah; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    We adapted high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to measure genetic diversity without sequencing. Diversity is measured as a single numeric HRM score. Herein, we determined the impact of mutation types and amplicon characteristics on HRM diversity scores. Plasmids were generated with single-base changes, insertions, and deletions. Different primer sets were used to vary the position of mutations within amplicons. Plasmids and plasmid mixtures were analyzed to determine the impact of mutation type, position, and concentration on HRM scores. The impact of amplicon length and G/C content on HRM scores was also evaluated. Different mutation types affected HRM scores to varying degrees (1-bp deletion < 1-bp change < 3-bp insertion < 9-bp insertion). The impact of mutations on HRM scores was influenced by amplicon length and the position of the mutation within the amplicon. Mutations were detected at concentrations of 5% to 95%, with the greatest impact at 50%. The G/C content altered melting temperature values of amplicons but had no impact on HRM scores. These data are relevant to the design of assays that measure genetic diversity using HRM technology. PMID:23178437

  14. Hereditary nephrotic syndrome: a systematic approach for genetic testing and a review of associated podocyte gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Geneviève; Machuca, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Several genes have been implicated in genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome occurring in children. It is now known that the phenotypes associated with mutations in these genes display significant variability, rendering genetic testing and counselling a more complex task. This review will focus on the recent clinical findings associated with those genes known to be involved in isolated steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children and, thereby, propose an approach for appropriate mutational screening. The recurrence of proteinuria after transplantation in patients with hereditary forms of nephrotic syndrome will also be discussed. PMID:20333530

  15. Molecular genetic analysis of some mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene in Moldova: Characterization of molecular markers and their linkage to various mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Gimbovskaya, S.D.; Kalinin, V.N.; Ivashchenko, T.E.; Baranov, V.S.

    1994-12-01

    Sixty-one patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) from Moldova were tested for mutations {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Frequencies of various alleles of the repeated GATT sequence in intron 6B of the GFTR gene, their linkage to other polymorphic markers, and various mutations were determined. The frequency of occurrence of mutation {Delta}F508 was only 25%. An absolute majority of CF patients (80%) had pancreatic insufficiency. Mutations G551D and R553X were not found in our sample. Each of 31 chromosomes with mutation {Delta}F508 carry the 6-GATT allele. Most {open_quotes}non {Delta}F508{close_quotes} (78%) and normal (80%) chromosomes were marked by the 7-GATT allele. Twenty-seven {Delta}F508 chromosomes (96.4%) belong to haplotype B6, and only one to D6. Most chromosomes with {open_quotes}non {Delta}F508{close_quotes} mutations are associated with haplotypes D7 (26.3%) and C7 (21%). In addition, a significant portion of chromosomes from this subgroup were associated with haplotypes A7 (23.7%), A6 (10.5%), and C6 (2.7%), which are not yet described for mutant chromosomes. The results obtained demonstrate that CF in Moldova is mainly associated with mutations other than {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Severe forms of the disease, with pancreatic insufficiency, are more frequently caused by these mutations; moreover, our data provides strong evidence for the presence of at least seven additional CF mutations in Moldova, apart from {Delta}F508, G551D, and R553X. Some of these are probably not described.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Rhodopsin Gene Identifies a Mosaic Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutation in a Healthy Individual

    PubMed Central

    Beryozkin, Avigail; Levy, Gal; Blumenfeld, Anat; Meyer, Segev; Namburi, Prasanthi; Morad, Yair; Gradstein, Libe; Swaroop, Anand; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous hereditary retinal diseases that result in blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mutations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant RP (adRP) and are responsible for 16% to 35% of adRP cases in the Western population. Our purpose was to investigate the contribution of RHO to adRP in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Methods Thirty-two adRP families participated in the study. Mutation detection was performed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing of RHO exons. Fluorescence PCR reactions of serially diluted samples were used to predict the percentage of mosaic cells in blood samples. Results Eight RHO disease-causing mutations were identified in nine families, with only one novel mutation, c.548-638dup91bp, identified in a family where WES failed to detect any causal variant. Segregation analysis revealed that the origin of the mutation is in a mosaic healthy individual carrying the mutation in approximately 13% of blood cells. Conclusions This is the first report of the mutation spectrum of a known adRP gene in the Israeli and Palestinian populations, leading to the identification of seven previously reported mutations and one novel mutation. Our study shows that RHO mutations are a major cause of adRP in this cohort and are responsible for 28% of adRP families. The novel mutation exhibits a unique phenomenon in which an unaffected individual is mosaic for an adRP-causing mutation. PMID:26962691

  17. Genetic CJD with a novel E200G mutation in the prion protein gene and comparison with E200K mutation cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee-Ohk; Cali, Ignazio; Oehler, Abby; Fong, Jamie C; Wong, Katherine; See, Tricia; Katz, Jonathan S; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Bettcher, Brianne M; Dearmond, Stephen J; Geschwind, Michael D

    2013-12-12

    A novel point mutation resulting in a glutamate-to-glycine substitution in PRNP at codon 200, E200G with codon 129 MV polymorphism (cis valine) and type 2 PrPSc was identified in a patient with a prolonged disease course leading to pathology-proven Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Despite the same codon as the most common genetic form of human PRNP mutation, E200K, this novel mutation (E200G) presented with a different clinical and pathological phenotype, including prolonged duration, large vacuoles, no vacuolation in the hippocampus, severe neuronal loss in the thalamus, mild cerebellar involvement, and abundant punctate linear and curvilinear deposition of PrPSc in synaptic boutons and axonal terminals along the dendrites.

  18. Genetic CJD with a novel E200G mutation in the prion protein gene and comparison with E200K mutation cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A novel point mutation resulting in a glutamate-to-glycine substitution in PRNP at codon 200, E200G with codon 129 MV polymorphism (cis valine) and type 2 PrPSc was identified in a patient with a prolonged disease course leading to pathology-proven Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Despite the same codon as the most common genetic form of human PRNP mutation, E200K, this novel mutation (E200G) presented with a different clinical and pathological phenotype, including prolonged duration, large vacuoles, no vacuolation in the hippocampus, severe neuronal loss in the thalamus, mild cerebellar involvement, and abundant punctate linear and curvilinear deposition of PrPSc in synaptic boutons and axonal terminals along the dendrites. PMID:24330864

  19. Genetic Testing and Post-Testing Decision Making among BRCA-Positive Mutation Women: A Psychosocial Approach.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; An, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Through an analysis of an online survey of women who tested positive for the BRCA genetic mutation for breast cancer, this research uses a social constructionist and feminist standpoint lens to understand the decision-making process that leads BRCA-positive women to choose genetic testing. Additionally, this research examines how they socially construct and understand their risk for developing breast cancer, as well as which treatment options they undergo post-testing. BRCA-positive women re-frame their statistical medical risk for developing cancer and their post-testing treatment choices through a broad psychosocial context of engagement that also includes their social networks. Important psychosocial factors drive women's medical decisions, such as individual feelings of guilt and vulnerability, and the degree of perceived social support. Women who felt guilty and fearful that they might pass the BRCA gene to their children were more likely to undergo risk reducing surgery. Women with at least one daughter and women without children were more inclined toward the risk reducing surgery compared to those with only sons. These psychosocial factors and social network engagements serve as a "nexus of decision making" that does not, for the most part, mirror the medical assessments of statistical odds for hereditary cancer development, nor the specific treatment protocols outlined by the medical establishment.

  20. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2015-09-01

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se ). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers.

  1. Clinical hallmarks and genetic polymorphisms in the CFTR gene contribute to the disclosure of the A1006E mutation.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Anna Cristina; Alghisi, Federico; Petrocchi, Stefano; Surace, Cecilia; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Bella, Sergio; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Angioni, Adriano

    2010-08-01

    Since the identification of the Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in 1989, many genetic mutations have been found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Dysfunctions of the CFTR gene are responsible for the highly variable clinical presentation ranging from severe CF, disseminated bronchiectasis, idiopathic chronic pancreatitis and congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD). Linkage disequilibrium studies have shown that some mutations are stringently coupled with polymorphisms in a genetic complex called haplotype. From a familial study of a patient with CBAVD, carrier of the A1006E mutation, we have observed its strict association with the polymorphism 5T-TG11. In order to speed up the genetic diagnosis and to correlate the clinical setting to this genetic feature, we have directly investigated the exon 17a, where the A1006E mutation is located, of five cystic fibrosis patients belonging to two unrelated families. All patients had the 5T-TG11 tract, F508del and one unknown mutation. One more family with two affected individuals carrying the Q220X/A1006E mutations was investigated for the poly-T polymorphism. All the members were found to have the A1006E mutation and the 5T-TG11 in the same DNA strand, demonstrating that this strategy is a reliable and inexpensive method for genotyping the CFTR gene. A detailed description of the clinical presentation and follow-up are provided in order to highlight common phenotypic features useful to improve the management of cystic fibrosis patients.

  2. Pharmacologically regulated induction of silent mutations (PRISM): combined pharmacological and genetic approaches for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Frankland, Paul W; Ohno, Masuo; Takahashi, Eiki; Chen, Adele R; Costa, Rui M; Kushner, Steven A; Silva, Alcino J

    2003-04-01

    Mouse transgenic and knock-out approaches have made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of learning and memory. These approaches have successfully identified a large number of molecules with either a central or modulatory role in learning and memory. However, there are limitations associated with first-generation mutant mice, which include, for example, the lack of temporal control over the mutation. Recent technical developments have started to address some of these shortcomings. Here, the authors review a newly developed inducible approach that takes advantage of synergistic interactions between subthreshold genetic and pharmacological manipulations. This approach is easily set up and can be used to study the functional interactions between molecules in signaling pathways.

  3. Analysis of a Population Genetics Model with Mutation, Selection, and Pleiotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S. N.; Blank, Robert D.; Kadanoff, Leo P.

    1999-11-01

    We investigate a population genetics model introduced by Waxman and Peck(1) incorporating mutation, selection, and pleiotropy (one gene affecting several unrelated traits). The population is infinite, and continuous variation of genotype is allowed. Nonetheless, Waxman and Peck showed that if each gene affects three or more traits, then the steady-state solution of the model can have a nonzero fraction of the population with identical alleles. We use a recursion technique to calculate the distribution of alleles at finite times as well as in the infinite-time limit. We map Waxman and Peck's model into the mean-field theory for Bose condensation, and a variant of the model onto a bound-state problem in quantum theory. These mappings aid in delineating the region of parameter space in which the unique genotype occurs. We also discuss our attempts to correlate the statistics of DNA-sequence variation with the degree of pleiotropy of various genes.

  4. Suppression of nonsense mutations as a therapeutic approach to treat genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Kim M; Bedwell, David M

    2011-01-01

    Suppression therapy is a treatment strategy for genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. This therapeutic approach utilizes pharmacological agents that suppress translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs) to restore translation of a full-length, functional polypeptide. The efficiency of various classes of compounds to suppress PTCs in mammalian cells is discussed along with the current limitations of this therapy. We also elaborate on approaches to improve the efficiency of suppression that include methods to enhance the effectiveness of current suppression drugs and the design or discovery of new, more effective suppression agents. Finally, we discuss the role of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in limiting the effectiveness of suppression therapy, and describe tactics that may allow the efficiency of NMD to be modulated in order to enhance suppression therapy.

  5. Widespread Genetic Incompatibilities between First-Step Mutations during Parallel Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a Common Environment

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Sarah P.

    2017-01-01

    Independently evolving populations may adapt to similar selection pressures via different genetic changes. The interactions between such changes, such as in a hybrid individual, can inform us about what course adaptation may follow and allow us to determine whether gene flow would be facilitated or hampered following secondary contact. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure the genetic interactions between first-step mutations that independently evolved in the same biosynthetic pathway following exposure to the fungicide nystatin. We found that genetic interactions are prevalent and predominantly negative, with the majority of mutations causing lower growth when combined in a double mutant than when alone as a single mutant (sign epistasis). The prevalence of sign epistasis is surprising given the small number of mutations tested and runs counter to expectations for mutations arising in a single biosynthetic pathway in the face of a simple selective pressure. Furthermore, in one third of pairwise interactions, the double mutant grew less well than either single mutant (reciprocal sign epistasis). The observation of reciprocal sign epistasis among these first adaptive mutations arising in the same genetic background indicates that partial postzygotic reproductive isolation could evolve rapidly between populations under similar selective pressures, even with only a single genetic change in each. The nature of the epistatic relationships was sensitive, however, to the level of drug stress in the assay conditions, as many double mutants became fitter than the single mutants at higher concentrations of nystatin. We discuss the implications of these results both for our understanding of epistatic interactions among beneficial mutations in the same biochemical pathway and for speciation. PMID:28114370

  6. Mutations in 2 distinct genetic pathways result in cerebral cavernous malformations in mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aubrey C; Drakos, Stavros G; Ruiz, Oscar E; Smith, Alexandra C H; Gibson, Christopher C; Ling, Jing; Passi, Samuel F; Stratman, Amber N; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Revelo, M Patricia; Grossmann, Allie H; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Davis, George E; Metzstein, Mark M; Whitehead, Kevin J; Li, Dean Y

    2011-05-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are a common type of vascular malformation in the brain that are a major cause of hemorrhagic stroke. This condition has been independently linked to 3 separate genes: Krev1 interaction trapped (KRIT1), Cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2), and Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10). Despite the commonality in disease pathology caused by mutations in these 3 genes, we found that the loss of Pdcd10 results in significantly different developmental, cell biological, and signaling phenotypes from those seen in the absence of Ccm2 and Krit1. PDCD10 bound to germinal center kinase III (GCKIII) family members, a subset of serine-threonine kinases, and facilitated lumen formation by endothelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that CCM may be a common tissue manifestation of distinct mechanistic pathways. Nevertheless, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for either Pdcd10 or Ccm2 resulted in CCMs in mice. The murine phenotype induced by loss of either protein reproduced all of the key clinical features observed in human patients with CCM, as determined by direct comparison with genotype-specific human surgical specimens. These results suggest that CCM may be more effectively treated by directing therapies based on the underlying genetic mutation rather than treating the condition as a single clinical entity.

  7. Genetic Screening of Mutations Associated with Fabry Disease in a Nationwide Cohort of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria J.; Mourão, Ana F.; Martinho, António; Simões, Olívia; Melo-Gomes, José; Salgado, Manuel; Estanqueiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Célia; Brito, Iva; Fonseca, João E.; Canhão, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Fabry’s disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with an alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. The prevalence of FD among juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with established diagnosis is unknown, but as musculoskeletal pain may be an important complaint at presentation, misdiagnosed cases are anticipated. With this study, we aim to calculate the frequency of FD-associated mutations in a cohort of JIA patients. Children with JIA from a national cohort were selected. Clinical and laboratorial information was recorded in the Portuguese rheumatic diseases register (http://Reuma.pt). Molecular genetic testing to detect GLA gene mutations was performed. After the multiplex polymerase chain reactions technique for DNA amplification, direct sequencing of the complete sequence of GLA gene was completed. From a cohort of 292 patients with JIA (188 females, 104 males), mutations were identified in 5 patients (all female). Four patients had the mutation D313Y, a rare GLA variant, which is associated with low enzymatic levels in plasma, but normal lysosomal levels. One patient presented the missense mutation R118C, which was previously described in Mediterranean patients with FD. This is the first screening of FD mutations in a cohort of JIA patients. No “classic” pathogenic FD mutations were reported. The late-onset FD-associated mutation, R118C, was found in a frequency of 0.34% (1/292). PMID:28299312

  8. Genetic Screening of Mutations Associated with Fabry Disease in a Nationwide Cohort of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria J; Mourão, Ana F; Martinho, António; Simões, Olívia; Melo-Gomes, José; Salgado, Manuel; Estanqueiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Célia; Brito, Iva; Fonseca, João E; Canhão, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Fabry's disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with an alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. The prevalence of FD among juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with established diagnosis is unknown, but as musculoskeletal pain may be an important complaint at presentation, misdiagnosed cases are anticipated. With this study, we aim to calculate the frequency of FD-associated mutations in a cohort of JIA patients. Children with JIA from a national cohort were selected. Clinical and laboratorial information was recorded in the Portuguese rheumatic diseases register (http://Reuma.pt). Molecular genetic testing to detect GLA gene mutations was performed. After the multiplex polymerase chain reactions technique for DNA amplification, direct sequencing of the complete sequence of GLA gene was completed. From a cohort of 292 patients with JIA (188 females, 104 males), mutations were identified in 5 patients (all female). Four patients had the mutation D313Y, a rare GLA variant, which is associated with low enzymatic levels in plasma, but normal lysosomal levels. One patient presented the missense mutation R118C, which was previously described in Mediterranean patients with FD. This is the first screening of FD mutations in a cohort of JIA patients. No "classic" pathogenic FD mutations were reported. The late-onset FD-associated mutation, R118C, was found in a frequency of 0.34% (1/292).

  9. Pathological and Genetic Characterization of Bilateral Adrenomedullary Hyperplasia in a Patient with Germline MAX Mutation.

    PubMed

    Romanet, Pauline; Guerin, Carole; Pedini, Pascal; Essamet, Wassim; Castinetti, Frédéric; Sebag, Fréderic; Roche, Philippe; Cascon, Alberto; Tischler, Arthur S; Pacak, Karel; Barlier, Anne; Taïeb, David

    2016-11-12

    In recent years, familial pheochromocytoma (PHEO) with germline mutations in the MAX (MYC associated factor X) gene has been reported in a few cases. Here, we investigated a 25-year-old patient with multiple PHEOs associated with a non-sense germline MAX mutation. Preoperative (18)F-FDOPA PET/CT revealed bilateral adrenal involvement with multiple tumors. In addition, both adrenal glands were found to have diffuse or nodular adrenal medullary hyperplasia (AMH), a histopathological feature previously described as a precursor of MEN2- and SDHB-related PHEOs but not MAX. After bilateral adrenalectomy, different paraffin-embedded and frozen samples were analyzed for allelic imbalances of the MAX gene using allelic quantification by pyrosequencing. The expression of the protein MAX was studied by immunohistochemistry. All PHEOs but also nodular AMH exhibited a loss of the normal allele. By contrast, the diffuse AMH did not show loss-of-heterozygosity. Nevertheless, immunohistochemistry demonstrated loss of protein MAX expression in all samples including diffuse hyperplasia, suggesting a causative role of MAX mutation for both PHEOs and AMH. The present case shows that both nodular and diffuse AMH belongs to the spectrum of MAX-related disease. These data support the possible continuum between nodular AMH and PHEO, expanding the qualification of micro-PHEO to nodular AMH.

  10. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA A827G mutation is involved in the genetic susceptibility to aminoglycoside ototoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Xing Guangqian; Chen Zhibin; Wei Qinjun; Tian Huiqin; Li Xiaolu; Zhou Aidong; Bu Xingkuan; Cao Xin . E-mail: caoxin@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-08-11

    We have analyzed the clinical and molecular characterization of a Chinese family with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing impairment. Clinical evaluations revealed that only those family members who had a history of exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics subsequently developed hearing loss, suggesting mitochondrial genome involvement. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes led to the identification of a homoplasmic A827G mutation in all maternal relatives, a mutation that was identified previously in a few sporadic patients and in another Chinese family with non-syndromic deafness. The pathogenicity of the A827G mutation is strongly supported by the occurrence of the same mutation in two independent families and several genetically unrelated subjects. The A827G mutation is located at the A-site of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene which is highly conserved in mammals. It is possible that the alteration of the tertiary or quaternary structure of this rRNA by the A827G mutation may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and aminoglycoside hypersensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of hearing impairment indicates that the A827G mutation itself is not sufficient to produce clinical phenotype but requires the involvement of modifier factors for the phenotypic expression. Indeed, aminoglycosides may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the A827G mutation in this family. In contrast with the congenital or early-onset hearing impairment in another Chinese family carrying the A827G mutation, three patients in this pedigree developed hearing loss only after use of aminoglycosides. This discrepancy likely reflects the difference of genetic backgrounds, either mitochondrial haplotypes or nuclear modifier genes, between two families.

  11. Genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus and mutations associated to hepatocellular carcinoma in patients from Venezuela, with different stages of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Puche, Mary L; Kay-Valero, Sharon; Michelli, Pedro; Oropeza, Maria D; Loureiro, Carmen L; Devesa, Marisol; Dagher, Lucy; Pujol, Flor H

    2016-03-01

    Globally, about 50% of liver cancer originates as a result of long term infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and some genotypes and mutations have been associated with an increased severity of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of HBV in patients from Venezuela, with chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to compare the occurrence of mutations in all patient groups. Samples from patients with different pathologies of the liver, associated with HBV infection, were collected. The HBV S region was analyzed for genotype determination and, when available, the whole genome sequence was examined for mutations analysis. Genotype F was the most common genotype (87%). While the HBV subgenotype F3 was the most frequent genotype in the whole group of samples (44%), the subgenotype F2 predominated in HCC patients (56%). Mutations were more common in HCC and cirrhosis cases (p=0.01). The A1762T mutation was significantly associated with the advanced stage of liver disease (p=0.008). Additionally, mutations were more common in early stages of liver disease in HBV subgenotype F2-infected patients, and a significant association between this subgenotype and the emergence of T 1753C, A1762T, A1762T/G1764A (p=0.04) and C1773T (p=0.001) mutations in chronic patients was found, when compared to the HBV subgenotype F3. By comparing F2 with all other HBV subgenotypes, a positive association for the three basal core promoter (BCP) mutants (A1762T, A1762T/G1764A p=0.01, G1764A p=0.04) was found. These results suggest that the HBV subgenotype F2 might be associated to more severe forms of liver disease in comparison with the HBV subgenotype F3.

  12. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits

  13. Molecular Genetic and Functional Association of Brugada and Early Repolarization Syndromes with S422L Missense Mutation in KCNJ8

    PubMed Central

    Barajas-Martínez, Hector; Hu, Dan; Ferrer, Tania; Onetti, Carlos G.; Wu, Yuesheng; Burashnikov, Elena; Boyle, Madalene; Surman, Tyler; Urrutia, Janire; Veltmann, Christian; Schimpf, Rainer; Borggrefe, Martin; Wolpert, Christian; Ibrahim, Bassiema B.; Sánchez-Chapula, José Antonio; Winters, Stephen; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) cardiac channels consist of inward rectifying channel subunits Kir6.1 or Kir6.2 (encoded by KCNJ8 or KCNJ11) and the sulfonylurea receptor subunits SUR2A (encoded by ABCC9). Objective To examine the association of mutations in KCNJ8 with Brugada (BrS) and early repolarization (ERS) syndromes and elucidate the mechanism underlying the gain of function of KATP channel current (IK-ATP). Methods Direct sequencing of KCNJ8 and other candidate genes was performed on 204 BrS and ERS probands and family members. Whole-cell and inside-out patch clamp methods were used to study mutated channels expressed in TSA201 cells. Results The same missense mutation, p.Ser422Leu (c.1265C>T) in KCNJ8, was identified in 3 BrS and 1 ERS proband, but was absent in 430 alleles from ethnically-matched healthy controls. Additional genetic variants included CACNB2b-D601E. Whole cell patch clamp studies showed a two-fold gain of function of glibenclamide-sensitive IK-ATP when KCNJ8-S422L was co-expressed with SUR2A-wild type. Inside-out patch clamp evaluation yielded a significantly greater IC50 for ATP in the mutant channels (785.5±2 vs. 38.4±3 µM, n=5; p<0.01) pointing to incomplete closing of the KATP channels under normoxic conditions. Patients with a CACNB2b-D601E polymorphism displayed longer QT/QTc intervals, likely due to their effect to induce an increase in ICa-L. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that KCNJ8 is a susceptibility gene for Brugada and early repolarization syndromes and point to S422L as a possible hotspot mutation. Our findings suggest that the S422L-induced gain of function in IK-ATP is due to reduced sensitivity to intracellular ATP. PMID:22056721

  14. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  15. A genetic analysis of the 63E-64A genomic region of Drosophila melanogaster: Identification of mutations in a replication factor C subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, S.D.; Solomon, N.; Rubin, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    We have performed an F{sub 2} genetic screen to identify lethal mutations within the 63E-64A genomic region. We have isolated 122 mutations in 20 different complementation groups. Of these groups, 16 are represented by multiple alleles. We have also established that the Rop and Ras2 genes are located within the 63E-64A genomic domain at 64A10,11. We have sequenced 10.2 kb of DNA surrounding this gene pair and find that in addition to Rop and Ras2 there is another gene located within this DNA sequence. The gene product, which we have named Rfc40, shows 68% identity to the 40-kDa subunit of replication factor C. We find that the members of one complementation group (13 alleles) derived from our screen correspond to mutations in the Rop gene, whereas the members of another (five alleles) correspond to mutations in the Rfc40 gene. In addition we have isolated 11 new mutant alleles of the disembodied gene. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mosaicism: The embryo as a target for induction of mutations leading to cancer and genetic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.; Zingg, B.

