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Sample records for additional geodetic vlbi

  1. Korean Geodetic VLBI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also

  2. Geodetic VLBI Activities at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro

    2001-03-01

    The Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) has been performing geodetic VLBI observations to correct the positions of geodetic control points in Japan and to detect plate motion and crustal deformation around Japan. In 1981, GSI began development of a mobile VLBI system in cooperation with the Communications Research Laboratory, and used this system from 1986 to 1993 in the VLBI Experiment for Geodetic Application (VEGA) project. The most remarkable achievement of the VEGA project was the first detection of motion of the Philippine Sea plate. The GSI also carried out VLBI observations between Japan and Korea in 1995 by transporting a mobile system with a 3.8-m antenna to Korea. In 1994, ownership of the Kashima 26-m antenna was transferred from CRL to GSI, and with this antenna, GSI started to participate in international global observations, The coordinates of the Kashima 26-m antenna in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) have become the primary point of a new Japanese Geodetic Datum, At present, GSI's VLBI network in Japan consists of five stations that are used to perform regular VLBI observations. More than 30 years have passed, however, since the construction of the Kashima 26-m antenna, and its role has been passed on to the Tsukuba station, which will now participate in international global observations and act as the key station of the Japanese VLBI network.

  3. Astronomical VLBI: Comparison and Contrast with Geodetic/Astrometric VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. Craig

    2000-05-01

    The VLBI technique can be used for both high precision geometric measurements in geodetic and astrometric observations, and to study astronomical sources with high resolution. The equipment required for both types of observations is essentially the same and many telescopes and correlators are used for both. This synergy gives both the geodesy and astronomy communities access to more resources than either could support alone. The IVS membership is familiar with geodetic/astrometric VLBI, but perhaps less so with astronomical VLBI. Therefore, this presentation will begin with an introduction to the existing astronomical VLBI instruments. That will be followed by a number of examples of astronomical VLBI results to give a flavor for the science. Then some direct comparisons between geodetic and astronomical VLBI will be made with emphasis on observing modes and on the importance of various aspects of the data. Finally, the interaction between the groups will be discussed, both in terms of how they are interdependent and how differences in style have created some complications.

  4. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station, Sejong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donghyun, Baek; Sangoh, Yi; Hongjong, Oh; Sangchul, Han

    2013-01-01

    The Sejong VLBI station officially joined the IVS as a new Network Station in 2012. This report summarizes the activities of the Sejong station during 2012. The following are the activities at the station: 1) VLBI test observations were carried out with the Tsukuba 34-m antenna of the GSI in Japan. As a result, the Sejong antenna needs to improve its efficiency, which is currently in progress, 2) A survey to connect the VLBI reference point to GNSS and ground marks was conducted, and 3) To see the indirect effects of RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) at this place, we checked the omni-direction (AZ 0? to 360?, EL fixed at 7?) for RFI influence.

  5. Studies of Error Sources in Geodetic VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Niell, A. E.; Corey, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    Achieving the goal of millimeter uncertainty in three dimensional geodetic positioning on a global scale requires significant improvement in the precision and accuracy of both random and systematic error sources. For this investigation we proposed to study errors due to instrumentation in Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) and due to the atmosphere. After the inception of this work we expanded the scope to include assessment of error sources in GPS measurements, especially as they affect the vertical component of site position and the measurement of water vapor in the atmosphere. The atmosphere correction 'improvements described below are of benefit to both GPS and VLBI.

  6. Radio source stability and geodetic VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The observation of the Earth's rotation by VLBI is conditioned by the celestial reference frame that should be as stable as possible. The selection of the most stable sources therefore constitutes a major step in the construction of a celestial reference frame since their stability prevents time deformation of the axes with time. The assessment of astrometric stability, i.e., the time stability the radiocenter location as detected by the VLBI, is one of the methods that were used in previous ICRF realizations (works of M. Feissel-Vernier and ICRF2). We think the same method should be addressed for the construction of the ICRF3. We analyzed the radio source time series obtained from the analysis of the data from the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program of the IVS. We used several utils based on basic statistics and more advanced methods (Allan variance) in order to provide a preliminary classification of sources.

  7. Geodetic VLBI Observations of EGRET Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piner, Brian Glenn

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents VLBI observations of six blazars detected by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory: 0202+149 (4C+15.05), 0235+164, CTA 26 (0336-019), 1156+295 (4C+29.45), 1606+106 (4C+10.45), and 1611+343 (DA 406). The primary motivation for this thesis was to study the characteristics of the parsec-scale jets in EGRET blazars, in part to determine if there are any significant differences between the EGRET and non-EGRET blazars. The VLBI data were taken from the Washington VLBI correlator's geodetic database. A total of 108 new VLBI images are presented of these six sources at two frequencies (8 and 2 GWz) and many epochs. Through measurements of the proper motions of the jet components in these sources, three new superluminal sources (CTA 26, 1606+106, and 1611+343) were discovered, and a previously measured very high superluminal speed for 1156+295 (McHardy et al. 1993, 1990) was corrected. The components in 0202+149 were stationary; this, along with other properties, identified this source as a compact F double (Conway et al. 1994). These sources all have apparently bent jets. Non-radial motion of components was detected in CTPI 26 and 1156+295. No correlation was found between VLBI component ejections and γ-ray flares, and upper limits were derived for the speeds of any possible components correlated with the γ-ray flares in CTA 26, 1156+295, and 1606+106. A comparison of the misalignment angle distribution of the EGRET sources to the distribution for blazars as a whole (Xu et al. 1994) showed that EGRET sources do not preferentially belong to the aligned or the misaligned population. Twenty new VLBI component speeds are presented is this thesis, approximately doubling the available sample size for studies of EGRET source superluminal motions. A lower limit to the Doppler beaming factor for each of these sources was also estimated, and a comparison of the average values of these apparent velocities and Doppler beaming factors for the

  8. Construction of a New Geodetic VLBI Station in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Sasao, T.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Hyun, D.; Bae, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea, KVN (Korean VLBI Network) project dedicated to radio astronomy is being promoted by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and three 21-m diameter antennas equipped with 22/43/86/129 GHz receivers have been already constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju. On the other hand NGII (National Geographic Information Institute, Korea) has planned to construct their own antenna dedicated to geodetic VLBI measurements to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately. It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better definition of the ITRF there. Grand design named KVG (Korea VLBI project for Geodesy) realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by Ajou University with collaborations from NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) and GSI (Geographical Survey Institute, Japan). KVG project got a national budget for construction formally this year (2008), and it has entered the three-year term of construction and development phase since October, 2008. A VLBI antenna will be constructed in Sejong city (about 120km south-southeast from Seoul) and its construction will be completed in 2011. The antenna is designed based on the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter where VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Newly constructed antenna can receive 2/8/22/43 GHz band simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also with KVN stations equipped with 22/43 GHz receivers. The antenna is also designed to be able to introduce a broadband feed and receivers in the future according to VLBI2010's suggestion. The diameter of antenna is chosen to be 22-m, which is larger than the VLBI2010's recommendation (13-m), to make astronomical VLBI observations of weak radio sources with KVN

  9. Using geodetic VLBI to test Standard-Model Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, Aurélien; Lambert, Sébastien; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The modeling of the relativistic delay in geodetic techniques is primordial to get accurate geodetic products. And geodetic techniques can also be used to measure the relativistic delay and get constraints on parameters describing the relativity theory. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In terms of light deflexion by a massive body like the Sun, one can expect a dependence in the elongation angle different from GR. In this communication, we use geodetic VLBI observations of quasars made in the frame of the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program to constrain the first SME coefficient. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints on both GR and SME parameters.

  10. Estimability of geodetic parameters from space VLBI observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Jozsef

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of space very long base interferometry (VLBI) observables for geodesy and geodynamics is investigated. A brief review of space VLBI systems from the point of view of potential geodetic application is given. A selected notational convention is used to jointly treat the VLBI observables of different types of baselines within a combined ground/space VLBI network. The basic equations of the space VLBI observables appropriate for convariance analysis are derived and included. The corresponding equations for the ground-to-ground baseline VLBI observables are also given for a comparison. The simplified expression of the mathematical models for both space VLBI observables (time delay and delay rate) include the ground station coordinates, the satellite orbital elements, the earth rotation parameters, the radio source coordinates, and clock parameters. The observation equations with these parameters were examined in order to determine which of them are separable or nonseparable. Singularity problems arising from coordinate system definition and critical configuration are studied. Linear dependencies between partials are analytically derived. The mathematical models for ground-space baseline VLBI observables were tested with simulation data in the frame of some numerical experiments. Singularity due to datum defect is confirmed.

  11. First Results with the Next Generation Geodetic VLBI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niell, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation geodetic VLBI instrument is being developed with a goal of 1 mm position uncertainty in twenty-four hours. The broadband signal chain, which is essential for obtaining the required delay accuracy from a network of relatively small antennas, has been implemented on the 12 meter antenna at Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA, and on the 18 meter Westford antenna at Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts, USA. The first geodetic-style observing session has been completed. Data were recorded from four 512 MHz bands spanning the range 3.2 to 9.9 GHz at a total rate of 8 Gigabits/second. The signal chain was composed of commercially available broadband feeds, low noise amplifiers, digital back ends, and recorders. The six hour session demonstrated that the broadband hardware performs as expected, achieving delay precisions of a few picoseconds. The position uncertainties for the 12m antenna of ~9mm in vertical and 2mm in horizontal, obtained in a preliminary analysis from only 100 30-second observations, are probably dominated by incomplete modeling of the atmosphere. A potentially serious conflict of the broadband VLBI frequency coverage with the SLR aircraft-avoidance radars, which transmit at 9.4 GHz, and with the DORIS transmission near 2 GHz has become apparent during the implementation and testing of the VLBI2010 system. Mitigation efforts are being studied, but for this initial geodetic session, 20 percent of scheduled observations had to be dropped to avoid potential damage from the SLR radar.

  12. The State and Development Direction of the Geodetic VLBI Station in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Hyunhee; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Kondo, Tetsuro; Kim, Tuhwan; Oh, Hongjong; Yi, Sangoh

    2010-01-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) under the project Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). KVG can receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to conduct geodetic and astronomical VLBI observations with Korea astronomical VLBI stations along with geodetic observations with IVS stations. This simultaneous four-band receiving capability is a unique feature of the KVG system. The KVG has started officially in October 2008. A new geodetic VLBI station will be constructed at Sejong city (about 120 km south of Seoul and about 20 km north-northwest of Daejeon) and construction of all systems will be completed in 2011.

  13. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  14. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  15. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  16. Height bias and scale effect induced by antenna gravitational deformations in geodetic VLBI data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Petrov, Leonid; Negusini, Monia

    2011-01-01

    The impact of signal path variations (SPVs) caused by antenna gravitational deformations on geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) results is evaluated for the first time. Elevation-dependent models of SPV for Medicina and Noto (Italy) telescopes were derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods to account for gravitational deformations. After applying these models in geodetic VLBI data analysis, estimates of the antenna reference point positions are shifted upward by 8.9 and 6.7 mm, respectively. The impact on other parameters is negligible. To simulate the impact of antenna gravitational deformations on the entire VLBI network, lacking measurements for other telescopes, we rescaled the SPV models of Medicina and Noto for other antennas according to their size. The effects of the simulations are changes in VLBI heights in the range [-3, 73] mm and a net scale increase of 0.3-0.8 ppb. The height bias is larger than random errors of VLBI position estimates, implying the possibility of significant scale distortions related to antenna gravitational deformations. This demonstrates the need to precisely measure gravitational deformations of other VLBI telescopes, to derive their precise SPV models and to apply them in routine geodetic data analysis.

  17. Using an atmospheric turbulence model for the stochastic model of geodetic VLBI data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsig, Sebastian; Artz, Thomas; Iddink, Andreas; Nothnagel, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Space-geodetic techniques at radio wavelength, such as global navigation satellite systems and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), suffer from refractivity of the Earth's atmosphere. These highly dynamic processes, particularly refractivity variations in the neutral atmosphere, contribute considerably to the error budget of these space-geodetic techniques. Here, microscale fluctuations in refractivity lead to elevation-dependent uncertainties and induce physical correlations between the observations. However, up to now such correlations are not considered routinely in the stochastic model of space-geodetic observations, which leads to very optimistic standard deviations of the derived target parameters, such as Earth orientation parameters and station positions. In this study, the standard stochastic model of VLBI observations, which only includes, almost exclusively, the uncertainties from the VLBI correlation process, is now augmented by a variance-covariance matrix derived from an atmospheric turbulence model. Thus, atmospheric refractivity fluctuations in space and time can be quantified. One of the main objectives is to realize a suitable stochastic model of VLBI observations in an operational way. In order to validate the new approach, the turbulence model is applied to several VLBI observation campaigns consisting of different network geometries leading the path for the next-generation VLBI campaigns. It is shown that the stochastic model of VLBI observations can be improved by using high-frequency atmospheric variations and, thus, refining the stochastic model leads to far more realistic standard deviations of the target parameters. The baseline length repeatabilities as a general measure of accuracy of baseline length determinations improve for the turbulence-based solution. Further, this method is well suited for routine VLBI data analysis with limited computational costs.

  18. The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Girdiuk, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4~mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.

  19. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  20. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1988: VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.; Caprette, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained by the Goddard VLBI (very long base interferometry) Data Analysis Team from the analysis of 712 Mark 3 VLBI geodetic data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1987 are reported. A large solution, GLB401, was used to obtain earth rotation parameters and site velocities. A second large solution, GLB405, was used to obtain baseline evolutions. Radio source positions were estimated globally while nutation offsets were estimated from each data set. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis from 1979 through 1988. The results include 55 sites and 270 baselines.

  1. Lunar radio-beacons and geodetic VLBI system for determination of physical libration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Alexander; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Kosov, Alexander; Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Ping, Jinsong; Titov, Oleg

    Many space agencies plan a lunar missions, including scientific observations in the near lunar space and/or on the surface of the Moon. One of these experiments propose to place two landers with radio beacons on the Lunar near side and to launch one or more Orbiters on the Lunar orbit. The difference of the distances between two radio beacons and Earth will be assumed to be measured by the methods of Inverse VLBI: radio-signal from the various radio beacons will be sent to Earth antenna systems using the Orbiter. The estimation of the physical libration angle accuracy is made for various location and configuration of the radio beacons, which are in polar or equatorial zones of the Moon. The planned accuracy of difference distance determination for radio beacons at 60- 100 mm and the length of base line of 1700-3400 km in the Inverse VLBI experiment will be sufficient to improve accuracy of lunar physical libration, better than 10-30 msec of arc. Analogous estimation of latitude libration has shown the same results: location of the Radio Beacon I and Radio Beacon II in the vicinity of the Lunar limb equator and the prime meridian will give the best estimations for the physical libration angeles. For radio beacons experiment the best accuracy of longitudinal and latitudinal librations will be achieved in the equatorial limb and polar zones of the Moon. Geodetic VLBI network managed by the International VLBI Service provides high accurate positions of the reference radio sources, radio telescope coordinates, Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), etc. A small radio telescope being installed on the Moon surface and incorporated to this existing network will help to improve these traditional IVS products by a factor of ten or even more. In addition, this new instrument will be able to detect some known effects with an unprecedented accuracy, and new effects which are not available for other ground-based instruments or space missions. The main navigational task is to

  2. Crustal dynamics project data analysis fixed station VLBI geodetic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing the fixed observatory VLBI data available to the Crustal Dynamics Project through the end of 1984. All POLARIS/IRIS full-day data are included. The mobile site at Platteville, Colorado is also included since its occupation bears on the study of plate stability. Data from 1980 through 1984 were used to obtain the catalog of site and radio source positions labeled S284C. Using this catalog two types of one-day solutions were made: (1) to estimate site and baseline motions; and (2) to estimate Earth rotation parameters. A priori Earth rotation parameters were interpolated to the epoch of each observation from BIH Circular D.

  3. Creation of a global geodetic network using Mark III VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas A.; Ryan, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The positions of 15 permanent VLBI stations have been determined using Mark III with one-sigma uncertainties of less than 5 cm except for three stations in the Pacific. 46070 delay/delay rate observations acquired by the Crustal Dynamics Project and Polaris/IRIS from 1980-84 were included in a least squares solution to estimate the station positions, 44 radio source positions, and earth orientation parameters.

  4. Applying the theory of general relativity to reducing geodetic VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Girdiuk, A.

    2015-02-01

    Context. We present an alternate formula for calculating gravitational time delay. Aims: We use this formula to reduce geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data, taking into account gravitational effects within the solar system, and to test general relativity. Methods: The alternate formula was obtained by expanding the conventional formula in a Taylor series. We show that the gravitational delay can be split into several terms including a term due to the coordinate transformation and terms that are explicitly linked to the light deflection angle. Results: Our formula is compared numerically with the conventional formula, and difference in arrival times within 1 ps are found at 1° from the Sun for a full range of baseline lengths. Conclusions: We conclude that the standard reduction of geodetic VLBI data for the effects of general relativity is equivalent to displacing the reference radio sources from their original catalogue positions in accordance with the classical light deflection formula across the whole sky.

  5. Geodetic measurement of deformation in the Loma Prieta, California earthquake with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.A.; Ma, C.; Sauber, J.M.; Ryan, J.W. ); Gordon, D.; Caprette, D.S. ); Shaffer, D.B.; Vandenberg, N.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Following the Loma Prieta earthquake, two mobile Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) systems operated by the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project and the NOAA National Geodetic Survey were deployed at three previously established VLBI sites in the earthquake area: Fort Ord (near Monterey), the Presidio (in San Francisco) and Point Reyes. From repeated VLBI occupations of these sites since 1983, the pre-earthquake rates of deformation have been determined with respect to a North American reference frame with 1{sigma} formal standard errors of {approximately}1 mm/yr. The VLBI measurements immediately following the earthquake showed that the Fort Ord site was displaced 49 {plus minus} 4 mm at an azimuth of 11 {plus minus} 4{degree} and that the Presidio site was displaced 12 {plus minus} 5 mm at an azimuth of 148 {plus minus} 13{degree}. No anomalous change was detected at Point Reyes with 1{sigma} uncertainty of 4 mm. The estimated displacements at Fort Ord and the Presidio are consistent with the static displacements predicted on the basis of a coseismic slip model in which slip on the southern segment is shallower than slip on the more northern segment is shallower than slip on the more northern segment of the fault rupture. The authors also give the Cartesian positions at epoch 1990.0 of a set of VLBI fiducial stations and the three mobile sites in the vicinity of the earthquake.

  6. First geodetic VLBI sessions with the Chinese Deep Space Stations Jiamusi and Kashi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dezhen; Dong, Guangliang; Wang, Guangli; Li, Haitao; Jiang, Wu

    2016-11-01

    The first three 24-h S/X dual-band geodetic VLBI sessions using two new Chinese Deep Space Stations (CDSSs), Jiamusi and Kashi, and four Chinese VLBI Stations (CVSs), Beijing, Kunming, Seshan, and Urumqi were conducted with the goal of improving the two CDSSs' positions, which were previously known to a few decimeters. Due to the limited frequency ranges of Jiamusi and Kashi, different but compatible frequencies for bandwidth synthesis were set at the CDSS and CVS stations. This paper presents the scheduling, correlation and fringe fit, and geodetic analysis of the observations. Final estimates of the station positions are obtained from the global solution using 5365 international VLBI sessions from August 3, 1979 through September 29, 2015. Position estimates for Jiamusi are accurate to 23, 35, and 41 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, and for Kashi are accurate to 10, 20, and 16 mm. Precisions of the two CDSSs' positions are improved by a factor of 5-10 over previous values, which fully satisfies the requirements of the experiments and makes the first step towards the foundation and maintenance of the time-space reference frame based on the Chinese Deep Space Network (CDSN).