    1995-12-31

    Mosaicismhas been observed in both germinal and somatic tissues of several species, including humans. Mutational events occurring during early embryogenesis can give rise to an organism with a significant number of cells with the mutant genotype in one or more tissues. In the F{sub 1} generation, this event will usually be perceived as a de novo germinal mutation rather than a transmitted variant allele, unless significant effort is directed toward detecting the mosaicism. Similarly, mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in proliferating somatic cells can generate populations of cells that are at increased risk of transforming into tumor cells. The number of potential preneoplastic cells is larger when the mutagenic event occurs in early development than if it occurs in the mature adult. Experimental data confirm that treatment of the developing embryo or fetus with carcinogenic and mutagenic agents increases the cancer incidence in these animals and the frequency of mutations in the offspring of the animals that were exposed in utero. The available data are conclusive that the developing organism is at risk from exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. However, the data are insufficient to estimate the level of risk associated with similar exposures to the adult organism. The potential risk from exposure of the developing embryo is increased relative to the risk from adult exposure if the sensitivity of the individual cells to damage in the adult and the embryo are equivalent. It seems apparent that the potential risks of cancer and heritable disease following in utero exposure are sufficient to warrant additional attention. It is important to obtain data for estimating the relative contribution of in utero exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic agents to the total health burden and for the subsequent development of appropriate regulations. 60 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Does your gene need a background check? How genetic background impacts the analysis of mutations, genes, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Christopher H; Chari, Sudarshan; Dworkin, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The premise of genetic analysis is that a causal link exists between phenotypic and allelic variation. However, it has long been documented that mutant phenotypes are not a simple result of a single DNA lesion, but are instead due to interactions of the focal allele with other genes and the environment. Although an experimentally rigorous approach focused on individual mutations and isogenic control strains has facilitated amazing progress within genetics and related fields, a glimpse back suggests that a vast complexity has been omitted from our current understanding of allelic effects. Armed with traditional genetic analyses and the foundational knowledge they have provided, we argue that the time and tools are ripe to return to the underexplored aspects of gene function and embrace the context-dependent nature of genetic effects. We assert that a broad understanding of genetic effects and the evolutionary dynamics of alleles requires identifying how mutational outcomes depend upon the 'wild type' genetic background. Furthermore, we discuss how best to exploit genetic background effects to broaden genetic research programs.

  18. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  19. Centronuclear myopathy related to dynamin 2 mutations: Clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic features of an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Catteruccia, Michela; Fattori, Fabiana; Codemo, Valentina; Ruggiero, Lucia; Maggi, Lorenzo; Tasca, Giorgio; Fiorillo, Chiara; Pane, Marika; Berardinelli, Angela; Verardo, Margherita; Bragato, Cinzia; Mora, Marina; Morandi, Lucia; Bruno, Claudio; Santoro, Lucio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mercuri, Eugenio; Bertini, Enrico; D’Amico, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) gene cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy and occur in around 50% of patients with centronuclear myopathy. We report clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic data of 10 unrelated Italian patients with centronuclear myopathy related to DNM2 mutations. Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of this disease, underlining some peculiar clinical features, such as severe pulmonary impairment and jaw contracture that should be considered in the clinical follow-up of these patients. Muscle MRI showed a distinct pattern of involvement, with predominant involvement of soleus and tibialis anterior in the lower leg muscles, followed by hamstring muscles and adductor magnus at thigh level and gluteus maximus. The detection of three novel DNM2 mutations and the first case of somatic mosaicism further expand the genetic spectrum of the disease. PMID:23394783

  20. Multidisciplinary investigation links backward-speech trait and working memory through genetic mutation

    PubMed Central

    Prekovic, Stefan; Đurđević, Dušica Filipović; Csifcsák, Gábor; Šveljo, Olivera; Stojković, Oliver; Janković, Milica; Koprivšek, Katarina; Covill, Laura E; Lučić, Milos; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Helsen, Christine; Ceroni, Fabiola; Claessens, Frank; Newbury, Dianne F

    2016-01-01

    Case studies of unusual traits can provide unique snapshots of the effects of modified systems. In this study, we report on an individual from a Serbian family with the ability to rapidly, accurately and voluntarily speak backwards. We consider psychological, neural and genetic correlates of this trait to identify specific relevant neural mechanisms and new molecular pathways for working memory and speech-related tasks. EEG data suggest that the effect of word reversal precedes semantic integration of visually presented backward-words, and that event-related potentials above the frontal lobe are affected by both word reversal and the maintenance of backward-words in working memory. fMRI revealed that the left fusiform gyrus may facilitate the production of backward-speech. Exome sequencing identified three novel coding variants of potential significance in the RIC3, RIPK1 and ZBED5 genes. Taken together, our data suggest that, in this individual, the ability to speak backwards is afforded by an extraordinary working memory capacity. We hypothesise that this is served by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to the frontal cortex and supported by visual semantic loops within the left fusiform gyrus and that these neural processes may be mediated by a genetic mutation in RIC3; a chaperone for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:26838027

  1. More breast cancer patients prefer BRCA-mutation testing without prior face-to-face genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Sie, Aisha S; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most breast cancer (BC) patients receive face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake) prior to BRCA-mutation testing, with generic information regarding hereditary BC and BRCA-mutation testing. This prospective study evaluated a novel format: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home, and face-to-face contact following BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). From August 2011 to February 2012, 161 of 233 eligible BC patients referred to our Human Genetics department chose between DNA-direct (intervention) or DNA-intake (control). Exclusion criteria were psychological problems (n = 33), difficulty with Dutch text (n = 5), known BRCA-family (n = 3), non-BRCA-referral (n = 1). 30 declined genetic counseling or study participation. Participants received questionnaires including satisfaction and psychological distress. 59 % chose DNA-direct (p = 0.03), of whom 90 % were satisfied and would choose DNA-direct again (including 6/8 BRCA-mutation carriers); although 27 % hesitated to recommend DNA-direct to other patients. General distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.001) and heredity-specific distress (IES, p = 0.02) scored lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake, both at baseline and follow-up 2 weeks after BRCA-result disclosure; all scores remained below clinical relevance. DNA-direct participants reported higher website use (53 vs. 32 %, p = 0.01), more referrer information about personal consequences (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.004) and lower decisional conflict (median 20 [0-88] vs. 25 [0-50], p = 0.01). Processing time in DNA-direct was reduced by 1 month. Mutation detection rate was 8 % in both groups. All BRCA-mutation carriers fulfilled current testing criteria. In conclusion, more BC patients preferred DNA-direct over intake consultation prior to BRCA-mutation testing, the majority being strongly to moderately satisfied with the procedure followed, without increased distress.

  2. Additive genetic variation in schizophrenia risk is shared by populations of African and European descent.

    PubMed

    de Candia, Teresa R; Lee, S Hong; Yang, Jian; Browning, Brian L; Gejman, Pablo V; Levinson, Douglas F; Mowry, Bryan J; Hewitt, John K; Goddard, Michael E; O'Donovan, Michael C; Purcell, Shaun M; Posthuma, Danielle; Visscher, Peter M; Wray, Naomi R; Keller, Matthew C

    2013-09-05

    To investigate the extent to which the proportion of schizophrenia's additive genetic variation tagged by SNPs is shared by populations of European and African descent, we analyzed the largest combined African descent (AD [n = 2,142]) and European descent (ED [n = 4,990]) schizophrenia case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) data set available, the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) data set. We show how a method that uses genomic similarities at measured SNPs to estimate the additive genetic correlation (SNP correlation [SNP-rg]) between traits can be extended to estimate SNP-rg for the same trait between ethnicities. We estimated SNP-rg for schizophrenia between the MGS ED and MGS AD samples to be 0.66 (SE = 0.23), which is significantly different from 0 (p(SNP-rg = 0) = 0.0003), but not 1 (p(SNP-rg = 1) = 0.26). We re-estimated SNP-rg between an independent ED data set (n = 6,665) and the MGS AD sample to be 0.61 (SE = 0.21, p(SNP-rg = 0) = 0.0003, p(SNP-rg = 1) = 0.16). These results suggest that many schizophrenia risk alleles are shared across ethnic groups and predate African-European divergence.

  3. Molecular-genetic characterization and rescue of a TSFM mutation causing childhood-onset ataxia and nonobstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Emperador, Sonia; Bayona-Bafaluy, M Pilar; Fernández-Marmiesse, Ana; Pineda, Mercedes; Felgueroso, Blanca; López-Gallardo, Ester; Artuch, Rafael; Roca, Iria; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Couce, María Luz; Montoya, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction has been found in many different disorders. This biochemical pathway depends on mitochondrial protein synthesis. Thus, mutations in components of the mitochondrial translation system can be responsible for some of these pathologies. We identified a new homozygous missense mutation in the mitochondrial translation elongation factor Ts gene in a patient suffering from slowly progressive childhood ataxia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using cell, biochemical and molecular-genetic protocols, we confirm it as the etiologic factor of this phenotype. Moreover, as an important functional confirmation, we rescued the normal molecular phenotype by expression of the wild-type TSFM cDNA in patient's fibroblasts. Different TSFM mutations can produce the same or very different clinical phenotypes, going from abortions to moderately severe presentations. On the other hand, the same TSFM mutation can also produce same or different phenotypes within the same range of presentations, therefore suggesting the involvement of unknown factors.

  4. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    PubMed

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  5. CBL, CBLB, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH1/2 mutations and additional chromosomal aberrations constitute molecular events in chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Jankowska, Anna M.; McDevitt, Michael A.; O'Keefe, Christine; Dujardin, Simon; Cazzolli, Heather; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Prince, Courtney; Nicoll, John; Siddaiah, Harish; Shaik, Mohammed; Szpurka, Hadrian; Hsi, Eric; Advani, Anjali; Paquette, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to accelerated (AP) and blast phase (BP) is because of secondary molecular events, as well as additional cytogenetic abnormalities. On the basis of the detection of JAK2, CBL, CBLB, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH1/2 mutations in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, we hypothesized that they may also contribute to progression in CML. We screened these genes for mutations in 54 cases with CML (14 with chronic phase, 14 with AP, 20 with myeloid, and 6 with nonmyeloid BP). We identified 1 CBLB and 2 TET2 mutations in AP, and 1 CBL, 1 CBLB, 4 TET2, 2 ASXL1, and 2 IDH family mutations in myeloid BP. However, none of these mutations were found in chronic phase. No cases with JAK2V617F mutations were found. In 2 cases, TET2 mutations were found concomitant with CBLB mutations. By single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, uniparental disomy on chromosome 5q, 8q, 11p, and 17p was found in AP and BP but not involving 4q24 (TET2) or 11q23 (CBL). Microdeletions on chromosomes 17q11.2 and 21q22.12 involved tumor associated genes NF1 and RUNX1, respectively. Our results indicate that CBL family, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH family mutations and additional cryptic karyotypic abnormalities can occur in advanced phase CML. PMID:21346257

  6. Genetic Variation at 9p22.2 and Ovarian Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Gismondi, Viviana; Capra, Fabio; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Borg, Ake; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A.; Asperen, Christi J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Dunning, Alison M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Pichert, Gabriella; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Gregory, Helen; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Moncoutier, Virginie; Castera, Laurent; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Bonadona, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Lidereau, Rosette; Nogues, Catherine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Prieur, Fabienne; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Miron, Alex; Buys, Saundra S.; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Dutra-Clarke, Ana V. C.; Przybylo, Jennifer A.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Fiebig, Britta; Sutter, Christian; Arnold, Norbert; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Niederacher, Dieter; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Methods We genotyped rs3814113 in 10 029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10-9) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10-4). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PMID:21169536

  7. A genetic screen of the mutations in the Korean patients with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Seong Soo; Park, Sun Ah; Bagyinszky, Eva; Bae, Sun Oh; Kim, Yoon-Jeong; Im, Ji Young; Park, Kyung Won; Park, Kee Hyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Han, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) has distinct clinical characteristics in comparison to late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). The genetic contribution is suggested to be more potent in EOAD. However, the frequency of causative mutations in EOAD could be variable depending on studies. Moreover, no mutation screening study has been performed yet employing large population in Korea. Previously, we reported that the rate of family history of dementia in EOAD patients was 18.7% in a nationwide hospital-based cohort study, the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. This rate is much lower than in other countries and is even comparable to the frequency of LOAD patients in our country. To understand the genetic characteristics of EOAD in Korea, we screened the common Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mutations in the consecutive EOAD subjects from the CREDOS study from April 2012 to February 2014. We checked the sequence of APP (exons 16–17), PSEN1 (exons 3–12), and PSEN2 (exons 3–12) genes. We identified different causative or probable pathogenic AD mutations, PSEN1 T116I, PSEN1 L226F, and PSEN2 V214L, employing 24 EOAD subjects with a family history and 80 without a family history of dementia. PSEN1 T116I case demonstrated autosomal dominant trait of inheritance, with at least 11 affected individuals over 2 generations. However, there was no family history of dementia within first-degree relation in PSEN1 L226F and PSEN2 V214L cases. Approximately, 55.7% of the EOAD subjects had APOE ε4 allele, while none of the mutation-carrying subjects had the allele. The frequency of genetic mutation in this study is lower compared to the studies from other countries. The study design that was based on nationwide cohort, which minimizes selection bias, is thought to be one of the contributors to the lower frequency of genetic mutation. However, the possibility of the greater likeliness of earlier onset of sporadic AD in Korea cannot be

  8. Genetic and structure-function studies of missense mutations in human endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hamid; Tempczyk-Russell, Anna; Haubold, Kurt; Santorico, Stephanie A; Shokati, Touraj; Christians, Uwe; Churchill, Mair E A

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism. We sought to characterize EL and its interaction with HDL as well as its natural variants genetically, functionally and structurally. We screened our biethnic population sample (n = 802) for selected missense mutations (n = 5) and identified T111I as the only common variant. Multiple linear regression analyses in Hispanic subjects revealed an unexpected association between T111I and elevated LDL-C (p-value = 0.012) and total cholesterol (p-value = 0.004). We examined lipase activity of selected missense mutants (n = 10) and found different impacts on EL function, ranging from normal to complete loss of activity. EL-HDL lipidomic analyses indicated that EL has a defined remodeling of HDL without exhaustion of the substrate and a distinct and preference for several fatty acids that are lipid mediators and known for their potent pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Structural studies using homology modeling revealed a novel α/β motif in the C-domain, unique to EL. The EL dimer was found to have the flexibility to expand and to bind various sizes of HDL particles. The likely impact of the all known missense mutations (n = 18) on the structure of EL was examined using molecular modeling and the impact they may have on EL lipase activity using a novel structure-function slope based on their structural free energy differences. The results of this multidisciplinary approach delineated the impact of EL and its variants on HDL. Moreover, the results suggested EL to have the capacity to modulate vascular health through its role in fatty acid-based signaling pathways.

  9. Germline Stem Cell Competition, Mutation Hot Spots, Genetic Disorders, and Older Fathers.

    PubMed

    Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter

    2016-08-31

    Some de novo human mutations arise at frequencies far exceeding the genome average mutation rate. Examples include the common mutations at one or a few sites in the genes that cause achondroplasia, Apert syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, and Noonan syndrome. These mutations are recurrent, provide a gain of function, are paternally derived, and are more likely to be transmitted as the father ages. Recent experiments have tested whether the high mutation frequencies are due to an elevated mutation rate per cell division, as expected, or to an advantage of the mutant spermatogonial stem cells over wild-type stem cells. The evidence, which includes the surprising discovery of testis mutation clusters, rules out the former model but not the latter. We propose how the mutations might alter spermatogonial stem cell function and discuss how germline selection contributes to the paternal age effect, the human mutational load, and adaptive evolution.

  10. mRNA-based detection of rare CFTR mutations improves genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in populations with high genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Felício, V; Ramalho, A S; Igreja, S; Amaral, M D

    2017-03-01

    Even with advent of next generation sequencing complete sequencing of large disease-associated genes and intronic regions is economically not feasible. This is the case of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet, to confirm a CF diagnosis, proof of CFTR dysfunction needs to be obtained, namely by the identification of two disease-causing mutations. Moreover, with the advent of mutation-based therapies, genotyping is an essential tool for CF disease management. There is, however, still an unmet need to genotype CF patients by fast, comprehensive and cost-effective approaches, especially in populations with high genetic heterogeneity (and low p.F508del incidence), where CF is now emerging with new diagnosis dilemmas (Brazil, Asia, etc). Herein, we report an innovative mRNA-based approach to identify CFTR mutations in the complete coding and intronic regions. We applied this protocol to genotype individuals with a suspicion of CF and only one or no CFTR mutations identified by routine methods. It successfully detected multiple intronic mutations unlikely to be detected by CFTR exon sequencing. We conclude that this is a rapid, robust and inexpensive method to detect any CFTR coding/intronic mutation (including rare ones) that can be easily used either as primary approach or after routine DNA analysis.

  11. Genetic characterization of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses in Ontario during 2010–2011 influenza season: high prevalence of mutations at antigenic sites

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, AliReza; Duvvuri, Venkata R; Li, Aimin; Patel, Samir N; Bastien, Nathalie; Li, Yan; Low, Donald E; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Background The direct effect of antigenic site mutations in influenza viruses on antigenic drift and vaccine effectiveness is poorly understood. Objective To investigate the genetic and antigenic characteristics of human influenza A (H3N2) viruses circulating in Ontario during the early 2010–2011 winter season. Study design We sequenced the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from 41 A(H3N2) viruses detected in nasopharyngeal specimens. Strain typing was performed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Molecular and phylogenetic tree analyses were conducted. Results HA and NA genes showed high similarity to the 2010–2011 vaccine strain, A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus (97·7–98·5% and 98·7–99·5% amino acid (AA) identity, respectively). Compared to A/Perth/16/2009 strain, HA gene mutations were documented at 28 different AA positions across all five H3 antigenic sites, with a range of 5–11 mutations in individual viruses. Thirty-six (88%) viruses had 8 AA substitutions in common; none of these had reduced HI titer. Among Ontario isolates, 11 antigenic site AAs were positively selected with an increase in glycosylation sites. Conclusion The presence of antigenic site mutations with high frequency among 2010–2011 influenza H3N2 isolates confirms ongoing adaptive H3N2 evolution. These may represent early phylogenetic changes that could cause antigenic drift with further mutations. Clinical relevance of antigenic site mutations not causing drift in HI assays is unknown and requires further investigation. In addition, viral sequencing information will assist with vaccine strain planning and may facilitate early detection of vaccine escape. PMID:24313991

  12. Driven by Mutations: The Predictive Value of Mutation Subtype in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily; Feld, Emily; Horn, Leora

    2016-12-23

    EGFR-mutated NSCLC is a genetically heterogeneous disease that includes more than 200 distinct mutations. The implications of mutational subtype for both prognostic and predictive value are being increasingly understood. Although the most common EGFR mutations-exon 19 deletions or L858R mutations-predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), it is now being recognized that outcomes may be improved in patients with exon 19 deletions. Additionally, 10% of patients will have an uncommon EGFR mutation, and response to EGFR TKI therapy is highly variable depending on the mutation. Given the growing recognition of the genetic and clinical variation seen in this disease, the development of comprehensive bioinformatics-driven tools to both analyze response in uncommon mutation subtypes and inform clinical decision making will be increasingly important. Clinical trials of novel EGFR TKIs should prospectively account for the presence of uncommon mutation subtypes in study design.

  13. Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-08-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically.

  14. Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma: Review of perioperative management of blood pressure and update on genetic mutations associated with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren; Orlowski, Robert; Cohen, Debbie

    2013-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare tumors with high morbidity rates caused by excessive catecholamine secretion, even though the majority of tumors are benign. The use of perioperative blockade regimens, together with improved surgical techniques, has greatly impacted the perioperative morbidity associated with these tumors. The old dogma of the "tumor of tens" no longer holds true. For example, at least one third of all pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are hereditary, with mutations in 1 of 10 well-characterized susceptibility genes, and one quarter of all tumors are malignant. This review focuses on the perioperative management of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas and the clinical implications of the associated genetic mutations.

  15. Maternal Genetic Mutations as Gestational and Early Life Influences in Producing Psychiatric Disease-Like Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Georgia; Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for psychiatric disorders have traditionally been classified as genetic or environmental. Risk (candidate) genes, although typically possessing small effects, represent a clear starting point to elucidate downstream cellular/molecular pathways of disease. Environmental effects, especially during development, can also lead to altered behavior and increased risk for disease. An important environmental factor is the mother, demonstrated by the negative effects elicited by maternal gestational stress and altered maternal care. These maternal effects can also have a genetic basis (e.g., maternal genetic variability and mutations). The focus of this review is “maternal genotype effects” that influence the emotional development of the offspring resulting in life-long psychiatric disease-like phenotypes. We have recently found that genetic inactivation of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) and the fmr1 gene (encoding the fragile X mental retardation protein) in mouse dams results in psychiatric disease-like phenotypes in their genetically unaffected offspring. 5-HT1AR deficiency in dams results in anxiety and increased stress responsiveness in their offspring. Offspring of 5-HT1AR deficient dams display altered development of the hippocampus, which could be linked to their anxiety-like phenotype. Maternal inactivation of fmr1, like its inactivation in the offspring, results in a hyperactivity-like condition and is associated with receptor alterations in the striatum. These data indicate a high sensitivity of the offspring to maternal mutations and suggest that maternal genotype effects can increase the impact of genetic risk factors in a population by increasing the risk of the genetically normal offspring as well as by enhancing the effects of offspring mutations. PMID:21629836

  16. Molecular genetic analysis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia: A common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Stevens, E.M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic aberrations in the cystathionine P-synthase (CBS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes may account for reduced enzyme activities and elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In 15 unrelated Dutch patients with homozygous CBS deficiency, we observed the 833T{yields}C (1278T) mutation in 50% of the alleles. Very recently, we identified a common mutation (677C{yields}T; A{yields}V) in the MTHFR gene, which, in homozygous state, is responsible for the thermolabile phenotype and which is associated with decreased specific MTHFR activity and elevated homocysteine levels. We screened 60 cardiovascular patients and 111 controls for these two mutations, to determine whether these mutations are risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease. Heterozygosity for the 833T{yields}C mutation in the CBS gene was observed in one individual of the control group but was absent in patients with premature cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the 677C-{yields}T mutation in the MTHFR gene was found in 9 (15%) of 60 cardiovascular patients and in only 6 ({approximately}5%) of 111 control individuals (odds ratio 3.1 [95% confidence interval 1.0-9.21]). Because of both the high prevalence of the 833T-{yields}C mutation among homozygotes for CBS deficiency and its absence in 60 cardiovascular patients, we may conclude that heterozygosity for CBS deficiency does not appear to be involved in premature cardiovascular disease. However, a frequent homozygous mutation in the MTHFR gene is associated with a threefold increase in risk for premature cardiovascular disease. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Molecular genetic analysis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia: a common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kluijtmans, L. A.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Boers, G. H.; Frosst, P.; Stevens, E. M.; van Oost, B. A.; den Heijer, M.; Trijbels, F. J.; Rozen, R.; Blom, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic aberrations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes may account for reduced enzyme activities and elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In 15 unrelated Dutch patients with homozygous CBS deficiency, we observed the 833T-->C (I278T) mutation in 50% of the alleles. Very recently, we identified a common mutation (677C-->T; A-->V) in the MTHFR gene, which, in homozygous state, is responsible for the thermolabile phenotype and which is associated with decreased specific MTHRF activity and elevated homocysteine levels. We screened 60 cardiovascular patients and 111 controls for these two mutations, to determine whether these mutations are risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease. Heterozygosity for the 833T-->C mutation in the CBS gene was observed in one individual of the control group but was absent in patients with premature cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the 677C-->T mutation in the MTHFR gene was found in (15%) of 60 cardiovascular patients and in only 6 (approximately 5%) of 111 control individuals (odds ratio 3.1 [95% confidence interval 1.0-9.2]). Because of both the high prevalence of the 833T-->C mutation among homozygotes for CBS deficiency and its absence in 60 cardiovascular patients, we may conclude that heterozygosity for CBS deficiency does not appear to be involved in premature cardiovascular disease. However, a frequent homozygous mutation in the MTHFR gene is associated with a threefold increase in risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:8554066

  18. Genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses of mutations induced by melphalan demonstrate high frequencies of heritable deletions and other rearrangements from exposure of postspermatogonial stages of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, L B; Hunsicker, P R; Cacheiro, N L; Rinchik, E M

    1992-01-01

    Specific-locus experiments have previously shown melphalan to be mutagenic in all male germ-cell stages tested and particularly so in early spermatids. All but 2 of 24 specific-locus mutations recovered were tested genetically, cytogenetically, and/or molecularly. At least 12 of 15 tested mutations recovered from postspermatogonial stages but only 1 of 7 mutations recovered from stem-cell or differentiating spermatogonia gave evidence of being deletions or other rearrangements. Melphalan-induced mutations, thus, confirm the pattern of dependence of mutation structure on germ-cell stage that had been shown earlier for other chemicals. Results of the present investigation illustrate the capabilities of combined genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses for characterizing the nature of specific-locus mutations. Fine-structure molecular mapping of long regions surrounding specific loci has been greatly facilitated by the availability of genetic reagents (particularly, deletion complexes) generated in specific-locus experiments over the course of decades. Reciprocally, this mapping permits increasingly detailed characterization of the nature of lesions induced by mutagenic exposures of germ cells, adding great powers for qualitative analysis of mutations to the specific-locus test. Cytogenetic and genetic investigations also provide evidence on lesion type, especially for loci at which mutations cannot yet be analyzed molecularly. Melphalan, like chlorambucil, can generate many mutations, a high proportion of which are deletions and other rearrangements, making this chemical valuable for generating mutations (at any locus) amenable to molecular access. Images PMID:1352884

  19. Genetic and phenotypic dissection of 1q43q44 microdeletion syndrome and neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with mutations in ZBTB18 and HNRNPU.

    PubMed

    Depienne, Christel; Nava, Caroline; Keren, Boris; Heide, Solveig; Rastetter, Agnès; Passemard, Sandrine; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Agrawal, Pankaj B; VanNoy, Grace; Stoler, Joan M; Amor, David J; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Doummar, Diane; Alby, Caroline; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Garel, Catherine; Marzin, Pauline; Scheidecker, Sophie; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Hirsch, Edouard; Korff, Christian; Bottani, Armand; Faivre, Laurence; Verloes, Alain; Orzechowski, Christine; Burglen, Lydie; Leheup, Bruno; Roume, Joelle; Andrieux, Joris; Sheth, Frenny; Datar, Chaitanya; Parker, Michael J; Pasquier, Laurent; Odent, Sylvie; Naudion, Sophie; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Le Caignec, Cédric; Vincent, Marie; Isidor, Bertrand; Renaldo, Florence; Stewart, Fiona; Toutain, Annick; Koehler, Udo; Häckl, Birgit; von Stülpnagel, Celina; Kluger, Gerhard; Møller, Rikke S; Pal, Deb; Jonson, Tord; Soller, Maria; Verbeek, Nienke E; van Haelst, Mieke M; de Kovel, Carolien; Koeleman, Bobby; Monroe, Glen; van Haaften, Gijs; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Boutaud, Lucile; Héron, Delphine; Mignot, Cyril

    2017-04-01

    Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.