  7. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1992. Crustal Dynamics Project VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Caprette, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1648 Mark 3 data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1991, and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Two large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, radio source positions, site positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis for 1979 to 1995, inclusive. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 200 baselines, and individual length determinations are presented for an additional 356 baselines. This report includes 155 quasar radio sources, 96 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 556 baselines.

  8. MODEST - JPL GEODETIC AND ASTROMETRIC VLBI MODELING AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of extragalactic radio sources in the gigahertz region of the radio frequency spectrum by two or more antennas, separated by a baseline as long as the diameter of the Earth, can be reduced, by radio interferometry techniques, to yield time delays and their rates of change. The Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) observables can be processed by the MODEST software to yield geodetic and astrometric parameters of interest in areas such as geophysical satellite and spacecraft tracking applications and geodynamics. As the accuracy of radio interferometry has improved, increasingly complete models of the delay and delay rate observables have been developed. MODEST is a delay model (MOD) and parameter estimation (EST) program that takes into account delay effects such as geometry, clock, troposphere, and the ionosphere. MODEST includes all known effects at the centimeter level in modeling. As the field evolves and new effects are discovered, these can be included in the model. In general, the model includes contributions to the observables from Earth orientation, antenna motion, clock behavior, atmospheric effects, and radio source structure. Within each of these categories, a number of unknown parameters may be estimated from the observations. Since all parts of the time delay model contain nearly linear parameter terms, a square-root-information filter (SRIF) linear least-squares algorithm is employed in parameter estimation. Flexibility (via dynamic memory allocation) in the MODEST code ensures that the same executable can process a wide array of problems. These range from a few hundred observations on a single baseline, yielding estimates of tens of parameters, to global solutions estimating tens of thousands of parameters from hundreds of thousands of observations at antennas widely distributed over the Earth's surface. Depending on memory and disk storage availability, large problems may be subdivided into more tractable pieces that are processed

  9. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1986. Volume 1: Fixed station VLBI geodetic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 361 Mark III VLBI data sets from fixed observatories through the end of 1985 which are available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. All POLARIS/IRIS full-day data sets are included. The mobile VLBI sites at Platteville, Colorado; Penticton, British Columbia; and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories are also included since these occupations bear on the study of plate stability. Two large solutions, GLB027 and GLB028, were used to obtain site/baseline evolutions and earth rotation parameters, respectively. Source positions and nutation offsets were also adjusted in each solution. The results include 23 sites and 101 baselines.

  10. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1987. Volume 1: Fixed station VLBI geodetic results, 1979-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing Mark III data sets from fixed observatories through the end of 1986 and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. All full-day data from POLARIS/IRIS are included. The mobile VLBI sites at Platteville (Colorado), Penticton (British Columbia), and Yellowknife (Northwest Territories) are also included since these occupations bear on the study of plate stability. Two large solutions, GLB121 and GLB122, were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters and baseline evolutions, respectively. Radio source positions were estimated globally while nutation offsets were estimated from each data set. The results include 25 sites and 108 baselines.

  11. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1987. Volume 2: Mobile VLBI geodetic results, 1982-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 101 Mark III data sets acquired from mobile observing sites through the end of 1986 and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. The fixed VLBI observations at Hat Creek, Ft. Davis, Mojave, and OVRO are included as they participate heavily in the mobile schedules. One large solution GLB171 was used to obtain baseline length and transverse evolutions. Radio source positions were estimated globally, while nutation offsets were estimated from each data set. The results include 28 mobile sites.

  12. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1991: VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.; Caprette, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing 1412 Mark II data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1990 and available to the Crustal Dynamics Project. Three large solutions were used to obtain Earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, global source positions, site velocities, and baseline evolution. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis from 1979 through 1992. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian coordinates and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for 175 baselines. Rates are computed for earth rotation and nutation parameters. Included are 104 sources, 88 fixed stations and mobile sites, and 688 baselines.

  13. NASA Space Geodesy Program: GSFC data analysis, 1993. VLBI geodetic results 1979 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Ryan, James W.; Caprette, Douglas S.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing Mark 3 data sets acquired from 110 fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1992 and available to the Space Geodesy Program. Two large solutions were used to obtain site positions, site velocities, baseline evolution for 474 baselines, earth rotation parameters, nutation offsets, and radio source positions. Site velocities are presented in both geocentric Cartesian and topocentric coordinates. Baseline evolution is plotted for the 89 baselines that were observed in 1992 and positions at 1988.0 are presented for all fixed stations and mobile sites. Positions are also presented for quasar radio sources used in the solutions.

  14. Tsukuba VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurihara, Shinobu; Nozawa, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    The K5/VSSP software correlator (Figure 1), located in Tsukuba, Japan, is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). It is fully dedicated to processing the geodetic VLBI sessions of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. All of the weekend IVS Intensives (INT2) and the Japanese domestic VLBI observations organized by GSI were processed at the Tsukuba VLBI Correlator.

  15. VLBI data, acquisition, environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    During this quadrennium, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data acquisition and system development has focused on improving the accuracy of the system sufficiently to allow the determination of reliable estimates of height variations. Associated with this aim has been improvements in the determinations of horizontal velocity fields, monitoring water vapor delay using interferometric methods, and improvements to Earth rotation measurements. The primary aims of the improvements to height measurement accuracy have been to directly measure the contemporary magnitudes of post glacial rebound, and to determine a height reference system for measuring global sea level rise. High frequency Earth rotation studies have been carried out to better define the transformation parameters from an inertial coordinate system to an Earth fixed one, and to better understand the coupling between the components of the atmosphere-ocean-solid Earth system. Two major VLBI campaigns were carried out in support of these studies: (1) Epoch-92 in July 1992 and (2) Cont-94 in January 1994. Each of these campaigns lasted approximately two weeks and involved multiple VLBI networks operating simultaneously in addition to other space geodetic systems operating during these periods. Two major compilations of the VLBI results (and results from other space geodetic systems) have been published during this quadrennium.

  16. Impact of atmospheric turbulence on geodetic very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Haas, R.

    2010-03-01

    We assess the impact of atmospheric turbulence on geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) through simulations of atmospheric delays. VLBI observations are simulated for the two best existing VLBI data sets: The continuous VLBI campaigns CONT05 and CONT08. We test different methods to determine the magnitude of the turbulence above each VLBI station, i.e., the refractive index structure constant Cn2. The results from the analysis of the simulated data and the actually observed VLBI data are compared. We find that atmospheric turbulence today is the largest error source for geodetic VLBI. Accurate modeling of atmospheric turbulence is necessary to reach the highest accuracy with geodetic VLBI.

  17. The First Experiment with VLBI-GPS Hybrid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Younghee; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Sekido, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Cho, Jungho; Kim, Tuhwan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce our GPS-VLBI hybrid system and show the results of the first experiment which is now under way. In this hybrid system, GPS signals are captured by a normal GPS antenna, down-converted to IF signals, and then sampled by the VLBI sampler VSSP32 developed by NICT. The sampled GPS data are recorded and correlated in the same way as VLBI observation data. The correlator outputs are the group delay and the delay rate. Since the whole system uses the same frequency standard, many sources of systematic errors are common between the VLBI system and the GPS system. In this hybrid system, the GPS antenna can be regarded as an additional VLBI antenna having multiple beams towards GPS satellites. Therefore, we expect that this approach will provide enough data to improve zenith delay estimates and geodetic results.

  18. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, M.; Nilsson, T.; Soja, B.; Heinkelmann, R.; Raposo-Pulido, V.; Schuh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques providing the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Accurate and continuous EOP obtained in near real-time are essential for satellite based navigation and positioning and for enabling the precise tracking of interplanetary spacecrafts. To meet this necessity the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) increased its efforts to reduce the time span between the VLBI observations and the availability of the final results. Currently the timeliness is about two weeks, but the goal is to reduce it to less than one day with the future VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) network. The FWF project VLBI-ART contributes to this new generation VLBI system by considerably accelerating the VLBI analysis procedure through the implementation of an elaborate Kalman filter. This true real-time Kalman filter will be embedded in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely automated tool with no need of human interaction. This filter also allows the prediction and combination of EOP from various space geodetic techniques by implementing stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Additionally, atmospheric angular momenta calculated from numerical weather prediction models are introduced to support the short-term EOP prediction. To optimize the performance of the new software various investigations with real as well as simulated data are foreseen. The results are compared to the ones obtained by conventional VLBI parameter estimation methods (e.g. least squares method) and to corresponding parameter series from other techniques, such as from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS).

  19. VLBI: A Fascinating Technique for Geodesy and Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, H.; Behrend, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1970s Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has proven to be a primary space-geodetic technique by determining precise coordinates on the Earth, by monitoring the variable Earth rotation and orientation with highest precision, and by deriving many other parameters of the Earth system. VLBI provides an important linkage to astronomy through, for instance, the determination of very precise coordinates of extragalactic radio sources. Additionally, it contributes to determining parameters of relativistic and cosmological models. After a short review of the history of geodetic VLBI and a summary of recent results, this paper describes future perspectives of this fascinating technique. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), as a service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is well on its way to fully defining a next generation VLBI system, called VLBI2010. The goals of the new system are to achieve on scales up to the size of the Earth an accuracy of 1 mm in position and of 0.1 mm/year in velocity. Continuous observations shall be carried out 24 h per day 7 days per week in the future with initial results to be delivered within 24 h after taking the data. Special sessions, e.g. for monitoring the Earth rotation parameters, will provide the results in near real-time. These goals require a completely new technical and conceptual design of VLBI measurements. Based on extensive simulation studies, strategies have been developed by the IVS to significantly improve its product accuracy through the use of a network of small (approx 12 m) fast-slewing antennas. A new method for generating high precision delay measurements as well as improved methods for handling biases related to radio source structure, system electronics, and deformations of the antenna structures has been developed. Furthermore, as of January 2012, the construction of ten new VLBI2010 sites has been funded, with

  20. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2014 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baver, Karen D. (Editor); Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Armstrong, Kyla L. (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    IVS is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: 1. To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. 2. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. 3. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  1. VLBI-Art: VLBI analysis in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, M.; Nilsson, T.; Tierno Ros, C.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2013-08-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques providing the full set of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and it is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1). Accurate and continuous EOP obtained in near real-time are essential for satellite-based navigation and positioning, enable the precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft and thus are the aim of the VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System). With this next generation VLBI system and network, the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) increased its efforts to reduce the time span between the collection of VLBI observations and the availability of the final results. Project VLBI-Art contributes to these objectives by considerably accelerating the VLBI analysis procedure by implementing an elaborate Kalman filter, which represents a perfect tool for analyzing VLBI data in quasi real-time. The Kalman filter will be embedded in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely automated tool, i.e. with no need of human interaction.

  2. New test of general relativity - Measurement of de Sitter geodetic precession rate for lunar perigee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertotti, Bruno; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Bender, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    According to general relativity, the calculated rate of motion of lunar perigee should include a contribution of 19.2 msec/yr from geodetic precession. It is shown that existing analyses of lunar-laser-ranging data confirm the general-relativistic rate for geodetic precession with respect to the planetary dynamical frame. In addition, the comparison of earth-rotation results from lunar laser ranging and from VLBI shows that the relative drift of the planetary dynamical frame and the extragalactic VLBI reference frame is small. The estimated accuracy is about 10 percent.

  3. VLBI2010: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The first concrete actions toward a next generation system for geodetic VLBI began in 2003 when the IVS initiated Working Group 3 to investigate requirements for a new system. The working group set out ambitious performance goals and sketched out initial recommendations for the system. Starting in 2006, developments continued under the leadership of the VLBI2010 Committee (V2C) in two main areas: Monte Carlo simulators were developed to evaluate proposed system changes according to their impact on IVS final products, and a proof-of-concept effort sponsored by NASA was initiated to develop next generation systems and verify the concepts behind VLBI2010. In 2009, the V2C produced a progress report that summarized the conclusions of the Monte Carlo work and outlined recommendations for the next generation system in terms of systems, analysis, operations, and network configuration. At the time of writing: two complete VLBI2010 signal paths have been completed and data is being produced; a number of VLBI2010 antenna projects are under way; and a VLBI2010 Project Executive Group (V2PEG) has been initiated to provide strategic leadership.

  4. VLBI2020: From Reality to Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The individual apparent motions of distant radio sources are believed to be caused by the effect of intrinsic structure variations of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, some cosmological models of the expanded Universe predict that systematic astrometric proper motions of distant quasars do not vanish as the radial distance from the observer to the quasar grows. These systematic effects can even increase with the distance, making it possible to measure them with high-precision astrometric techniques like VLBI. The Galactocentric acceleration of the Solar System barycenter may cause a secular aberration drift with a magnitude of 4 uas/yr. The Solar System motion relative to the cosmic microwave background produces an additional dipole effect, proportional to red shift. We analyzed geodetic VLBI data spanning from 1979 until 2009 to estimate the vector spherical harmonics in the expansion of the vector field of the proper motion of 687 radio sources. The dipole and quadrupole vector spherical harmonics were estimated with an accuracy of 1-5 as/yr. We have shown that over the next decade the geodetic VLBI may approach the level of accuracy on which the cosmological models of the Universe could be tested. Hence, it is important to organize a dedicated observational program to increase the number of measured proper motions to 3000.

  5. The Impact of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William

    2010-01-01

    A significant motivation for the development of a next generation system for geodetic VLBI was to address growing problems related to RFI. In this regard, the broadband 2-14 GHz frequency range proposed for VLBI2010 has advantages and disadvantages. It has the advantage of flexible allocation of band frequencies and hence the ability to avoid areas of the spectrum where RFI is worst. However, the receiver is at the same time vulnerable to saturation from RFI anywhere in the full 2-14 GHz range. The impacts of RFI on the VLBI2010 analog signal path, the sampler, and the digital signal processing are discussed. In addition, a number of specific RFI examples in the 2-14 GHz range are presented.

  6. VLBI-SLR Combination Solution Using GEODYN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMillan, Dan; Pavlis, Despina; Lemoine, Frank; Chinn, Douglas; Rowlands, David

    2010-01-01

    We would like to generate a multi-technique solution combining all of the geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS) using the same software and using the same a priori models. Here we use GEODYN software and consider only the VLBI-SLR combination. Here we report initial results of our work on the combination. We first performed solutions with GEODYN using only VLBI data and found that VLBI EOP solution results produced with GEODYN agree with results using CALC/SOLVE at the 1-sigma level. We then combined the VLBI normal equations in GEODYN with weekly SLR normal equations for the period 2007-2008. Agreement of estimated Earth orientation parameters with IERS C04 were not significantly different for the VLBI-only, SLR-only, and VLBI+SLR solutions

  7. VLBI2010: The Astro-Geo Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcas, Richard

    2010-01-01

    VLBI2010 holds out promise for greatly increased precision in measuring geodetic and Earth rotation parameters. As a by-product there will be a wealth of interesting new astronomical data. At the same time, astronomical knowledge may be needed to disentangle the astronomical and geodetic contributions to the measured delays and phases. This presentation explores this astro-geo link.

  8. VLBI analysis with c5++ - status quo and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Sekido, M.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.; Kubooka, T.; Takiguchi, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    2011-07-01

    Otsubo et al. (2002) have developed an analysis software package based on Java named CONCERTO4 which enabled the user to consistently process SLR, GPS and other satellite tracking data. Driven by the need to update the software and replace the existing Java code, VLBI was added as an additional module to this analysis package and renamed c5++. The software provides state-of-the-art modules for a variety of geodetic, mathematical and geophysical tasks that can be combined to a stand-alone VLBI application. Although many of these modules can be used for any of the space geodetic techniques, a couple of technique specific solutions (like relativity, antenna deformation, etc.) had to be coded exclusively for VLBI. We are going to discuss details of the software and its development and we are going to summarize how the automated analysis procedure of the real-time UT1 experiments has been realized with c5++. Other fields of applications for this software will be shown as well. We conclude our presentation with an outlook on future applications (including time and frequency transfer and space-craft navigation) as well as discuss the next steps towards a software package which allows combination of space geodetic techniques on the observation level.

  9. VLBI Data Longevity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2003-01-01

    The current cache of S/X-band geodetic/astrometric VLBI data accumulated since 1979 is approx.4.2 million observations and is increasing by approx.300,000 observations per year. The long time interval and access to all such VLBI data for re-analysis have contributed to their usefulness for the terrestrial and celestial reference frames, Earth orientation parameters, tidal and nontidal loading, and troposphere. While data access and integrity have been maintained through the Mark III data base system as storage devices and media have evolved, past transitions have been major projects. A new format and retention concept to ensure eternal archiving and access should make use of self-documentation, generalized media, network connectivity and multiple redundancy. Similarly permanent organizations or sequences of organizations are also necessary.

  10. VLBI-SLR Combination Solution Using GEODYN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Pavlis, E. C.; Rowlands, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    The traditional procedure followed by the IERS for generating an ITRF is to perform a combination at the technique level. Each geodetic technique provides a solution that itself is a combination of the solutions produced by the technique analysis centers. Alternatively, we would like to generate a multi-technique solution using the same software and using the same a priori models. We seek to produce such a solution combining all of the geodetic techniques at the normal equation level using GEODYN but here, as a first step, consider only the SLR-VLBI combination. The data from each 24-hour VLBI session is initially processed to generate VLBI observation and solution parametrization files for input to GEODYN. Extensive tests have been performed to ensure that the VLBI theoretical delay as calculated by the VLBI Calc/Solve software is the same (to 1 ps) as that calculated by GEODYN. Initially, we ran test solutions with GEODYN using only VLBI data to verify that VLBI solution results produced with GEODYN agree with results using Calc/Solve. Then we combine the VLBI normal equations in GEODYN with weekly SLR normal equations for the period 2004-2008 Lageos1/2 to estimate station positions and Earth orientation parameters. To connect the techniques, we apply the ground ties used by the IERS. Here we report on the results of the combination.

  11. The extension of the parametrization of the radio source coordinates in geodetic VLBI and its impact on the time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Xu, Minghui; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The radio sources within the most recent celestial reference frame (CRF) catalog ICRF2 are represented by a single, time-invariant coordinate pair. The datum sources were chosen mainly according to certain statistical properties of their position time series. Yet, such statistics are not applicable unconditionally, and also ambiguous. However, ignoring systematics in the source positions of the datum sources inevitably leads to a degradation of the quality of the frame and, therefore, also of the derived quantities such as the Earth orientation parameters. One possible approach to overcome these deficiencies is to extend the parametrization of the source positions, similarly to what is done for the station positions. We decided to use the multivariate adaptive regression splines algorithm to parametrize the source coordinates. It allows a great deal of automation, by combining recursive partitioning and spline fitting in an optimal way. The algorithm finds the ideal knot positions for the splines and, thus, the best number of polynomial pieces to fit the data autonomously. With that we can correct the ICRF2 a priori coordinates for our analysis and eliminate the systematics in the position estimates. This allows us to introduce also special handling sources into the datum definition, leading to on average 30 % more sources in the datum. We find that not only the CPO can be improved by more than 10 % due to the improved geometry, but also the station positions, especially in the early years of VLBI, can benefit greatly.