  20. Additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in growth trajectories in a wild cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Huchard, E; Charmantier, A; English, S; Bateman, A; Nielsen, J F; Clutton-Brock, T

    2014-09-01

    Individual variation in growth is high in cooperative breeders and may reflect plastic divergence in developmental trajectories leading to breeding vs. helping phenotypes. However, the relative importance of additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in shaping growth trajectories is largely unknown in cooperative vertebrates. This study exploits weekly sequences of body mass from birth to adulthood to investigate sources of variance in, and covariance between, early and later growth in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a cooperative mongoose. Our results indicate that (i) the correlation between early growth (prior to nutritional independence) and adult mass is positive but weak, and there are frequent changes (compensatory growth) in post-independence growth trajectories; (ii) among parameters describing growth trajectories, those describing growth rate (prior to and at nutritional independence) show undetectable heritability while associated size parameters (mass at nutritional independence and asymptotic mass) are moderately heritable (0.09 ≤ h(2) < 0.3); and (iii) additive genetic effects, rather than early environmental effects, mediate the covariance between early growth and adult mass. These results reveal that meerkat growth trajectories remain plastic throughout development, rather than showing early and irreversible divergence, and that the weak effects of early growth on adult mass, an important determinant of breeding success, are partly genetic. In contrast to most cooperative invertebrates, the acquisition of breeding status is often determined after sexual maturity and strongly impacted by chance in many cooperative vertebrates, who may therefore retain the ability to adjust their morphology to environmental changes and social opportunities arising throughout their development, rather than specializing early.

  1. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.

  2. Genetic Panel Screening of Nearly 100 Mutations Reveals New Insights into the Breed Distribution of Risk Variants for Canine Hereditary Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Jonas; Möller, Fredrik; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Sankari, Satu; Hytönen, Marjo; Giger, Urs; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    Background The growing number of identified genetic disease risk variants across dog breeds challenges the current state-of-the-art of population screening, veterinary molecular diagnostics, and genetic counseling. Multiplex screening of such variants is now technologically feasible, but its practical potential as a supportive tool for canine breeding, disease diagnostics, pet care, and genetics research is still unexplored. Results To demonstrate the utility of comprehensive genetic panel screening, we tested nearly 7000 dogs representing around 230 breeds for 93 disease-associated variants using a custom-designed genotyping microarray (the MyDogDNA® panel test). In addition to known breed disease-associated mutations, we discovered 15 risk variants in a total of 34 breeds in which their presence was previously undocumented. We followed up on seven of these genetic findings to demonstrate their clinical relevance. We report additional breeds harboring variants causing factor VII deficiency, hyperuricosuria, lens luxation, von Willebrand’s disease, multifocal retinopathy, multidrug resistance, and rod-cone dysplasia. Moreover, we provide plausible molecular explanations for chondrodysplasia in the Chinook, cerebellar ataxia in the Norrbottenspitz, and familiar nephropathy in the Welsh Springer Spaniel. Conclusions These practical examples illustrate how genetic panel screening represents a comprehensive, efficient and powerful diagnostic and research discovery tool with a range of applications in veterinary care, disease research, and breeding. We conclude that several known disease alleles are more widespread across different breeds than previously recognized. However, careful follow up studies of any unexpected discoveries are essential to establish genotype-phenotype correlations, as is readiness to provide genetic counseling on their implications for the dog and its breed. PMID:27525650

  3. Genetic and chemical characterization of an EMS induced mutation in Cucumis melo CRTISO gene.

    PubMed

    Galpaz, Navot; Burger, Yosi; Lavee, Tamar; Tzuri, Galil; Sherman, Amir; Melamed, Tal; Eshed, Ravit; Meir, Ayala; Portnoy, Vitaly; Bar, Einat; Shimoni-Shor, Einav; Feder, Ari; Saar, Yuval; Saar, Uzi; Baumkoler, Fabian; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Schaffer, Arthur A; Katzir, Nurit; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2013-11-15

    In order to broaden the available genetic variation of melon, we developed an ethyl methanesulfonate mutation library in an orange-flesh 'Charentais' type melon line that accumulates β-carotene. One mutagenized M2 family segregated for a novel recessive trait, a yellow-orange fruit flesh ('yofI'). HPLC analysis revealed that 'yofI' accumulates pro-lycopene (tetra-cis-lycopene) as its major fruit pigment. The altered carotenoid composition of 'yofI' is associated with a significant change of the fruit aroma since cleavage of β-carotene yields different apocarotenoids than the cleavage of pro-lycopene. Normally, pro-lycopene is further isomerized by CRTISO (carotenoid isomerase) to yield all-trans-lycopene, which is further cyclized to β-carotene in melon fruit. Cloning and sequencing of 'yofI' CRTISO identified two mRNA sequences which lead to truncated forms of CRTISO. Sequencing of the genomic CRTISO identified an A-T transversion in 'yofI' which leads to a premature STOP codon. The early carotenoid pathway genes were up regulated in yofI fruit causing accumulation of other intermediates such as phytoene and ζ-carotene. Total carotenoid levels are only slightly increased in the mutant. Mutants accumulating pro-lycopene have been reported in both tomato and watermelon fruits, however, this is the first report of a non-lycopene accumulating fruit showing this phenomenon.

  4. Characterization and genetic mapping of a mutation affecting apurinic endonuclease activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J E; Pattee, P A

    1986-01-01

    Protoplast fusion between the Rec- mutant RN981 (L. Wyman, R. V. Goering, and R. P. Novick, Genetics 76:681-702, 1974) of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and a Rec+ NCTC 8325 derivative yielded Rec+ recombinants that exhibited the increased sensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine characteristic of RN981. Transformation analyses identified a specific mutation, designated ngr-374, that was responsible not only for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine sensitivity, but also sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, nitrous acid, and UV irradiation. However, ngr-374-carrying recombinants showed no significant increase in their sensitivity to mitomycin C or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and were unaffected in recombination proficiency. In vitro assays showed that ngr-374-carrying strains had lower apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities than the wild type. The chromosomal locus occupied by ngr-374 was shown to exist in the gene order omega(Chr::Tn551)40-ngr-374-thrB106. PMID:2430940

  5. Genetic analysis of primary microcephaly in Indian families: novel ASPM mutations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Blanton, S H; Babu, M; Markandaya, M; Girimaji, S C

    2004-10-01

    Patients with primary microcephaly, an autosomal recessive trait, have mild to severe mental retardation without any other neurological deficits. It is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with six known loci: MCPH1 to MCPH6. Only the genes for MCPH1 and MCPH5 have been identified so far. We have ascertained nine consanguineous families with primary microcephaly from India. To establish linkage of these nine families to known MCPH loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions of each of the six known MCPH loci and used to genotype the families. The results were suggestive of linkage of three families to the MCPH5 locus and one family to the MCPH2 locus. The remaining five families were not linked to any of the known loci. DNA-sequence analysis identified one known (Arg117X) and two novel (Trp1326X and Gln3060X) mutations in the three MCPH5-linked families in a homozygous state. Three novel normal population variants (i.e., c.7605G > A, c.4449G > A, and c.5961 A > G) were also detected in the ASPM gene.

  6. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in North Egyptian population: implications for the genetic diagnosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Seedy, A; Pasquet, M C; Shafiek, H; Morsi, T; Kitzis, A; Ladevèze, V

    2016-11-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) occurrence in Arab populations is not common and still remains underidentified. Furthermore, the lack of disease awareness and diagnosis facilities have mislead the identification of cystic fibrosis for decades. The knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Egypt is very limited, and a few reports have drawn attention to the existence of CF or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs) in the Egyptian population. Therefore a comprehensive genetic analysis of the CFTR gene was realized in patients of North Egypt. DNA samples of 56 Egyptian patients were screened for the CFTR gene mutations. The 27 exons and their flanking regions of the CFTR gene were amplified by PCR, using the published primer pairs, and were studied by automated direct DNA sequencing to detect disease-causing mutations. Moreover, large duplication/deletion was analysed by MLPA technique. CFTR screening revealed the identification of thirteen mutations including four novel ones: c.92G>A (p.Arg31His), c.2782G>C (p.Ala928Pro), c.3718-24G>A, c.4207A>G (p.Arg1403Gly) and nine previously reported mutations: c.454A>T (p.Met152Leu), c.902A>G (p.Tyr301Cys), c.1418delG, c.2620-15C>G, c.2997_3000delAATT, c.3154T>G (p.Phe1052Val), c.3872A>G (p.Gln1291Arg), c.3877G>A (p.Val1293Ile), c.4242+10T>C. Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found: c.743+40A>G, c.869+11C>T, c.1408A>G, c.1584G>A, c.2562T>G, c.3870A>G, c.4272C>T, c.4389G>A. These mutations and polymorphisms were not previously described in the Egyptian population except for the c.1408A>G polymorphism. Here we demonstrate the importance of the newly discovered mutations in Egyptian patients and the presence of CF, whereas the p.Phe508del mutation is not detected. The identification of CFTR mutations will become increasingly important in undocumented populations. The current findings will help us expand the mutational spectrum of CF and establish the first panel of the CFTR gene mutations in the Egyptian population and design an appropriate

  7. Genetic Mutations Associated with Pesticide Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of gene mutation in various arthropods have been found to be associated with pesticide resistance. Some of these mutations have been found in the two cattle pests, Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans. Sodium channel gene mutations have been associated with pyrethroid resistance ...

  8. Widespread evidence for non-additive genetic variation in Cloninger's and Eysenck's personality dimensions using a twin plus sibling design.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew C; Coventry, William L; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-11-01

    Studies using the classical twin design often conclude that most genetic variation underlying personality is additive in nature. However, studies analyzing only twins are very limited in their ability to detect non-additive genetic variation and are unable to detect sources of variation unique to twins, which can mask non-additive genetic variation. The current study assessed 9672 MZ and DZ twin individuals and 3241 of their siblings to investigate the environmental and genetic architecture underlying eight dimensions of personality: four from Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and four from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Broad-sense heritability estimates from best-fitting models were two to three times greater than the narrow-sense heritability estimates for Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. This genetic non-additivity could be due to dominance, additive-by-additive epistasis, or to additive genetic effects combined with higher-order epistasis. Environmental effects unique to twins were detected for both Lie and Psychoticism but accounted for little overall variation. Our results illustrate the increased sensitivity afforded by extending the classical twin design to include siblings, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of genetic variation underlying personality.

  9. The impact of coexisting genetic mutations on murine optic glioma biology

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Aparna; Toonen, Joseph A.; Gianino, Scott M.; Gutmann, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome are prone to the development of optic pathway gliomas resulting from biallelic inactivation of the NF1 gene. Recent studies have revealed the presence of other molecular alterations in a small portion of these NF1-associated brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to leverage Nf1 genetically engineered mouse strains to define the functional significance of these changes to optic glioma biology. Methods Nf1+/− mice were intercrossed with Nf1flox/flox mice, which were then crossed with Nf1flox/flox; GFAP-Cre mice, to generate Nf1flox/mut; GFAP-Cre (FMC) mice. These mice were additionally mated with conditional KIAA1549:BRAF knock-in or Ptenflox/wt mice to generate Nf1flox/mut; f-BRAF; GFAP-Cre (FMBC) mice or Nf1flox/mut; Ptenflox/wt; GFAP-Cre (FMPC) mice, respectively. The resulting optic gliomas were analyzed for changes in tumor volume, proliferation, and retinal ganglion cell loss. Results While KIAA1549:BRAF conferred no additional biological properties on Nf1 optic glioma, FMPC mice had larger optic gliomas with greater proliferative indices and microglial infiltration. In addition, all 3 Nf1 murine optic glioma strains exhibited reduced retinal ganglion cell survival and numbers; however, FMPC mice had greater retinal nerve fiber layer thinning near the optic head relative to FMC and FMBC mice. Conclusions Collectively, these experiments demonstrate genetic cooperativity between Nf1 loss and Pten heterozygosity relevant to optic glioma biology and further underscore the value of employing genetically engineered mouse strains to define the contribution of discovered molecular alterations to brain tumor pathogenesis. PMID:25246427

  10. Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.

    PubMed

    Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2007-11-01

    Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits.

  11. Development of a Tool to Guide Parents Carrying a BRCA1/2 Mutation Share Genetic Results with Underage Children.

    PubMed

    Santerre-Theil, Ariane; Bouchard, Karine; St-Pierre, Dominique; Drolet, Anne-Marie; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Dorval, Michel

    2016-11-02

    Although most parents carrying a BRCA1/2 genetic mutation share their test result with their underage children, they report needing support to decide if, when, and how to share risk information and what reactions to expect from their children. We developed a tool to guide parents carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation share their genetic result with underage children. Here, we report on the development of this tool using a qualitative methodology. A tool prototype was developed based on the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration framework. Content was assessed using feedback from focus groups, individual interviews, and a 12-item reading grid. Participants were nine BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with underage children and three cancer genetics health professionals. Thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. The tool was developed using an iterative process until saturation of data. An independent advisory committee was involved in all steps of tool development until reaching consensus. Rather than a decision aid per se (to communicate or not), the parents wanted a more comprehensive tool to help them communicate genetic test result to their children. To meet parents' needs, a communication guidance booklet was developed, setting out the pros and cons of communication, steps to prepare sharing the test result, communication tips, and parents' testimonies. This communication tool responds to a significant unmet need faced by parents carrying a genetic predisposition to cancer. Future studies are needed to assess how the information from the parent's genetic test result impacts the child's development, health behaviors, and relationship with the parent.

  12. Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I in a Turkish newborn caused by a novel mutation and Gilbert type genetic defect.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, D; Alan, S; Kilic, A; Yaman, A; Erdeve, O; Kuloglu, Z; Atasay, B; Arsan, S

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS), caused by deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, is a rare and autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by severe unconjugated nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia since birth. We present a girl with CNS type I caused by a novel mutation and Gilbert type genetic defect. Gilbert's Syndrome (GS) and CNS type I both involve abnormalities in bilirubin conjugation secondary to deficiency of bilirubin UGT. The combined defects even in benign genetic forms were shown to cause more serious clinical disease. The patient has been treated with daily home-based phototherapy for more than nine months and considered as a candidate for liver transplantation.

  13. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general.

  14. FOXL2-mutations in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES); challenges for genetic counseling in female patients.

    PubMed

    Fokstuen, Siv; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Blouin, Jean-Louis

    2003-03-01

    Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor gene 2 (FOXL2) were recently reported to cause blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) types I and II. Evidence was provided that BPES type I (eyelid abnormalities and female infertility) is caused by mutations resulting in a truncated FOXL2 protein. In contrast, mutant FOXL2 proteins, either with inserted aminoacids in the forkhead domain or polyalanine tract, or with novel aminoacids at the carboxyl end, were found in BPES type II, in which fertility is generally normal. We report a 32-year-old female patient with sporadic BPES and a history of menstrual cycle irregularities and periods of secondary amenorrhoea. A heterozygous frameshift mutation (c959-960insG) was found in the FOXL2 gene, resulting in a predicted FOXL2 protein with 212 novel aminoacids in the carboxyl end, suggesting BPES type II despite menstrual irregularities. The clinical presentations of our patient and of three female patients with BPES type II in the report of De Baere et al. [2001: Hum Mol Genet 10:1591-1600.] indicate phenotypic overlap between BPES type I and II. These observations do not support a clear-cut prediction of female fertility based on the FOXL2 molecular defect. As a consequence, FOXL2 mutation testing in female patients of child-bearing age with BPES should be handled with caution, and a two-step genetic counseling approach, including an initial pre-test information session, is proposed.

  15. The mutational spectrum of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck: targetable genetic events and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Mountzios, G; Rampias, T; Psyrri, A

    2014-10-01

    Squamous-cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) represents a heterogeneous disease entity, with various etiological factors implicated in the genesis of distinct molecular subsets of tumors, which exhibit different biological and clinical behavior. Treatment of SCCHN is expected to change in the next decade as targeted therapies continue to make strides. Recently, next-generation sequencing studies conducted on ∼190 SCCHN specimens shed light into the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. These studies discovered mutations in genes involved in the differentiation program of squamous epithelium and the Notch/p63 axis (such as NOTCH1, TP63 and FBXW7), and validated genetic alterations derived from previous studies (such as mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, CCND1 and HRAS) as driver genetic events in SCCHN neoplastic transformation. More recently, comprehensive data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project on 306 SCCHN specimens provided further insight into SCCHN inherent molecular complexity, identifying novel significantly mutated genes, including FAT1, MLL2, TGFRBR2, HLA-A, NFE2l2 and CASP8. In this article, we provide an overview of the mutational spectrum of SCCHN, with emphasis on the clinical implementation of this knowledge. We also discuss the potential integration of new data within the framework of precision cancer medicine.

  16. Association between survivin genetic polymorphisms and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tu-Chen; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Wen-Jun; Chou, Ying-Erh; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Su, Shih-Chi; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Survivin is an anti-apoptotic protein that is implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in various types of cancers. The current study explored the effect of survivin gene polymorphisms and EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. A total of 360 participants, including 291 adenocarcinoma lung cancer and 69 squamous cell carcinoma lung cancer patients, were selected for the analysis of three survivin genetic variants (survivin -31, +9194, and +9809) by using real-time PCR genotyping. The results indicated that GC+CC genotypes of survivin -31 were significant association with EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients (adjusted odds ratio=3.498, 95% CI = 1.171-10.448; p<0.01). Moreover, The GC+CC genotypes of survivin -31 were associated with EGFR L858R mutation but not in exon 19 in-frame deletions. Furthermore, among patients in exon 19 in-frame deletions, those who have at least one polymorphic G allele of survivin -31 have an increased incidence to develop late-stage when compared with those patients homozygous for C/C (OR, 4.800; 95% CI, 1.305-17.658). In conclusion, our results showed that survivin genetic variants were related to EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients and might contribute to pathological development to NSCLC. PMID:27994498

  17. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Marquart, Louise; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga; Wan, Fei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Singer, Christian F; Dressler, Anne-Catharine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Weitzel, Jeff; Lynch, Henry; Garber, Judy; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Selkirk, Christina G.; Daly, Mary; Isaacs, Claudine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Pujol, Pascal; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Os, Theo A.; Wijnen, Juul; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Durocher, Francine; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Thomassen, Mads; Domchek, Susan; Nathanson, Kate; Caligo, MA; Jernström, Helena; Liljegren, Annelie; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Ganz, Patricia A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tomlinson, Gail; Neuhausen, Susan; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies. Methods A cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser. In a second non-independent cohort of 1,537 of BRCA1 and 839 BRCA2 mutation carriers, BARD1 haplotypes were also evaluated. Results The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer from single SNP analysis, with a pooled effect estimate of 0.90 (95%CI: 0.71-1.15) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.59-1.29) in BRCA2 carriers. Further analysis of haplotypes at BARD1 also revealed no evidence that additional common genetic variation not captured by Cys557Ser was associated with breast cancer risk. Conclusion Evidence to date does not support a role for BARD1 variation, including the Cy557Ser variant, as a modifier of risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Impact Interactors of BRCA1/2 have been implicated as modifiers of BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. Our finding that BARD1 does not contribute to this risk modification may focus research on other genes that do modify BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. PMID:21393566

  18. Genetic and biochemical characterization of mutations affecting the ability of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to metabolize D-xylose

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.P.; Zahab, D.M.; Mahmourides, G.; Maleszka, R.; Schneider, H. )

    1989-11-01

    Induced mutants, selected for their defective growth on D-xylose while retaining the ability to grow normally on D-glucose, were studied in Pachysolen tannophilus, a yeast capable of converting D-xylose to ethanol. Fourteen of the mutations were found to occur at nine distinct loci, and data indicated that many more loci remain to be detected. Most of the mutations were pleiotropic in character, and the expression of some of them was much affected by nutritional conditions and by genetic background. Mutations at several loci resulted in poor growth on at least one compound that was either an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, succinate or {alpha}-ketoglutarate, or on compounds metabolizable via this cycle, ethanol or glycerol. An initial biochemical characterization of the mutants was undertaken. Analysis for xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulose kinase activity showed that one or more of these activities was affected in 12 of 13 mutants. However, drastic reduction in activity of a single enzyme was confined to that of xylitol dehydrogenase by mutations at three different loci and to that of D-xylose reductase by mutation at another locus. Growth of these latter four mutants was normal on all carbon sources tested that were not five-carbon sugars.

  19. High prevalence of BRCA1 stop mutation c.4183C>T in the Tyrolean population: implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Pölsler, Laura; Fiegl, Heidi; Wimmer, Katharina; Oberaigner, Willi; Amberger, Albert; Traunfellner, Pia; Morscher, Raphael J; Weber, Ingrid; Fauth, Christine; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Oberguggenberger, Anne; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian; Zschocke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Screening for founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has been discussed as a cost-effective testing strategy in certain populations. In this study, comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing was performed in a routine diagnostic setting. The prevalence of the BRCA1 stop mutation c.4183C>T, p.(Gln1395Ter), was determined in unselected breast and ovarian cancer patients from different regions in the Tyrol. Cancer registry data were used to evaluate the impact of this mutation on regional cancer incidence. The mutation c.4183C>T was detected in 30.4% of hereditary BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer patients in our cohort. It was also identified in 4.1% of unselected (26% of unselected triple negative) Tyrolean breast cancer patients and 6.8% of unselected ovarian cancer patients from the Lower Inn Valley (LIV) region. Cancer incidences showed a region-specific increase in age-stratified breast and ovarian cancer risk with standardized incidence ratios of 1.23 and 2.13, respectively. We, thus, report a Tyrolean BRCA1 founder mutation that correlates to a local increase in the breast and ovarian cancer risks. On the basis of its high prevalence, we suggest that targeted genetic analysis should be offered to all women with breast or ovarian cancer and ancestry from the LIV region. PMID:26014432

  20. A cluster of progranulin C157KfsX97 mutations in Southern Italy: clinical characterization and genetic correlations.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Cinzia; Saracino, Dario; Puoti, Gianfranco; Lus, Giacomo; Dato, Clemente; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jeremie; Caroppo, Paola; Piccoli, Elena; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Rossi, Giacomina

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of neurodegenerative diseases displaying high clinical, pathologic, and genetic heterogeneity. Several autosomal dominant progranulin (GRN) mutations have been reported, accounting for 5%-10% of FTLD cases worldwide. In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of 7 Italian patients, 5 with a diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia behavioral variant and 2 of corticobasal syndrome (CBS), carrying the GRN deletion g.101349_101355delCTGCTGT, resulting in the C157KfsX97 null mutation, and hypothesized the existence of a founder effect by means of haplotype sharing analysis. We performed plasma progranulin dosage, GRN gene sequencing, and haplotype sharing study, analyzing 10 short tandem repeat markers, spanning a region of 11.08 Mb flanking GRN on chromosome 17q21. We observed shared alleles among 6 patients for 8 consecutive short tandem repeat markers spanning a 7.29 Mb region. Therefore, also with this particular mutation, the elevated clinical variability described among GRN-mutated FTLD cases is confirmed. Moreover, this is the first study reporting the likely existence of a founder effect for C157KfsX97 mutation in Southern Italy.

  1. An F1 genetic screen for maternal-effect mutations affecting embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Luschnig, Stefan; Moussian, Bernard; Krauss, Jana; Desjeux, Isabelle; Perkovic, Josip; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale screens for female-sterile mutations have revealed genes required maternally for establishment of the body axes in the Drosophila embryo. Although it is likely that the majority of components involved in axis formation have been identified by this approach, certain genes have escaped detection. This may be due to (1) incomplete saturation of the screens for female-sterile mutations and (2) genes with essential functions in zygotic development that mutate to lethality, precluding their identification as female-sterile mutations. To overcome these limitations, we performed a genetic mosaic screen aimed at identifying new maternal genes required for early embryonic patterning, including zygotically required ones. Using the Flp-FRT technique and a visible germline clone marker, we developed a system that allows efficient screening for maternal-effect phenotypes after only one generation of breeding, rather than after the three generations required for classic female-sterile screens. We identified 232 mutants showing various defects in embryonic pattern or morphogenesis. The mutants were ordered into 10 different phenotypic classes. A total of 174 mutants were assigned to 86 complementation groups with two alleles on average. Mutations in 45 complementation groups represent most previously known maternal genes, while 41 complementation groups represent new loci, including several involved in dorsoventral, anterior-posterior, and terminal patterning. PMID:15166158

  2. Novel and recurrent BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in early onset and familial breast and ovarian cancer detected in the Program of Genetic Counseling in Cancer of Valencian Community (eastern Spain). Relationship of family phenotypes with mutation prevalence.