  12. Development of Broadband VLBI System and its Application to T&F Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Ujihara, Hideki; Kondo, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Miyauchi, Yuka; Kawai, Eiji; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shingo; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Hanado, Yuko; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Komuro, Jun-ichi; Terada, Kenjiro; Namba, Kunitaka; Takahashi, Rumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takatoshi; Aoki, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a new broadband VLBI system, named GALA-V, for frequency comparison. Atomic time standards connected to transportable small antennas are compared via broadband VLBI observation with large diameter antenna. Disadvantages of small antenna in sensitivity is compensated (1) by ten times wider frequency range of observation and (2) by joint observation with large diameter antenna. NICT has originally developed broadband feed system (6.5-15GHz) for Kashima 34m radio telescope. The system development and performance evaluation of the Gala-V system are being conducted at NICT (Koganei)- NMIJ (Tsukuba) baseline, where both NICT and NMIJ are institutes of maintaining their UTC.The broadband GALA-V system is designed to be compatible with the VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System), which is the next generation geodetic VLBI system promoted by the IVS. We have successfully made the first VLBI observation between the new Ishioka 13m VGOS antenna of GSI and Kashima 34m antenna. Additionally super broadband VLBI observation over 8GHz bandwidth, and coherent signal synthesis for quite high delay resolution were achieved for the first time in the world. This paper will report recent progress of the broadband system development and results of frequency comparison experiments with the GALA-V system.

  13. Tropospheric delays derived from Kalman-filtered VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Lu, Cuixian; Anderson, James; Glaser, Susanne; Liu, Li; Mora-Diaz, Julian A.; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important error sources in the products of space geodetic techniques is the troposphere. Currently, it is not possible to model the rapid variations in the path delay caused by water vapor with sufficient accuracy, thus it is necessary to estimate these delays in the data analysis. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is well suited to determine wet delays with high accuracy and precision. Compared to GNSS, the analysis does not need to deal with effects related to code biases, multipath, satellite orbit mismodeling, or antenna phase center variations that are inherent in GNSS processing. VLBI data are usually analyzed by estimating geodetic parameters in a least squares adjustment. However, once the VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS) will have become operational, algorithms providing real-time capability, for instance a Kalman filter, should be preferable for data analysis. Even today, certain advantages of such a filter, for example, allowing stochastic modeling of geodetic parameters, warrant its application. The estimation of tropospheric wet delays, in particular, greatly benefits from the stochastic approach of the filter. In this work we have investigated the benefits of applying a Kalman filter in the VLBI data analysis for the determination of tropospheric parameters. The VLBI datasets considered are the CONT campaigns, which demonstrate state-of-the-art capabilities of the VLBI system. They are unique in following a continuous observation schedule over 15 days and in having data recorded at higher bandwidth than usual. The large amount of observations leads to a very high quality of geodetic products. CONT campaigns are held every three years; we have analyzed all CONT campaigns between 2002 and 2014 for this study. In our implementation of a Kalman filter in the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ, the zenith wet delays (ZWD) are modeled as random walk processes. We have compared the resulting time series to corresponding ones obtained from

  14. New VLBI Infrastructure for Earth Rotation Monitoring at Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Torben; Nothnagel, Axel; Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Hugentobler, Urs; Kutterer, Hansjörg; Ihde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a key technology for precise monitoring of Earth's rotation. VLBI is the only space geodetic technique that allows for the determination of the absolute orientation of the Earth's rotation axis in space (nutation) and the absolute rotation angle of the Earth's body (UT1). VLBI is used to realize the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and contributes to the realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In order to further improve accuracy, latency and availability of VLBI observations the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) developed the VLBI2010 concept aiming at more observations, larger bandwidth, and near-real time correlation. The implementation of the concept would allow for an uninterrupted high-accuracy monitoring of Earth's rotation. The Geodetic Observatory Wettzell is operated by the German Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) together with Technische Universität Müchen (TUM) in the context of the Research Group Satellite Geodesy (FGS), a consortium of BKG, TUM, German Geodetic Research Institute (DFGI) and University of Bonn, Germany. The Wettzell observatory is on its way to operate a radio telescope triple: The 20 m radio telescope has been involved into geodetic VLBI observations since 1983. Recently two new 13.2 m VLBI telescopes were installed - the TWIN telescope - which adhere to the VLBI2010 concept and which will be part of VGOS, the newly developed VLBI Global Observing System of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Currently the high-frequency electronics, broadband receivers and feed horns, are being integrated and first operation is expected this year. The two telescopes allow for novel observation strategies, also in conjunction with the existing 20 m telescope. The upcoming new VLBI infrastructure will lead to more accurate, continuous and short-latency monitoring of the rotation of the Earth in

  15. VLBI2010 Demonstrator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niell, A.

    2008-12-01

    The next generation geodetic VLBI instrument is being developed with a goal of 1 mm position uncertainty in twenty-four hours. Knowing that spatial and temporal fluctuations in the atmosphere delay are a major component of the error in position determination, the VLBI2010 committee has carried out a large number of simulations to arrive at design goals for the antenna system. These goals are fast slewing antennas and high delay precision per observation. With existing and anticipated data recording capabilities, these translate to an antenna diameter of 12 m or larger and a per-observation delay precision of approximately 4 psec. The major innovation for the VLBI2010 concept that allows the use of relatively small antennas to achieve these goals is the proposal to observe in four frequency bands, instead of the two currently used, in order to gain the higher precision of phase delays compared to the group delay. The other advance that enables the use of small antennas is the significant increase in data acquisition rates that has been made possible by the development of disk-based recorders and digital back ends. To evaluate this concept, a prototype of the feed-to-recorder system has been implemented by the Broadband Development Team* on two antennas, the 5 m MV-3 antenna at Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington, D.C., and the 18 m Westford antenna at Haystack Observatory near Boston. The system includes a broadband feed and low noise amplifiers covering the range approximately 2 GHz to 13 GHz, all cooled to 20K; a newly developed phase calibration generator; a flexible local oscillator (LO) that allows selection of any band in the range of the feed/LNAs; Digital Back End; and a disk-based recorder capable of a sustained rate of 2 gigabits per second (gbps). Four sets of the LO/DBE/recorder chain are used at each antenna to give a total record rate of 8 gbps. The systems have been successfully used in the band 8.5 to 9 GHz with one set of the recorder chain

  16. MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation): Development of a Compact VLBI System for Calibrating GNSS and Electronic Distance Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, R.; Ishii, A.; Takiguchi, H.; Kimura, M.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Ujihara, H.; Hanado, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kawabata, R.; Nozawa, K.; Mukai, Y.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Matsuzaka, S.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a compact VLBI system with a 1.6-m diameter aperture dish in order to provide reference baseline lengths for calibration. The reference baselines are used to validate surveying instruments such as GPS and EDM and is maintained by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). The compact VLBI system will be installed at both ends of the reference baseline. Since the system is not sensitive enough to detect fringes between the two small dishes, we have designed a new observation concept including one large dish station. We can detect two group delays between each compact VLBI system and the large dish station based on conventional VLBI measurement. A group delay between the two compact dishes can be indirectly calculated using a simple equation. We named the idea "Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation", or MARBLE system. The compact VLBI system is easy transportable and consists of the compact dish, a new wide-band front-end system, azimuth and elevation drive units, an IF down-converter unit, an antenna control unit (ACU), a counterweight, and a monument pillar. Each drive unit is equipped with a zero-backlash harmonic drive gearing component. A monument pillar is designed to mount typical geodetic GNSS antennas easily and an offset between the GNSS antenna reference point. The location of the azimuth-elevation crossing point of the VLBI system is precisely determined with an uncertainty of less than 0.2 mm. We have carried out seven geodetic VLBI experiments on the Kashima-Tsukuba baseline (about 54 km) using the two prototypes of the compact VLBI system between December 2009 and December 2010. The average baseline length and repeatability of the experiments is 54184874.0 ± 2.4 mm. The results are well consistent with those obtained by GPS measurements. In addition, we are now planning to use the compact VLBI system for precise time and frequency comparison between separated locations.

  17. Atmospheric gradients from GNSS, VLBI, and DORIS analyses and from Numerical Weather Models during CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Wickert, Jens; Zus, Florian; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Observations from space-geodetic techniques are nowadays increasingly used to derive atmospheric information for various commercial and scientific applications. A prominent example is the operational use of GNSS data to improve global and regional weather forecasts, which was started in 2006. Atmosphere gradients describe the azimuthal asymmetry of zenith delays. Estimates of geodetic and other parameters significantly improve when atmosphere gradients are determined in addition. Here we assess the capability of several space geodetic techniques (GNSS, VLBI, DORIS) to determine atmosphere gradients of refractivity. For this purpose we implement and compare various strategies for gradient estimation, such as different values for the temporal resolution and the corresponding parameter constraints. Applying least squares estimation the gradients are usually deterministically modelled as constants or piece-wise linear functions. In our study we compare this approach with a stochastic approach modelling atmosphere gradients as random walk processes and applying a Kalman Filter for parameter estimation. The gradients, derived from space geodetic techniques are verified by comparison with those derived from Numerical Weather Models (NWM). These model data were generated using raytracing calculations based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses with different spatial resolutions. The investigation of the differences between the ECMWF and NCEP gradients hereby in addition allow for an empirical assessment of the quality of model gradients and how suitable the NWM data are for verification. CONT14 (2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20) is the youngest two week long continuous VLBI campaign carried out by IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). It presents the state-of-the-art VLBI performance in terms of number of stations and number of observations and presents thus an

  18. A Feasibility Study of Space VLBI for Geodesy and Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Madhav Narayan

    1992-01-01

    Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is an extension of the ground based VLBI to the space. With the launching of two or more Space VLBI satellites in the future, Space VLBI observations will be available for astrometric, geodetic and geodynamic applications. This new technique holds potential for various important applications including monitoring Earth rotation and interconnection of the reference frames used in geodesy and geodynamics. The aim of this feasibility study has been to investigate the possibility of precise estimation of geodetic parameters, with emphasis on the Earth rotation parameters (ERP's), from Space VLBI observations. A brief description of the Space VLBI technique, it's possible applications, and the Space VLBI missions being planned has been given. Estimability analysis to investigate the estimability of geodetic parameters from Space VLBI observations has been carried out and a simplified mathematical model is derived in terms of estimable parameters. Results of sensitivity analysis carried out to study the sensitivity of the Space VLBI observables to the geodetic parameters of interest, including the number of these parameters and random errors in their a priori values, have been presented. Some of the dominant systematic effects including atmospheric refraction, solar radiation pressure and relativistic effects have also been investigated. Simulation studies have been carried out to study the influence of these systematic effects and a priori information on the estimation of the Earth rotation parameters. The results from the simulation studies indicate that it may be possible to use the Space VLBI technique for monitoring Earth rotation and polar motion, only if the orbital systematic effects can be modeled to a high degree of accuracy (or the satellites can be tracked, with high accuracy, independently), and precise a priori information on station coordinates from other sources is used. A brief description of the Space VLBI

  19. A combined GNSS/VLBI solution for EOP and TRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jean-Yves; Bizouard, Christian; Lambert, Sebastien; Becker, Olivier; Biancale, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Earth rotation team of Paris Observatory has set up a multi-technique processing of normal equations from different astro-geodetic techniques (DORIS, GPS, SLR and VLBI) in order to adjust Earth rotation changes (sub-daily resolution) and terrestrial position of geodetic stations (weekly resolution). In this study we present a solution of 12 years (2002-2013) based upon the GNSS GINS-normal equations produced by the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS) and VLBI CALC-normal equations produced by Paris Observatory Analysis Center (contributing to International VLBI Service).

  20. Towards fully automated processing of VLBI sessions - results from ultra-rapid UT1 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Sekido, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Takiguchi, H.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Nozawa, K.; Haas, R.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.; Kubo-Oka, T.

    2010-12-01

    Like other space geodetic techniques, data processing and analysis of VLBI data requires some human interactions before the target parameters are available to the scientific community. If the processing chain can be completely automated, results would be available independent from time-zones, holidays or illness of the analyst. In VLBI, a lot of effort is put into near real-time monitoring of Earth orientation parameters, especially UT1. Since VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique which gives direct access to the Earth's phase of rotation, i.e. universal time UT1, a low latency product is desirable. Beside multi-baseline sessions, regular single-baseline VLBI experiments are scheduled in order to provide estimates of UT1 for the international science community. Although the turn-around time of such sessions is usually much shorter and results are available within one day after the data were recorded, lower latency of UT1 results is still requested. Based on the experience gained over the last three years, an automated processing chain was established. In July 2010, we started to provide automatically processed results to IERS rapid service, and thus fully unattended operation and robust estimation of UT1 has become routine operation. A new analysis software ensures that all post-processing stages run smoothly and a variety of scripts guarantee that the data-flow to and through the correlator takes full advantage of the available resources. The concept of ultra-rapid VLBI sessions can be extended further to include additional, geometrical well distributed stations, in order to derive also polar motion components with the same latency as UT1 and to provide an up-to-date complete set of Earth orientation parameters for navigation of space and satellite missions. Moreover, our work demonstrates how future VLBI networks can be processed automatically in order to provide near real-time information about the instantaneous Earth orientation in the framework of GGOS.

  1. Vienna VLBI Software VieVS - status quo and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Sigrid; Böhm, Johannes; Krásná, Hana; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software VieVS has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. VieVS is designed for the analysis of geodetic VLBI observation data as well as for scheduling and simulation of different VLBI sessions. The software incorporates the latest IERS Conventions and uses the concept of continuous piecewise linear offsets at integer hours for the parameter setup, consistent with the terms of reference of the GGOS. The current version, 2.0, which was released in 2012, aggregates all modules (i.e. data setup, least squares adjustment, global solution, scheduling, simulation, etc.) within one common graphical user interface. The new interface also offers additional tools to plot estimated parameters and residuals. We present the current status of the software focusing on the capabilities of release 2.0. Furthermore we give an overview of future plans and latest developments, such as the restructuring of the least squares adjustment into a scan wise update of the normal equation system which enables the analysis of sessions with a very large data volume, e.g. VLBI2010 sessions.

  2. VLBI measurement of the secular aberration drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: While analyzing decades of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, we detected the secular aberration drift of the extragalatic radio source proper motions caused by the rotation of the Solar System barycenter around the Galactic center. Our results agree with the predicted estimate to be 4-6 micro arcseconds per year (μas/yr) towards α = 266° and δ = -29°. In addition, we tried to detect the quadrupole systematics of the velocity field. Methods: The analysis method consisted of three steps. First, we analyzed geodetic and astrometric VLBI data to produce radio source coordinate time series. Second, we fitted proper motions of 555 sources with long observational histories over the period 1990-2010 to their respective coordinate time series. Finally, we fitted vector spherical harmonic components of degrees 1 and 2 to the proper motion field. Results: Within the error bars, the magnitude and the direction of the dipole component agree with predictions. The dipole vector has an amplitude of 6.4 ± 1.5 μas/yr and is directed towards equatorial coordinates α = 263° and δ = -20°. The quadrupole component has not been detected. The primordial gravitational wave density, integrated over a range of frequencies less than 10-9 Hz, has a limit of 0.0042h-2 where h is the normalized Hubble constant is H0/(100 km s-1). We dedicate this work to the memory of Anne-Marie Gontier, our colleague and personal friend, and a widely recognized specialist of VLBI. She passed away shortly after this paper was submitted.Proper motion data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A91

  3. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.

  4. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Combination Studies using the Cont02 Campaign. Coordinating Center report. Analysis coordinator report. Network coordinator report. IVS Technology coordinator report. Algonquin Radio observatory. Fortaleza Station report for 2004. Gilmore Creek Geophysical Observatory. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical observatory. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). Hbart, Mt Pleasant, station report for 2004. Kashima 34m Radio Telescope. Kashima and Koganei 11-m VLBI Stations. Kokee Park Geophysical Observatory. Matera GGS VLBI Station. The Medicina Station status report. Report of the Mizusawa 10m Telescope. Noto Station Activity. NYAL Ny-Alesund 20 metre Antenna. German Antarctic receiving Station (GARS) O'higgins. The IVS network station Onsala space Observatory. Sheshan VLBI Station report for 2004. 10 Years of Geodetic Experiments at the Simeiz VLBI Station. Svetloe RAdio Astronomical Observatory. JARE Syowa Station 11-m Antenna, Antarctica. Geodetic Observatory TIGO in Concepcion. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station. Nanshan VLBI Station Report. Westford Antenna. Fundamental-station Wettzell 20m Radiotelescope. Observatorio Astroonomico Nacional Yebes. Yellowknife Observatory. The Bonn Geodetic VLBI Operation Center. CORE Operation Center Report. U.S. Naval Observatory Operation Center. The Bonn Astro/Geo Mark IV Correlator.

  5. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2003 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the permanent components of IVS. The IVS 2003 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the calendar year 2003, our fifih year of existence. The reports describe changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. Many thanks to all IVS components who contributed to this Annual Report. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2OO3

  6. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2000 Annual Report of the International Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the components of IVS. The 2000 Annual Report documents the work of these IVS components over the period March 1, 1999, through December 31, 2000. The reports document changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2000.

  7. Testing impact of the strategy of VLBI data analysis on the estimation of Earth Orientation Parameters and station coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, Agata; Tercjak, Monika; Brzeziński, Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only space geodetic technique capable to realise the Celestial Reference Frame and tie it with the Terrestrial Reference Frame. It is also the only technique, which measures all the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) on a regular basis, thus the role of VLBI in determination of the universal time, nutation and polar motion and station coordinates is invaluable. Although geodetic VLBI has been providing observations for more than 30 years, there are no clear guidelines how to deal with the stations or baselines having significantly bigger post-fit residuals than the other ones. In our work we compare the common weighting strategy, using squared formal errors, with strategies involving exclusion or down-weighting of stations or baselines. For that purpose we apply the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS with necessary additional procedures. In our analysis we focus on statistical indicators that might be the criterion of excluding or down-weighting the inferior stations or baselines, as well as on the influence of adopted strategy on the EOP and station coordinates estimation. Our analysis shows that in about 99% of 24-hour VLBI sessions there is no need to exclude any data as the down-weighting procedure is sufficiently efficient. Although results presented here do not clearly indicate the best algorithm, they show strengths and weaknesses of the applied methods and point some limitations of automatic analysis of VLBI data. Moreover, it is also shown that the influence of the adopted weighting strategy is not always clearly reflected in the results of analysis.

  8. VLBI and GPS-based Time-Transfer Using CONT08 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieck, Carsten; Haas, Ruediger; Jaldehag, Kenneth; Jahansson, Jan

    2010-01-01

    One important prerequisite for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the use of frequency standards with excellent short term stability. This makes VLBI stations, which are often co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiving stations, interesting for studies of time- and frequency-transfer techniques. We present an assessment of VLBI time-transfer based on the data of the two week long consecutive IVS CONT08 VLBI campaign by using GPS Carrier Phase (GPSCP). CONT08 was a 15 day long campaign in August 2008 that involved eleven VLBI stations on five continents. For CONT08 we estimated the worst case VLBI frequency link stability between the stations of Onsala and Wettzell to 1e-15 at one day. Comparisons with GPSCP confirm the VLBI results. We also identify time-transfer related challenges of the VLBI technique as used today.

  9. The RAEGE VLBI2010 radiotelescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sust, Eberhard; López Fernández, José Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the RAEGE (Red Atlantica Estaciones Geodinamicas Espaciales) project is the establishment of a Spanish-Portuguese network of geodynamical and spatial geodesy stations by the installation and operation of four fundamental geodetic / astronomical stations provided with radio telescopes located at - Yebes, close to Madrid / Spain - Tenerife, Canary Islands / Spain - Santa Maria, Azores Islands / Portugal. VLBI 2010 radiotelescopes are belonging to a new generation of radiotelescopes suitable for high precision geodetical earth observation and measurements, that shall allow to built up a high precision global reference system. The design of the radiotelescopes has been finished by MT Mechatronics in summer 2011 and currently three radiotelescopes are being manufactured. The first one is scheduled for installation in summer 2012 at Yebes Observatory close to Madrid.

  10. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  11. VLBI TRF determination via Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The determination of station positions is one of the primary tasks for space geodetic techniques. Station coordinate offsets are usually determined with respect to a linear coordinate model after removing elastic displacements caused by mass redistributions within the Earth's system. In operational VLBI analysis, the coordinate offsets are estimated in a least-squares adjustment as a constant over the duration of a 24-hour VLBI experiment. Terrestrial reference frames (TRF) are usually derived by adjusting the normal equations that contain the 24-hour constant offsets in order to estimate a linear model, possibly including breaks, for the station positions. We have created a VLBI TRF solution without the assumption of negligible subdaily motion and of linear behavior on longer time scales by applying a Kalman filter. As a preparation for the upcoming VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS), which aims for continuous observations that are available in real-time, a Kalman filter has been implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ. In addition to the real-time capability, the filter offers the possibility of stochastically modeling the parameters of interest. For station coordinates, changes in a subdaily time frame occur, for instance, from un- or mismodeled geophysical effects. The models for tidal and non-tidal ocean, atmosphere, and hydrology loading are known to have deficiencies and inconsistencies which propagate into the estimated station coordinates. The stochastic model of the Kalman filter can be adapted to take these subdaily effects into account. Comparing the resulting station coordinate time series with daily values from a least squares fit, we have investigated to what extent and in which regions the loading models currently have deficiencies. Due to the high correlation between station height and tropospheric delays, it is possible that errors in one group of parameters are partly absorbed by the other group. To detect problems with correlations and to

  12. Complex demodulation in VLBI estimation of high frequency Earth rotation components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Brzeziński, A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The spectrum of high frequency Earth rotation variations contains strong harmonic signal components mainly excited by ocean tides along with much weaker non-harmonic fluctuations driven by irregular processes like the diurnal thermal tides in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to properly investigate non-harmonic phenomena a representation in time domain is inevitable. We present a method, operating in time domain, which is easily applicable within Earth rotation estimation from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). It enables the determination of diurnal and subdiurnal variations, and is still effective with merely diurnal parameter sampling. The features of complex demodulation are used in an extended parameterization of polar motion and universal time which was implemented into a dedicated version of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS. The functionality of the approach was evaluated by comparing amplitudes and phases of harmonic variations at tidal periods (diurnal/semidiurnal), derived from demodulated Earth rotation parameters (ERP), estimated from hourly resolved VLBI ERP time series and taken from a recently published VLBI ERP model to the terms of the conventional model for ocean tidal effects in Earth rotation recommended by the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). The three sets of tidal terms derived from VLBI observations extensively agree among each other within the three-sigma level of the demodulation approach, which is below 6 μas for polar motion and universal time. They also coincide in terms of differences to the IERS model, where significant deviations primarily for several major tidal terms are apparent. An additional spectral analysis of the as well estimated demodulated ERP series of the ter- and quarterdiurnal frequency bands did not reveal any significant signal structure. The complex demodulation applied in VLBI parameter estimation could be demonstrated a suitable procedure for the reliable reproduction of

  13. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  14. GSFC VLBI Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, David; Ma, Chopo; MacMillan, Dan; Gipson, John; Bolotin, Sergei; Le Bail, Karine; Baver, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the GSFC VLBI Analysis Center during 2012. The GSFC VLBI Analysis Center analyzes all IVS sessions, makes regular IVS submissions of data and analysis products, and performs research and software development aimed at improving the VLBI technique.

  15. Scale and orientation comparison between the Navsat and VLBI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLintock, D. N.; Ashkenazi, V.

    The results of a comparison between VLBI and Navsat are presented. Simultaneous observations in both systems made over three baselines between the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom were computed, adjusted, and compared using a Bursa-Wolf transformation, leading to a determination of the systematic biases in the Navsat system. The various observations and the software used to adjust the correlated VLBI data are described. The system of coordinates generated by VLBI is found to closely correspond to the classical geodetic reference system based on the CIO pole and the BIH zero longitude. Comparisons between Doppler results and processed VLBI data indicate that the former need to be corrected by between -0.51 and -0.36 ppm for scale and between +0.81 and +0.82 sec for longitude.

  16. c5++ - Multi-Technique Analysis Software for Next Generation Geodetic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Otsubo, toshimichi; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Processing of space geodetic techniques should be carried out with consistent and utmost up-todate physical models. Therefore, c5++ is being developed, which will act as a framework under which dedicated space geodetic applications can be created. Due to its nature, combination of different techniques as well as automated processing of VLBI experiments will become possible with c5++.

  17. The BKG/IGGB VLBI Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorandt, Volkmar; Nothnagel, Axel; Engelhardt, Gerald; Ullrich, Dieter; Artz, Thomas; Leek, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the activities of the BKG/IGGB VLBI Analysis Center, as in previous years, consisted of routine computations of Earth orientation parameter (EOP) time series and of a number of research topics in geodetic VLBI. The VLBI group at BKG continued its regular submissions of time series of tropospheric parameters and the generation of daily SINEX (Solution INdependent EXchange format) files. Quarterly updated solutions have been computed to produce terrestrial reference frame (TRF) and celestial reference frame (CRF) realizations. Routine computations of the UT1-UTC Intensive observations include all sessions of the Kokee-Wettzell and Tsukuba-Wettzell baselines and the networks Kokee-Svetloe-Wettzell and Ny-degAlesund-Tsukuba-Wettzell. The VLBI group at BKG developed a procedure to get the most probable station positions of Tsukuba after the earthquake on March 11, 2011 for the epochs of the Intensive sessions. The analysis of the Intensive sessions with station Tsukuba could be resumed in February 2012. At IGGB, the emphasis has been placed on individual research topics.

  18. The recent progress of Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    At present, Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) consists of 5 antennas (Seshan 25m, Urumqi 25m, Kunming 30m, Miyun 50m and Tianma 65m) and one data processing center in Shanghai Observatory, Chinese academy of sciences. It is a synthetic aperture radio telescope with the equivalent diameter up to 3000 Km. Through e-VLBI (electronic VLBI) technology, CVN is connected by the commuication network. It is a multi-purpose scientific research platform radio for geodesy, astronomy, as well as deep space exploration. In Geodesy, CVN is the component of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Since the year of 2006, more than 20 geodetic domestic observations have been carried out. A set of phase-referencing observations of pulsars with CVN has carried out and got preliminary results. CVN also joined the Chinese lunar exploration Project from 2007 and supported 4 Chang’E series lunar probe missions. In Chang’E-3 mission, using the in-beam VLBI observations, the relative position accuracy of Rover and Lander is up to 1 meter.In recent years, we have updated the facilities of CVN from antenna, receivers, VLBI terminals to correlator. Participation of Tianma 65m antennas increases its performance. In 2012, Shanghai correlator was accepted as the IVS correlator. After upgrade, Shanghai correlator will try to provide the data process service for IVS community from 2015. To drive the construction of the planned VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) station, at least two VOGS 13m antenna will join CVN in the near future. Construction of the first VOGS antenna in Shanghai hopes to begin this year.The new VLBI correlator and digital terminal are under development. From participation in VGOS, we plan to study the earth rotation especially of high frequency and corresponding geophysical signals, to link China’s regional reference frame to ITRF, and etc. CVN is willing to join the research corporation with IVS, EVN, VLBA and AOV (Asia- Oceania VLBI Group for Geodesy and

  19. Simulation of Twin Telescopes at Onsala and Wettzell for the VLBI Global Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönberger, Caroline; Gnilsen, Paul; Böhm, Johannes; Haas, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    The VLBI2010 committee of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) developed a concept to achieve an improvement of the accuracy of geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to 1 mm for station positions and 0.1 mm/yr for station velocities. This so-called VLBI2010 concept includes broadband observations with fast slewing telescopes and proposes twin telescopes to improve the handling of atmospheric turbulence that has been identified as a limiting factor for geodetic VLBI. There are several VLBI sites that have projects to install a Twin Telescope. The Wettzell Twin Telescope in Germany has already been constructed, and Twin Telescopes will be installed in the coming years at Onsala (Sweden), Ny-Ålesund (Spitsbergen, Norway) and Kazan (Russia). In this study, the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is used to schedule and simulate a global VLBI network following the example of the CONT11 campaign, with and without the Twin Telescopes in Onsala and Wettzell. Different scheduling approaches (e.g., source-based scheduling, Twin Telescope observing in multidirectional mode, Twin Telescopes in continuous mode) were compared by evaluating the numbers of observations and scans as well as baseline length repeatabilities, station positions, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric parameters and clock estimates. Comparison of the results show an improvement in estimated parameters with Twin Telescopes, especially with the Onsala Twin Telescope in a continuous observing mode and a strategy with four sources observed simultaneously.

  20. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baver, Karen D. (Editor); Behrend, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2011 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the components of IVS. The 2011 Annual Report documents the work of these IVS components over the period January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. The reports document changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2011.

  1. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2007 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, D. (Editor); Baver, K. D. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2007 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the components of IVS. The 2007 Annual Report documents the work of these IVS components over the period January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2007. The reports document changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2007.

  2. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2008 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, Dirk; Baver, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2008 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the components of IVS. The 2008 Annual Report documents the work of these IVS components over the period January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008. The reports document changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2008.

  3. VLBI2010: Networks and Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Corey, Brian; Himwich, Ed; Ma, Chopo; Malkin, Zinovy; Niell, Arthur; Shaffer, David; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Observing Strategies Sub-group of IVS's Working Group 3 has been tasked with producing a vision for the following aspects of geodetic VLBI: antenna-network structure and observing strategies; source strength/structure/distribution; frequency bands, RFI; and field system and scheduling. These are high level considerations that have far reaching impact since they significantly influence performance potential and also constrain requirements for a number of other \\VG3 sub-groups. The paper will present the status of the sub-group's work on these topics.

  4. Solution of the high-frequency variations of ERP from VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jin-ling; Wang, Guang-li; Zhao, Ming

    2005-07-01

    In the software CALC/SOLVE for the analysis of VLBI astrometric and geodetic data, the high-frequency variations of earth rotation parameters (ERP) are estimated by segmented linear fittings with additional constraints. That is, the rates of ERP between two epoch nodes are constrained to agree to within some preset value, and the ERP are required to be continuous at the nodes. Our analysis shows that when the data points are not very dense, the constraint and continuity requirement help to improve the stability of the solution, while at the same time they degrade the objectivity of the solution and make the solutions of ERP at different epoch nodes correlated. For this reason, based on the user partial entry of CALC/SOLVE, we have developed a module for the direct solution of the high-frequency variations of ERP, without the constraint on the ERP rate, nor the continuity requirement at the epoch nodes. It is shown by our reduction of real data that the direct solution mode is preferable. To derive the high-frequency variations of ERP from VLBI observations with a long time span, the error in the precession/nutation models (the celestial pole offset) should be taken into consideration and a corresponding module is developed. The global solutions of the high-frequency variations of ERP are successfully performed on the VLBI observations in the period from 1979 to 2003. It is demonstrated that when the errors in precession/nutation models are taken into consideration, the accuracy of the solution is noticeably improved. So, when seeking the high-frequency variations of ERP from VLBI observations, we recommend this direct solution mode, while taking the pole offset into consideration.

  5. 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and EVN Users Meeting: VLBI and the new generation of radio arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics and the University of Manchester, on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, will host the 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and the EVN Users Meeting from September 20th - 24th, 2010, entitled "VLBI and the new generation of radio arrays". The Symposium will be held at the University of Manchester, UK. At this conference the latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI and e-VLBI results will be reported. The timing of this meeting coincides with the development of, and first results from a number of new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, LOFAR, EVLA, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders ASKAP and MeerKAT. This meeting will incorporate some of the first results from these new instruments, in addition to the unique scientific and technical contribution of VLBI in this new era of radio astronomy.

  6. Haystack Observatory VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Mike; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Dudevoir, Kevin; Niell, Arthur; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Haystack Correlator during 2012. Highlights include finding a solution to the DiFX InfiniBand timeout problem and other DiFX software development, conducting a DBE comparison test following the First International VLBI Technology Workshop, conducting a Mark IV and DiFX correlator comparison, more broadband delay experiments, more u- VLBI Galactic Center observations, and conversion of RDV session processing to the Mark IV/HOPS path. Non-real-time e-VLBI transfers and engineering support of other correlators continued.

  7. Sensitivity evaluation of two VLBI2010 candidate feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, C.; Whittier, B.

    2011-07-01

    The VLBI2010 effort will usher in a new generation of geodetic VLBI observing systems possessing far more bandwidth than their predecessors. As such, MIT Haystack Observatory has been actively involved in the evaluation of broadband microwave feeds for the new Patriot 12m antenna installed at the Goddard Geophysical Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt MD, USA. In our contribution to the meeting, we will present sensitivity measurements of the Patriot 12m antenna as fed by the Chalmers University of Technology design (i.e. the Eleven antenna) as well as a new California Institute of Technology design (i.e. the quadridge feed horn - QRFH) both of which have been realized in hardware prototypes and are considered to be contending feeds for VLBI2010.

  8. Comparison Campaign of VLBI Data Analysis Software - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, Lucia; Bohm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    During the development of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at Vienna University of Technology, a special comparison setup was developed with the goal of easily finding links between deviations of results achieved with different software packages and certain parameters of the observation. The object of comparison is the computed time delay, a value calculated for each observation including all relevant models and corrections that need to be applied in geodetic VLBI analysis. Besides investigating the effects of the various models on the total delay, results of comparisons between VieVS and Occam 6.1 are shown. Using the same methods, a Comparison Campaign of VLBI data analysis software called DeDeCC is about to be launched within the IVS soon.

  9. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements made in the western U.S. since 1979 provide discrete samples of the temporal and spatial deformation field. The interpretation of the VLBI derived rates of deformation requires an examination of geologic information and more densely sampled ground based geodetic data. Triangulation and trilateration data measured on two regional networks, one in the central Mojave Desert and one in the Coast Ranges east of the San Andreas fault, were processed. At the spatial scales spanned by these local geodetic networks, auxiliary geologic and geophysical data were utilized to examine the relation between measured incremental strain and the accommodation of strain seen in local geologic structures, strain release in earthquakes, and principal stress directions inferred from in situ measurements. VLBI data was also processed from stations distributed across the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone in the western U.S. The VLBI data were used to constrain the integrated rate of deformation across portions of the continental plate boundary in California and to provide a tectonic framework to interpret regional geodetic and geologic studies.

  10. Geodetic measurement of deformation in California. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne Marie

    1988-01-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements made in the western U.S. since 1979 as part of the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project provide discrete samples of the temporal and spatial deformation field. The interpretation of the VLBI-derived rates of deformation requires an examination of geologic information and more densely sampled ground-based geodetic data. In the first two of three related studies embodying this thesis triangulation and trilateration data measured on two regional networks are processed, one in the central Mojave Desert and one in the Coast Ranges east of the San Andreas fault. At the spatial scales spanned by these local geodetic networks, auxiliary geologic and geophysical data have been utilized to examine the relation between measured incremental strain and the accommodation of strain seen in local geological structures, strain release in earthquakes, and principal stress directions inferred from in situ measurements. In the third study, VLBI data from stations distributed across the Pacific - North American plate boundary zone in the western United States are processed. The VLBI data have been used to constrain the integrated rate of deformation across portions of the continental plate boundary in California and to provide a tectonic framework to interpret regional geodetic and geologic studies.

  11. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  12. VLBI Technology Development at SHAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiuzhong; Shu, Fengchun; Xiang, Ying; Zhu, Renjie; Xu, Zhijun; Chen, Zhong; Zheng, Weimin; Luo, Jintao; Wu, Yajun

    2010-01-01

    VLBI technology development made significant progress at SHAO in the last few years. The development status of the Chinese DBBC, the software and FPGA-based correlators, and the new VLBI antenna, as well as VLBI applications are summarized in this paper.

  13. Designing a new Geodetic Research Data Management System for the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, Glend Lorraine

    2015-08-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) participates in astronomic, astrometric and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using both 26- and 15-m diameter radio telescopes. Geodetic data from a Satellite Laser Ranger (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Met4 weather stations and a new seismic vault network must be stored at HartRAO and made available to the scientific community. Some data are e-transferred to correlators, analysis centres and space geodesy data providers, while some data are processed locally to produce basic data products. The new South African co-located seismology network of seismic and GNSS instrumentation will generate large volumes of raw data to be stored and archived at HartRAO. The current data storage systems are distributed and outdated, and management systems currently being used will also not be able to handle the additional large volumes of data. This necessitates the design and implementation of a new, modern research data management system which combines all the datasets into one database, as well as cater for current and future data volume requirements. The librarian’s expertise and knowledge will be used in the design and implementation of the new HartRAO Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS). The librarian’s role and involvement in the design and implementation of the new GRDMS are presented here. Progress to date will also be discussed.

  14. Comparison of VTEC from ground-based space geodetic techniques based on ray-traced mapping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Deng, Zhiguo; Zus, Florian; Etemadfard, M. Hossein

    2016-07-01

    For the derivation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from slant total electron content (STEC), usually a standard approach is used based on mapping functions that assume a single-layer model of the ionosphere (e.g. IERS Conventions 2010). In our study we test the standard approach against a recently developed alternative which is based on station specific ray-traced mapping factors. For the evaluation of this new mapping concept, we compute VTEC at selected Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) stations using the dispersive delays and the corresponding formal errors obtained by observing extra-galactic radio sources at two radio frequencies in S- and X-bands by the permanent geodetic/astrometric program organized by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Additionally, by applying synchronous sampling and a consistent analysis configuration, we determine VTEC at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antennas using GPS (Global Positioning System) and/or GLONASS (Globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja Sistema) observations provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) that are operated in the vicinity of the VLBI antennas. We compare the VTEC time series obtained by the individual techniques over a period of about twenty years and describe their characteristics qualitatively and statistically. The length of the time series allows us to assess the long-term climatology of ionospheric VTEC during the last twenty years.

  15. Height biases and scale variations in VLBI networks due to antenna gravitational deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido; Petrov, Leonid; Negusini, Monia

    2010-05-01

    The impact of signal path variations (SPVs) caused by antenna gravity deformations on geodetic VLBI results is evaluated for the first time. Elevation-dependent models of SPV for Medicina and Noto (Italy) telescopes were derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods to account for gravitational deformations. After applying these models, estimates of the antenna reference point (ARP) positions are shifted upward by 8.9 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively. The impact on other parameters is negligible. To infer the impact of antenna gravity deformations on the entire VLBI network, lacking measurements for other telescopes, we rescaled the SPV models of Medicina and Noto for other antennas according to their size. The effects are changes in VLBI heights in the range [-3,73] mm and a significant net scale increase of 0.3 - 0.8 ppb. This demonstrates the need to include SPV models in routine VLBI data analysis.