    PubMed

    de Juan Jiménez, Inmaculada; García Casado, Zaida; Palanca Suela, Sarai; Esteban Cardeñosa, Eva; López Guerrero, José Antonio; Segura Huerta, Ángel; Chirivella González, Isabel; Sánchez Heras, Ana Beatriz; Juan Fita, Ma José; Tena García, Isabel; Guillen Ponce, Carmen; Martínez de Dueñas, Eduardo; Romero Noguera, Ignacio; Salas Trejo, Dolores; Goicoechea Sáez, Mercedes; Bolufer Gilabert, Pascual

    2013-12-01

    During the first 6 years of the Program of Genetic Counselling in Cancer of Valencia (eastern Spain), 310 mutations (155 in BRCA1 and 155 in BRCA2) in 1,763 hereditary breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) families were identified. Of the mutations found 105 were distinct (53 in BRCA1 and 52 in BRCA2), eight new and 37 recurrent. Two of the novel mutations were frame-shift placed in exons 2 and 11 of BRCA1 and the remaining six were placed in BRCA2; four frame-shift (three in exon 11 and one in exon 23), one deletion of the entire exon 19 and one in the intervening sequence of exon 22. The BRCA1 mutations with higher recurrence were c.66_68delAG, c.5123C > A, c.1961delA, c.3770_3771delAG and c.5152+5G > A that covered 45.2% of mutations of this gene. The age of onset of BCs of c.68_69delAG mutation carriers occurs later than for the other recurrent mutations of this gene (45 vs. 37 years; p = 0.008). The BRCA2 mutations with higher recurrence were c.9026_9030delATCAT, c.3264insT and c.8978_8991del14 which represented 43.2% of all mutations in this gene, being the most recurrent mutation by far c.9026_9030delATCAT that represents 21.3% of BRCA2 mutations and 10.6% of all mutations. Probands with family histories of BC and OC, or OC and/or BC in at least two first degree relatives, were the more likely to have BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (35.2% of the total mutations). And that most BRCA1mutations (73.19% mutations) occurred in probands with early-onset BC or with family history of OC.

  3. High mutation rates explain low population genetic divergence at copy-number-variable loci in Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Yeh, Francis C.; Hu, Yang; Deng, Li-Ting; Ennos, Richard A.; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites. Populations generally exhibit very small genetic divergence (Gst = 0.05 ± 0.049). The smallest divergence is among African populations (Gst = 0.0081 ± 0.0025), with increased divergence among non-African populations (Gst = 0.0217 ± 0.0109) and then among African and non-African populations (Gst = 0.0324 ± 0.0064). Genetic diversity is high in African populations (~0.13), low in Asian populations (~0.11), and intermediate in the remaining 11 populations. Few significant linkage disequilibria (LDs) occur between the genome-wide CNV loci. Patterns of gametic and zygotic LDs indicate the absence of epistasis among CNV loci. Mutation rate is about twice as large as the migration rate in the non-African populations, suggesting that the high mutation rates play dominant roles in producing the low population genetic divergence at CNV loci. PMID:28225073

  4. Surveillance of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Susceptibility in Indonesia: Different Resistance Types among Regions and with Novel Genetic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Makmun, Dadang; Waskito, Langgeng Agung; Zein, Lukman Hakim; Akil, Fardah; Uwan, Willy Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman; Waleleng, Jimmy Bradley; Saudale, Alexander Michael Joseph; Yusuf, Fauzi; Mustika, Syifa; Adi, Pangestu; Maimunah, Ummi; Maulahela, Hasan; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Rahardjo, Dadik; Suzuki, Rumiko; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the association between virulence genes or genetic mutations and antibiotic resistance. We recruited 849 dyspeptic patients who underwent endoscopy in 11 cities in Indonesia. E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics. PCR-based sequencing assessed mutations in 23S rRNA, rdxA, gyrA, gyrB, and virulence genes. Next generation sequencing was used to obtain full-length sequences of 23S rRNA, infB, and rpl22. We cultured 77 strains and identified 9.1% with clarithromycin resistance. Low prevalence was also found for amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance (5.2% and 2.6%, respectively). In contrast, high resistance rates to metronidazole (46.7%) and levofloxacin (31.2%) were demonstrated. Strains isolated from Sumatera Island had significantly higher metronidazole resistance than those from other locations. Metronidazole resistant strains had highly distributed rdxA amino acid substitutions and the 23S rRNA A2143G mutation was associated with clarithromycin resistance (42.9%). However, one strain with the highest MIC value had a novel mutation in rpl22 without an A2143G mutation. Mutation at Asn-87 and/or Asp-91 of gyrA was associated with levofloxacin-resistance and was related to gyrB mutations. In conclusions, although this is a pilot study for a larger survey, our current data show that Indonesian strains had the high prevalence of metronidazole and levofloxacin resistance with low prevalence of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline resistance. Nevertheless, clarithromycin- or metronidazole-based triple therapy should be administered with caution in some regions of Indonesia. PMID:27906990

  5. Guided macro-mutation in a graded energy based genetic algorithm for protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahmood A; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Khatib, Firas; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Sattar, Abdul

    2016-04-01

    Protein structure prediction is considered as one of the most challenging and computationally intractable combinatorial problem. Thus, the efficient modeling of convoluted search space, the clever use of energy functions, and more importantly, the use of effective sampling algorithms become crucial to address this problem. For protein structure modeling, an off-lattice model provides limited scopes to exercise and evaluate the algorithmic developments due to its astronomically large set of data-points. In contrast, an on-lattice model widens the scopes and permits studying the relatively larger proteins because of its finite set of data-points. In this work, we took the full advantage of an on-lattice model by using a face-centered-cube lattice that has the highest packing density with the maximum degree of freedom. We proposed a graded energy-strategically mixes the Miyazawa-Jernigan (MJ) energy with the hydrophobic-polar (HP) energy-based genetic algorithm (GA) for conformational search. In our application, we introduced a 2 × 2 HP energy guided macro-mutation operator within the GA to explore the best possible local changes exhaustively. Conversely, the 20 × 20 MJ energy model-the ultimate objective function of our GA that needs to be minimized-considers the impacts amongst the 20 different amino acids and allow searching the globally acceptable conformations. On a set of benchmark proteins, our proposed approach outperformed state-of-the-art approaches in terms of the free energy levels and the root-mean-square deviations.

  6. Trends in lignin modification: a comprehensive analysis of the effects of genetic manipulations/mutations on lignification and vascular integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of lignin configuration in transgenic and mutant plants is long overdue. This review thus undertook the systematic analysis of trends manifested through genetic and mutational manipulations of the various steps associated with monolignol biosynthesis; this included consideration of the downstream effects on organized lignin assembly in the various cell types, on vascular function/integrity, and on plant growth and development. As previously noted for dirigent protein (homologs), distinct and sophisticated monolignol forming metabolic networks were operative in various cell types, tissues and organs, and form the cell-specific guaiacyl (G) and guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) enriched lignin biopolymers, respectively. Regardless of cell type undergoing lignification, carbon allocation to the different monolignol pools is apparently determined by a combination of phenylalanine availability and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase/"p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase" (C4H/C3H) activities, as revealed by transcriptional and metabolic profiling. Downregulation of either phenylalanine ammonia lyase or cinnamate-4-hydroxylase thus predictably results in reduced lignin levels and impaired vascular integrity, as well as affecting related (phenylpropanoid-dependent) metabolism. Depletion of C3H activity also results in reduced lignin deposition, albeit with the latter being derived only from hydroxyphenyl (H) units, due to both the guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) pathways being blocked. Apparently the cells affected are unable to compensate for reduced G/S levels by increasing the amounts of H-components. The downstream metabolic networks for G-lignin enriched formation in both angiosperms and gymnosperms utilize specific cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) isoforms: however, these steps neither affect carbon allocation nor H/G designations, this being determined by C4H/C3H

  7. LRRK2 kinase activity mediates toxic interactions between genetic mutation and oxidative stress in a Drosophila model: suppression by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dejun; Li, Tianxia; Liu, Zhaohui; Arbez, Nicolas; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Ross, Christopher A; Smith, Wanli W

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. The pathogenesis of PD is believed to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause genetic forms of PD, and the LRRK2 locus contributes to sporadic PD. Environmental toxins are believed to act in part by causing oxidative stress. Here we employed cell and Drosophila models to investigate the interaction between LRRK2 genetic mutations and oxidative stress. We found that H(2)O(2) increased LRRK2 kinase activity and enhanced LRRK2 cell toxicity in cultured cells and mouse primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, a sub-toxic dose of H(2)O(2) significantly shortened the survival of LRRK2 transgenic flies and augmented LRRK2-induced locomotor defects and dopamine neuron loss. Treatment with a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor (GW5074) or an anti-oxidant (curcumin) significantly suppressed these PD-like phenotypes in flies. Moreover, curcumin significantly reduced LRRK2 kinase activity and the levels of oxidized proteins, and thus acted as not only an antioxidant but also a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that LRRK2 genetic alterations can interact with oxidative stress, converging on a pathogenic pathway that may be related to PD. These studies also identified curcumin as a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor that may be a useful candidate for LRRK2-linked PD intervention.

  8. Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation–selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. “Animal model” analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population. PMID:24963372

  9. Germline and somatic mosaicism for a mutation of the ryanodine receptor type 2 gene: implication for genetic counselling and patient caring.

    PubMed

    Roux-Buisson, Nathalie; Egéa, Grégory; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Lunardi, Joel

    2011-01-01

    We identified a heterozygous p.Arg2401His mutation of RYR2 by sequencing the DNA of a 7-year-old girl who was referred for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Using high-resolution melting assay, we have demonstrated a mosaicism for this mutation in her asymptomatic mother which illustrates the benefit of extensive genetic analysis in CPVT, in particular regarding genetic counselling.

  10. Molecular and genetic characterization of a radiation-induced structural rearrangement in mouse chromosome 2 causing mutations at the limb deformity and agouti loci.

    PubMed

    Woychik, R P; Generoso, W M; Russell, L B; Cain, K T; Cacheiro, N L; Bultman, S J; Selby, P B; Dickinson, M E; Hogan, B L; Rutledge, J C

    1990-04-01

    Molecular characterization of mutations in the mouse, particularly those involving agent-induced major structural alterations, is proving to be useful for correlating the structure and expression of individual genes with their function in the whole organism. Here we present the characterization of a radiation-induced mutation that simultaneously generated distinct alleles of both the limb deformity (ld) and agouti (a) loci, two developmentally important regions of chromosome 2 normally separated by 20 centimorgans. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that an interstitial segment of chromosome 17 (17B- 17C; or, possibly, 17A2-17B) had been translocated into the distal end of chromosome 2, resulting in a smaller-than-normal chromosome 17 (designated 17del) and a larger form of chromosome 2 (designated 2(17). Additionally, a large interstitial segment of the 2(17) chromosome, immediately adjacent and proximal to the insertion site, did not match bands 2E4-2H1 at corresponding positions on a normal chromosome 2. Molecular analysis detected a DNA rearrangement in which a portion of the ld locus was joined to sequences normally tightly linked to the a locus. This result, along with the genetic and cytogenetic data, suggests that the alleles of ld and a in this radiation-induced mutation, designated ldIn2 and ajIn2, were associated with DNA breaks caused by an inversion of an interstitial segment in the 2(17) chromosome.

  11. Identification of Genetic Loci Affecting the Severity of Symptoms of Hirschsprung Disease in Rats Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations by Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Torigoe, Daisuke; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Sasaki, Nobuya; Wang, Jinxi; Agui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease in neonates characterized by the absence of the enteric ganglia in a variable length of the distal colon. This disease results from multiple genetic interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate developing gut. We previously reported that three rat strains with different backgrounds (susceptible AGH-Ednrbsl/sl, resistant F344-Ednrbsl/sl, and LEH-Ednrbsl/sl) but the same null mutation of Ednrb show varying severity degrees of aganglionosis. This finding suggests that strain-specific genetic factors affect the severity of HSCR. Consistent with this finding, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the severity of HSCR on chromosome (Chr) 2 was identified using an F2 intercross between AGH and F344 strains. In the present study, we performed QTL analysis using an F2 intercross between the susceptible AGH and resistant LEH strains to identify the modifier/resistant loci for HSCR in Ednrb-deficient rats. A significant locus affecting the severity of HSCR was also detected within the Chr 2 region. These findings strongly suggest that a modifier gene of aganglionosis exists on Chr 2. In addition, two potentially causative SNPs (or mutations) were detected upstream of a known HSCR susceptibility gene, Gdnf. These SNPs were possibly responsible for the varied length of gut affected by aganglionosis. PMID:25790447

  12. Background mutations in parental cells account for most of the genetic heterogeneity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Young, Margaret A.; Larson, David E.; Sun, Chiao-Wang; George, Daniel R.; Ding, Li; Miller, Christopher A.; Lin, Ling; Pawlik, Kevin M.; Chen, Ken; Fan, Xian; Schmidt, Heather; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle; Cook, Lisa L.; Swift, Gary W.; Demeter, Ryan T.; Wendl, Michael C.; Sands, Mark S.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Townes, Tim M.; Ley, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To assess the genetic consequences of induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) reprogramming, we sequenced the genomes of ten murine iPSC clones derived from three independent reprogramming experiments, and compared them to their parental cell genomes. We detected hundreds of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in every clone, with an average of 11 in coding regions. In two experiments, all SNVs were unique for each clone and did not cluster in pathways, but in the third, all four iPSC clones contained 157 shared genetic variants, which could also be detected in rare cells (<1 in 500) within the parental MEF pool. This data suggests that most of the genetic variation in iPSC clones is not caused by reprogramming per se, but is rather a consequence of cloning individual cells, which “captures” their mutational history. These findings have implications for the development and therapeutic use of cells that are reprogrammed by any method. PMID:22542160

  13. Somatic FAS mutations are common in patients with genetically undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Niemela, Julie E; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L; Oliveira, João Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-06-24

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B(12), interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children.

  14. Computational Simulation and Analysis of Mutations: Nucleotide Fixation, Allelic Age and Rare Genetic Variations in Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the complexity of mutations, a computational approach named Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms ("GEMA") has been implemented. GEMA models genomic changes, taking into account hundreds of mutations within each individual in a population. By modeling of entire human chromosomes, GEMA precisely mimics real…

  15. Label-free and high-sensitive detection for genetic point mutation based on hyperspectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongxin; Li, Qi; Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Ruliang; Lin, Xue; Xue, Ning; Su, Ya; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-10-01

    Label free point mutation detection is particularly momentous in the area of biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since gene mutations naturally occur and bring about highly fatal diseases. In this paper, a label free and high sensitive approach is proposed for point mutation detection based on hyperspectral interferometry. A hybridization strategy is designed to discriminate a single-base substitution with sequence-specific DNA ligase. Double-strand structures will take place only if added oligonucleotides are perfectly paired to the probe sequence. The proposed approach takes full use of the inherent conformation of double-strand DNA molecules on the substrate and a spectrum analysis method is established to point out the sub-nanoscale thickness variation, which benefits to high sensitive mutation detection. The limit of detection reach 4pg/mm2 according to the experimental result. A lung cancer gene point mutation was demonstrated, proving the high selectivity and multiplex analysis capability of the proposed biosensor.

  16. Genetic Mutation and Exosome Signature of Human Papilloma Virus Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Anbarasu; Hertweck, Kate L.; Philley, Julie V.; Wells, Robert B.; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    Human papilloma virus-16 (HPV-16) associated oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) is increasing alarmingly in the United States. We performed whole genome sequencing of a 44 year old, male HPVOPC subject diagnosed with moderately differentiated tonsillar carcinoma. We identified new somatic mutation in MUC16 (A.k.a. CA-125), MUC12, MUC4, MUC6, MUC2, SIRPA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-A and HLA-B molecules. Increased protein expression of MUC16, SIRPA and decreased expression of HLA-DRB1 was further demonstrated in this HPVOPC subject and an additional set of 15 HPVOPC cases. Copy number gain (3 copies) was also observed for MUC2, MUC4, MUC6 and SIRPA. Enhanced expression of MUC16, SIRPA and HPV-16-E7 protein was detectable in the circulating exosomes of numerous HPVOPC subjects. Treatment of non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells with exosomes derived from aggressive HPVOPC cells harboring MUC16, SIRPA and HPV-16-E7 proteins augmented invasion and induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by an increased expression ratio of the EMT markers Vimentin/E-cadherin. Exosome based screening of key HPVOPC associated molecules could be beneficial for early cancer diagnosis, monitoring and surveillance. PMID:28383029

  17. Genotyping of β-globin gene mutations in single lymphocytes: a preliminary study for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of monogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Burak; Ozkinay, Ferda; Onay, Huseyin; Karaca, Emin; Aydinok, Yesim; Tavmergen, Erol; Vrettou, Christina; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, especially β-thalassemia (β-thal), represent an important health burden in Mediterranean countries like Turkey. Some couples prefer the option of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). However, clinical application of PGD, especially for the monogenic disorders is technically demanding. To ensure reliable results, protocols need to be robust and well standardized. Ideally PGD-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) protocols should be based on multiplex and fluorescent PCR for analysis of the disease-causing mutation(s) along with linked markers across the disease-associated locus. In this study, we aimed to constitute a protocol in single cells involving first round multiplex PCR with primers to amplify the region of the β-globin gene containing the most common mutations. Two microsatellites linked to the β-globin gene cluster (D11S4891, D11S2362) and two unlinked (D13S314, GABRB3) microsatellite markers, were used to rule out allele dropout (ADO) and contamination; followed by nested real-time PCR for genotyping the β-globin mutations. We also investigated the allele frequencies and heterozygote rates of these microsatellites in the Turkish population that have not been reported to date. This protocol was tested in 100 single lymphocytes from heterozygotes with known β-globin mutations. Amplification failure was detected in one lymphocyte (1%) and ADO was observed in two lymphocytes (2%). No contamination was detected. All results were concordant with the genotypes of the patients. Overall, this protocol was demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate, reliable and rapid for the detection of β-globin mutations in single cells and shows potential for the clinical application of PGD for hemoglobinopathies in the Turkish population.

  18. Genetic mutation, linkage and heterogeneity analysis in Spanish pedigrees and isolated cases of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)

    SciTech Connect

    Volpini, V.; Matilla, T.; Genis, D.

    1994-09-01

    We report a genetic study of 14 Spanish kindreds and 11 isolated cases with SCA. The diagnosis was ascertained in 60 members, but clinical data were only obtained for 35 of them. One defective gene responsible for the disease was localized to 6p22-p23 (SCA1) and the mutation consists of an expansion of an intragenic (CAG){sub n} repeat (REP). We studied all of our genealogical and isolated affected individuals in order to know their 6p mutational status. Thus we detected a large pedigree which has the pathological expansion with {open_quotes}n{close_quotes} in the range of 41 to 57 repeats. The expansion increases through generations and correlates with anticipation. In the Spanish population, the non-pathological range of {open_quotes}n{close_quotes} is from 6 to 39 repeats. These sequences are {open_quotes}protected{close_quotes} having an interrupted repeat configuration, studied by restriction and sequencing analysis. This mutation was not present in the genealogical or isolated affected individuals studied. We also tested our families with the recently reported CAG expansion in 12p-12ter (DRPLA) and obtained negative results. Linkage analysis in non-SCA1, DRPLA families using markers from others chromosomal regions, 12q23-24.1 (SCA2) and 14q24.3-q32 (SCA3), results in negative lod scores and shows genetic heterogeneity in our population.

  19. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of nucleic acid-based devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. Final order.

    PubMed

    2014-10-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) and the genetic mutations associated with MTB-complex antibiotic resistance in respiratory specimens devices into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  20. The identification of MAFB mutations in eight patients with multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis supports genetic homogeneity but clinical variability.

    PubMed

    Mehawej, Cybel; Courcet, Jean-Benoît; Baujat, Geneviève; Mouy, Richard; Gérard, Marion; Landru, Isabelle; Gosselin, Morgane; Koehrer, Philippe; Mousson, Christiane; Breton, Sylvain; Quartier, Pierre; Le Merrer, Martine; Faivre, Laurence; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2013-12-01

    Multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis (MCTO) with or without nephropathy is a rare osteolysis disorder beginning in early childhood and involving mainly carpal and tarsal bones. Renal disease appears later in life in the majority of cases and evolves quickly to end stage renal failure. Autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance has been demonstrated, with a high frequency of sporadic cases. Recently, mutations in a highly conserved region of the MAFB gene (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene ortholog B) have been identified in MCTO patients by exome sequencing. MafB, known as a regulator of various developmental processes, is essential for osteoclastogenesis and renal development. We report here the molecular screening of MAFB in eight MCTO patients from six families. We identified MAFB mutations in all, including three novel missense mutations clustering within the hot spot mutation region. Among the eight patients, six only presented renal disease. Our report confirms the genetic homogeneity of MCTO and provides data underlying the clinical variability of this disorder.

  1. Analysis of genetic mutations in Chinese patients with systemic primary carnitine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Han, Lianshu; Wang, Fei; Wang, Yu; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Huiwen; Gao, Xiaolan; Gong, Zhuwen; Gu, Xuefan

    2014-10-01

    Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is caused by mutations in SLC22A5 gene, which encodes organic cation transporter 2(OCTN2). CDSP leads to skeletal or cardiac myopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. The present study aimed to identify SLC22A5 gene mutations and analyze the potential relationship between genotype and clinical symptoms in 20 Chinese patients with CDSP. The complete coding region of the SLC22A5 gene including intron-exon boundaries were amplified and sequenced in all patients. Eighteen different mutations were found; of which, nine were novel. The mutations clustering in exons 1 and 4 accounted for 66.7% of all mutant alleles (26/39). The c.760C>T (p. R254X) was the most frequent mutation (25.6%, 10/39), suggesting it as an ethnic founder mutation. The relationship between genotype and phenotype was investigated in patients carrying the R254X mutation. Homozygous patients with R254X were late-onset cases who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness after 1 year of age. Compound heterozygous patients carrying R254X, combined with other missense mutations occurred in very specific positions, dramatically altered OCTN2 protein function. Based on the analysis of case studies, a clear relationship between free carnitine (C0) level in plasma and OCTN2 genotype was not found in the present work, however, the low plasma C0 level could not indicate disease severity or genotype. Further functional studies with a large sample size are required to understand the relationship between R254X mutation and CDSP.

  2. Toxicological safety assessment of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis with additional N-acyl homoserine lactonase gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Chenfei; Chen, Shouwen; Ruan, Lifang; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicology safety to mammals of a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus thuringiensis with an additional N-acyl homoserine lactones gene (aiiA), which possesses insecticidal activity together with restraint of bacterial pathogenicity and is intended for use as a multifunctional biopesticide. Safety assessments included an acute oral toxicity test and 28-d animal feeding study in Wistar rats, primary eye and dermal irritation in Zealand White rabbits, and delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Tests were conducted using spray-dried powder preparation. This GM product showed toxicity neither in oral acute toxicity test nor in 28-d animal feeding test at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. During the animal feeding test, there were no significant differences in growth, food and water consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights, and histopathology finding between rats in controls and tested groups. Tested animals in primary eye and dermal irritation and delayed contact hypersensitivity test were also devoid of any toxicity compared to controls. All the above results demonstrated that the GM based multifunctional B. thuringiensis has low toxicity and low eye and dermal irritation and would not cause hypersensitivity to laboratory mammals and therefore could be regarded as safe for use as a pesticide.

  3. Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal Epithelium from Women with BRCA1 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    epigenetically disrupted progenitor cells that could then be affected by an initiating mutation of a key gatekeeper gene in a single cell [42]. An...Garcia R, Goff BA, Gray HJ, and Swisher EM (2007). Common polymorphisms in TP53 and MDM2 and the re- lationship to TP53 mutations and clinical outcomes in...FL, Héon E, Piguet B, Guymer RH, Vandenburgh K, Cousin P, Nishimura D, Swiderski RE, et al. (1999). A single EFEMP1 mutation associated with both

  4. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines' transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness.

  5. The genetics of adaptation to discrete heterogeneous environments: frequent mutation or large-effect alleles can allow range expansion.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, K J; Whitlock, M C

    2017-03-01

    Range expansions are complex evolutionary and ecological processes. From an evolutionary standpoint, a populations' adaptive capacity can determine the success or failure of expansion. Using individual-based simulations, we model range expansion over a two-dimensional, approximately continuous landscape. We investigate the ability of populations to adapt across patchy environmental gradients and examine how the effect sizes of mutations influence the ability to adapt to novel environments during range expansion. We find that genetic architecture and landscape patchiness both have the ability to change the outcome of adaptation and expansion over the landscape. Adaptation to new environments succeeds via many mutations of small effect or few of large effect, but not via the intermediate between these cases. Higher genetic variance contributes to increased ability to adapt, but an alternative route of successful adaptation can proceed from low genetic variance scenarios with alleles of sufficiently large effect. Steeper environmental gradients can prevent adaptation and range expansion on both linear and patchy landscapes. When the landscape is partitioned into local patches with sharp changes in phenotypic optimum, the local magnitude of change between subsequent patches in the environment determines the success of adaptation to new patches during expansion.

  6. Mutations in sodium-channel gene SCN9A cause a spectrum of human genetic pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Drenth, Joost P H; Waxman, Stephen G

    2007-12-01

    The voltage-gated sodium-channel type IX alpha subunit, known as Na(v)1.7 and encoded by the gene SCN9A, is located in peripheral neurons and plays an important role in action potential production in these cells. Recent genetic studies have identified Na(v)1.7 dysfunction in three different human pain disorders. Gain-of-function missense mutations in Na(v)1.7 have been shown to cause primary erythermalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, while nonsense mutations in Na(v)1.7 result in loss of Na(v)1.7 function and a condition known as channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, a rare disorder in which affected individuals are unable to feel physical pain. This review highlights these recent developments and discusses the critical role of Na(v)1.7 in pain sensation in humans.