  16. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  17. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  18. Solution of high frequency variations of ERP from VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Li, J. L.; Wang, G. L.; Zhao, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the astrometric and geodetic VLBI data analysis software CALC/SOLVE, the high frequency variations of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are determined by a constrained continuous piecewise linear model. The ERP rate within two epoch nodes is constrained to be smaller than a limitation setting, and the ERP is forced to be continuous at epoch nodes. Observation analysis shows that when the data points are not very dense the constraint and the continuation requirement are helpful to the improvement in the stability of the solution, but degrade the independence of ERP solutions at epoch nodes as well. By using the Userpartial entry of CALC/SOLVE a direct solution module of the high frequency variations of ERP is realized without any constraint on the rate nor the requirement of continuation at nodes. It is shown from real observation reduction that the direct solution mode is feasible. In the solution of high frequency variations of ERP from VLBI observations with long period coverage, the model errors of the precession and nutation (celestial pole offset) should be taken into consideration. A corresponding module is realized and global solutions of the high frequency variation of ERP are successfully performed on the VLBI observations from 1979 to 2003. Comparison of the solutions shows that with the consideration of the pole offsets the precision of parameters could be improved obviously. In the solution of high frequency variation of ERP from VLBI observations, the direct solution mode with the consideration of the pole offsets is accordingly recommended.

  19. Towards a four technique GGOS site: VLBI - DORIS compatibility tests at Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Thomas; Didelot, Francois; Kodet, Jan; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Mähler, Swetlana; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, Christian; Saunier, Jérôme; Schüler, Torben; Walter, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), co-location sites are of special importance for the evaluation and mutual control of the individual geodetic space techniques. At the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacon could complete the geodetic instrumentation consisting of three Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes, two Laser Ranging (LR) systems and a number of multi- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Integrating all fourth geodetic instrumentation into one site generates new problems with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). While the VLBI system is designed to receive very weak signals from quasars, the DORIS beacon emits strong signals in the UHF frequency band at 401.25 MHz and in the S band at 2036.25 MHz. During the observation of quasars with VLBI there is a high risk of coupling DORIS S band signals into the VLBI receiving chain generating spurious signal and, in the worst case, overloading receiving chain electronics and risking its damage. Before a DORIS beacon is operated at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, it must be ensured that it can be operated alongside the VLBI system without any risk of damage or degradation of the measurement. Field tests under different setups were performed to assess the impact of the DORIS signal on the classical geodetic VLBI 20-m and the VGOS 13-m radio telescopes. Different locations on the observatory each at a distance of more than 100 m were occupied by the DORIS antenna. It has been shown that obstacles like buildings or earth mounds attenuate the signal up to 20 dB. However the power received at the input of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) is still at a critical level when the radio telescope points towards the DORIS beacon. The quality of the correlated signals is not or barely affected at long baselines. At local baselines however, the DORIS emission as a common mode signal degrades

  20. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2013 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baver, Karen D.; Behrend, Dirk; Armstrong, Kyla L.

    2014-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2013 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the permanent components of IVS. The IVS 2013 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the calendar year 2013, our fifteenth year of existence. The reports describe changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. Many thanks to all IVS components who contributed to this Annual Report. With the exception of the first section and the last section, the contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2013.

  1. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2012 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baver, Karen D.; Behrend, Dirk; Armstrong, Kyla L.

    2013-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2012 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the permanent components of IVS. The IVS 2012 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the calendar year 2012, our fourteenth year of existence. The reports describe changes, activities, and progress ofthe IVS. Many thanks to all IVS components who contributed to this Annual Report. With the exception of the first section and parts of the last section (described below), the contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site athttp:ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2012

  2. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry: 1999 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 1999 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry -IVS. The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic community who constitute the components of IVS. The 1999 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the year ending March 1, 1999, the official inauguration date of IVS. As the newest of the space technique services, IVS decided to publish this Annual Report as a reference to our organization and its components. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS website at: http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/arl999. The IVS 1999 Annual Report will be a valuable reference for information about IVS and its components. This Annual Report will serve as a baseline from which we can measure the anticipated progress of IVS in coming years.

  3. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  4. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  5. Future directions in VLBI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    Three technology areas are examined to measure their impact on VLBI and the capa bilities that may be offered to VLBI practioners in the near future: VLBI Standard Interface: An international committee has recently agr eed on a standard interface definition for all future VLBI data systems. This s hould, at long last, allow interoperability between various VLBI data systems. New Recording Technologies: Courtesy of large investments by the co mputer industry, moderately priced high-data rate digital recorders that may be suitable for VLBI are on the near horizon. Small arrays of these machines, appr opriately interfaced, promise to support 1-8 Gbps recording over the next few ye ars at an attractive price. e-VLBI: With the advent of optical fiber being laid at a prodigious rate, real-time (or near-real time) VLBI on an international scale is close to b eing a technical possibility. However, questions remain about costs to lease th e necessary bandwidth and to lay the 'last mile' of fiber to remote antennas.

  6. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  7. eVLBI at Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassing, Reiner; Kronschnabl, Gerhard

    Wettzell's radiotelescope is connected to 34 Mbps INTERNET connection. Since April, 2005, Wettzell is performing eVLBI observations for INT2 on a regular basis. The data is transfered to Tsukuba, and one day after the observations, the results of the correlation is produced. A gain of about 7 days is possible due to eVLBI.

  8. Modernizing the JPL VLBI Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogstad, S.; Goodhart, C. E.; Clark, J. E.; Finley, S.; Lanyi, G. E.; White, L. A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.>

    This poster will present the current capabilities of the JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) and the general architecture of the equipment. In addition, the scientific and navigation uses of the JVC will be enumerated for background purposes. The JVC is a software correlator based on a Beowulf cluster of computers. It replaces a thirty year old correlator based on custom designed digital hardware. General comparisons between the old and new equipment will be made. The JVC makes use of a separate program, SoftC, to do the actual correlations. The JVC manages the sending of data to multiple machines in a Beowulf cluster each running SoftC in parallel on small chunks of the data. The basic architecture of SoftC will also be described.

  9. The AuScope Project and Trans-Tasman VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Gulyaev, Sergei; Natusch, Tim; Titov, Oleg; Tingay, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Three 12-meter radio telescopes are being built in Australia (the AuScope project) and one in New Zealand. These facilities will be fully-equipped for undertaking S and X-band geodetic VLBI observations and correlation will take place on a software correlator (part of the AuScope project). All sites are equipped with permanent GPS receivers to provide co-location of several space geodetic techniques. The following scientific tasks of geodesy and astrometry are considered. 1. Improvement and densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame in the southern hemisphere; 2. Improvement of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame in the region; 3. Measurement of intraplate deformation of the Australian tectonic plate.

  10. New vertical geodesy. [VLBI measurements for earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper contains a review of the theoretical difference between orthometric heights and heights labeled geometric which are determined through use of an extraterrestrial frame of reference. The theory is supplemented with examples which portray very long baseline interferometry as a measuring system that will provide estimates of vertical crustal motion which are radically improved in comparison with those obtained from analysis of repeated geodetic levelings. The example of the San Fernando earthquake of 1971 is used to show how much estimates of orthometric and geometric height change might differ. A comment by another author is appended which takes issue with some of the conclusions of this paper. In particular, an attempt is made in the comment to rebut the conclusion that geodetic leveling is less reliable than VLBI measurements for determining relative elevation change of points separated by more than 56 km.

  11. Tidal Love and Shida numbers estimated by geodetic VLBI☆

    PubMed Central

    Krásná, Hana; Böhm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Frequency-dependent Love and Shida numbers, which characterize the Earth response to the tidal forces, were estimated in a global adjustment of all suitable geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions from 1984.0 to 2011.0. Several solutions were carried out to determine the Love and Shida numbers for the tidal constituents at periods in the diurnal band and in the long-period band in addition to values of the Love and Shida numbers common for all tides of degree two. Adding up all twelve diurnal tidal waves that were estimated, the total differences in displacement with respect to the theoretical conventional values of the Love and Shida numbers calculated from an Earth model reach 1.73 ± 0.29 mm in radial direction and 1.15 ± 0.15 mm in the transverse plane. The difference in the radial deformation following from the estimates of the zonal Love numbers is largest for the semi-annual tide Ssa with 1.07 ± 0.19 mm. PMID:26523082

  12. Response of the Earth system to zonal tidal forcing examined by VLBI based dUT1 variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, S.; Schuh, H.

    2011-10-01

    The VLBI group at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of Vienna University of Technology is developing the software VieVS (Vienna VLBI software) for the analysis of geodetic VLBI data. VieVS incorporates the most recent models recommended by the IERS Conventions and in contrast to other VLBI software uses a parameterization with piece-wise linear offsets at integer hours. Thus it provides more flexibility for combination or comparison with time series from other space geodetic techniques or of geophysical origin. We employed this new software to re-process all available geodetic VLBI sessions from 1984 till 2010, suitable for the determination of the Earth rotation parameters (ERP), i.e. dUT1 (UT1-UTC) and the polar motion coordinates xp and yp. Zonal tidal signals with periods from 5 to 35 days in the derived dUT1 long-time series were then used to estimate the so-called zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew and Farrell (1978). The frequency dependent zonal response coefficient is an extension to the concept of the Love number k2 which allows for a response of the Earth to tidal forcing, deviating from purely elastic behaviour and thus taking into account effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle anelasticity. A tidally induced change of the rotation rate of the Earth and consequently of dUT1 is proportional to the tide-generating potential through the zonal response coefficient κ. The values estimated for κ for different tidal frequencies from VLBI observations of dUT1 were compared to theory and to the results of previous determinations of κ from observations of space geodetic techniques.

  13. Global VLBI Observations of Weak Extragalactic Radio Sources: Imaging Candidates to Align the VLBI and Gaia Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Charlot, Patrick; Porcas, Richard; Garrington, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The space astrometry mission Gaia will construct a dense optical QSO-based celestial reference frame. For consistency between optical and radio positions, it will be important to align the Gaia and VLBI frames (International Celestial Reference Frame) with the highest accuracy. In this respect, it is found that only 10% of the ICRF sources are suitable to establish this link (70 sources), either because most of the ICRF sources are not bright enough at optical wavelengths or because they show extended radio emission which precludes reaching the highest astrometric accuracy. In order to improve the situation, we initiated a multi-step VLBI observational project, dedicated to finding additional suitable radio sources for aligning the two frames. The sample consists of about 450 optically-bright radio sources, typically 20 times weaker than the ICRF sources, which have been selected by cross-correlating optical and radio catalogs. The initial observations, aimed at checking whether these sources are detectable with VLBI, and conducted with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in 2007, showed an excellent 90% detection rate. This paper reports on global VLBI observations carried out in March 2008 to image 105 from the 398 previously detected sources. All sources were successfully imaged, revealing compact VLBI structure for about half of them, which is very promising for the future.

  14. Round-Trip System Available to Measure Path Length Variation in Korea VLBI System for Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Hongjong; Kondo, Tetsuro; Lee, Jinoo; Kim, Tuhwan; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Ju, Hyunhee

    2010-01-01

    The construction project of Korea Geodetic VLBI officially started in October 2008. The construction of all systems will be completed by the end of 2011. The project was named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG), and its main purpose is to maintain the Korea Geodetic Datum. In case of the KVG system, an observation room with an H-maser frequency standard is located in a building separated from the antenna by several tens of meters. Therefore KVG system will adopt a so-called round-trip system to transmit reference signals to the antenna with reduction of the effect of path length variations. KVG s round-trip system is designed not only to use either metal or optical fiber cables, but also to measure path length variations directly. We present this unique round trip system for KVG.

  15. SLR and VLBI technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Robert J.; Clark, Thomas A.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1986-01-01

    SLR and VLBI technology improvements are continuing, aimed at millimeter system performance. New SLR receiver components have achieved single shot RMS precision of 1 cm on LAGEOS. Recent VLBI phase delay observations have achieved sub-cm repeatability. New water vapor radiometers are achieving millimeter precisions in measurements of tropospheric path delay. These improvements, plus others to be discussed, will improve the accuracy of future polar motion measurements.

  16. Status and plans for the future of the Vienna VLBI Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzak, Matthias; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Krasna, Hana; Kwak, Younghee; Landskron, Daniel; Mayer, David; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia; Schönberger, Caroline; Shabala, Stanislav; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is a VLBI analysis software developed and maintained at Technische Universität Wien (TU Wien) since 2008 with contributions from groups all over the world. It is used for both academic purposes in university courses as well as for providing VLBI analysis results to the geodetic community. Written in a modular structure in Matlab, VieVS offers easy access to the source code and the possibility to adapt the programs for particular purposes. The new version 2.3, released in December 2015, includes several new parameters to be estimated in the global solution, such as tidal ERP variation coefficients. The graphical user interface was slightly modified for an improved user functionality and, e.g., the possibility of deriving baseline length repeatabilities. The scheduling of satellite observations was refined, the simulator newly includes the effect of source structure which can also be corrected for in the analysis. This poster gives an overview of all VLBI-related activities in Vienna and provides an outlook to future plans concerning the Vienna VLBI Software.

  17. Correlated flux densities from VLBI observations with the DSN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Correlated flux densities of extragalactic radio sources in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrometric catalog are required for the VLBI tracking of Galileo, Mars Observer, and future missions. A system to produce correlated and total flux density catalogs was developed to meet these requirements. A correlated flux density catalog of 274 sources, accurate to about 20 percent, was derived from more than 5000 DSN VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz (S-band) and 8.4 GHz (X-band) using 43 VLBI radio reference frame experiments during the period 1989-1992. Various consistency checks were carried out to ensure the accuracy of the correlated flux densities. All observations were made on the California-Spain and California-Australia DSN baselines using the Mark 3 wideband data acquisition system. A total flux density catalog, accurate to about 20 percent, with data on 150 sources, was also created. Together, these catalogs can be used to predict source strengths to assist in the scheduling of VLBI tracking passes. In addition, for those sources with sufficient observations, a rough estimate of source structure parameters can be made.

  18. Improving the Global Geodetic Observing System network by applying the Most Remote Point method to the selection of new sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System shall consist of globally well distributed geodetic observatories. The GGOS network will be based on a number of technique specific observatories which contribute their observation data to the international services like the IVS, ILRS, IGS, IGFS. The distribution of reference points in these global geodetic networks is not optimal. In order to establish the Global Geodetic Observing System the current distribution of observatory sites must be reviewed with a global perspective. We developed the most remote point (mrp) method to identify gaps in the geometry of global networks. This method is applied to the individual space geodetic VLBI and SLR network. In each iteration step the identified most remote point is assumed to become a new observatory site improving such the homogeneity of the global network. As a result possible new locations for GGOS observatories can be evaluated and suggested.

  19. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  20. Orbit determination of geosynchronous satellites by VLBI and differential VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Four approaches to radio interferometric tracking of geosynchronous satellites are analyzed and compared. Quasar-based differential very-long-baseline interferometry, which requires a very sensitive receiver, can achieve meter-level position accuracy with a two-baseline system. Satellite-based differential VLBI gives somewhat lower accuracy with a compact, inexpensive receiver. Nondifferential VLBI, using less precise media and clock calibrations obtained by observing the GPS satellites, still gives 5-10 m position accuracy with two baselines. For a sufficiently inclined orbit, all interferometric approaches can yield six-component satellite state from a single baseline.

  1. The Automatic Calibration of Korean VLBI Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Yun, Youngjoo; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young

    2016-08-01

    The calibration of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has long been a time consuming process. The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a simple array consisting of three identical antennas. Because four frequencies are observed simultaneously, phase solutions can be transferred from lower frequencies to higher frequencies in order to improve phase coherence and hence sensitivity at higher frequencies. Due to the homogeneous nature of the array, the KVN is also well suited for automatic calibration. In this paper we describe the automatic calibration of single-polarisation KVN data using the KVN Pipeline and comparing the results against VLBI data that has been manually reduced. We find that the pipelined data using phase transfer produces better results than a manually reduced dataset not using the phase transfer. Additionally we compared the pipeline results with a manually reduced phase-transferred dataset and found the results to be identical.

  2. GGOS and the combination of space geodetic techniques (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) is the contribution of geodesy to a global Earth monitoring system. In particular, it provides the metrological basis and the reference systems and frames, which are crucial nowadays for all Earth observing systems. GGOS is built on the IAG Services (IGS, IVS, ILRS, IDS, IERS, IGFS, . . . ) and the products they derive on an operational basis for Earth monitoring, making use of a large variety of space and ground-based geodetic techniques such as VLBI, SLR/LLR, GNSS, DORIS, altimetry, InSAR and gravity satellite missions, gravimetry, etc. All these observation techniques are considered integral parts of GGOS, allowing the monitoring of the Earth's shape and deformation (including water surface), the Earth's orientation and rotation and the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations with an unprecedented accuracy. GGOS, already now, is more than just an observing system. Its future vision and goal is the de- velopment of a complete chain from the acquisition, transfer and processing of a tremendous amount of observational data over the consistent combination and integration of all space geodetic techniques to the assimilation of the resulting geodetic and geophysical parameters into complex numerical models of the Earth system. This presentation will concentrate on just one part of this chain, namely the issue of a rigorous combination and integration of the various space geodetic techniques in order to obtain unique highly accurate reference frames and consistent long time series of geodetic and geophysical parameters crucial for the assessment and prediction of global change phenomena. In future, this integration should not only include geometry, but also gravimetry and, in the more distant future, even observation techniques like altimetry, InSAR and seismology. The challenges on the way to such a combination will be discussed and examples will be given for the results already achieved.

  3. VLBI observations of GNSS satellites on the baseline Hobart-Ceduna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Kwak, Younghee; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Observations of satellites of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique open a variety of new possibilities and promote the integration of these techniques within the framework of GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. Such observations provide possibilities to directly connect the dynamic GNSS and the kinematic VLBI reference frame, which may result in improved future ITRF realizations. In our research we are trying to apply observation strategies, which are commonly used in geodetic VLBI, i.e. the main observables are group delay values derived from direct observations and the subsequent correlations of GNSS satellite signals. However, data acquisition schemes for VLBI satellite observations are still at an experimental stage. Further research is required to establish an operational process chain, similar to that applied for natural radio sources, such as quasars, which are observed generally. In 2015 we successfully carried out several experiments on the Australian baseline Ceduna-Hobart. During these sessions, with a few hours duration each, GNSS satellites (GLONASS and GPS) were observed in the L1 and L2 band along with natural radio sources for calibrations. All experiments were based on schedule files created with the satellite scheduling module in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). The recorded data were successfully correlated with the DiFX correlator software in combination with a suitable input model for near field targets. A preliminary analysis of the group delay measurements derived with the AIPS software suite was carried out with VieVS. Using this workflow we can achieve a measurement precision of the group delays down to a few picoseconds (5-30, depending on the satellite) over a 5 minutes track. Nevertheless, our results also show a residual signal of a few nanoseconds, which might be caused by the ionosphere or insufficient orbit modelling in the present state of

  4. Constraints on interseismic deformation at Japan trench from VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Space geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) was used to estimate velocity relative to the plate interiors of two sites on the deforming leading edge at the Japan trench. Elastic models of interseismic deformation and results obtained were used to put constraints on the slip rate along the main thrust of the Japan subduction zone. Observed velocities reflect the sum of permanent west-northwest shortening in Honshu, elastic deformation due to locking of the main thrust fault at the Japan trench, and deformation associated with the subducting Phillipine plate. These velocities limit the locked segment of the main thrust at the Japan trench to 27 km vertically and 100 km along the dip. This indicates that the main Pacific plate thrust fault is not strongly coupled and probably does not generate strong earthquakes.