  7. Genetic analysis of a pleiotropic deletion mutation (delta igf) in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Y; Fujita, T

    1983-01-01

    A delta igf mutation of Bacillus subtilis (formerly called fdpAl) is a large deletion causing pleiotropic defects. The mapping of the delta igf deletion by phage PBS1 transduction revealed the following map order: sacA, thiC, hsrE, delta igf, ts199, purA. To analyze the pleiotropic nature of the delta igf mutation, mutants affected in each property of the pleiotropic mutation were isolated, and the mutations were mapped. iol and gnt mutants could not grow on inositol and gluconate, respectively, and fdp mutants were affected only in fructose-bisphosphatase. The map order from sacA to purA was as follows: sacA, thiC, hsrE, iol-6, gnt-4, fdp-74, hsrB, ts199, purA. The delta igf deletion covered loci from iol-6 to hsrB. PMID:6302085

  8. Clinical, Pathologic, and Genetic Features of Wilms Tumors With WTX Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Sanda; Akhavanfard, Sara; Harris, Marian H; Vargas, Sara O

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pathologic features of patients with WTX-mutated Wilms tumor (WT) have not been studied in detail. We characterize the clinical and pathologic findings in WT with WTX abnormalities and provide comparison with WT without WTX mutation. Clinical, gross, and microscopic features in 35 patients with WT were examined. Karyotype was examined in a subset of cases. All cases had been previously analyzed for WTX, WT1, and CTNNB1 aberrations via array comparative genomic hybridization; OncoMap 4 high throughput genotyping was performed on 18 cases. Eleven tumors had WTX abnormality. No significant differences were identified between patients with mutated versus nonmutated WTX with respect to gender (45% versus 33% male), age (mean 3.9 versus 4.1 years), tumor size (mean 12.7 cm versus 12.8 cm), anaplasia (9% versus 12%), rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (18% versus 8%), cartilage differentiation (9% versus 4%), mucinous epithelial differentiation (9% versus 4%), nephrogenic rests (28% versus 21%), or relapse rate (11% versus 25%). Mutations in KRAS, MYC, and PIK3R1 were restricted to WTX-mutated WT, mutations in AKT, CKDN2A, EFGR, HRAS, MET, and RET were restricted to WT without WTX mutation, and mutations in BRAF, CTTNB1, NRAS, PDGFRA, and STK11 were seen in both groups. Our study revealed no clinical or pathologic distinctions between WT with and without WTX abnormality. This similarity lends support to the concept of a common tumorigenic pathway between WT with aberrant WTX and those without.

  9. [Aspect of brain MRI in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. A diagnostic algorithm of the most common mitochondrial genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Devaux-Bricout, M; Grévent, D; Lebre, A-S; Rio, M; Desguerre, I; De Lonlay, P; Valayannopoulos, V; Brunelle, F; Rötig, A; Munnich, A; Boddaert, N

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are due to deficiency of the respiratory chain and are characterized by a broad clinical and genetic heterogeneity that makes diagnosis difficult. Some clinical presentations are highly suggestive of given gene mutations, allowing rapid genetic diagnosis. However, owing to the wide pattern of symptoms in mitochondrial disorders and the constantly growing number of disease genes, their genetic diagnosis is frequently difficult and genotype/phenotype correlations remain elusive. For this reason, brain MRI appears as a useful tool for genotype/phenotype correlations. Here, we report the most frequent neuroradiological signs in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and we propose a diagnostic algorithm based on neuroimaging features, so as to direct molecular genetic tests in patients at risk of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. This algorithm is based on the careful analysis of five areas on brain MRI: (1) basal ganglia (hyperintensities on T2 or calcifications); (2) cerebellum (hyperintensities on T2 or atrophy); (3) brainstem (hyperintensities on T2 or atrophy); (4) white matter (leukoencephalopathy); (5) cortex (sub-tentorial atrophy); (6) stroke-like episodes. We believe that the combination of brain MRI features is of value to support respiratory chain deficiency and direct molecular genetic tests.

  10. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (A{sup y}) mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E.J.; Klebig, M.L.; Stubbs, L.J.; Russell, L.B.; Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J. |; Vugt, M.J. van |

    1994-03-29

    Lethal yellow (A{sup y}) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for A{sup y} results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The A{sup y} mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3{prime} end of the agouti gene. The authors present a model for the structure of the A{sub y} allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

  11. Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology.

    PubMed

    Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Orisme, Wilda; Wen, Ji; Santiago, Teresa; Gupta, Kirti; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Haupfear, Kelly; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Easton, John; Mulder, Heather; Boggs, Kristy; Shao, Ying; Rusch, Michael; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Wang, Shuoguo; Lee, Ryan P; Brat, Daniel; Peter Collins, V; Dahiya, Sonika; George, David; Konomos, William; Kurian, Kathreena M; McFadden, Kathryn; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Nickols, Hilary; Perry, Arie; Shurtleff, Sheila; Gajjar, Amar; Boop, Fredrick A; Klimo, Paul D; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Baker, Suzanne J; Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Downing, James R; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials.

  12. [Questions safety and tendency of using genetically modified microorganisms in food, food additives and food derived].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A

    2008-01-01

    In this article analysis questions of using genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production, present new GMM used in manufacture -food ferments; results of medical biological appraisal/ microbiological and genetic expert examination/ of food, getting by use microorganisms or there producents with indication modern of control methods.

  13. Hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma and deafness resulting from genetic mutation of Connexin 26.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeol; In, Sung-Il; Kim, Hyon J; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Choung, Yun Hoon; Kim, You Chan

    2010-10-01

    Gap junctions, which mediate rapid intercellular communication, consist of connexins, small transmembrane proteins that belong to a large family of proteins found throughout the species. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding Connexin 26, can cause nonsyndromic autosomal recessive or dominant hearing loss with or without skin manifestations. A 3-yr-old Korean female and her mother presented to our clinic with diffuse hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (May 3, 2007). Skin biopsies from the soles of both patients demonstrated histopathological evidence of palmoplantar keratoderma. The patient and a number of her maternal family members also had congenital hearing loss. The combination of congenital hearing loss and palmoplantar keratoderma, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, led us to test for a mutation in the GJB2 gene in both patients. The results showed the R75W mutation of the GJB2 gene in both. In conclusion, the simultaneous occurrence of a GJB2 mutation in a mother and daughter suggests that R75W mutation cause autosomal dominant hearing loss presenting with palmoplantar keratoderma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a GJB2 mutation associated with syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss and palmoplantar keratoderma in a Korean family.

  14. New methods for assessing male germ line mutations in humans and genetic risks in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Verhofstad, Nicole; Linschooten, Joost O; van Benthem, Jan; Dubrova, Yuri E; van Steeg, Harry; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2008-07-01

    Germ line mutations resulting from chemical or radiation exposure are a particular problem in toxicology as they affect not only the exposed generation but also an infinite number of generations thereafter. Established methods to show that these mutations occur in an F1 or subsequent population require the use of a large number of progeny for statistical significance. Consequently, many thousands of animals have been used in the past. Such a use is no longer considered desirable and is also very expensive. Several new molecular techniques (including analysis of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) now provide alternative methods of assessment, which also allow the quantification of individual mutations in individual sperm cells. These can also be applied to human offspring, making extrapolation obsolete. The downside of these methods is that they effectively determine the mutation rate in certain regions of DNA and the relevance of these to diseases, particularly cancer, is not always apparent. Therefore, it must be assumed that an increase in mutation rates in these selected regions correlates with altered phenotype. However, disease types linked to changes in tandem repeat length indicate that these may act as relevant markers for the development of phenotypes. Further research and evaluation are required to more closely link changes in DNA with altered phenotype and validate the use of tandem repeats and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in transgenerational genotoxicity testing. This paper introduces and compares recently developed methods to assess mutations in sperm due to stem cell damage.

  15. A genetic pedigree analysis to identify gene mutations involved in femoral head necrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Pan, Hehai; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-10-01

    The present study presents results from a linkage and mutation screening analysis aiming to identify the causative gene of femoral head necrosis, also known as osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH), in a Chinese pedigree. We collected clinical data on the osteonecrosis pedigree, and extracted blood and genomic DNA from the family members. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing allowed to identify a mutation in the COL2A1 gene of the proband; the clinical manifestations of the proband meet the criteria for osteonecrosis. The exons of COL2A1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and mutation screening was conducted by direct sequencing in all the family members. The locus was also sequenced in 50 unrelated healthy controls. The c.3665G>A heterozygous mutation was detected in patients of the pedigree, but not in healthy individuals. We conclude that a mutation in the COL2A1 gene is the causative agent of ONFH in this family. Therefore, this mutation may be associated with osteonecrosis in Chinese populations.

  16. Genomic Characteristics of Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients with V180I Mutation and Associations with Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sol Moe; Chung, Myungguen; Hyeon, Jae Wook; Jeong, Seok Won; Ju, Young Ran; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, SangYun; An, Seong Soo A.; Cho, Sung Beom; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kim, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Inherited prion diseases (IPDs), including genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), account for 10–15% of cases of prion diseases and are associated with several pathogenic mutations, including P102L, V180I, and E200K, in the prion protein gene (PRNP). The valine to isoleucine substitution at codon 180 (V180I) of PRNP is the most common pathogenic mutation causing gCJD in East Asian patients. In this study, we conducted follow-up analyses to identify candidate factors and their associations with disease onset. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of five gCJD patients with V180I mutation and 145 healthy individuals were used to identify genomic differences. A total of 18,648,850 candidate variants were observed in only the patient group, 29 of them were validated as variants. Four of these validated variants were nonsense mutations, six were observed in genes directly or indirectly related to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as LPA, LRRK2, and FGF20. More than half of validated variants were categorized in Gene Ontology (GO) terms of binding and/or catalytic activity. Moreover, we found differential genome variants in gCJD patients with V180I mutation, including one uniquely surviving 10 years after diagnosis of the disease. Elucidation of the relationships between gCJD and Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease at the genomic level will facilitate further advances in our understanding of the specific mechanisms mediating the pathogenesis of NDs and gold standard therapies for NDs. PMID:27341347

  17. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  18. Mitochondrial Genetics. VI the Petite Mutation in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE: Interrelations between the Loss of the ρ+ Factor and the Loss of the Drug Resistance Mitochondrial Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, J.; Dujon, B.; Netter, P.; Petrochilo, E.; Slonimski, P. P.; Bolotin-Fukuhara, M.; Coen, D.

    1974-01-01

    The survival of the ρ+ factor and of DrugR mitochondrial genetic markers after exposure to ethidium bromide has been studied. A technique allowing the determination of DrugR genetic markers among a great number of both grande and petite colonies has been developed. The results have been analyzed by the target theory. The survival of the ρ+ factor is always less than the survival of any DrugR genetic marker. The survivals of CR and ER are similar to each other, while that of OR is greater than that of the other two DrugR markers. All possible combinations of DrugR markers have been found among the ρ- petite cells induced, while the only type found among the grande colonies is the preexisting one. The loss of the CR and ER genetic markers was found to be the most frequently concomitant, while the correlation between the loss of the OR marker and the other two DrugR markers is less strong. Similar results have been obtained after U.V. irradiation. Interpretations concerning the structure of the yeast mitochondrial genome are given and hypotheses on the mechanism of petite mutation discussed. PMID:4595642

  19. Splice-site mutations: a novel genetic mechanism of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gantla, S; Bakker, C T; Deocharan, B; Thummala, N R; Zweiner, J; Sinaasappel, M; Roy Chowdhury, J; Bosma, P J; Roy Chowdhury, N

    1998-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1 (CN-1) is a recessively inherited, potentially lethal disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia resulting from deficiency of the hepatic enzyme bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. In all CN-1 patients studied, structural mutations in one of the five exons of the gene (UGT1A1) encoding the uridinediphosphoglucuronate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform bilirubin-UGT1 were implicated in the absence or inactivation of the enzyme. We report two patients in whom CN-1 is caused, instead, by mutations in the noncoding intronic region of the UGT1A1 gene. One patient (A) was homozygous for a G-->C mutation at the splice-donor site in the intron, between exon 1 and exon 2. The other patient (B) was heterozygous for an A-->G shift at the splice-acceptor site in intron 3, and in the second allele a premature translation-termination codon in exon 1 was identified. Bilirubin-UGT1 mRNA is difficult to obtain, since it is expressed in the liver only. To determine the effects of these splice-junction mutations, we amplified genomic DNA of the relevant splice junctions. The amplicons were expressed in COS-7 cells, and the expressed mRNAs were analyzed. In both cases, splice-site mutations led to the use of cryptic splice sites, with consequent deletions in the processed mRNA. This is the first report of intronic mutations causing CN-1 and of the determination of the consequences of these mutations on mRNA structure, by ex vivo expression. PMID:9497253

  20. SDH Subunit Mutation Status in Saliva: Genetic Testing in Patients with Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Osinga, T E; Xekouki, P; Nambuba, J; Faucz, F R; de la Luz Sierra, M; Links, T P; Kema, I P; Adams, K; Stratakis, C A; van der Horst-Schrivers, A N A; Pacak, K

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations occur in up to 30-40% of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) being the most common. Blood samples are favored for obtaining high quality DNA, however, leukocytes can also be obtained by collecting saliva. The aim of this study was to determine whether SDHB and SDHD gene mutations in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma could be determined using a salivary sample. Paired blood and salivary samples were collected from 30 patients: 9 SDHB mutation positive, 13 with a SDHD mutation, and 8 without any SDHx mutations. The Oragene DISCOVER kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. Blood DNA was extracted from EDTA blood samples. The DNA purification and concentration were measured by spectrophotometry. The 8 exons of SDHB and the 4 exons of SDHD were amplified and sequenced by PCR-based bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Total DNA yields from blood DNA were similar to those obtained from saliva DNA [mean (±SD) saliva vs. blood DNA concentration 514.6 (±580.8) ng/µl vs. 360.9 (±262.7) ng/µl; p=0.2)]. The purity of the saliva DNA samples was lower than that of blood [mean OD260/OD280 ratio 1.78 (±0.13) vs. 1.87 (±0.04); p=0.001, respectively], indicating more protein contamination in the saliva-extracted DNA. This study shows that salivary DNA collected from patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is a good alternative for extraction of genomic DNA for its high DNA concentration and acceptable purity and can be used as an alternative to blood derived DNA in screening for SDHB and SDHD mutations.

  1. Patients with genetically heterogeneous synchronous colorectal cancer carry rare damaging germline mutations in immune-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Cereda, Matteo; Gambardella, Gennaro; Benedetti, Lorena; Iannelli, Fabio; Patel, Dominic; Basso, Gianluca; Guerra, Rosalinda F.; Mourikis, Thanos P.; Puccio, Ignazio; Sinha, Shruti; Laghi, Luigi; Spencer, Jo; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous colorectal cancers (syCRCs) are physically separated tumours that develop simultaneously. To understand how the genetic and environmental background influences the development of multiple tumours, here we conduct a comparative analysis of 20 syCRCs from 10 patients. We show that syCRCs have independent genetic origins, acquire dissimilar somatic alterations, and have different clone composition. This inter- and intratumour heterogeneity must be considered in the selection of therapy and in the monitoring of resistance. SyCRC patients show a higher occurrence of inherited damaging mutations in immune-related genes compared to patients with solitary colorectal cancer and to healthy individuals from the 1,000 Genomes Project. Moreover, they have a different composition of immune cell populations in tumour and normal mucosa, and transcriptional differences in immune-related biological processes. This suggests an environmental field effect that promotes multiple tumours likely in the background of inflammation. PMID:27377421

  2. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: a clinical, pathophysiological and genetic update including 11 novel ABCC6 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, N; Martin, L; Calvas, P; Le Bert, M; Hovnanian, A

    2005-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited systemic disease of connective tissue primarily affecting the skin, retina, and cardiovascular system. It is characterised pathologically by elastic fibre mineralisation and fragmentation (so called "elastorrhexia"), and clinically by high heterogeneity in age of onset and the extent and severity of organ system involvement. PXE was recently associated with mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP binding cassette subtype C number 6) gene. At least one ABCC6 mutation is found in about 80% of patients. These mutations are identifiable in most of the 31 ABCC6 exons and consist of missense, nonsense, frameshift mutations, or large deletions. No correlation between the nature or location of the mutations and phenotype severity has yet been established. Recent findings support exclusive recessive inheritance. The proposed prevalence of PXE is 1/25 000, but this is probably an underestimate. ABCC6 encodes the protein ABCC6 (also known as MRP6), a member of the large ATP dependent transmembrane transporter family that is expressed predominantly in the liver and kidneys, and only to a lesser extent in tissues affected by PXE. The physiological substrates of ABCC6 remain to be determined, but the current hypothesis is that PXE should be considered to be a metabolic disease with undetermined circulating molecules interacting with the synthesis, turnover, or maintenance of elastic fibres. PMID:15894595

  3. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of androgen receptor gene mutations in patients with androgen insensitivity syndromes: Application for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hiort, O. Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA ); Huang, Q. ); Sinnecker, G.H.G.; Kruse, K. ); Sadeghi-Nejad, A.; Wolfe, H.J. ); Yandell, D.W. ) Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA )

    1993-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that mutations in the androgen receptor gene are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, a heterogeneous group of related disorders involving defective sexual differentiation in karyotypic males. In this report, the authors address the possibility of rapid mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene for initial diagnosis, genetic counseling, and molecular subclassification of affected patients and their families. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of six patients from five families with various degrees of androgen insensitivity was studied. Exons 2 to 8 of the androgen receptor gene were analyzed using a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Female family members were also studied to identify heterozygote carriers. Point mutations in the AR gene were identified in all six patients, and all mutations caused amino acid substitutions. One patient with incomplete androgen insensitivity was a mosaic for the mutation. Four of the five mothers, as well as a young sister of one patient, were carriers of the mutation present in the affected child. The data show that new mutations may occur in the androgen receptor gene leading to sporadic androgen insensitivity syndrome. Molecular genetic characterization of the variant allele can serve as a primary tool for diagnosis and subsequent therapy, and can provide a basis for distinguishing heterozygous carriers in familial androgen resistance. The identification of carriers is of substantial clinical importance for genetic counseling. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease and stroke using an additive genetic risk score: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) increases in relation to a genetic risk score (GRS) that additively integrates the influence of high-risk alleles in nine documented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CHD, and to examine whether t...

  5. NGS-based reverse genetic screen for common embryonic lethal mutations compromising fertility in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Carole; Li, Wanbo; Harland, Chad; Littlejohn, Mathew; Coppieters, Wouter; Creagh, Frances; Davis, Steve; Druet, Tom; Faux, Pierre; Guillaume, François; Karim, Latifa; Keehan, Mike; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Tamma, Nico; Spelman, Richard; Georges, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the result of a large-scale, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based screen for embryonic lethal (EL) mutations in Belgian beef and New Zealand dairy cattle. We estimated by simulation that cattle might carry, on average, ∼0.5 recessive EL mutations. We mined exome sequence data from >600 animals, and identified 1377 stop-gain, 3139 frame-shift, 1341 splice-site, 22,939 disruptive missense, 62,399 benign missense, and 92,163 synonymous variants. We show that cattle have a comparable load of loss-of-function (LoF) variants (defined as stop-gain, frame-shift, or splice-site variants) as humans despite having a more variable exome. We genotyped >40,000 animals for up to 296 LoF and 3483 disruptive missense, breed-specific variants. We identified candidate EL mutations based on the observation of a significant depletion in homozygotes. We estimated the proportion of EL mutations at 15% of tested LoF and 6% of tested disruptive missense variants. We confirmed the EL nature of nine candidate variants by genotyping 200 carrier × carrier trios, and demonstrating the absence of homozygous offspring. The nine identified EL mutations segregate at frequencies ranging from 1.2% to 6.6% in the studied populations and collectively account for the mortality of ∼0.6% of conceptuses. We show that EL mutations preferentially affect gene products fulfilling basic cellular functions. The resulting information will be useful to avoid at-risk matings, thereby improving fertility. PMID:27646536

  6. MYH biallelic mutation can inactivate the two genetic pathways of colorectal cancer by APC or MLH1 transversions.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Jérémie H; Colas, Chrystelle; Coulet, Florence; Bonilla, Carolina; Mourra, Najat; Flejou, Jean-Francois; Tiret, Emmanuel; Bodmer, Walter; Soubrier, Florent; Parc, Yann

    2010-12-01

    MYH associated polyposis is a hereditary syndrome responsible for early colorectal cancer with a distinct genetic pathway from the Familial Adenomatous Polyposis or the Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer syndrome. We have studied a family with three members bearing a biallelic mutation in MYH at c.1185_1186dup. One patient who developed colon cancer had loss of expression of MLH1 on tumoral tissue and microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype. Analysis of MLH1 based on his blood sample revealed no germline mutation or large genomic deletion. No methylation of the promoter was identified in tumoral DNA. No transversion mutations were identified in APC or KRAS in tumor DNA of this patient. Loss of expression of MLH1 was due to a transversion in intron 7 at position +5 (c.588 + 5G > T) leading to a complete deletion of exon 7 at the RNA level. This observation demonstrates that MLH1 can be a target of MYH transversions leading to MSI phenotype.

  7. Induction of mutations by bismuth-212 alpha particles at two genetic loci in human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Metting, N F; Palayoor, S T; Macklis, R M; Atcher, R W; Liber, H L; Little, J B

    1992-12-01

    The human lymphoblast cell line TK6 was exposed to the alpha-particle-emitting radon daughter 212Bi by adding DTPA-chelated 212Bi directly to the cell suspension. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity at two genetic loci were measured, and the molecular nature of mutant clones was studied by Southern blot analysis. Induced mutant fractions were 2.5 x 10(-5)/Gy at the hprt locus and 3.75 x 10(-5)/Gy at the tk locus. Molecular analysis of HPRT- mutant DNAs showed a high frequency (69%) of clones with partial or full deletions of the hprt gene among radiation-induced mutants compared with spontaneous mutants (31%). Chi-squared analyses of mutational spectra show a significant difference (P < or = 0.005) between spontaneous mutants and alpha-particle-induced mutants. Comparison with published studies of accelerator-produced heavy-ion exposures of TK6 cells indicates that the induction of mutations at the hprt locus, and perhaps a subset of mutations at the tk locus, is a simple linear function of particle fluence regardless of the ion species or its LET.

  8. The frequency and mutation rate of balanced autosomal rearrangements in man estimated from prenatal genetic studies for advanced maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, D L; Weiss, L; Roberson, J R; Babu, V R

    1983-01-01

    The frequencies of balanced chromosome rearrangements were estimated from three series of advanced maternal-age prenatal genetic studies, and were compared to the frequencies that had been estimated from consecutive newborn surveys. In the maternal-age prenatal studies, the frequencies were: Robertsonian translocations, 0.11%; reciprocal translocations, 0.17%; and inversions, 0.12%. The total frequency of balanced rearrangements in the prenatal genetic studies performed with banding (0.40%, or 1 in 250) was twice that in the consecutive newborn surveys performed without banding (0.19%, or 1 in 526). The difference was limited to inversions and reciprocal translocations; the frequency of Robertsonian translocations was similar in the prenatal series and the newborn surveys. Both familial and de novo rearrangements were more common than anticipated. The de novo cases provided a mutation rate estimate of 4.3 per 10,000 gametes per generation (compared with 1.78 to 2.2 per 10,000 gametes in other surveys). These higher estimates may more reliably approximate the true mutation rate and frequencies of balanced rearrangements in the newborn population than do the newborn surveys. PMID:6837576

  9. Horka, a dominant mutation of Drosophila, induces nondisjunction and, through paternal effect, chromosome loss and genetic mosaics

    SciTech Connect

    Szabad, J.; Mathe, E.; Puro, J.

    1995-04-01

    Fs(3) Horka (Horka) was described as a dominant female-sterile mutation of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic and cytological data show that Horka induces mostly equational nondisjunction during spermatogenesis but not chromosome loss and possesses a predominant paternal effect: the X, second, third and the fourth chromosomes, but not the Y, are rendered unstable while undergoing spermatogenesis and may be lost in the descending zygotes. The frequency of Horka-induced chromosome loss is usually 2-4% but varies with the genetic background and can be over 20%. The X chromosome loss occurs during the gonomeric and the initial cleavage divisions. Loss of the X and fourth chromosomes shows no correlation. We propose, based on similarities in the mutant phenotypes with the chromosome destabilizing mutations nonclaret disjunctional and paternal loss, that the normal Horka{sup +} product is required for function of the centromeres and/or nearby regions. Horka is a convenient tool for the generation of gynandromorphs, autosome mosaics and for the study of gene expression in mosaics. 55 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Trends in lignin modification: a comprehensive analysis of the effects of genetic manipulations/mutations on lignification and vascular integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of lignin configuration in transgenic and mutant plants is long overdue. This review thus undertook the systematic analysis of trends manifested through genetic and mutational manipulations of the various steps associated with monolignol biosynthesis; this included consideration of the downstream effects on organized lignin assembly in the various cell types, on vascular function/integrity, and on plant growth and development. As previously noted for dirigent protein (homologs), distinct and sophisticated monolignol forming metabolic networks were operative in various cell types, tissues and organs, and form the cell-specific guaiacyl (G) and guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) enriched lignin biopolymers, respectively. Regardless of cell type undergoing lignification, carbon allocation to the different monolignol pools is apparently determined by a combination of phenylalanine availability and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase/"p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase" (C4H/C3H) activities, as revealed by transcriptional and metabolic profiling. Downregulation of either phenylalanine ammonia lyase or cinnamate-4-hydroxylase thus predictably results in reduced lignin levels and impaired vascular integrity, as well as affecting related (phenylpropanoid-dependent) metabolism. Depletion of C3H activity also results in reduced lignin deposition, albeit with the latter being derived only from hydroxyphenyl (H) units, due to both the guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) pathways being blocked. Apparently the cells affected are unable to compensate for reduced G/S levels by increasing the amounts of H-components. The downstream metabolic networks for G-lignin enriched formation in both angiosperms and gymnosperms utilize specific cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) isoforms: however, these steps neither affect carbon allocation nor H/G designations, this being determined by C4H/C3H

  11. PTCH mutations and deletions in patients with typical nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and in patients with a suspected genetic predisposition to basal cell carcinoma: a French study.