  5. DSN Beowulf Cluster-Based VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogstad, Stephen P.; Jongeling, Andre P.; Finley, Susan G.; White, Leslie A.; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Clark, John E.; Goodhart, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires a broadband VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) correlator to process data routinely taken as part of the VLBI source Catalogue Maintenance and Enhancement task (CAT M&E) and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations task (TEMPO). The data provided by these measurements are a crucial ingredient in the formation of precision deep-space navigation models. In addition, a VLBI correlator is needed to provide support for other VLBI related activities for both internal and external customers. The JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) was designed, developed, and delivered to the DSN as a successor to the legacy Block II Correlator. The JVC is a full-capability VLBI correlator that uses software processes running on multiple computers to cross-correlate two-antenna broadband noise data. Components of this new system (see Figure 1) consist of Linux PCs integrated into a Beowulf Cluster, an existing Mark5 data storage system, a RAID array, an existing software correlator package (SoftC) originally developed for Delta DOR Navigation processing, and various custom- developed software processes and scripts. Parallel processing on the JVC is achieved by assigning slave nodes of the Beowulf cluster to process separate scans in parallel until all scans have been processed. Due to the single stream sequential playback of the Mark5 data, some ramp-up time is required before all nodes can have access to required scan data. Core functions of each processing step are accomplished using optimized C programs. The coordination and execution of these programs across the cluster is accomplished using Pearl scripts, PostgreSQL commands, and a handful of miscellaneous system utilities. Mark5 data modules are loaded on Mark5 Data systems playback units, one per station. Data processing is started when the operator scans the Mark5 systems and runs a script that reads various configuration files and then creates an experiment-dependent status database

  6. Application of Raytracing Through the High Resolution Numerical Weather Model HIRLAM for the Analysis of European VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Espada, Susana; Haas, Rudiger; Colomer, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    An important limitation for the precision in the results obtained by space geodetic techniques like VLBI and GPS are tropospheric delays caused by the neutral atmosphere, see e.g. [1]. In recent years numerical weather models (NWM) have been applied to improve mapping functions which are used for tropospheric delay modeling in VLBI and GPS data analyses. In this manuscript we use raytracing to calculate slant delays and apply these to the analysis of Europe VLBI data. The raytracing is performed through the limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) model HIRLAM. The advantages of this model are high spatial (0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg.) and high temporal resolution (in prediction mode three hours).

  7. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2000 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, N. R. (Editor); Baver, K. D. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2000 Annual Report of the International Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the permanent components of IVS. The IVS 2000 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the period March 1, 1999 (the official inauguration date of IVS) through December 31, 2000. The reports document changes, activities, and progress of the IVS. The entire contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2000. This book and the web site are organized as follows: (1) The first section contains general information about IVS, a map showing the location of the components, information about the Directing Board members, and the report of the IVS Chair; (2) The second section of Special Reports contains a status report of the IVS Working Group on GPS phase center mapping, a reproduction of the resolution making IVS a Service of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), and a reprint of the VLBI Standard Interface (VSI); (3) The next seven sections hold the component reports from the Coordinators, Network Stations, Operation Centers, Correlators, Data Centers, Analysis Centers, and Technology Development Centers; and (4) The last section includes reference information about IVS: the Terms of Reference, the lists of Member and Affiliated organizations, the IVS Associate Member list, a complete list of IVS components, the list of institutions contributing to this report, and a list of acronyms. The 2000 Annual Report demonstrates the vitality of the IVS and the outstanding progress we have made during our first 22 months.

  8. ON THE CONNECTION OF THE APPARENT PROPER MOTION AND THE VLBI STRUCTURE OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Moor, A.; Frey, S.; Lambert, S. B.; Bakos, J. E-mail: frey@sgo.fomi.hu E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au

    2011-06-15

    Many of the compact extragalactic radio sources that are used as fiducial points to define the celestial reference frame are known to have proper motions detectable with long-term geodetic/astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. These changes can be as high as several hundred microarcseconds per year for certain objects. When imaged with VLBI at milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution, these sources (radio-loud active galactic nuclei) typically show structures dominated by a compact, often unresolved 'core' and a one-sided 'jet'. The positional instability of compact radio sources is believed to be connected with changes in their brightness distribution structure. For the first time, we test this assumption in a statistical sense on a large sample rather than on only individual objects. We investigate a sample of 62 radio sources for which reliable long-term time series of astrometric positions as well as detailed 8 GHz VLBI brightness distribution models are available. We compare the characteristic direction of their extended jet structure and the direction of their apparent proper motion. We present our data and analysis method, and conclude that there is indeed a correlation between the two characteristic directions. However, there are cases where the {approx}1-10 mas scale VLBI jet directions are significantly misaligned with respect to the apparent proper motion direction.

  9. VLBI2010 - Current status of the TWIN radio telescope project at Wettzell, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Klügel, T.; Hase, H.; Pausch, K.; Göldi, W.; VLBI Team Wettzell

    2011-07-01

    The Twin Telescope Wettzell Project is carried out by BKG during the period of 2008-2011. The design of the TTW was based on the VLBI2010 concept of an IVS Working Group. In the first project year the final design was fixed after numerous simulations to meet the technical specifications needed for the VLBI2010 concept. For the construction of the radio telescopes at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell a thorough soil analysis was made in order to define the most suitable locations.. Since 2009 the construction work is ongoing and close to its end. In parallel several acceptance tests of different telescope parts had been conducted, e.g. azimuth bearings. The new radio telescopes are almost completely assembled and the time schedule is kept. For the last project year the design of the receiver parts needs to be finished and the construction and installation are on the agenda.

  10. A VLBI variance-covariance analysis interactive computer program. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Y.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer program (in FORTRAN) for the variance covariance analysis of VLBI experiments is presented for use in experiment planning, simulation studies and optimal design problems. The interactive mode is especially suited to these types of analyses providing ease of operation as well as savings in time and cost. The geodetic parameters include baseline vector parameters and variations in polar motion and Earth rotation. A discussion of the theroy on which the program is based provides an overview of the VLBI process emphasizing the areas of interest to geodesy. Special emphasis is placed on the problem of determining correlations between simultaneous observations from a network of stations. A model suitable for covariance analyses is presented. Suggestions towards developing optimal observation schedules are included.

  11. A Comparison of General Relativity Theory Evaluations using VLBI and SLR: Will GGOS Improve These Results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combrinck, L.

    2012-12-01

    Constant instrumental and data analysis upgrades throughout the development of the VLBI technique have delivered a continuous improvement in the accuracy of the evaluations of Parameterized Post Newtonian (PPN) parameter γ. Lunar Laser Ranging can be used to estimate PPN parameter β, as well as test possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant. Satellite Laser Ranging can be used to evaluate frame dragging. New applications using SLR data recently have attempted to estimate γ and β directly. These different space geodesy techniques and their potential to evaluate GRT will be affected positively by the development of the Global Geodetic Observing System. It was found that if improvements in VLBI estimates are extrapolated to 2020, results will equal that of γ estimates obtained by radiometric tracking data of the Cassini spacecraft on its approach to Saturn (the best estimate to date) but with a more robust error budget.

  12. The Software Correlator of the Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Weimin; Quan, Ying; Shu, Fengchun; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Weihua; Wang, Guangli

    2010-01-01

    The software correlator of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) has played an irreplaceable role in the CVN routine data processing, e.g., in the Chinese lunar exploration project. This correlator will be upgraded to process geodetic and astronomical observation data. In the future, with several new stations joining the network, CVN will carry out crustal movement observations, quick UT1 measurements, astrophysical observations, and deep space exploration activities. For the geodetic or astronomical observations, we need a wide-band 10-station correlator. For spacecraft tracking, a realtime and highly reliable correlator is essential. To meet the scientific and navigation requirements of CVN, two parallel software correlators in the multiprocessor environments are under development. A high speed, 10-station prototype correlator using the mixed Pthreads and MPI (Massage Passing Interface) parallel algorithm on a computer cluster platform is being developed. Another real-time software correlator for spacecraft tracking adopts the thread-parallel technology, and it runs on the SMP (Symmetric Multiple Processor) servers. Both correlators have the characteristic of flexible structure and scalability.

  13. The celestial reference frame defined by VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    VLBI currently produces the most accurate positions of celestial objects. From 1979 to 1987, 114 extragalactic radio sources have been observed with dual-frequency Mark III VLBI as part of the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project and the NGS POLARIS/IRIS program. The formal statistical errors of conventional celestial coordinates are as small as 0.3 milliarcseconds. The fundamental quantity measured by VLBI is the arc length between radio sources. Thus, it is suggested that VLBI be used to establish a coordinate reference frame based solely on radio positions, and that this system not necessarily be coupled to right ascension and declination.

  14. JPL VLBI Analysis Center Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI Analysis Center for the year 2012. The highlight of the year was the successful MSL rover Mars landing, which was supported by VLBI-based navigation using our combined spacecraft, celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, earth orientation, and planetary ephemeris VLBI systems. We also supported several other missions with VLBI navigation measurements. A combined NASA-ESA network was demonstrated with first Ka-band fringes to ESA's Malargue, Argentina 35 m. We achieved first fringes with our new digital back end and Mark 5C recorders.

  15. The effect of meteorological data on atmospheric pressure loading corrections in VLBI data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Lu, Cuixian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Earth's crustal deformation is a manifestation of numerous geophysical processes, which entail the atmosphere and ocean general circulation and tidal attraction, climate change, and the hydrological circle. The present study deals with the elastic deformations induced by atmospheric pressure variations. At geodetic sites, APL (Atmospheric Pressure Loading) results in displacements covering a wide range of temporal scales which is undesirable when rigorous geodetic/geophysical analysis is intended. Hence, it is of paramount importance that the APL signal are removed at the observation level in the space geodetic data analysis. In this study, elastic non-tidal components of loading displacements were calculated in the local topocentric frame for all VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) stations with respect to the center-of-figure of the solid Earth surface and the center-of-mass of the total Earth system. The response of the Earth to the load variation at the surface was computed by convolving Farrell Green's function with the homogenized in situ surface pressure observations (in the time span 1979-2014) after the subtraction of the reference pressure and the S1, S2 and S3 thermal tidal signals. The reference pressure was calculated through a hypsometric adjustment of the absolute pressure level determined from World Meteorological Organization stations in the vicinity of each VLBI observatory. The tidal contribution was calculated following the 2010 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service conventions. Afterwards, this approach was implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ and the entirety of available VLBI sessions was analyzed. We rationalize our new approach on the basis that the potential error budget is substantially reduced, since several common errors are not applicable in our approach, e.g. those due to the finite resolution of NWM (Numerical Weather Models), the accuracy of the orography model necessary for adjusting the former as

  16. Applying Kalman filtering to investigate tropospheric effects in VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Cuixian; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    account the errors due to the atomic clocks at the stations, the troposphere, and white noise processes. The simulated data as well as actual observational data from the two-week CONT11 campaign are analyzed using the Kalman filter, focusing on the tropospheric effects. The results of the different strategies are compared with solutions applying the classical least-squares method. An advantage of the Kalman filter is the possibility of easily integrating additional external information. It is expected that by including tropospheric delays from GNSS, water vapor radiometers, or ray-traced delays from numerical weather prediction models, the accuracy of the VLBI solution could be improved.

  17. The African VLBI network project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The AVN is one of the most significant vehicles through which capacity development in Africa for SKA participation will be realized. It is a forerunner to the long baseline Phase 2 component of the mid-frequency SKA. Besides the 26m HartRAO telescope in South Africa, Ghana is expected to be the first to establish a VLBI-capable telescope through conversion of a redundant 32m telecommunications system near Accra. The most widely used receivers in the EVN are L-band and C-band (5 GHz). L-band is divided into a low band around the hydrogen (HI) line frequency of 1420 MHz, and a high band covering the hydroxyl line frequencies of 1612-1720 MHz. The high band is much more commonly used for VLBI as it provides more bandwidth. For the AVN, the methanol maser line at 6668 MHz is a key target for the initial receiver and the related 12178MHz methanol maser line also seen in star-forming regions a potential future Ku-band receiver. In the potential future band around 22GHz(K-band), water masers in star-forming regions and meg-maser galaxies at 22.235 GHz are targets, as are other radio continuum sources such as AGNs. The AVN system will include 5GHz and 6.668GHz receiver systems with recommendation to partner countries that the first upgrade should be L-band receivers. The original satellite telecommunications feed horns cover 3.8 - 6.4 GHz and should work at 5 GHz and operation at 6.668 GHz for the methanol maser is yet to be verified. The first light science will be conducted in the 6.7 GHz methanol maser band. Telescopes developed for the AVN will initially join other global networks for VLBI. When at least four VLBI-capable telescopes are operational on the continent, it will be possible to initiate stand-alone AVN VLBI. Each country where an AVN telescope becomes operational will have its own single-dish observing program. Capacity building to run an observatory includes the establishment of competent core essential observatory staff in partner countries who can train

  18. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  19. SAI VLBI Analysis Center Report 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zharov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the SAI VLBI Analysis Center activities during 2012 and the plans for 2013. The SAI AC analyzes all IVS sessions for computations of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) and time series of the ICRF source positions and performs research and software development aimed at improving the VLBI technique.

  20. VLBI clock synchronization. [for atomic clock rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The potential accuracy of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) for clock epoch and rate comparisons was demonstrated by results from long- and short-baseline experiments. It was found that atomic clocks at widely separated sites (several thousand kilometers apart) can be synchronized to within several nanoseconds from a few minutes of VLBI observations and to within one nanosecond from several hours of observations.

  1. Geodetic measurement of deformation in California. Ph.D. Thesis - Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements made in the western U.S. since 1979 as part of the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project provide discrete samples of the temporal and spatial deformation field. The interpretation of the VLBI-derived rates of deformation requires an examination of geologic information and more densely sampled ground-based geodetic data. In the first two of three related studies, triangulation and trilateration data measured on two regional networks, one in the central Mojave Desert and one in the Coast Ranges east of the San Andreas fault, have been processed. At the spatial scales spanned by these local geodetic networks, auxiliary geologic and geophysical data have been utilized to examine the relation between measured incremental strain and the accommodation of strain seen in local geological structures, strain release in earthquakes, and principal stress directions inferred from in situ measurements. In a third study, the geocentric position vectors from a set of 77 VLBI experiments beginning in October 1982 have been used to estimate the tangential rate of change of station positions in the western U.S. in a North-America-Fixed reference frame.

  2. VERA Geodetic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Shizugami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geodetic activities of VERA in the year 2012. The regular geodetic observations are carried out both in K- and S/X-bands. The frequency of regular observations is three times a month-twice for the VERA internal observations in K-band. The networks of the S/X sessions are JADE of GSI and IVS-T2. The raw data of the T2 and JADE sessions are electronically transferred to the Bonn, Haystack, and GSI correlators via Internet. Gravimetric observations are carried out at the VERA stations. An SG was installed at Mizusawa and placed in the vicinity of the VERA antenna in order to monitor vertical displacement at the end of 2008, and the observations continued throughout the year. Also at the VERA-Ishigakijima station, continuous operation of the SG started in 2012. The crustal movements generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku continued during 2012, and displacement of the VERA-Mizusawa position by post-seismic creeping continued.

  3. COLD MAGICS - Continuous Local Deformation Monitoring of an Arctic Geodetic Fundamental Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Bergstrand, Sten

    2010-01-01

    We describe the experience gained in a project to continuously monitor the local tie at the Geodetic Observatory Ny-Alesund. A PC-controlled robotic total station was used to monitor survey prisms that were attached to survey pillars of the local network and the monuments used for geodetic VLBI and GNSS measurements. The monitoring lasted for seven days and had a temporal resolution of six minutes. The raw angle and distance measurements show clear sinusoidal signatures with a daily period, most strongly for a four-day period with 24 hours of sunshine. The derived topocentric coordinates of the survey prisms attached to the GNSS monument and the VLBI radio telescope act as approximation for the local tie. We detect clear signatures at the mm-level. With the current approach we cannot distinguish between real motion of the prisms and potential thermal influences on the instrument used for the observations. However, the project shows that continuous local tie monitoring is feasible today and in the future can and should be used for all geodetic co-location stations.

  4. Homogenization of atmospheric pressure time series recorded at VLBI stations using a segmentation LASSO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Lu, Cuixian; Soja, Benedikt; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Time series of meteorological parameters recorded at VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observatories allow us to realistically model and consequently to eliminate the atmosphere-induced effects in the VLBI products to a large extent. Nevertheless, this advantage of VLBI is not fully exploited since such information is contaminated with inconsistencies, such as uncertainties regarding the calibration and location of the meteorological sensors, outliers, missing data points, and breaks. It has been shown that such inconsistencies in meteorological data used for VLBI data analysis impose problems in the geodetic products (e.g vertical site position) and result in mistakes in geophysical interpretation. The aim of the procedure followed here is to optimally model the tropospheric delay and bending effects that are still the main sources of error in VLBI data analysis. In this study, the meteorological data recorded with sensors mounted in the vicinity of VLBI stations have been homogenized spanning the period from 1979 until today. In order to meet this objective, inhomogeneities were detected and adjusted using test results and metadata. Some of the approaches employed include Alexandersson's Standard Normal Homogeneity Test and an iterative procedure, of which the segmentation part is based on a dynamic programming algorithm and the functional part on a LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) estimator procedure. For the provision of reference time series that are necessary to apply the aforementioned methods, ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis surface data were employed. Special care was taken regarding the datum definition of this model. Due to the significant height difference between the VLBI antenna's reference point and the elevation included in geopotential fields of the specific numerical weather models, a hypsometric adjustment is applied using the absolute pressure level from the WMO

  5. Efficient transformations from geodetic to UTM coordinate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.

    1996-08-07

    The problem of efficiently performing transformations from geocentric to geodetic coordinates has been addressed at previous DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation) workshops. This paper extends the work presented at the 14th DIS Workshop. As a consequence of the new algorithm for geocentric to geodetic coordinate conversion, a subsequent conversion to Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates is made considerably more efficient. No additional trigonometric or square root evaluations are required and accuracy is not degraded.

  6. Geodetic and Astrometric Measurements with Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry. Ph.D. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations for the estimation of geodetic and astrometric parameters is discussed. Analytic models for the dependence of delay and delay rate on these parameters are developed and used for parameter estimation by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented from approximately 15,000 delay and delay-rate observations, obtained in a series of nineteen VLBI experiments involving a total of five stations on two continents. The closure of baseline triangles is investigated and found to be consistent with the scatter of the various baseline-component results. Estimates are made of the wobble of the earth's pole and of the irregularities in the earth's rotation rate. Estimates are also made of the precession constant and of the vertical Love number, for which a value of 0.55 + or - 0.05 was obtained.

  7. Analysis of space geodetic measurements for studying the dynamics of the solid Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an unprecedented improvement in both the accuracy and the temporal resolution of Earth rotation measurements. Determination of the position of the Earth's rotation axis both in inertial space and with respect to the crust with accuracies of about 0.3 milliarcseconds (mas) are now routine. In recent years, there has been an emphasis on the determination of short-period (daily and less) variations in Earth rotation. Two space based geodetic systems, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and the global positioning system (GPS) have proved to be very successful in this endeavor. Results for the tidally coherent part of the subdaily Earth rotation variations determined from the analysis of VLBI data are discussed. The magnitude of other subdaily variations are also considered.

  8. The "Quasar" Network Observations in e-VLBI Mode Within the Russian Domestic VLBI Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Kaidanovsky, Michael; Bezrukov, Ilia; Mikhailov, Andrey; Salnikov, Alexander; Surkis, Igor; Skurikhina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Russian VLBI "Quasar" Network is to carry out astrometrical and geodynamical investigations. Since 2006 purely domestic observational programs with data processing at the IAA correlator have been carried out. To maintain these geodynamical programs e-VLBI technology is being developed and tested. This paper describes the IAA activity of developing a real-time VLBI system using high-speed digital communication links.

  9. VLBI2010 in NASA's Space Geodesy Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 20 11 NASA approved the proposal for the Space Geodesy Project (SGP). A major element is developing at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory a prototype of the next generation of integrated stations with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS instruments as well as a system for monitoring the vector ties. VLBI2010 is a key component of the integrated station. The objectives ofSGP, the role of VLBI20 lOin the context of SGP, near term plans and possible future scenarios will be discussed.

  10. Influence of ocean tides on the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation variations from VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, V. S.; Kurdubov, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The International astrogeodetic standard IERS Conventions (2010) contains a model of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), the pole coordinates and the Universal Time, arising from lunisolar tides in the world ocean. This model was constructed in the mid-1990s through a global analysis of Topex/Poseidon altimetry. The goal of this study is to try to estimate the parameters of this model by processing all the available VLBI observations on a global network of stations over the last 35 years performed within the framework of IVS (International VLBI Service) geodetic programs. The complexity of the problemlies in the fact that the sought-for corrections to the parameters of this model lie within 1 mm and, thus, are at the limit of their detectability by all currently available methods of ground-based positional measurements. This requires applying universal software packages with a high accuracy of reduction calculations and a well-developed system of controlling the simultaneous adjustment of observational data to analyze long series of VLBI observations. This study has been performed with the QUASAR software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Although the results obtained, on the whole, confirm a high accuracy of the basic model in the IERS Conventions (2010), statistically significant corrections that allow this model to be refined have been detected for some harmonics of the ERP variations.

  11. The Tropospheric Products of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Schwatke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The IVS runs two tropospheric products: The IVS tropospheric parameter rapid combination monitors the zenith wet delay (ZWD) and zenith total delay (ZTD) of the rapid turnaround sessions R1 and R4. Goal of the combination is the identification and the exclusion of outliers by comparison and the assessment of the precision of current VLBI solutions in terms of tropospheric parameters. The rapid combination is done on a weekly basis four weeks after the observation files are released on IVS Data Centers. Since tropospheric and geodetic parameters, such as vertical station components, can significantly correlate, the consistency of the ZTD can be a measure of the consistency of the corresponding TRF as well. The ZWD mainly rely on accurate atmospheric pressure data. Thus, besides estimation techniques, modeling and analyst s noise, ZWD reflects differences in the atmospheric pressure data applied to the VLBI analysis. The second product, called tropospheric parameter long-term combination, aims for an accurate determination of climatological signals, such as trends of the atmospheric water vapor observed by VLBI. Therefore, the long-term homogeneity of atmospheric pressure data plays a crucial role for this product. The paper reviews the methods applied and results achieved so far and describes the new maintenance through DGFI.

  12. High Frequency Variability In Earth Rotation From VLBI And GNSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englich, S.; Snajdrova, K.; Weber, R.; Schuh, H.

    2006-08-01

    High resolution Earth Rotation Parameter time series are derived from VLBI and GNSS observation data for a period of four months (Jul. 3^rd - Oct. 29^th, 2005). Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP), i.e. polar motion and lod are computed from GPS observation data with hourly resolution using the Bernese GPS Software. For this purpose a subset of 79 fairly stable stations out of the IGb00 reference frame sites were selected. To gather a comparable time series from VLBI data routine VLBI campaigns as well as the continuous observation campaign CONT05 are processed by means of the OCCAM software. All computations are performed with respect to the IAU2000 nutation model. Both software packages allow to choose between two different a priori models for the effect of oceanic tides on polar motion and lod/dUT1 - the Ray model and the Eanes model (according to IERS Conventions 1996 and 2003, respectively). In order to analyze the resulting residuals to the specific model we generate two separate series for each technique. The primarily subtracted models are then re-applied to the ERP estimates to study diurnal and subdiurnal tidal variations. From these ERP time series frequencies and amplitudes are estimated using spectral analysis. From the remaining series (after correction for ocean tides) the geodetic excitation is calculated and compared with atmospheric excitation (AAM) provided by the NCEP.

  13. Direct estimation of tidally induced Earth rotation variations observed by VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englich, S.; Heinkelmann, R.; BOHM, J.; Schuh, H.

    2009-09-01

    The subject of our study is the investigation of periodical variations induced by solid Earth tides and ocean tides in Earth rotation parameters (ERP: polar motion, UT1)observed by VLBI. There are two strategies to determine the amplitudes and phases of Earth rotation variations from observations of space geodetic techniques. The common way is to derive time series of Earth rotation parameters first and to estimate amplitudes and phases in a second step. Results obtained by this means were shown in previous studies for zonal tidal variations (Englich et al.; 2008a) and variations caused by ocean tides (Englich et al.; 2008b). The alternative method is to estimate the tidal parameters directly within the VLBI data analysis procedure together with other parameters such as station coordinates, tropospheric delays, clocks etc. The purpose of this work was the application of this direct method to a combined VLBI data analysis using the software packages OCCAM (Version 6.1, Gauss-Markov-Model) and DOGSCS (Gerstl et al.; 2001). The theoretical basis and the preparatory steps for the implementation of this approach are presented here.

  14. Earth Rotation Parameters from DSN VLBI: 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steppe, J. A.; Oliveau, S. H.; Sovers, O. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, Earth Rotation Parameter (ERP) estimates ahve been obtained from an analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) VLBI data that directly aligns its celestial and terrestrial reference frames with those of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS).

  15. Earth rotation parameters from DSN VLBI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steppe, J. A.; Oliveau, S. H.; Sovers, O. J.

    1989-06-01

    Earth rotation parameter (ERP) estimates that directly account for tectonic plate motions and for corrections to precession and nutation have been obtained from analysis of Deep Space Network (DSN) VLBI data.

  16. Kashima and Koganei 11-m VLBI Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Two 11-m VLBI antennas at Kashima and Koganei are continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). This report summarizes the status of these antennas, the staff, and the activities in 2012.

  17. VLBI survey at 2. 29 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Morabito, D.D.; Williams, J.G.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1985-09-01

    VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz with fringe spacings of about 3 milliarcsec have been performed on 1398 radio sources spread over the entire sky. 917 sources were detected, including 93 percent of the identified BL Lacertae objects, 86 percent of the quasars, and 36 percent of the galaxies. The resulting catalog of compact radio sources is useful for various astrophysical studies and in the formation of VLBI celestial reference frames. 252 references.

  18. e-VLBI Development at Haystack Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alan

    Haystack Observatory continues an aggressive program of e-VLBI development, particularly with respect to the use of public (shared) high-speed networds for data transfer. Much of 2002 was spent preparing for a Gbps e-VLBI demonstration experiment using antennas at Westford, MA and Greenbelt, MD; this experiment was succcesully conducted using both near-real-time and real-time data transfers to the Mark 4 correlator at Haystack Observatory, though correlation was not done in real time. In early 2003 a dedicated e-VLBI Gigabit-Ethernet wavelength was establisted between Haystack Observatory and MIT Lincoln Laboratory, giving Haystack easy access to the high-speed Abilene network in the U.S. Also in October 2002, preliminary e-VLBI experiments were conducted between Westford, MA and Kashima, Japan; this set of experiments is continuing with increasing data-rate transfers. These experiments use the Mark 5 system at Westford and the K5 system at Kashima; data is transferred in both directions and correlated at both sites. Preparations are now underway to begin e-VLBI transfers from Wettzell, Germany and Kokee Park, Kauaii for routine daily observation of UT1. Haystack Observatory has recently been awarded a 3-year grant the the National Science Foundation for the development of new IP protocols specifically tailored for e-VLBI and similar applications.

  19. Results of the Huygens VLBI experiment and outlook for VLBI support for future missions to outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, Leonid; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Avruch, I. M.; Huygens VLBI Team

    Very Long Baseline Interferomtery (VLBI), a radio astronomy technique that offers the highest angular resolution and sensitivity, has progressed rapidly over the last years. It offers now a sub-kilometre-scale accuracy of position determination for weak transmitters at the distance of up to ten AU with minimal requirements for the composition of on-board instrumentation. Being combined with other advanced tracking techniques (such as DeltaDOR and two-way Doppler measurements), it brings about a possibility to conduct a variety of planetary science experiments with unprecedented accuracy. The VLBI technique was demonstrated for the Huygens Probe during its descent in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan. Results of this experiment - the Probe descent trajectory reconstruction and diagnostics of the parachute motion - will be presented. Similar experiments are being considered for a number of prospective planetary missions under the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. In this review presentation we will discuss the basic principles of VLBI tracking of planetary missions and major specifications for the on-board and Earth-based segments of VLBI tracking experiments. We will also describe several potential applications of this technique for various experiments in the interest of atmosphere physics, geodynamics and other planetary science disciplines. Another attractive potential of the technique links it with the general mission support as an efficient diagnostic and navigation tool. In addition, Earth-based radio astronomy arrays might be considered as a receiving element for Direct-to-Earth transmission of mission-critical information from low-power planetary mission transmitters.

  20. Designing a Global Geodetic Network to Support GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Ries, J. C.; MacMillan, D. S.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.; Ma, C.; Rowlands, D. D.

    2007-12-01

    Space geodesy is entrusted with the establishment and maintenance of reference frames that are widely used by the scientific and other user communities. Over the past decade, the burden of this task was primarily carried by the services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), led by IERS--the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. The new IAG initiative, the Global Geodetic Observing System--GGOS, places the utmost importance on the development, maintenance and wide distribution of an International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) of high accuracy and stability. At present, the goal is the definition of the origin accurate to 1 mm or better (at epoch) and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. The stability, integrity and applicability of the ITRF are directly related to how accurately we can account for mass redistribution during the analysis and reduction process of the data used for its development. Long wavelength variations of the gravity field driven by these mass redistributions produce geometric effects that are manifested as changes in the origin and orientation between the instantaneous and the mean reference frame. An uneven distribution of the stations that realize the ITRF on the globe generates biases and distortions in the combined product due to the dissimilarity of the combined networks and the de facto lopsided overlap of the combined networks. The poor geometry of the constituent networks results in increased correlations between the similarity transformation parameters, and they thus lead to biased and unstable results. The currently existing networks do not support high accuracy products and it is widely accepted that they are urgently in need of serious modernization and resource redistribution. Using simulations of geodetic data that we expect to collect with the future geodetic networks (SLR and VLBI), we provide preliminary options for

  1. Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-09-01

    The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20^m rather than to 18^m as currently planned for the GCRF--ICRF link. In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  2. An Evaluation of VLBI Observations for the Precise Positioning of the NOZOMI Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryuichi, I.; Mamoru, S.; Hiroo, O.; Yasuhiro, K.; Tetsuro, K.; Takafumi, O.; Makoto, Y.; Nozomi Dvlbi Group,.

    2003-12-01

    We performed more than 30 VLBI experiments for the NOZOMI spacecraft navigation from September 2002 until July 2003. NOZOMI, which means ``Hope'' in Japanese, is the Japan's first Mars probe developed and launched by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). NOZOMI was originally scheduled to reach its destination in October 1999. However, NOZOMI had to be forced to make extra maneuver due to malfunction of a thruster valve during the powered earth swing-by. As a result, it was found that NOZOMI no longer had enough fuel to inject itself into its scheduled orbit on arrival at Mars. Fortunately, the ISAS mission analysis team succeeded to reschedule its flight plan to meet both fuel and observation conditions. According to the new trajectory strategy, NOZOMI's arrival at Mars is scheduled in the middle of December 2003 through two additional earth swingbys in December 2002 and June 2003. Our main concern was to determine the NOZOMI orbit just before the second earth swingby on June 19, 2003. It was significantly important to get the timing to maneuver the NOZOMI before the swingby. ISAS scientists were afraid that the range and range rate (R&RR) orbit determination might not be available because it was difficult to point the high-gain antenna mounted the spacecraft toward the earth during the period between two swingby events. So we started to support the orbit determination of the NOZOMI using differential VLBI technique since September 2002. These VLBI experiments are also aimed to establish the positioning technology for the interplanetary spacecrafts in realtime. We use nine VLBI antennas in Japan to carry out the VLBI experiments at X-band. Algonquin 46-m of the Space Geodynamics Laboratory (SGL) of CRESTech also participated in the several experiments. We equipped the state of the art ``K5 VLBI system'' to these stations. The K5 system is the multiple PC-based VLBI system equipped with a specific PCI-bus board on the FreeBSD and Linux operating

  3. DSN Network e-VLBI Calibration of Earth Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Liwei Dennis; Steppe, A.; Lanyi, G.; Jacobs, C.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the calibration of the Earth's orientation by using the Deep Space Network (DSN) e Very Large Base Integration (VLBI). The topics include: 1) Background: TEMPO; 2) Background: UT1 Knowledge Error; 3) e-VLBI: WVSR TEMPO Overview; 4) e-VLBI: WVSR TEMPO Turnaround; 5) e-VLBI: WVSR TEMPO R&D Tests; and 6) WVSR TEMPO Test Conclusion.

  4. Southern Hemisphere Observations Towards the Accurate Alignment of the VLBI Frame and the Future Gaia Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; Quick, Jonathan; Bertarini, Alessandra; Ploetz, Christian; Bourda, Géraldine; Charlot, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    The Gaia space astrometry mission to be launched on 19 December 2013 will construct for the first time a dense and highly-accurate extragalactic reference frame directly at optical wavelengths based on positions of thousands of QSOs. For consistency with the present International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from VLBI data, it will be essential that the Gaia frame be aligned onto the ICRF with the highest possible accuracy. To this end, a VLBI observing program dedicated to identifying the most suitable radio sources for this alignment has been initiated using the VLBA and the EVN. In addition, VLBI observations of suitable ICRF2 sources are being strengthened using the IVS network, leading to a total of 314 link sources. The purpose of this proposal is to extend such observing programs to the southern hemisphere since the distribution of the present link sources is very sparse south of -30 degree declination due to the geographical location of the VLBI arrays used for this project. As a first stage, we propose to observe 48 optically-bright radio sources in the far south using the LBA supplemented with the antennas of Warkworth (New Zeland) and O'Higgins (Antartica). Our goal is to image these potential link sources and determine those that are the most point-like on VLBI scales and therefore suitable for the Gaia-ICRF alignment. We anticipate that further observations may be necessary in the future to extend the sample and refine the astrometry of these sources.

  5. US Space VLBI Proposed Outreach Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The study of how VLBI might be pursued in space began in the late 1970's, when it was realized that the size of the earth was a serious limitation to the study of compact radio sources. By going to space, achieving angular resolution at radio wavelengths that could not be obtained with VLBI systems that were limited by the size of the earth, important tests could not be made of quasar models. The technology appeared to be within reach, and an early space VLBI concept, QUASAT, emerged as a joint project, involving both US and European scientists. In 1984, a workshop was held in Gross Enzerdorf, Austria, under joint sponsorship of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The principal conclusion of the workshop was that a VLBI station in space, telemetering its data to ground data stations, working in connection with ground-based radio telescopes, would give the opportunity to achieve angular resolution of a few tens of micro-arc-seconds, and could develop high-quality radio maps of many classes of radio sources. The ground telemetry stations would also function as the source of a stable local oscillator for the spacecraft, which needs a highly stable frequency reference. The Deep Space Network of NASA could play a vital role in both the frequency-locking system and data acquisition. One outcome of the Gross Enzerdorf workshop was the convening, by COSPAR, of an ad hoc Committee on Space VLBI, to review and recommend procedures by which international collaboration on VLBI in space might be coordinated and promoted. In October 1985, the committee met in Budapest and recommended that the Inter-Agency Consultative Group (IACG) would be an appropriate body to coordinate VLBI activities in space. At the same time ESA convened a committee to explore the technical aspects of coordinating ground and space VLBI activities. At this stage both NASA and ESA were supporting preliminary studies of the QUASAT mission, with effective coordination between the two groups. The Soviet

  6. Mobile radio interferometric geodetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.; Niell, A. E.; Ong, K. M.; Resch, G. M.; Morabito, D. D.; Claflin, E. S.; Lockhart, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of the Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying (ARIES) in a proof of concept mode is discussed. Accuracy demonstrations over a short baseline, a 180 km baseline, and a 380 km baseline are documented. Use of ARIES in the Sea Slope Experiment of the National Geodetic Survey to study the apparent differences between oceanographic and geodetic leveling determinations of the sea surface along the Pacific Coast is described. Intergration of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System and a concept called SERIES (Satellite Emission Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) is briefly reviewed.

  7. Six-hourly time series of horizontal troposphere gradients in VLBI analyis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landskron, Daniel; Hofmeister, Armin; Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Consideration of horizontal gradients is indispensable for high-precision VLBI and GNSS analysis. As a rule of thumb, all observations below 15 degrees elevation need to be corrected for the influence of azimuthal asymmetry on the delay times, which is mainly a product of the non-spherical shape of the atmosphere and ever-changing weather conditions. Based on the well-known gradient estimation model by Chen and Herring (1997), we developed an augmented gradient model with additional parameters which are determined from ray-traced delays for the complete history of VLBI observations. As input to the ray-tracer, we used operational and re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Finally, we applied those a priori gradient parameters to VLBI analysis along with other empirical gradient models and assessed their impact on baseline length repeatabilities as well as on celestial and terrestrial reference frames.

  8. Tropospheric Delay Raytracing Applied in VLBI Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Eriksson, D.; Gipson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric delay modeling error continues to be one of the largest sources of error in VLBI analysis. For standard operational solutions, we use the VMF1 elevation-dependent mapping functions derived from ECMWF data. These mapping functions assume that tropospheric delay at a site is azimuthally symmetric. As this assumption does not reflect reality, we have determined the raytrace delay along the signal path through the troposphere for each VLBI quasar observation. We determined the troposphere refractivity fields from the pressure, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential height fields of the NASA GSFC GEOS-5 numerical weather model. We discuss results from analysis of the CONT11 R&D and the weekly operational R1+R4 experiment sessions. When applied in VLBI analysis, baseline length repeatabilities were better for 66-72% of baselines with raytraced delays than with VMF1 mapping functions. Vertical repeatabilities were better for 65% of sites.

  9. Global and regional kinematics with VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    1994-01-01

    Since a VLBI station cannot operate in isolation and since simultaneous operation of the entire VLBI network is impractical, it is necessary to design observing programs with periodic observing sessions using networks of 3-7 stations that, when treated together, will have the necessary interstation data and network overlaps to determine the desired rates of change. Thus, there has been a mix of global, intercontinental, transcontinental, and regional networks to make measurements ranging from plate motions to deformation over a few hundred km. Over time, even networks focusing on regional deformation using mobile VLBI included large stations removed by several thousand km to increase sensitivity, determine EOP more accurately, and provide better ties to the terrestrial reference frame (TRF). Analysis products have also evolved, beginning with baseline components, and then to full three-dimensional site velocities in a global TRF.