    PubMed

    Soufir, N; Gerard, B; Portela, M; Brice, A; Liboutet, M; Saiag, P; Descamps, V; Kerob, D; Wolkenstein, P; Gorin, I; Lebbe, C; Dupin, N; Crickx, B; Basset-Seguin, N; Grandchamp, B

    2006-08-21

    The patched (PTCH) mutation rate in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) reported in various studies ranges from 40 to 80%. However, few studies have investigated the role of PTCH in clinical conditions suggesting an inherited predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), although it has been suggested that PTCH polymorphisms could predispose to multiple BCC (MBCC). In this study, we therefore performed an exhaustive analysis of PTCH (mutations detection and deletion analysis) in 17 patients with the full complement of criteria for NBCCS (14 sporadic and three familial cases), and in 48 patients suspected of having a genetic predisposition to BCC (MBCC and/or age at diagnosis < or =40 years and/or familial BCC). Eleven new germline alterations of the PTCH gene were characterised in 12 out of 17 patients harbouring the full complement of criteria for the syndrome (70%). These were frameshift mutations in five patients, nonsense mutations in five patients, a small inframe deletion in one patient, and a large germline deletion in another patient. Only one missense mutation (G774R) was found, and this was in a patient affected with MBCC, but without any other NBCCS criterion. We therefore suggest that patients harbouring the full complement of NBCCS criteria should as a priority be screened for PTCH mutations by sequencing, followed by a deletion analysis if no mutation is detected. In other clinical situations that suggest genetic predisposition to BCC, germline mutations of PTCH are not common.

  12. "I do not want my baby to suffer as I did"; prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for BRCA1/2 mutations: a case report and genetic counseling considerations.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Efrat; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Kurolap, Alina; Goldberg, Yael; Fried, Georgeta

    2014-07-01

    This article presents the complexity of prenatal genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. These issues are discussed using a case report to highlight the genetic counseling process, together with decision-making considerations, in light of the clinical, psychological, and ethical perspectives, of both the mutation carriers and health professionals; and the health policy regarding these procedures in Israel compared to several European countries.

  13. Genome-Enabled Estimates of Additive and Nonadditive Genetic Variances and Prediction of Apple Phenotypes Across Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Molloy, Claire; Muñoz, Patricio; Daetwyler, Hans; Chagné, David; Volz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The nonadditive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of phenotypes, so estimates of both the additive and nonadditive effects are desirable for breeding and selection purposes. Our main objectives were to: estimate additive, dominance and epistatic variances of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) phenotypes using relationship matrices constructed from genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; and compare the accuracy of genomic predictions using genomic best linear unbiased prediction models with or without including nonadditive genetic effects. A set of 247 clonally replicated individuals was assessed for six fruit quality traits at two sites, and also genotyped using an Illumina 8K SNP array. Across several fruit quality traits, the additive, dominance, and epistatic effects contributed about 30%, 16%, and 19%, respectively, to the total phenotypic variance. Models ignoring nonadditive components yielded upwardly biased estimates of additive variance (heritability) for all traits in this study. The accuracy of genomic predicted genetic values (GEGV) varied from about 0.15 to 0.35 for various traits, and these were almost identical for models with or without including nonadditive effects. However, models including nonadditive genetic effects further reduced the bias of GEGV. Between-site genotypic correlations were high (>0.85) for all traits, and genotype-site interaction accounted for <10% of the phenotypic variability. The accuracy of prediction, when the validation set was present only at one site, was generally similar for both sites, and varied from about 0.50 to 0.85. The prediction accuracies were strongly influenced by trait heritability, and genetic relatedness between the training and validation families. PMID:26497141

  14. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, Isabella; Callea, Francesco; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Torre, Giuliano; De Ville De Goyet, Jean; Francalanci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5’UTR- exon 18) in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission. PMID:26678486

  15. Genetics and Molecular Modeling of New Mutations of Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis in a Single Italian Center.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Isabella; Callea, Francesco; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Torre, Giuliano; De Ville De Goyet, Jean; Francalanci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestases (FICs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Three distinct forms are described: FIC1 and FIC2, associated with low/normal GGT level in serum, which are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein and defects in ABCB11 encoding bile salt export pump protein, respectively; FIC3, linked to high GGT level, involves impaired biliary phospholipid secretion due to defects in ABCB4, encoding multidrug resistance 3 protein. Different mutations in these genes may cause either a progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or a benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). For the purposes of the present study we genotyped 27 children with intrahepatic cholestasis, diagnosed on either a clinical or histological basis. Two BRIC, 23 PFIC and 2 BRIC/PFIC were identified. Thirty-four different mutations were found of which 11 were novel. One was a 2Mb deletion (5'UTR- exon 18) in ATP8B1. In another case microsatellite analysis of chromosome 2, including ABCB11, showed uniparental disomy. Two cases were compound heterozygous for BRIC/PFIC2 mutations. Our results highlight the importance of the pathogenic role of novel mutations in the three genes and unusual modes of their transmission.

  16. Interaction between murine spf-ash mutation and genetic background yields different metabolic phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spf-ash mutation in mice results in reduced hepatic and intestinal ornithine transcarbamylase. However, a reduction in enzyme activity only translates in reduced ureagenesis and hyperammonemia when an unbalanced nitrogen load is imposed. Six-week-old wild-type control and spf-ash mutant male mic...

  17. Growth behavior of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2013-01-01

    The probability of additional offspring with a beneficial reversal allele for growing to a size NC for a range of population sizes N, sequence lengths L, selective advantages s, and measuring parameters C was calculated for a haploid, asexual population in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape with a positive selective advantage of the reversal allele over the optimal allele. The growing probability in the stochastic region was inversely proportional to the measuring parameter when C < 1 /Ns, bent when C ≈ 1/ Ns and saturated when C > 1/ Ns. The crossing time and the time dependence of the increase in relative density of the reversal allele in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was approximated using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model with the same selective advantage and corresponding effective mutation rate. The growth behavior of additional offspring with the reversal allele in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape in the coupled discrete-time mutation-selection model was controlled by the selective advantage of the reversal allele compared to the optimal allele and could be described by using the Wright-Fisher two-allele model, in spite of there being many other alleles with lower fitness, and in spite of there being two alleles, the optimal and reversal allele, separated by a low-fitness valley with a tunable depth and width.

  18. The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Andreatta, Matthew E.; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Danku, John; Salt, David E.; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have generally been used to detect individual loci contributing to the phenotypic diversity in a population by the effects of these loci on the trait mean. More rarely, loci have also been detected based on variance differences between genotypes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the possible genetic mechanisms leading to such variance signals. However, little is known about what causes these signals, or whether this genetic variance-heterogeneity reflects mechanisms of importance in natural populations. Previously, we identified a variance-heterogeneity GWA (vGWA) signal for leaf molybdenum concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, fine-mapping of this association reveals that the vGWA emerges from the effects of three independent genetic polymorphisms that all are in strong LD with the markers displaying the genetic variance-heterogeneity. By revealing the genetic architecture underlying this vGWA signal, we uncovered the molecular source of a significant amount of hidden additive genetic variation or “missing heritability”. Two of the three polymorphisms underlying the genetic variance-heterogeneity are promoter variants for Molybdate transporter 1 (MOT1), and the third a variant located ~25 kb downstream of this gene. A fourth independent association was also detected ~600 kb upstream of MOT1. Use of a T-DNA knockout allele highlights Copper Transporter 6; COPT6 (AT2G26975) as a strong candidate gene for this association. Our results show that an extended LD across a complex locus including multiple functional alleles can lead to a variance-heterogeneity between genotypes in natural populations. Further, they provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of ion homeostasis in A. thaliana, and empirically confirm that variance-heterogeneity based GWA methods are a valuable tool to detect novel associations of biological importance in natural populations. PMID:26599497

  19. Efficacy versus effectiveness of clinical genetic testing criteria for BRCA1 and BRCA2 hereditary mutations in incident breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martin P; Winter, Christof; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Rehn, Martin; Larsson, Christer; Saal, Lao H; Loman, Niklas

    2017-01-24

    Increasing evidence supports the benefit of identifying BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in early breast cancer. Selection of patients for genetic testing is based on defined criteria taking individual and family history related factors into account. It is important to make a distinction between efficacy and effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria. Efficacy can be defined as the performance under ideal circumstances, whereas effectiveness refers to its real life performance. To allow for an unbiased and detailed evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Swedish BRCA testing criteria, we retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 273 breast cancer patients from the well-characterized, population-based, single-site All Breast Cancer in Malmö (ABiM) study. The patients were diagnosed with breast cancer during the years 2007 through 2009. Out of 20 mutation carriers identified, 13 fulfilled Swedish criteria at time of diagnosis. Thus, the efficacy of these criteria was 65%. Excluding three patients in whom a mutation was already known at time of diagnosis, only 3/17 had been identified in the clinical routine, corresponding to an effectiveness of 18%. Here we detail the reasons why mutation carriers in our cohort were not detected though routine health care. In conclusion, effectiveness of BRCA testing criteria was much lower than efficacy. Our results indicate that current testing criteria and procedures associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing are insufficient. There is room for improvement of their efficacy, but even more so regarding effectiveness. Clinical BRCA testing routines need to be critically revised.

  20. High-Resolution Mutational Profiling Suggests the Genetic Validity of Glioblastoma Patient-Derived Pre-Clinical Models

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Shawn E.; Pastorino, Sandra; Rozenzhak, Sophie; Smith, Erin N.; Chao, Ying S.; Jiang, Pengfei; Kesari, Santosh; Frazer, Kelly A.; Harismendy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM) primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient’s tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies. PMID:23441165

  1. Analysis of thrombophilic genetic mutations in patients with Sheehan's syndrome: is thrombophilia responsible for the pathogenesis of Sheehan's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gokalp, Deniz; Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Bahceci, Mithat; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Yurt, Murat; Celik, Yusuf; Alpagat, Gulistan

    2011-06-01

    The gene mutations of Factor V R506Q (FV-Leiden), prothrombin (FII G20210A), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C and PAI-1 4G/5G are well-established risk factors for thrombosis. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these gene mutations and their possible impact on the development of pathogenesis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS). 40 female patients with SS compared to a control group of 45 healthy women. The presence of FV-Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and PAI-1 4G/5G gene mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction analysis with a light cycler analyzer. An odds ratio of greater than one is considered to increase the risk of SS disease as found in Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, as follows respectively: 1.13, 1.85, 6.00, 8.14 and 1.45. MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphism were found significantly higher in SS patients than the control group (P<0.001), however FV-Leiden, FII G20210A and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The level of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was significantly higher in patients with SS than in the control group (P<0.001). We suggest that the genetic mutations of FV-Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and PAI-1 4G/5G increase the risk of SS. Also, high plasma tHcy levels may be a risk factor for the development of SS.

  2. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  3. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  4. Clinical and molecular studies in two families with Fraser syndrome: a new FRAS1 gene mutation, prenatal ultrasound findings and implications for genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Ogur, G; Zenker, M; Tosun, M; Ekici, F; Schanze, D; Ozyilmaz, B; Malatyalioglu, E

    2011-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, variable expression of cutaneous syndactyly of fingers and toes, genital ambiguity and renal agenesis/dysgenesis. We present here molecular and clinical findings of four fetuses with FS from two families. Molecular genetic studies in the two families revealed mutations in FRAS1 gene allowing better genetic counselling and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in one of the two families. In family one, a nonsense mutation (c.3730C>T, p.R1244X) previously described in a Polish patient was found. In family two a novel nonsense mutation previously not known was detected (c.370C>T, p.R124X). PGD is planned for family 1.

  5. Qualitative analysis of mouse specific-locus mutations: information on genetic organization, gene expression, and the chromosomal nature of induced lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of mouse specific-locus (SL) mutations at three loci has identified over 33 distinct complementation groups - most of which are probably overlapping deficiencies - and 13 to 14 new functional units. The complementation maps that have been generated for the d-se and c regions include numerous vital functions; however, some of the genes in these regions are non-vital. At such loci, hypomorphic mutants must represent intragenic alterations, and some viable nulls could conceivably be intragenic lesions also. Analysis of SL mutations has provided information on genetic expression. Homozygous deficiencies can be completely viable or can kill at any one of a range of developmental stages. Heterozygonus deficiencies of up to 6 cM or more in genetic length have been recovered and propagated. The time of death of homozygous and the degree of inviability of heterozygous deficiencies are related more to specific content of the missing segment than to its length. Combinations of deficiencies with x-autosome translocations that inactivate the homologous region in a mosaic fashion have shown that organismic lethals are not necessarily cell lethal. The spectrum of mutations induced depends on the nature of the mutagen and the type of germ cell exposed. Radiation of spermatogonia produces intragenic as well as null mutations. Spontaneous mutations have an admixture of types not present in populations of mutations induced in germ cells, and this raises doubts concerning the accuracy of doubling-dose calculations in genetic risk estimation. The analysis of SL mutations has yielded genetic tools for the construction of detailed gene-dosage series, cis-trans comparisons, the mapping of known genes and identification of new genes, genetic rescue of various types, and the identification and isolation of DNA sequences. (ERB)

  6. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  7. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  8. Comparison of southern Chinese Han and Brazilian Caucasian mutation rates at autosomal short tandem repeat loci used in human forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Liu, Sujuan; Zhang, Yinming; Whittle, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) loci used in human genetic studies are characterized by having relatively high mutation rates. In particular, to ensure an appropriate evaluation of genetic evidence in parentage and forensic analyses, it is essential to have accurate estimates of the mutation rates associated with the commonly used autosomal and sex chromosome STR loci. Differences in STR mutation rates between different ethnic groups should also be determined. Mutation data from two laboratories working with different ethnic groups were extracted from many meiotic transmissions ascertained for 15 autosomal STR loci currently used in forensic routine. Forty-five thousand and eighty-five trios were checked for the biological consistency of maternity and paternity through the analysis of a minimum of 15 loci. Mutations were scored as paternal, maternal, or ambiguous according to the most parsimonious explanation for the inconsistency, using always the least requiring hypothesis in terms of number of repeat differences. The main findings are: (a) the overall mutation rate across the 15 loci was 9.78 × 10(-4) per gamete per generation (95% CI = 9.30 × 10(-4)-1.03 × 10(-3)), and with just 48 (out of 1,587) exceptions, all of the mutations were single-step; (b) repeat gains were more frequent than losses; (c) longer alleles were found to be more mutable; and (d) the mutation rates differ at some loci between the two ethnic groups. Large worldwide meiotic transmission datasets are still needed to measure allele-specific mutation rates at the STR loci consensually used in forensic genetics.

  9. Absence of germline CDKN2A mutation in Sicilian patients with familial malignant melanoma: Could it be a population-specific genetic signature?

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Sara; Fanale, Daniele; Corradino, Bartolo; Caló, Valentina; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Giordano, Antonio; Cordova, Adriana; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Germline CDKN2A mutations have been described in 25% to 40% of melanoma families from several countries. Sicilian population is genetically different from the people of Europe and Northern Italy because of its historical background, therefore familial melanoma could be due to genes different from high-penetrance CDKN2A gene. Four hundred patients with cutaneous melanoma were observed in a 6-years period at the Plastic Surgery Unit of the University of Palermo. Forty-eight patients have met the criteria of the Italian Society of Human Genetics (SIGU) for the diagnosis of familial melanoma and were screened for CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations. Mutation testing revealed that none of the families carried mutations in CDK4 and only one patient harboured the rare CDKN2A p.R87W mutation. Unlike other studies, we have not found high mutation rate of CDKN2A in patients affected by familial melanoma or multiple melanoma. This difference could be attributed to different factors, including the genetic heterogeneity of the Sicilian population. It is likely that, as in the Australian people, the inheritance of familial melanoma in this island of the Mediterranean Sea is due to intermediate/low-penetrance susceptibility genes, which, together with environmental factors (as latitude and sun exposure), could determine the occurrence of melanoma. PMID:26650572

  10. Somatic Point Mutations in mtDNA Control Region Are Influenced by Genetic Background and Associated with Healthy Aging: A GEHA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Giuseppina; Romeo, Giuseppe; Dato, Serena; Crocco, Paolina; Bruni, Amalia C.; Hervonen, Antti; Majamaa, Kari; Sevini, Federica; Franceschi, Claudio; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Tissue specific somatic mutations occurring in the mtDNA control region have been proposed to provide a survival advantage. Data on twins and on relatives of long-lived subjects suggested that the occurrence/accumulation of these mutations may be genetically influenced. To further investigate control region somatic heteroplasmy in the elderly, we analyzed the segment surrounding the nt 150 position (previously reported as specific of Leukocytes) in various types of leukocytes obtained from 195 ultra-nonagenarians sib-pairs of Italian or Finnish origin collected in the frame of the GEHA Project. We found a significant correlation of the mtDNA control region heteroplasmy between sibs, confirming a genetic influence on this phenomenon. Furthermore, many subjects showed heteroplasmy due to mutations different from the C150T transition. In these cases heteroplasmy was correlated within sibpairs in Finnish and northern Italian samples, but not in southern Italians. This suggested that the genetic contribution to control region mutations may be population specific. Finally, we observed a possible correlation between heteroplasmy and Hand Grip strength, one of the best markers of physical performance and of mortality risk in the elderly. Our study provides new evidence on the relevance of mtDNA somatic mutations in aging and longevity and confirms that the occurrence of specific point mutations in the mtDNA control region may represent a strategy for the age-related remodelling of organismal functions. PMID:20976236

  11. Absence of germline CDKN2A mutation in Sicilian patients with familial malignant melanoma: Could it be a population-specific genetic signature?

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Sara; Fanale, Daniele; Corradino, Bartolo; Caló, Valentina; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Giordano, Antonio; Cordova, Adriana; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Germline CDKN2A mutations have been described in 25% to 40% of melanoma families from several countries. Sicilian population is genetically different from the people of Europe and Northern Italy because of its historical background, therefore familial melanoma could be due to genes different from high-penetrance CDKN2A gene. Four hundred patients with cutaneous melanoma were observed in a 6-years period at the Plastic Surgery Unit of the University of Palermo. Forty-eight patients have met the criteria of the Italian Society of Human Genetics (SIGU) for the diagnosis of familial melanoma and were screened for CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations. Mutation testing revealed that none of the families carried mutations in CDK4 and only one patient harboured the rare CDKN2A p.R87W mutation. Unlike other studies, we have not found high mutation rate of CDKN2A in patients affected by familial melanoma or multiple melanoma. This difference could be attributed to different factors, including the genetic heterogeneity of the Sicilian population. It is likely that, as in the Australian people, the inheritance of familial melanoma in this island of the Mediterranean Sea is due to intermediate/low-penetrance susceptibility genes, which, together with environmental factors (as latitude and sun exposure), could determine the occurrence of melanoma.

  12. Skoura - a genetic island for congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis among Moroccan Jews, as determined by a novel mutation in the NTRK1 gene.

    PubMed

    Suriu, C; Khayat, M; Weiler, M; Kfir, N; Cohen, C; Zinger, A; Aslanidis, C; Schmitz, G; Falik-Zaccai, T C

    2009-03-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare, autosomal recessive neurologic disorder, characterized by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, mental retardation, self- mutilating behavior, anhidrosis, and recurrent episodes of hyperthermia. Mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1, a receptor phosphorylated by nerve growth factor, have been documented in diverse ethnic groups. We identified the same novel nonsense mutation in two unrelated families of Moroccan Jewish descent, each with two affected siblings. This possible founder mutation may trace to the rural Jewish village in southern Morocco from where both these families originated. Genetic screening for the causative mutation among 300 unrelated Moroccan Jews did not reveal carriers for the causative mutation, thus excluding high risk for CIPA in this ethnic subpopulation.

  13. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  14. GBA2 Mutations Cause a Marinesco-Sjögren-Like Syndrome: Genetic and Biochemical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Johansson, Stefan; Rodriguez, Carlos E.; Boman, Helge; Haukanes, Bjørn Ivar; Bruland, Ove; Roque, Francisco; Jonassen, Inge; Blomqvist, Maria; Telstad, Wenche; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background With the advent new sequencing technologies, we now have the tools to understand the phenotypic diversity and the common occurrence of phenocopies. We used these techniques to investigate two Norwegian families with an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation. Methods and Results Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip analysis followed by Exome sequencing identified a 2 bp homozygous deletion in GBA2 in both families, c.1528_1529del [p.Met510Valfs*17]. Furthermore, we report the biochemical characterization of GBA2 in these patients. Our studies show that a reduced activity of GBA2 is sufficient to elevate the levels of glucosylceramide to similar levels as seen in Gaucher disease. Furthermore, leucocytes seem to be the proper enzyme source for in vitro analysis of GBA2 activity. Conclusions We report GBA2 mutations causing a Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndrome in two Norwegian families. One of the families was originally diagnosed with Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome based on an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation. Our findings highlight the phenotypic variability associated with GBA2 mutations, and suggest that patients with Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndromes should be tested for mutations in this gene. PMID:28052128

  15. Clinical and genetic investigation of a large Tunisian family with complete achromatopsia: identification of a new nonsense mutation in GNAT2 gene.

    PubMed

    Ouechtati, Farah; Merdassi, Ahlem; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Largueche, Leila; Derouiche, Kaouther; Ouragini, Houyem; Nouira, Sonia; Tiab, Leila; Baklouti, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Zografos, Leonidas; Abdelhak, Sonia; El Matri, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Complete achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2 and PDE6C mutations. This retinal disorder is characterized by complete loss of color discrimination due to the absence or alteration of the cones function. The purpose of the present study was the clinical and the genetic characterization of achromatopsia in a large consanguineous Tunisian family. Ophthalmic evaluation included a full clinical examination, color vision testing and electroretinography. Linkage analysis using microsatellite markers flanking CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2 and PDE6C genes was performed. Mutations were screened by direct sequencing. A total of 12 individuals were diagnosed with congenital complete achromatopsia. They are members of six nuclear consanguineous families belonging to the same large consanguineous family. Linkage analysis revealed linkage to GNAT2. Mutational screening of GNAT2 revealed three intronic variations c.119-69G>C, c.161+66A>T and c.875-31G>C that co-segregated with a novel mutation p.R313X. An identical GNAT2 haplotype segregating with this mutation was identified, indicating a founder mutation. All patients were homozygous for the p.R313X mutation. This is the first report of the clinical and genetic investigation of complete achromatopsia in North Africa and the largest family with recessive achromatopsia involving GNAT2; thus, providing a unique opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation for this extremely rare condition.

  16. [The mutation spectrum of the GJB2 gene in Belarussian patients with hearing loss. Results of pilot genetic screening of hearing impairment in newborns].

    PubMed

    Bliznets, E A; Marcul', D N; Khorov, O G; Markova, T G; Poliakov, A V

    2014-02-01

    A total of 111 unrelated probands and their 8 sibs from Grodno oblast (Belarus) with bilateral isolated sensorineural hearing impairment were studied for the presence of mutations in the connexin 26--GJB2gene. Mutations were detected in 51 probands (46% of the sample). A significantly higher frequency of the GJB2gene mutations was observed in familial cases of the disease with the autosomal recessive type of inheritance (in 78% of families). Detected peculiarities of the GJB2 gene mutation spectrum demonstrated that use of the algorithm, which was developed for Russian patients, is optimal for the molecular study of patients from Be- larus. In the sample of patients with hearing loss, the highest (among other similar samples studied in the world) allele frequency of c.313_326de114 mutation (7% out of all pathological GJB2 alleles) was registered; Polish origin of this deletion was suggested. It was demonstrated that detection of the GJB2 gene mutation on only one patient's chromosome is insufficient to confirm a molecular genetic diagnosis of hearing loss of the DFNB1 genetic type (autosomal recessive hearing loss caused by the GJB2 gene mutations). Pilot screening in the presence of GJB2 gene mutations in newborns from Grodno oblast was conducted. The material from 235 children was studied during the screening; nine heterozygous carriers of the mutation were found. The c.35delG mutation was detected in a homozygous state in a single newborn (hearing loss of moderate severity was subsequently audiologically confirmed in this child).

  17. Mutation studies in ascidians: a review.

    PubMed

    Crocetta, Fabio; Marino, Rita; Cirino, Paola; Macina, Alberto; Staiano, Leopoldo; Esposito, Rosaria; Pezzotti, Maria Rosa; Racioppi, Claudia; Toscano, Francesco; De Felice, Elena; Locascio, Annamaria; Ristoratore, Filomena; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Zanetti, Laura; Branno, Margherita; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Historically, mutations have had a significant impact on the study of developmental processes and phenotypic evolution. Lesions in DNA are created by artificial methods or detected by natural genetic variation. Random mutations are then ascribed to genetic change by direct sequencing or positional cloning. Tunicate species of the ascidian genus Ciona represent nearly fully realized model systems in which gene function can be investigated in depth. Additionally, tunicates are valuable organisms for the study of naturally occurring mutations due to the capability to exploit genetic variation down to the molecular level. Here, we summarize the available information about how mutations are studied in ascidians with examples of insights that have resulted from these applications. We also describe notions and methodologies that might be useful for the implementation of easy and tight procedures for mutations studies in Ciona.

  18. A multi-case report of the pathways to and through genetic testing and cancer risk management for BRCA mutation-positive women aged 18–25

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Lin, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Much of the extant literature addressing the psychosocial aspects of BRCA1/2 mutation testing and risk management aggregates mutation carriers of all ages in study recruitment, data analysis, and interpretation. This analytic strategy does not adequately address the needs of the youngest genetic testing consumers, i.e., women aged 18–25. Despite low absolute cancer risk estimates before age 30, BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18–25 feel vulnerable to a cancer diagnosis but find themselves in a management quandary because the clinical utility of screening and prevention options are not yet well defined for such young carriers. We present three cases, selected from a larger study of 32 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women who completed or considered genetic testing before age 25, to demonstrate the unique developmental, relational and temporal influences, as well as the challenges, experienced by very young BRCA mutation-positive women as they complete genetic testing and initiate cancer risk management. The first case describes the maturation of a young woman whose family participated in a national cancer registry. The second addresses the experiences and expectations of a young woman who completed genetic testing after learning that her unaffected father was a mutation carrier. The third case highlights the experiences of a young woman parentally bereaved in childhood, who presented for genetic counseling and testing due to intense family pressure. Together, these cases suggest that BRCA1/2-positive women aged 18–25 are challenged to reconcile their burgeoning independence from their families with risk-related support needs. Loved ones acting in ways meant to care for these young women may inadvertently apply pressure, convoluting family support dynamics and autonomous decision-making. Ongoing support from competent healthcare professionals will enable these young women to remain informed and receive objective counsel about their risk-management decisions

  19. The structure and regulation of genes and consequences of their genetic mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fundamental genetic unit of heredity, the gene, is a nucleic acid sequence characterized by three main parts: a promoter region where gene expression levels are controlled by transcription factors and other accessory proteins, the coding region (often interrupted by intervening sequences or intr...

  20. Cooperation between phenotypic plasticity and genetic mutations can account for the cumulative selection in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Ken; Kinjo, Akira R.

    2014-01-01

    We propose the cooperative model of phenotype-driven evolution, in which natural selection operates on a phenotype caused by both genetic and epigenetic factors. The conventional theory of evolutionary synthesis assumes that a phenotypic value (P) is the sum of genotypic value (G) and environmental deviation (E), P=G+E, where E is the fluctuations of the phenotype among individuals in the absence of environmental changes. In contrast, the cooperative model assumes that an evolution is triggered by an environmental change and individuals respond to the change by phenotypic plasticity (epigenetic changes). The phenotypic plasticity, while essentially qualitative, is denoted by a quantitative value F which is modeled as a normal random variable like E, but with a much larger variance. Thus, the fundamental equation of the cooperative model is given as P=G+F where F includes the effect of E. Computer simulations using a genetic algorithm demonstrated that the cooperative model realized much faster evolution than the evolutionary synthesis. This accelerated evolution was found to be due to the cumulative evolution made possible by a ratchet mechanism due to the epigenetic contribution to the phenotypic value. The cooperative model can well account for the phenomenon of genetic assimilation, which, in turn, suggests the mechanism of cumulative selection. The cooperative model may also serve as a theoretical basis to understand various ideas and phenomena of the phenotype-driven evolution such as genetic assimilation, the theory of facilitated phenotypic variation, and epigenetic inheritance over generations. PMID:27493504

  1. Blue Genes: An Integrative Laboratory to Differentiate Genetic Transformation from Gene Mutation for Underclassmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Kevin T.; Chang, Ming-Mei; Simon, Robert D.; Lazatin, Justine C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of students to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and the mechanisms by which genotypes and phenotypes can change is essential for students studying genetics. To this end, we have developed a four-week laboratory called Blue Genes, which is designed to help novice students discriminate between two mechanisms by…

  2. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

  3. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Tubulin Mutation That Redirects Synaptic Vesicle Targeting and Causes Neurite Degeneration in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Chih; McDonald, Kent L.; Gurling, Mark; Lee, Albert; Garriga, Gian; Pan, Chun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal cargos are differentially targeted to either axons or dendrites, and this polarized cargo targeting critically depends on the interaction between microtubules and molecular motors. From a forward mutagenesis screen, we identified a gain-of-function mutation in the C. elegans α-tubulin gene mec-12 that triggered synaptic vesicle mistargeting, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration in the touch receptor neurons. This missense mutation replaced an absolutely conserved glycine in the H12 helix with glutamic acid, resulting in increased negative charges at the C-terminus of α-tubulin. Synaptic vesicle mistargeting in the mutant neurons was suppressed by reducing dynein function, suggesting that aberrantly high dynein activity mistargeted synaptic vesicles. We demonstrated that dynein showed preference towards binding mutant microtubules over wild-type in microtubule sedimentation assay. By contrast, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration were independent of dynein and could be ameliorated by genetic paralysis of the animal. This suggests that mutant microtubules render the neurons susceptible to recurrent mechanical stress induced by muscle activity, which is consistent with the observation that microtubule network was disorganized under electron microscopy. Our work provides insights into how microtubule-dynein interaction instructs synaptic vesicle targeting and the importance of microtubule in the maintenance of neuronal structures against constant mechanical stress. PMID:25392990

  4. Mutation-Based Learning to Improve Student Autonomy and Scientific Inquiry Skills in a Large Genetics Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinlu

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a “mutation” method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could choose to delete, add, reverse, or replace certain steps of the standard protocol to explore questions of interest to them in a given experimental scenario. They wrote experimental proposals to address their rationales and hypotheses for the “mutations”; conducted experiments in parallel, according to both standard and mutated protocols; and then compared and analyzed results to write individual lab reports. Various autonomy-supportive measures were provided in the entire experimental process. Analyses of student work and feedback suggest that students using the MBL approach 1) spend more time discussing experiments, 2) use more scientific inquiry skills, and 3) find the increased autonomy afforded by MBL more enjoyable than do students following regimented instructions in a conventional “cookbook”-style laboratory. Furthermore, the MBL approach does not incur an obvious increase in labor and financial costs, which makes it feasible for easy adaptation and implementation in a large class. PMID:24006394

  5. Genetic analysis of a novel tubulin mutation that redirects synaptic vesicle targeting and causes neurite degeneration in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jiun-Min; Chen, Chun-Hao; Chen, Yen-Chih; McDonald, Kent L; Gurling, Mark; Lee, Albert; Garriga, Gian; Pan, Chun-Liang

    2014-11-01

    Neuronal cargos are differentially targeted to either axons or dendrites, and this polarized cargo targeting critically depends on the interaction between microtubules and molecular motors. From a forward mutagenesis screen, we identified a gain-of-function mutation in the C. elegans α-tubulin gene mec-12 that triggered synaptic vesicle mistargeting, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration in the touch receptor neurons. This missense mutation replaced an absolutely conserved glycine in the H12 helix with glutamic acid, resulting in increased negative charges at the C-terminus of α-tubulin. Synaptic vesicle mistargeting in the mutant neurons was suppressed by reducing dynein function, suggesting that aberrantly high dynein activity mistargeted synaptic vesicles. We demonstrated that dynein showed preference towards binding mutant microtubules over wild-type in microtubule sedimentation assay. By contrast, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration were independent of dynein and could be ameliorated by genetic paralysis of the animal. This suggests that mutant microtubules render the neurons susceptible to recurrent mechanical stress induced by muscle activity, which is consistent with the observation that microtubule network was disorganized under electron microscopy. Our work provides insights into how microtubule-dynein interaction instructs synaptic vesicle targeting and the importance of microtubule in the maintenance of neuronal structures against constant mechanical stress.

  6. The Genetic, Morphological, and Physiological Characterization of a Dark Larval Cuticle Mutation in the Butterfly, Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2010-01-01

    Studies on insect melanism have greatly contributed to our understanding of natural selection and the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of darkly pigmented phenotypes. Research on several species of melanic lepidopteran larvae have found that low levels of circulating juvenile hormone (JH) titers are associated with a melanic phenotype, suggesting that genetic changes in the JH biosynthetic pathway give rise to increased deposition of melanin granules in the cuticle in this group. But does melanism arise through different molecular mechanisms in different species? The present study reports on a Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) dark larvae single locus mutation, in which larvae exhibit a darker cuticle relative to wild type. Unlike other lepidopteran melanic larvae mutations, this one is autosomal recessive and does not appear to involve a deficiency in JH titers. Unlike JH deficiency mutants, dark larvae mutants display similar growth rates and sexual behaviors as wild type, and topical application of a JH analogue failed to rescue the wild type cuticular coloration. Finally, transmission electron microscopy showed that sclerotization or deposition of diffuse melanin, rather than deposition of melanin granules, produces the dark coloration found in the cuticle of this species. We conclude that different molecular mechanisms underlie larval melanism in different species of Lepidoptera. PMID:20644735

  7. A multicenter experience on the prevalence of ARMC5 mutations in patients with primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: from genetic characterization to clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Albiger, N M; Regazzo, D; Rubin, B; Ferrara, A M; Rizzati, S; Taschin, E; Ceccato, F; Arnaldi, G; Pecori Giraldi, F; Stigliano, A; Cerquetti, L; Grimaldi, F; De Menis, E; Boscaro, M; Iacobone, M; Occhi, G; Scaroni, C

    2017-03-01

    ARMC5 mutations have recently been identified as a common genetic cause of primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH). We aimed to assess the prevalence of ARMC5 germline mutations and correlate genotype with phenotype in a large cohort of PBMAH patients. A multicenter study was performed, collecting patients from different endocrinology units in Italy. Seventy-one PBMAH patients were screened for small mutations and large rearrangements in the ARMC5 gene: 53 were cortisol-secreting (two with a family history of adrenal hyperplasia) and 18 were non-secreting cases of PBMAH. Non-mutated and mutated patients' clinical phenotypes were compared and related to the type of mutation. A likely causative germline ARMC5 mutation was only identified in cortisol-secreting PBMAH patients (one with a family history of adrenal hyperplasia and ten apparently sporadic cases). Screening in eight first-degree relatives of three index cases revealed four carriers of an ARMC5 mutation. Evidence of a second hit at somatic level was identified in five nodules. Mutated patients had higher cortisol levels (p = 0.062), and more severe hypertension and diabetes (p < 0.05). Adrenal glands were significantly larger, with a multinodular phenotype, in the mutant group (p < 0.01). No correlation emerged between type of mutation and clinical parameters. ARMC5 mutations are frequent in cortisol-secreting PBMAH and seem to be associated with a particular pattern of the adrenal masses. Their identification may have implications for the clinical care of PBMAH cases and their relatives.

  8. The genetics of the Dras3-Roughened-ecdysoneless chromosomal region (62B3-4 to 62D3-4) in Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of recessive lethal mutations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, T J; Henrich, V C; Tucker, R L; Gilbert, L I

    1989-10-01

    The genetic organization of interval 62B3-4 to 62D3-4 on the Drosophila third chromosome was investigated. The region (designated DRE) includes four known loci: Roughened (R; 3-1.4), defined by a dominant mutation disrupting eye morphology; the nonvital locus Aprt, structural gene for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; Dras3, a homolog of the vertebrate ras oncogene; and 1(3)ecdysoneless (1(3)ecd), a gene that has been implicated in the regulation of larval molting hormone (ecdysteroid) synthesis. Overlapping chromosomal deletions of the region were generated by gamma-ray-induced reversion of the R mutation. Recessive lethal mutations were isolated based upon failure to complement the recessive lethality of Df(3L)RR2, a deletion of the DRE region that removes 16-18 polytene chromosome bands. A total of 117 mutations were isolated following ethyl methanesulfonate and gamma-ray mutagenesis. These and two additional define 13 lethal complementation groups. Mutations at two loci were recovered at disproportionately high rates. One of these loci is preferentially sensitive to radiation-induced mutational alterations. Additionally, an unusually low recovery rate for cytologically detectable rearrangement breakpoints within the gamma-ray-sensitive locus suggests that an interval of the DRE region closely linked to the R locus may be dominantly sensitive to position effects. Lethal phase analysis of mutant hemizygotes indicates that a high proportion of DRE-region loci (11 of 13) are necessary for larval development. Mutations in five loci cause predominantly first-instar larval lethality, while mutations in four other loci cause predominantly second-instar lethality. Mutations in two loci cause late-larval lethality associated with abnormal imaginal disc development. A temperature-sensitive allele of one newly identified complementation group blocks ecdysteroid-induced pupariation. This developmental block is overcome by dietary 20-hydroxyecdysone, suggesting that a

  9. Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene influences impulsivity in addition to eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C T; Bartels, Meike; Middeldorp, Christel M; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Furth, Eric F; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized by SV. Could perfectionism or impulsivity be underlying the association between rs1473473 and EDs? Genetic association between TPH2 SNP rs1473473 and perfectionism or impulsivity was first evaluated in a random control group (N = 512). The associations obtained in this control group were subsequently tested in a group of patients with an ED (N = 267). The minor allele of rs1473473 (OR = 1.49) was more frequent in impulsive controls, but also in impulsive patients with an ED (OR = 1.83). The largest effect was found in the patients with an ED characterized by SV (OR = 2.51, p = 0.02). Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene appeared to affect impulsivity which, in turn, might predispose to the SV phenotype.

  10. Patterns of human genetic variation inferred from comparative analysis of allelic mutations in blood group antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Blumenfeld, Olga O

    2011-03-01

    Comparative analysis of allelic variation of a gene sheds light on the pattern and process of its diversification at the population level. Gene families for which a large number of allelic forms have been verified by sequencing provide a useful resource for such studies. In this regard, human blood group-encoding genes are unique in that differences of cell surface traits among individuals and populations can be readily detected by serological screening, and correlation between the variant cell surface phenotype and the genotype is, in most cases, unequivocal. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of allelic forms, compiled in the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation database, of ABO, RHD/CE, GYPA/B/E and FUT1/2 gene families that encode the ABO, RH, MNS, and H/h blood group system antigens, respectively. These genes are excellent illustrative examples showing distinct mutational patterns among the alleles, and leading to speculation on how their origin may have been driven by recurrent but different molecular mechanisms. We illustrate how alignment of alleles of a gene may provide an additional insight into the DNA variation process and its pathways, and how this approach may serve to catalog alleles of a gene, simplifying the task and content of mutation databases.

  11. The recurrent PPP1CB mutation p.Pro49Arg in an additional Noonan-like syndrome individual: Broadening the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Débora; Yamamoto, Guilherme; Buscarilli, Michelle; Jorge, Alexander; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Kim, Chong

    2017-03-01

    We report on a 12-year-old Brazilian boy with the p.Pro49Arg mutation in PPP1CB, a novel gene associated with RASopathies. This is the fifth individual described, and the fourth presenting the same variant, suggesting a mutational hotspot. Phenotypically, he also showed the same hair pattern-sparse, thin, and with slow growing-, similar to the typical ectodermal finding observed in Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair. Additionally, he presented craniosynostosis, a rare clinical finding in RASopathies. This report gives further support that this novel RASopathy-PPP1CB-related Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair-shares great similarity to Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair, and expands the phenotypic spectrum by adding the cranial vault abnormality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Computer simulation for the growing probability of additional offspring with an advantageous reversal allele in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Wonpyong

    2016-01-01

    This study calculated the growing probability of additional offspring with the advantageous reversal allele in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape using the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model. The growing probability was calculated for various population sizes, N, sequence lengths, L, selective advantages, s, fitness parameters, k and measuring parameters, C. The saturated growing probability in the stochastic region was approximately the effective selective advantage, s*, when C≫1/Ns* and s*≪1. The present study suggests that the growing probability in the stochastic region in the decoupled continuous-time mutation-selection model can be described using the theoretical formula for the growing probability in the Moran two-allele model. The selective advantage ratio, which represents the ratio of the effective selective advantage to the selective advantage, does not depend on the population size, selective advantage, measuring parameter and fitness parameter; instead the selective advantage ratio decreases with the increasing sequence length.

  13. Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Brazzola, Gregory; Chèvre, Nathalie; Wedekind, Claus

    2014-11-01

    The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen pollution. We also found maternal effects on embryo development to be influenced by EE2, that is, some maternal sib groups were more susceptible to EE2 than others. In conclusion, the toxic effects of EE2 were strong, but both species demonstrated the kind of additive genetic variation that is necessary for an evolutionary response to this type of pollution.

  14. Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brazzola, Gregory; Chèvre, Nathalie; Wedekind, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen pollution. We also found maternal effects on embryo development to be influenced by EE2, that is, some maternal sib groups were more susceptible to EE2 than others. In conclusion, the toxic effects of EE2 were strong, but both species demonstrated the kind of additive genetic variation that is necessary for an evolutionary response to this type of pollution. PMID:25553069

  15. APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations in early-onset Alzheimer disease: A genetic screening study of familial and sporadic cases

    PubMed Central

    Lanoiselée, Hélène-Marie; Nicolas, Gaël; Wallon, David; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Lacour, Morgane; Rousseau, Stéphane; Richard, Anne-Claire; Pasquier, Florence; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Martinaud, Olivier; Quillard-Muraine, Muriel; de la Sayette, Vincent; Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Claire; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Chauviré, Valérie; Sarazin, Marie; le Ber, Isabelle; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Jonveaux, Thérèse; Rouaud, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Félician, Olivier; Godefroy, Olivier; Formaglio, Maite; Croisile, Bernard; Auriacombe, Sophie; Chamard, Ludivine; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sauvée, Mathilde; Marelli-Tosi, Cecilia; Gabelle, Audrey; Ozsancak, Canan; Pariente, Jérémie; Paquet, Claire; Hannequin, Didier; Campion, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Background Amyloid protein precursor (APP), presenilin-1 (PSEN1), and presenilin-2 (PSEN2) mutations cause autosomal dominant forms of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD-EOAD). Although these genes were identified in the 1990s, variant classification remains a challenge, highlighting the need to colligate mutations from large series. Methods and findings We report here a novel update (2012–2016) of the genetic screening of the large AD-EOAD series ascertained across 28 French hospitals from 1993 onwards, bringing the total number of families with identified mutations to n = 170. Families were included when at least two first-degree relatives suffered from early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) with an age of onset (AOO) ≤65 y in two generations. Furthermore, we also screened 129 sporadic cases of Alzheimer disease with an AOO below age 51 (44% males, mean AOO = 45 ± 2 y). APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2 mutations were identified in 53 novel AD-EOAD families. Of the 129 sporadic cases screened, 17 carried a PSEN1 mutation and 1 carried an APP duplication (13%). Parental DNA was available for 10 sporadic mutation carriers, allowing us to show that the mutation had occurred de novo in each case. Thirteen mutations (12 in PSEN1 and 1 in PSEN2) identified either in familial or in sporadic cases were previously unreported. Of the 53 mutation carriers with available cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, 46 (87%) had all three CSF biomarkers—total tau protein (Tau), phospho-tau protein (P-Tau), and amyloid β (Aβ)42—in abnormal ranges. No mutation carrier had the three biomarkers in normal ranges. One limitation of this study is the absence of functional assessment of the possibly and probably pathogenic variants, which should help their classification. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a nonnegligible fraction of PSEN1 mutations occurs de novo, which is of high importance for genetic counseling, as PSEN1 mutational screening is currently performed in familial cases only

  16. Multilocus mutation scanning for the analysis of genetic variation within Malassezia (Basidiomycota: Malasseziales).

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Guillot, Jacques; Gasser, Robin B

    2007-04-01

    Members of the genus Malassezia are budding yeasts, characterized by a thick cell wall. Recently, these yeasts have received attention as emerging pathogens. They are common commensals on the skin of animals and can become pathogenic under the influence of various predisposing factors. Central to studying their taxonomy, systematics, and ecology and to diagnosis is the accurate identification of species or operational taxonomic units. To overcome the limitations of current phenotypic and biochemical methods of identification, a PCR-coupled SSCP approach, utilizing sequence variation (0.4-33.5%) in short regions (approximately 250-270 bp) of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chitin synthase-2 gene (chs-2), was assessed for the identification and differentiation of different species/genotypes of Malassezia, characterized previously by DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA samples (n = 30) from Malassezia isolates cultured from canine skin scrapings were assessed by SSCP analysis of the two different genetic loci, and unequivocal delineation between genotypes and species was achieved. This SSCP approach is considered to provide a practical tool for the rapid and reliable genetic characterization of Malassezia genotypes/species from dogs and for investigating their population genetics and ecology. It will also provide a powerful tool for studies of Malassezia isolates from other animal species.

  17. Somatic Mutations and Genetic Variants of NOTCH1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Occurrence and Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Fan; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chung, Chia-Min; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Lin, You-Zhe; Lee, Chien-Hung; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Yuan-Chien; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A number of genetic variants have been associated with cancer occurrence, however it may be the acquired somatic mutations (SMs) that drive cancer development. This study investigates the potential SMs and related genetic variants associated with the occurrence and development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We identified several SMs in NOTCH1 from whole-exome sequencing and validated them in a 13-year cohort of 128 HNSCC patients using a high-resolution melting analysis and resequencing. Patients who have NOTCH1 SMs show higher 5-year relapse-free recurrence (P = 0.0013) and lower survival proportion (P = 0.0447) when the risk-associated SMs were analysed by Cox proportional hazard models. Interestingly, the NOTCH1 gene rs139994842 that shares linkage with SMs is associated with HNSCC risk (OR = 3.46), increasing when SMs in NOTCH1 are involved (OR = 7.74), and furthermore when there are SMs in conjunction to betel quid chewing (OR = 32.11), which is a related independent environmental risk factor after adjusting for substances use (alcohol, betel quid, cigarettes) and age. The findings indicate that betel quid chewing is highly associated with NOTCH1 SMs (especially with changes in EGF-like domains), and that rs139994842 may potentially serve as an early predictive and prognostic biomarker for the occurrence and development of HNSCC. PMID:27035284

  18. A novel reverse-genetic approach (SIMF) identifies Mutator insertions in new Myb genes.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Grotewold, E

    2000-11-01

    We have developed a new strategy designated SIMF (Systematic Insertional Mutagenesis of Families), to identify DNA insertions in many members of a gene family simultaneously. This method requires only a short amino acid sequence conserved in all members of the family to make a degenerate oligonucleotide, and a sequence from the end of the DNA insertion. The SIMF strategy was successfully applied to the large maize R2R3 Myb family of regulatory genes, and Mutator insertions in several novel Myb genes were identified. Application of this technique to identify insertions in other large gene families could significantly decrease the effort involved in screening at the same time for insertions in all members of groups of genes that share a limited sequence identity.

  19. A genetic screen of the Drosophila X chromosome for mutations that modify Deformed function.

    PubMed Central

    Florence, B; McGinnis, W

    1998-01-01

    We have screened the Drosophila X chromosome for genes whose dosage affects the function of the homeotic gene Deformed. One of these genes, extradenticle, encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that heterodimerizes with Deformed and other homeotic Hox proteins. Mutations in the nejire gene, which encodes a transcriptional adaptor protein belonging to the CBP/p300 family, also interact with Deformed. The other previously characterized gene identified as a Deformed interactor is Notch, which encodes a transmembrane receptor. These three genes underscore the importance of transcriptional regulation and cell-cell signaling in Hox function. Four novel genes were also identified in the screen. One of these, rancor, is required for appropriate embryonic expression of Deformed and another homeotic gene, labial. Both Notch and nejire affect the function of another Hox gene, Ultrabithorax, indicating they may be required for homeotic activity in general. PMID:9832527

  20. CHIT1 mutations: genetic risk factor for severe asthma with fungal sensitization?

    PubMed

    Vicencio, Alfin G; Chupp, Geoffrey L; Tsirilakis, Kalliope; He, Xiaoxuan; Kessel, Aaron; Nandalike, Kiran; Veler, Haviva; Kipperman, Stacy; Young, Michael C; Goldman, David L

    2010-10-01

    Fungi can exacerbate symptoms in patients with asthma. To our knowledge, genetic risk factors for fungal-associated asthma have not been described. We present here the cases of 6 children who carried the diagnosis of severe asthma with fungal sensitization, 3 of whom were treated with and responded clinically to itraconazole therapy. All 6 patients were heterozygous for a 24-base pair duplication in the CHIT1 gene, which has been associated with decreased levels of circulating chitotriosidase and susceptibility to fungal infection.

  1. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  2. Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  3. Functional analysis reveals splicing mutations of the CASQ2 gene in patients with CPVT: implication for genetic counselling and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Roux-Buisson, Nathalie; Rendu, John; Denjoy, Isabelle; Guicheney, Pascale; Goldenberg, Alice; David, Nadine; Faivre, Laurence; Barthez, Olivier; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Marty, Isabelle; Lunardi, Joel; Fauré, Julien

    2011-09-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare and severe arrhythmogenic disorder. Although usually transmitted in a recessive form, few cases of dominant mutations have been reported. Thirteen mutations in the CASQ2 gene have been reported so far in association with CPVT. We performed molecular analysis of the CASQ2 gene in 43 probands with CPVT and identified eight mutations in five patients. Six mutations were novel: one was a single nucleotide deletion, three affected consensus splice sites, and two had unknown consequences: the c.939 + 5G>C and the synonymous c.381C>T variations. We demonstrated that these two variations affected CASQ2 splicing using a splicing minigene assay. These data increased significantly the number of CASQ2 mutations described in association with CPVT, revealed the high prevalence of splicing and truncating mutations in this gene and brought new insight regarding the dominant inheritance of the disease. Moreover, our report of the first splicing abnormalities in CASQ2 caused by intronic mutation or synonymous change underlines the absolute necessity to perform extensive molecular analysis for genetic diagnosis and counseling of CPVT.

  4. Genetic Inhibition Of The Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf5 Attenuates Phenotypes Associated To F508del Cystic Fibrosis Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tomati, Valeria; Sondo, Elvira; Armirotti, Andrea; Caci, Emanuela; Pesce, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Gianotti, Ambra; Ju Jeon, Young; Cilli, Michele; Pistorio, Angela; Mastracci, Luca; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Scholte, Bob; Ronai, Ze’ev; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Pedemonte, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del), the most frequent CF mutation, impairs CFTR trafficking and gating. F508del-CFTR mistrafficking may be corrected by acting directly on mutant CFTR itself or by modulating expression/activity of CFTR-interacting proteins, that may thus represent potential drug targets. To evaluate possible candidates for F508del-CFTR rescue, we screened a siRNA library targeting known CFTR interactors. Our analysis identified RNF5 as a protein whose inhibition promoted significant F508del-CFTR rescue and displayed an additive effect with the investigational drug VX-809. Significantly, RNF5 loss in F508del-CFTR transgenic animals ameliorated intestinal malabsorption and concomitantly led to an increase in CFTR activity in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, we found that RNF5 is differentially expressed in human bronchial epithelia from CF vs. control patients. Our results identify RNF5 as a target for therapeutic modalities to antagonize mutant CFTR proteins. PMID:26183966

  5. Genetic screening for mutations in the chip gene in intracranial aneurysm patients of Chinese Han nationality.

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Yang; Zhang, An-Long; Mei, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Han, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We performed a case-control study to investigate whether SNPs of CHIP might affect the development of IA in Chinese Han nationality. We believe we are the first to have screened IA patients for mutations in the CHIP gene to determine the association with these variants. The study group comprised 224 Chinese Han nationality patients with at least one intracranial aneurysm and 238 unrelated healthy Han nationality controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The entire coding regions of CHIP were genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Differences in genotype and allele frequencies between patients and controls were tested by the chi-square method. Genotype and allele frequencies of the SNP rs116166850 was demonstrated to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies between case and control groups was detected at the SNP. Our data do not support the hypothesis of a major role for the CHIP gene in IA development in the Chinese Han population.

  6. Molecular analysis of genetic mutations among cross-resistant second-line injectable drugs reveals a new resistant mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Malinga, Lesibana; Brand, Jeannette; Olorunju, Steve; Stoltz, Anton; van der Walt, Martie

    2016-08-01

    Mutations causing mono and cross-resistance among amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin of second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) namely are not well understood. We investigated 124 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for mutations within rrs, eis, tlyA and efflux pump (Rv1258c and Rv0194) genes involved in resistance towards SLIDs. The distribution of mutations across these genes were significantly different in strains with mono-resistance or cross-resistance. A new mutation G878A was found in rrs gene, among strains with capreomycin mono-resistant, or in strains with cross-resistance of capreomycin, kanamycin and amikacin. This mutation was associated with the Euro-American X3 lineage (P < 0.0001). Mutations in the two efflux genes Rv1258c and Rv0194 were confined to strains with only capreomycin/amikacin/kanamycin cross-resistance. We further investigated the minimum inhibitory concentration of capreomycin on isolates with new G878A mutation ranging from 8 μg/mL to 64 μg/mL. Inclusion of G878A on new molecular assays could increase the sensitivity of capreomycin resistance detection.

  7. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation.

  8. Genetic Isolation, Cloning, and Analysis of a Mutator-Induced, Dominant Antimorph of the Maize amylose extender1 Locus.

    PubMed Central

    Stinard, PS; Robertson, DS; Schnable, PS

    1993-01-01

    We report the genetic identification, molecular cloning, and characterization of a dominant mutant at the amylose extender1 locus, Ae1-5180. The identities of our clones are corroborated by their ability to reveal DNA polymorphisms between seven wild-type revertants from Ae1-5180 relative to the Ae1-5180 mutant allele and between four of five independently derived, Mutator (Mu)-induced recessive ae1 alleles relative to their respective wild-type progenitor alleles. The Ae1-5180 mutation is associated with two Mu1 insertions flanked by complex rearrangements of ae1-related sequences. One of the Mu1 elements is flanked by inverted repeats of ae1-related DNA of at least 5.0 kb in length. This Mu1 element and at least some of this flanking inverted repeat DNA are absent or hypermethylated in six of seven wild-type revertants of Ae1-5180 that were analyzed. The second Mu1 element is flanked on one side by the 5.0-kb ae1-specific repeat and on the other side by a sequence that does not hybridize to the ae1-related repeat sequence. This second Mu1 element is present in revertants to the wild type and does not, therefore, appear to affect ae1 gene function. A 2.7-kb ae1 transcript can be detected in wild-type and homozygous ae1-Ref endosperms 20 days after pollination. This transcript is absent in endosperms containing one, two, or three doses of Ae1-5180. This result is consistent with a suppression model to explain the dominant gene action of Ae1-5180 and establishes Ae1-5180 as an antimorphic allele. Homozygous wild-type seedlings produce no detectable transcript, indicating some degree of tissue specificity for ae1 expression. Sequence analyses establish that ae1 encodes starch branching enzyme II. PMID:12271046

  9. Spectrum of genetic changes in patients with non-syndromic hearing impairment and extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Danilenko, Nina; Merkulava, Elena; Siniauskaya, Marina; Olejnik, Olga; Levaya-Smaliak, Anastasia; Kushniarevich, Alena; Shymkevich, Andrey; Davydenko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The genetic nature of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has so far been studied for many ethnic groups in various parts of the world. The single-nucleotide guanine deletion (35delG) of the GJB2 gene coding for connexin 26 was shown to be the main genetic cause of autosomal recessive deafness among Europeans. Here we present the results of the first study of GJB2 and three mitochondrial mutations among two groups of Belarusian inhabitants: native people with normal hearing (757 persons) and 391 young patients with non-syndromic SNHL. We have found an extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus -5.7%. This point deletion has also been detected in 53% of the patients with SNHL. The 312del14 GJB2 was the second most common mutation in the Belarus patient cohort. Mitochondrial A1555G mt-RNR1 substitution was found in two SNHL patients (0.55%) but none were found in the population cohort. No individuals carried the A7445G mutation of mitochondrial mt-TS1. G7444A as well as T961G substitutions were detected in mitochondrial mt-RNR1 at a rate of about 1% both in the patient and population cohorts. A possible reason for Belarusians having the highest mutation carrier frequency in Europe 35delG is discussed.

  10. Targeted genetic dependency screen facilitates identification of actionable mutations in FGFR4, MAP3K9, and PAK5 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fawdar, Shameem; Trotter, Eleanor W; Li, Yaoyong; Stephenson, Natalie L; Hanke, Franziska; Marusiak, Anna A; Edwards, Zoe C; Ientile, Sara; Waszkowycz, Bohdan; Miller, Crispin J; Brognard, John

    2013-07-23

    Approximately 70% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer present with late-stage disease and have limited treatment options, so there is a pressing need to develop efficacious targeted therapies for these patients. This remains a major challenge as the underlying genetic causes of ~50% of non-small-cell lung cancers remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that a targeted genetic dependency screen is an efficient approach to identify somatic cancer alterations that are functionally important. By using this approach, we have identified three kinases with gain-of-function mutations in lung cancer, namely FGFR4, MAP3K9, and PAK5. Mutations in these kinases are activating toward the ERK pathway, and targeted depletion of the mutated kinases inhibits proliferation, suppresses constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways, and results in specific killing of the lung cancer cells. Genomic profiling of patients with lung cancer is ushering in an era of personalized medicine; however, lack of actionable mutations presents a significant hurdle. Our study indicates that targeted genetic dependency screens will be an effective strategy to elucidate somatic variants that are essential for lung cancer cell viability.

  11. Role of mouse germ-cell mutagenesis in understanding genetic risk and in generating mutations that are prime tools for studies in modern biology.

    PubMed

    Russell, L B

    1994-01-01

    Highlights are presented on (1) the role mouse germ-cell mutagenesis has played in assessing the genetic harm from radiations and chemicals, and (2) the contributions to the field of modern biology that are being made by the products of this research--the propagated mutations. Among the numerous findings in radiation mutagenesis were the humped dose-effect curve for spermatogonial stem cells, the major differences between the sexes and between germ-cell stages of each sex in both yield and nature of mutations, the dose-rate effect, which provided the first evidence for repair of mutational (or premutational) damage, the augmenting effect of certain regimes of dose fractionation, and many others. Chemical mutagenesis studies that followed revealed at least three patterns of mutation yield and demonstrated that germ-cell stage--much more than the nature of the chemical--governs the nature of the DNA lesions induced. Two "supermutagens," one for intragenic mutations and one for deletions and other rearrangements, have become very useful in the manufacture of mutations for specific purposes. The mutations propagated from radiation- and chemical-mutagenesis experiments are providing prime resources for basic studies in genome organization, gene structure, and function. DNA lesions that involve specific loci have made possible increasingly detailed characterization of extensive deletion complexes that facilitate high-intensity physical and functional mapping within them. Numerous loci associated with interesting developmental anomalies have been identified and have become accessible to positional cloning. Several of the genes accessed with the aid of induced mutations (deletions, other rearrangements, and point mutations) are furnishing prime reagents for elucidating human disease conditions.

  12. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.B.; Schultz, D.C.; Godwin, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: a genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, D. B.; Wagner-Costalas, J.; Schultz, D. C.; Lynch, H. T.; Daly, M.; Godwin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8651293

  14. The first family with Tay-Sachs disease in Cyprus: Genetic analysis reveals a nonsense (c.78G>A) and a silent (c.1305C>T) mutation and allows preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Theodoros; Christopoulos, George; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Cregeen, David; Jackson, Marie; Mavrikiou, Gavriella; Kleanthous, Marina; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2014-12-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the HEXA gene resulting in β-hexosaminidase A (HEX A) deficiency and neuronal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside. We describe the first patient with Tay-Sachs disease in the Cypriot population, a juvenile case which presented with developmental regression at the age of five. The diagnosis was confirmed by measurement of HEXA activity in plasma, peripheral leucocytes and fibroblasts. Sequencing the HEXA gene resulted in the identification of two previously described mutations: the nonsense mutation c.78G>A (p.Trp26X) and the silent mutation c.1305C>T (p.=). The silent mutation was reported once before in a juvenile TSD patient of West Indian origin with an unusually mild phenotype. The presence of this mutation in another juvenile TSD patient provides further evidence that it is a disease-causing mutation. Successful preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal follow-up were provided to the couple.

  15. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms and expression of minisatellite mutations in a 3-generation population around the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test-site, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Bolegenova, N K; Bekmanov, B O; Djansugurova, L B; Bersimbaev, R I; Salama, S A; Au, W W

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that a population near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site had significantly increased minisatellite mutations (MM), suggesting increased germ-line mutation rates from the exposure in 3 generations. We hypothesize that the MM can be used as a surrogate biomarker for functional genetic alterations, e.g. gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of polymorphisms in genes on the expression of MM in the same two populations (247 and 172 individuals, for exposed and control, respectively, in 3 generations), and their relationships with radiation exposure. We have chosen the analyses of three polymorphic DNA - repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and two xenobiotic detoxification genes (GSTT1 and GSTM1). Among the exposed and in comparison with the wild-type gene, the functionally active XRCC1 Arg194Trp was significantly associated with low MM and over-represented in the exposed compared with the control populations. In a similar analysis, the functionally deficient XRCC1 Arg399Glu and XRCC3 Trp241Met were associated with increased and significantly reduced MM, respectively, but these variant genes were under-represented in the exposed population. Both GSTT1 and GSTM1 nulls were significantly associated with increased MM. The former was under-represented but the latter was significantly over-represented in the exposed compared with the control populations. In summary, the data indicate that the expected enzymatic functions of the polymorphic genes are consistent with the MM expression, except the XRCC1 Arg399Glu variant gene. In addition, the variant genes were retained in the three generations in association with their useful function, except for the GSTM1 null. However, the MM frequencies in the exposed were not consistently and significantly higher than those in the control populations, radiation exposure may therefore not have been the only cause for the high MM frequency among the

  17. PANK2 gene analysis confirms genetic heterogeneity in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) but mutations are rare in other types of adult neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Matarin, M M; Singleton, A B; Houlden, H

    2006-10-23

    Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2) are the cause of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder characterized by motor symptoms as such as dystonia or parkinsonism, mental retardation, retinitis pigmentosa and iron accumulation in the brain. As many neurodegenerative conditions have similar clinical features we screened a number of adult and childhood onset movement disorders for PANK2 mutation. This included cases with neurodegeneration and brain iron accumulation, corticobasal degeneartion, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atropy, giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), Guam dementia and HARP syndrome (pallido-pyramidal syndrome and hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa and pallidal degeneration). From our series of patients one patient with PKAN and a progressive severe dystonic syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa and eventual anarthria had a novel combination of two compound heterozygote mutations identified in the PANK2 gene, G-->A transition at base 1238 (G411R) and a C-->A transition at base 1184 (A395E). In the patient with HARP syndrome two compound heterozygote mutations (Met327Thr and IVS5-1 G to T) in the PANK2 gene were found. No other mutations were found in any of the other patient groups, suggesting that PANK2 mutations are not associated with the aetiology of these adult degenerative conditions and confirms the genetic heterogeneity in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

  18. Unusual life cycle and impact on microfibril assembly of ADAMTS17, a secreted metalloprotease mutated in genetic eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Hubmacher, Dirk; Schneider, Michael; Berardinelli, Steven J.; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Willard, Belinda; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Apte, Suneel S.

    2017-01-01

    Secreted metalloproteases have diverse roles in the formation, remodeling, and the destruction of extracellular matrix. Recessive mutations in the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS17 cause ectopia lentis and short stature in humans with Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and primary open angle glaucoma and ectopia lentis in dogs. Little is known about this protease or its connection to fibrillin microfibrils, whose major component, fibrillin-1, is genetically associated with ectopia lentis and alterations in height. Fibrillin microfibrils form the ocular zonule and are present in the drainage apparatus of the eye. We show that recombinant ADAMTS17 has unique characteristics and an unusual life cycle. It undergoes rapid autocatalytic processing in trans after its secretion from cells. Secretion of ADAMTS17 requires O-fucosylation and its autocatalytic activity does not depend on propeptide processing by furin. ADAMTS17 binds recombinant fibrillin-2 but not fibrillin-1 and does not cleave either. It colocalizes to fibrillin-1 containing microfibrils in cultured fibroblasts and suppresses fibrillin-2 (FBN2) incorporation in microfibrils, in part by transcriptional downregulation of Fbn2 mRNA expression. RNA in situ hybridization detected Adamts17 expression in specific structures in the eye, skeleton and other organs, where it may regulate the fibrillin isoform composition of microfibrils. PMID:28176809

  19. Crossover versus mutation: a comparative analysis of the evolutionary strategy of genetic algorithms applied to combinatorial optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Osaba, E; Carballedo, R; Diaz, F; Onieva, E; de la Iglesia, I; Perallos, A

    2014-01-01

    Since their first formulation, genetic algorithms (GAs) have been one of the most widely used techniques to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The basic structure of the GAs is known by the scientific community, and thanks to their easy application and good performance, GAs are the focus of a lot of research works annually. Although throughout history there have been many studies analyzing various concepts of GAs, in the literature there are few studies that analyze objectively the influence of using blind crossover operators for combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, in this paper a deep study on the influence of using them is conducted. The study is based on a comparison of nine techniques applied to four well-known combinatorial optimization problems. Six of the techniques are GAs with different configurations, and the remaining three are evolutionary algorithms that focus exclusively on the mutation process. Finally, to perform a reliable comparison of these results, a statistical study of them is made, performing the normal distribution z-test.

  20. Mutational trends in V3 loop protein sequences observed in different genetic lineages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Korber, B T; MacInnes, K; Smith, R F; Myers, G

    1994-01-01

    Highly variable international human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope sequences can be assigned to six major clades, or phylogenetically defined subtypes, designated A through F. These subtypes are approximately equidistant in terms of evolutionary distance measured by nucleotide sequences. This radiation from a common ancestral sequence may have been in step with the spread of the pandemic. In this study, V3 loop protein sequence relationships within these major clades are analyzed to determine how the different lineages might be evolving with respect to this biologically important domain. The V3 loop has been shown to influence viral phenotype and to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. To identify patterns in V3 loop amino acid evolution, we cluster the sequences by a phenetic principle which evaluates protein similarities on the basis of amino acid identities and similarities irrespective of evolutionary relationships. When phenetic clustering patterns are superimposed upon phylogenetic subtype classifications, two interesting mutational trends are revealed. First, a set of identical, or highly similar, V3 loop protein sequences can be identified within two otherwise dissimilar genetic subtypes, A and C. Second, the D subtype sequences are found to possess the most radically divergent set of V3 loop sequences. These and other patterns characteristic of the V3 loop reflect the acquisition of specific biological properties during the apparently recent evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 lineages. PMID:8084005

  1. Crossover versus Mutation: A Comparative Analysis of the Evolutionary Strategy of Genetic Algorithms Applied to Combinatorial Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    Osaba, E.; Carballedo, R.; Diaz, F.; Onieva, E.; de la Iglesia, I.; Perallos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since their first formulation, genetic algorithms (GAs) have been one of the most widely used techniques to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The basic structure of the GAs is known by the scientific community, and thanks to their easy application and good performance, GAs are the focus of a lot of research works annually. Although throughout history there have been many studies analyzing various concepts of GAs, in the literature there are few studies that analyze objectively the influence of using blind crossover operators for combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, in this paper a deep study on the influence of using them is conducted. The study is based on a comparison of nine techniques applied to four well-known combinatorial optimization problems. Six of the techniques are GAs with different configurations, and the remaining three are evolutionary algorithms that focus exclusively on the mutation process. Finally, to perform a reliable comparison of these results, a statistical study of them is made, performing the normal distribution z-test. PMID:25165731

  2. Genetic screening for mutations in the Nrdp1 gene in Parkinson disease patients in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaoyun; Liu, Deyuan; Li, Wei; Hu, Zhengmao; Hu, Yiqiao; Li, Jingzhi; Guo, Jifeng; Tang, Beisha; Zhang, Zhuohua; Bai, Yi; Xia, Kun

    2010-03-01

    Strong evidence has shown that a defect in the Parkin gene is known to be a common, genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD). The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 is shown to interact with the N terminal of Parkin (the first 76 amino acids) and catalyze degradation of Parkin via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, suggesting that Nrdp1 may be involved in the development of PD via the regulation of Parkin, We believe we are the first to have screened PD patients for mutations in the Nrdp1 gene to determine the association between these variants and PD. By direct sequencing, we analysed the entire coding regions and 5' UTR of Nrdp1 in 209 Chinese PD patients and 302 unrelated healthy individuals. No variant was detected in the coding regions (exons 3-7); only 2 variants (c.-206 T > A and c.-208-8 A > G) were identified in the 5' UTR (exon 2) and intron 1. Furthermore, a study of the allelic and genotypic association between patients and controls showed no significant association between the c.-206 T > A polymorphism and PD; c.-208-8 A > G was identified in one PD patient and not in controls. Our data do not support the hypothesis of a major role for the Nrdp1 gene in PD development in the Chinese population.

  3. Progressive Ataxia and Palatal Tremor: Think about POLG Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mongin, Marie; Delorme, Cécile; Lenglet, Timothée; Jardel, Claude; Vignal, Catherine; Roze, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT) can be observed in both acquired brainstem or cerebellar lesions and genetic disorders. Phenomenology shown PAPT due to mutation in POLG, the gene encoding the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Educational value POLG mutation should be considered in patients with PAPT, particularly when additional clues such as a sensory neuronopathy or an ophthalmoplegia are present. PMID:27351300

  4. [Genetic evidence for recombination and mutation in the emergence of human enterovirus 71].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Tan, Hui; Xie, Qun; Chen, Bai-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    We wished to understand the genetic recombination and phylogenetic characteristics of human en- terovirus A71 (EV-A71) and to explore its potential virulence-related sites. Full-length genomes of three EV-A71 strains isolated from patients in Chenzhou City (China) were sequenced and analyzed. Possible re- combination events and crossover sites were analyzed with Recombination Detection Program v4. 1. 6 by comparison with the complete genome sequences of 231 strains of EV-A71. Similarly, plot and bootscanning analyses were undertaken with SimPlot v3. 5. 1. Phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of VP1 regions were constructed with MEGA v5. 2 using the Kimura two-parameter model and neighbor-joining method. Results suggested that recombination events were detected among the three EV-A71 isolates from Chenzhou City. The common main parent sequence was from JF799986 isolated from samples in Guang- zhou City (China) in 2009, and the minor parent sequence was TW/70516/08. Intertypic recombination e- vents were found in the C4b strain (strain SHZH98 isolated in 1998) and C4a strain (Fuyang strain isola- ted in 2008) with the prototype strains of CVA4 and CVA14 in the 3D region. The chi-square test was used to screen-out potential virulence-related sites with nucleotide substitutions of different types of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases using SPSS v19.0. Results suggested that there were no significant nucleotide substitutions between death cases and severe-HFMD cases. Eighteen significant nucleotide substitutions were found between death/severe-HFMD cases and mild-HFMD cases, and all these 18 substitutions were distributed only in P2 and P3 regions. Intertypic recombination among the predominant circulating EV-A71 strains in the Chinese mainland and other EV-A strains probably dates before 1998, and intratypic recombination might have occurred frequently in the HFMD outbreak from 2008 to 2012. Substitutions in the non-capsid region may be correlated with the

  5. The 3' addition of CCA to mitochondrial tRNASer(AGY) is specifically impaired in patients with mutations in the tRNA nucleotidyl transferase TRNT1.

    PubMed

    Sasarman, Florin; Thiffault, Isabelle; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Salomon, Steven; Maftei, Catalina; Gauthier, Julie; Ellazam, Benjamin; Webb, Neil; Antonicka, Hana; Janer, Alexandre; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Elpeleg, Orly; Mitchell, Grant; Shoubridge, Eric A

    2015-05-15

    Addition of the trinucleotide cytosine/cytosine/adenine (CCA) to the 3' end of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) is essential for translation and is catalyzed by the enzyme TRNT1 (tRNA nucleotidyl transferase), which functions in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Exome sequencing revealed TRNT1 mutations in two unrelated subjects with different clinical features. The first presented with acute lactic acidosis at 3 weeks of age and developed severe developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, seizures, progressive cortical atrophy, neurosensorial deafness, sideroblastic anemia and renal Fanconi syndrome, dying at 21 months. The second presented at 3.5 years with gait ataxia, dysarthria, gross motor regression, hypotonia, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia and had abnormal signals in brainstem and dentate nucleus. In subject 1, muscle biopsy showed combined oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects, but there was no OXPHOS deficiency in fibroblasts from either subject, despite a 10-fold-reduction in TRNT1 protein levels in fibroblasts of the first subject. Furthermore, in normal controls, TRNT1 protein levels are 10-fold lower in muscle than in fibroblasts. High resolution northern blots of subject fibroblast RNA suggested incomplete CCA addition to the non-canonical mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)), but no obvious qualitative differences in other mitochondrial or cytoplasmic tRNAs. Complete knockdown of TRNT1 in patient fibroblasts rendered mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)) undetectable, and markedly reduced mitochondrial translation, except polypeptides lacking Ser(AGY) codons. These data suggest that the clinical phenotypes associated with TRNT1 mutations are largely due to impaired mitochondrial translation, resulting from defective CCA addition to mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(AGY)), and that the severity of this biochemical phenotype determines the severity and tissue distribution of clinical features.

  6. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-01-01

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure. PMID:26801647

  7. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2016-01-22

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates' offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of "half-sibling" in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure.

  8. Clinical, pathological, and genetic features of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A with new calpain 3 gene mutations in seven patients from three Japanese families.

    PubMed

    Kawai, H; Akaike, M; Kunishige, M; Inui, T; Adachi, K; Kimura, C; Kawajiri, M; Nishida, Y; Endo, I; Kashiwagi, S; Nishino, H; Fujiwara, T; Okuno, S; Roudaut, C; Richard, I; Beckmann, J S; Miyoshi, K; Matsumoto, T

    1998-11-01

    We report on the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of 7 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) from three Japanese families. The mean age of onset was 9.7+/-3.1 years (mean+/-SD), and loss of ambulance occurred at 38.5+/-2.1 years. Muscle atrophy was predominant in the pelvic and shoulder girdles, and proximal limb muscles. Muscle pathology revealed dystrophic changes. In two families, an identical G to C mutation at position 1080 the in calpain 3 gene was identified, and a frameshift mutation (1796insA) was found in the third family. The former mutation results in a W360R substitution in the proteolytic site of calpain 3, and the latter in a deletion of the Ca2+-binding domain.

  9. Traceback: A Proposed Framework to Increase Identification and Genetic Counseling of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Through Family-Based Outreach.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Goli; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Brody, Lawrence C; Caga-Anan, Charlisse F; Campbell, Ian G; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Dean, Michael; de Hullu, Joanne A; Domchek, Susan M; Drapkin, Ronny; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Friedlander, Michael; Gaudet, Mia M; Harmsen, Marline G; Hurley, Karen; James, Paul A; Kwon, Janice S; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Lheureux, Stephanie; Mai, Phuong L; Mechanic, Leah E; Minasian, Lori M; Myers, Evan R; Robson, Mark E; Ramus, Susan J; Rezende, Lisa F; Shaw, Patricia A; Slavin, Thomas P; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Takenaka, Masataka; Bowtell, David D; Sherman, Mark E

    2017-04-11

    In May 2016, the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, convened a workshop to discuss a conceptual framework for identifying and genetically testing previously diagnosed but unreferred patients with ovarian cancer and other unrecognized BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers to improve the detection of families at risk for breast or ovarian cancer. The concept, designated Traceback, was prompted by the recognition that although BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are frequent in women with ovarian cancer, many such women have not been tested, especially if their diagnosis predated changes in testing guidelines. The failure to identify mutation carriers among probands represents a lost opportunity to prevent cancer in unsuspecting relatives through risk-reduction intervention in mutation carriers and to provide appropriate reassurances to noncarriers. The Traceback program could provide an important opportunity to reach families from racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups who historically have not sought or been offered genetic counseling and testing and thereby contribute to a reduction in health disparities in women with germline BRCA mutations. To achieve an interdisciplinary perspective, the workshop assembled international experts in genetics, medical and gynecologic oncology, clinical psychology, epidemiology, genomics, cost-effectiveness modeling, pathology, bioethics, and patient advocacy to identify factors to consider when undertaking a Traceback program. This report highlights the workshop deliberations with the goal of stimulating research and providing a framework for pilot studies to assess the feasibility and ethical and logistical considerations related to the development of best practices for implementation of Traceback studies.

  10. Co-Occurence of Reciprocal Translocation and COL2A1 Mutation in a Fetus with Severe Skeletal Dysplasia: Implications for Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Tilman; Nanda, Indrajit; Rehn, Monika; Zol