  10. Postseismic Transient after the 2002 Denali Fault Earthquake from VLBI Measurements at Fairbanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMillan, Daniel; Cohen, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The VLBI antenna (GILCREEK) at Fairbanks, Alaska observes in networks routinely twice a week with operational networks and on additional days with other networks on a more uneven basis. The Fairbanks antenna position is about 150 km north of the Denali fault and from the earthquake epicenter. We examine the transient behavior of the estimated VLBI position during the year following the earthquake to determine how the rate of change of postseismic deformation has changed. This is compared with what is seen in the GPS site position series.

  11. Establishing a celestial VLBI reference frame. 1: Searching for VLBI sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Williams, J. G.; Slade, M. A.; Harris, A. W.; Finley, S. G.; Skjerve, L. J.; Tanida, L.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Johnson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is currently engaged in establishing a new high-accuracy VLBI celestial reference frame. The present status of the task of finding suitable celestial radio sources for constructing this reference frame is discussed. To date, 564 VLBI sources were detected, with 166 of these lying within 10 deg of the ecliptic plane. The variation of the sky distribution of these sources with source strength is examined.

  12. Analysis of Regional Deformations In Asia and North America Using Vlbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, C.; Luk, P. H.; Shum, C. K.

    Based on the NASA VLBI global solutions glb1123 (Ma, 1999) and glb2001(Ma, 2001), the vertical deformation rates (VDR) of the Kashima and Kashima34 VLBI stations in Japan were re-analysed using the rates of baseline length change from Kashima to 27 global VLBI stations, and from Kashima34 to 12 stations. The velocity vectors of the global VLBI stations were referenced to different ITRFs, i.e., ITRF96, ITRF97 and ITRF2000 for solution sensitivity studies. Using the Eulerian vectors (Sil- laed et al., 1998, Zhang et al., 1999) and based on NNR-NUVEL-1A, the correspond- ing horizontal deformation rates (HDR) of these two stations were also computed and analyzed. The VDR of Kashima34 relative to Kashima is estimated to be -4.2 +/- 0.7 mm/year, and the corresponding HDR of these two stations is 0.9 +/- 0.7 mm/year with AZ at 351.9 +/- 34.2 degrees. To validate the estimated relative deformation rates obtained above, baseline rates of the Kashima and Kashima34 stations relative to 9 common global VLBI stations, and baseline rates relative to 10 stations (9 stations plus Mojave12) have been determined to show that the similar conclusions have been reached. The 9 stations are DSS45 (Tidbinbilla, Australia), Hobert26 (Tasmania, Aus- tralia), Fairbanks (Gilmore Creek, Alaska, USA), Westford (USA), Hartebeesthoek (South Africa), Kauai (Hawaii, USA), Matera (Italy), Seshan25 (Shanghai, China), and Wettzell (Germany); and the additional station used is Mojave12 (USA). We have obtained the averaged relative VDR and HDR between the two stations separated by 300 m as -3.8 +/- 0.8 mm/year, 1.4 +/- 0.8 mm/year with AZ at 336.2 +/- 28.6 de- grees. In addition, the deformation rate of Shanghai, San Francisco, Yuma, Mojave12 and SC-VLBA station regional baselines are analyzed using a similar method and re- sults discussed. In conclusion, the rates of VLBI baseline lengths can be used to accu- rately determine the regional to fine-scale baseline deformations using existing VLBI

  13. Orbit determination of Tance-1 satellite using VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Hu, X. G.; Huang, C.; Jiang, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    On 30 December, 2003, China successfully launched the first satellite Tance-1 of Chinese Geospace Double Star Exploration Program, i.e. "Double Star Program (DSP)", on an improved Long March 2C launch vehicle. The Tance-1 satellite is operating at an orbit around the earth with a 550km perigee, 78000km apogee and 28.5 degree inclination.VLBI technique can track Tance-1 satellite or even far satellites such as lunar vehicles. To validate the VLBI technique in the on-going Chinese lunar exploration mission, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) organized to track the Tance-1 satellite with Chinese three VLBI stations: Shanghai, Kunming and Urumchi Orbit Determination (OD) of the Tance-1 satellite with about two days VLBI dada, and the capability of OD with VLBI data are studied. The results show that the VLBI-based orbit solutions improve the fit level over the initial orbit. The VLBI-delay-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay data is about 5.5m, and about 2.0cm/s for the withheld VLBI delay rate data. The VLBI-delay-rate-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay rate data is about 1.3cm/s, and about 29m for the withheld VLBI delay data. In the situation of orbit determination with VLBI delay and delay rate data with data sigma 5.5m and 1.3cm/s respectively, the RMS of residuals are 5.5,m and 2.0cm/s respectively. The simulation data assess the performance of the solutions. Considering the dynamic model errors of the Tance-1 satellite, the accuracy of the position is about km magnitude, and the accuracy of the velocity is about cm/s magnitude. The simulation work also show the dramatic accuracy improvement of OD with VLBI and USB combined.

  14. Vienna VLBI Software VieVS - Version 1 released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Lucia; Böhm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Spicakova, Hana; Teke, Kamil; Schuh, Harald

    2010-05-01

    A new VLBI data analysis software (called Vienna VLBI Software, VieVS) is developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics in Vienna. Recently, VieVS Version 1.0 was released and put at free scientific disposal via ftp for registered users. Written in Matlab, VieVS is characterized by a distinct source code, easy handling due to attractive graphical user interfaces, and implementation of the most recent IERS Conventions to the highest degree. VieVS is perfectly suitable for research work, as the many built-in tools in Matlab as well as its modular structure make it easy to expand and adopt the software for specific tasks. On the other hand the new software should attract people who have not been dealing with VLBI analysis before (e.g. students), since several conversion and plotting tools enable even less experienced users to achieve attractive results. While VieVS was made ready for outside users during the last year, the software was intensely tested and successfully endured comparisons with results of other analysis packages (Calc/Solve, Occam). Despite the completely new modelling strategy of VieVS, calculated values agree with those of Occam to the 1-2 mm level over 10 years before entering the least-squares adjustment. Another important feature is the parameterization and estimation of the variables as piece-wise linear offsets at integer hours. This is a giant step towards a coherent comparison and combination with other GGOS products. The poster outlines the performance, characteristics, and handling of the first release of VieVS. The basic workflow is depicted and features available at this time are shown. Additionally, we give an insight into most recent developments and future plans for this software.

  15. Earth Rotation Parameters from DSN VLBI: 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steppe, J. A.; Oliveau, S. H.; Sovers, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    A despcription of the DSN VLBI data set and of most aspects of the data analysis can be found in the IERS Technical Note 17, pp. R-19 to R-32 (see also IERS Technical Note 19, pp. R-21 to R-27). The main changes in this year's analysis form last year's are simply due to including another year's data.

  16. SOFTC: A Software Correlator for VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SOFTC is an advanced software implementation of a signal correlator for very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) for measuring positions of natural celestial objects and distant spacecraft. Because of increases in processing speeds of general-purpose computers, software VLBI correlators have become viable alternatives to hardware ones. The input to SOFTC consists of digitized samples of raw VLBI-antenna received- signal voltages. Optionally, SOFTC also tracks calibration tones superimposed on the received signals. The outputs of SOFTC are (1) phases and amplitudes as functions of time and frequency for cross-correlated received signals and (2) phases and amplitudes as functions of time, station, and tone number for the calibration tones. SOFTC was created to be as accurate as possible, capable of processing essentially any VLBI data, pass strong debugging tests, have a simple user interface, and have no platform dependencies. SOFTC is written modularly in the C programming language. The great advantage of implementing a correlator in software, in contradistinction to hardware, is that it becomes relatively easy and much less expensive and time-consuming to adapt, modify, improve, and update the correlator.

  17. The New Generation Russian VLBI Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Smolentsev, Sergey; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Fedotov, Leonid; Surkis, Igor; Ivanov, Dmitrij; Gayazov, Iskander

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new project of the Russian VLBI Network dedicated for Universal Time determinations in quasi on-line mode. The basic principles of the network design and location of antennas are explained. Variants of constructing receiving devices, digital data acquisition system, and phase calibration system are specially considered. The frequency ranges and expected values of noise temperature are given.

  18. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chet; Romney, Jon; Owens, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  19. Sheshan VLBI Station Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Bo; Shen, Zhiqiang; Hong, Xiaoyu; Fan, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the observing activities at the Sheshan station (SESHAN25) in 2012. It includes international VLBI observations for astrometry, geodesy, and astrophysics and domestic observations for satellite tracking. We also report on updates and on development of the facilities at the station.

  20. Ultra-rapid EOP determination with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Kurihara, Shinobu; Nozawa, Kentaro; Hobiger, Thomas; Lovell, Jim; McCallum, Jamie; Quick, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    In 2007 the Geospatial information Authority of Japan (GSI) and the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) started a project aiming at determining the earth rotation angle, usually expressed as dUT1, in near real-time. In the beginning of this project dedicated one hour long one-baseline experiments were observed periodically using the VLBI stations Onsala (Sweden) and Tsukuba (Japan). The strategy is that the observed VLBI-data are sent in real-time via the international optical fibre backbone to the VLBI-correlator at Tsukuba where the data are correlated and analyzed in near-real time, producing ultra-rapid dUT1 results. An offline version of this strategy has been adopted in 2009 for the regular VLBI intensive series INT-2 involving Wettzell (Germany) and Tsukuba. Since March 2010 the INT-2 is using real-time e-transfer, too, and since June 2010 also automated analysis. Starting in 2009 the ultra-rapid approach was applied to regular 24 hour long VLBI-sessions that involve Tsukuba and Onsala, so that ultra-rapid dUT1 results can be produced already during ongoing VLBI-sessions. This strategy was successfully operated during the 15 days long CONT11 campaign. In 2011 the ultra-rapid strategy was extended to involve a network of VLBI-stations, so that not only dUT1 but also the polar motion components can be determined in near real-time. Initially, in November 2011 a dedicated three-station session was observed involving Onsala, Tsukuba and Hobart (Tasmania, Australia). In 2012 several regular 24 hour long IVS-sessions that involved Onsala, Tsukuba and HartRAO (South Africa) were operated with the ultra-rapid strategy, and in several cases also Hobart was added as a fourth station. For this project we use the new analysis software c5++ developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). In this presentation we give an overview of the UREOP-project, describe the recent developments, and discuss the obtained results.

  1. Tracking of Mars Express and Venus Express spacecraft with VLBI radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Wagner, J.; Cimò, G.; Gurvits, L.; Duev, D.

    2010-12-01

    along the up- and down-link paths as seen from different VLBI stations through different Fresnel channels. We also demonstrated high accuracy S/C Doppler tracking with 3 EVN stations (Metsähovi, Wettzell and Yebes) during the MEX-Phobos flyby, which occurred on 2010 march 03. These multi-station observing sessions could help to better determine the Phobos gravity field and together with phase referencing provide additional geometrical constrains on the orbiter/Phobos trajectories. VEX S/C signal detection with four VLBI antennae (23/08/2010).

  2. Geodetic monitoring of tectonic deformation: Toward a strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Issues of interest and importance to society and science are presented. The problems considered are of national concern; their solutions may contribute to a better understanding of tectonic deformation and earthquake hazards. The need for additional field data, the role of geodetic measurements, the importance of both ground and space techniques, and the need for advanced instrumentation development are discussed.

  3. Model of atmospheric loading displacements for routine analysis of VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    Rigorous computation of the site displacements due to atmospheric loading, which can be as large as 20 mm for the vertical component and 3 mm for horizontal components, requires the knowledge of the surface pressure field over the entire Earth surface. We have developed a procedure for computing 3-D displacements for the geodetic sites of interests using 6-hourly pressure field with a spatial resolution of 2.5x2.5 degrees from NCEP Reanalysis. We have also estimated the error budget of our model. This procedure works inattendedly and updates the time series of the displacements caused by pressure loading within 3 hours upon update of the NCEP data. We have validated our model by estimating the admittance factors of the pressure loading time series using the data set of 3.5 millions of VLBI observations. These admittance factors can be interpreted as correlation coefficients between the true (unknown) site displacements and our model. The average admittance factors are 0.94 -+ 0.02 for vertical displacement and 0.95 -+ 0.07 for the horizontal displacements. For the first time horizontal displacements caused by atmospheric pressure loading have been detected. Closeness of these admittance factors to unity allows us to conclude that our model is adequate at the level of measurements noise. The impact of using our atmospheric pressure loading model on operational VLBI products is discussed.

  4. A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

  5. Single baseline GLONASS observations with VLBI: data processing and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornatore, V.; Haas, R.; Duev, D.; Pogrebenko, S.; Casey, S.; Molera Calvés, G.; Keimpema, A.

    2011-07-01

    Several tests to observe signals transmitted by GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) satellites have been performed using the geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique. The radio telescopes involved in these experiments were Medicina (Italy) and Onsala (Sweden), both equipped with L-band receivers. Observations at the stations were performed using the standard Mark4 VLBI data acquisition rack and Mark5A disk-based recorders. The goals of the observations were to develop and test the scheduling, signal acquisition and processing routines to verify the full tracking pipeline, foreseeing the cross-correlation of the recorded data on the baseline Onsala-Medicina. The natural radio source 3c286 was used as a calibrator before the starting of the satellite observation sessions. Delay models, including the tropospheric and ionospheric corrections, which are consistent for both far- and near-field sources are under development. Correlation of the calibrator signal has been performed using the DiFX software, while the satellite signals have been processed using the narrow band approach with the Metsaehovi software and analysed with a near-field delay model. Delay models both for the calibrator signals and the satellites signals, using the same geometrical, tropospheric and ionospheric models, are under investigation to make a correlation of the satellite signals possible.

  6. Determination of the local tie vector between the VLBI and GNSS reference points at Onsala using GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, T.; Haas, R.; Elgered, G.

    2015-07-01

    Two gimbal-mounted GNSS antennas were installed on each side of the radome-enclosed 20 m VLBI radio telescope at the Onsala Space Observatory. GPS data with a 1 Hz sampling rate were recorded for five semi-kinematic and four kinematic observing campaigns. These GPS data were analysed together with data from the IGS station ONSA with an in-house Matlab-based GPS software package, using the double-difference analysis strategy. The coordinates of the GNSS antennas on the telescope were estimated for different observation angles of the telescope, at specific epochs, and used to calculate the geodetic reference point of the telescope. The local tie vector between the VLBI and the ONSA GNSS reference points in a geocentric reference frame was hence obtained. The two different types of observing campaigns gave consistent results of the estimated local tie vector and the axis offset of the telescope. The estimated local tie vector obtained from all nine campaigns gave standard deviations of 1.5, 1.0, and 2.9 mm for the geocentric X, Y, and Z components, respectively. The result of the estimated axis offset of the VLBI telescope shows a difference of 0.3 mm, with a standard deviation of 1.9 mm, with respect to a reference value obtained by two local surveys carried out in 2002 and 2008. Our results show that the presented method can be used as a complement to the more accurate but more labour intensive classical geodetic surveys to continuously monitor the local tie at co-location stations with an accuracy of a few millimetres.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. VLBI height corrections due to gravitational deformation of antenna structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, P.; Negusini, M.; Abbondanza, C.; Petrov, L.

    2009-12-01

    From an analysis of regional European VLBI data we evaluate the impact of a VLBI signal path correction model developed to account for gravitational deformations of the antenna structures. The model was derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods applied to telescopes at Medicina and Noto in Italy. We find that the model corrections shift the derived height components of these VLBI telescopes' reference points downward by 14.5 and 12.2 mm, respectively. No other parameter estimates nor other station positions are affected. Such systematic height errors are much larger than the formal VLBI random errors and imply the possibility of significant VLBI frame scale distortions, of major concern for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and its applications. This demonstrates the urgent need to investigate gravitational deformations in other VLBI telescopes and eventually correct them in routine data analysis.

  9. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System - Progress Report of the IVS VLBI2010 Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Niell, Arthur; Behrend, Dirk; Corey, Brian; Boehm, Johannes; Chralot, Patrick; Collioud, Arnaud; Gipson, John; Haas, Ruediger; Hobiger, Thomas; Koyama, Yasuhiro; MacMillan, Dan; Malkin, Zinvoy; Nilsson, Tobias; Pany, Andrea; Tuccari, Gino; Whitney, Alan; Wresnik, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in developing the next generation VLBI system, dubbed the VLBI2010 system. The VLBI2010 Committee of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) worked on the design aspects of the new system. The report covers Monte Carlo simulations showing the impact of the new operating modes on the final products. A section on system considerations describes the implications for the VLBI2010 system parameters by considering the new modes and system-related issues such as sensitivity, antenna slew rate, delay measurement error. RF1, frequency requirements, antenna deformation, and source structure corrections_ This is followed by a description of all major subsystems and recommendations for the network, station. and antenna. Then aspects of the feed, polarization processing. calibration, digital back end, and correlator subsystems are covered. A section is dedicated to the NASA. proof-of-concept demonstration. Finally, sections tm operational considerations, on risks and fallback options, and on the next steps complete the report.

  10. Aligning VLBI and Gaia Extragalactic Celestial Reference Frames: source selection scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourda, Geraldine; Charlot, Patrick; Collioud, Arnaud

    2015-08-01

    The European space astrometry mission Gaia will construct a dense optical celestial reference frame based on Quasi Stellar Objects. Accordingly, by 2020, two extragalactic celestial reference frames will coexist: the VLBI frame (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) in the radio domain, currently adopted by the IAU as the fundamental one, and the Gaia frame determined from direct optical observations of quasars by the satellite.For consistency between optical and radio positions of any celestial targets, it will be fundamental to align the Gaia and VLBI frames with the highest accuracy. This issue is also important in the framework of astrophysics, for example to probe properly the jets properties and the physics of the Active Galactic Nuclei.In this paper, based on the ICRF2 catalogue (International Celestial Reference Frame) and specific dedicated VLBI projects (e.g. designed to observe additional weaker extragalactic radio sources), we will discuss the selection of the VLBI-Gaia transfer sources, present our initiatives to reach this alignment, review the status of the various projects in question and draw plans for the future.

  11. Concepts for VLBI Station Control as Part of NEXPReS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Schönberger, M.; Alef, W.; Himwich, E.; Beaudoin, C.; Plötz, C.; Lovell, J.; Hase, H.

    2012-12-01

    In the Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Services-project (NEXPReS) the Technische Universität München (TUM) realizes concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn. NEXPReS is a three-year project, funded within the European Seventh Framework program. It is aimed to develop e-VLBI services for the European VLBI Network (EVN), which can also support the IVS observations (VLBI2010). Within this project, the TUM focuses on developments of an operational remote control system (e-RemoteCtrl) with authentication and authorization. It includes an appropriate role management with different remote access states for future observation strategies. To allow a flexible control of different systems in parallel, sophisticated graphical user interfaces are designed and realized. The software is currently under test in the new AuScope network, Australia/New Zealand. Additional system parameters and information are collected with a new system monitoring (SysMon) for a higher degree of automation, which is currently under preparation for standardization within the IVS Monitoring and Control Infrastructure (MCI) Collaboration Group. The whole system for monitoring and control is fully compatible with the NASA Field System and extends it.

  12. SAND: Automated VLBI imaging and analyzing pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The Search And Non-Destroy (SAND) is a VLBI data reduction pipeline composed of a set of Python programs based on the AIPS interface provided by ObitTalk. It is designed for the massive data reduction of multi-epoch VLBI monitoring research. It can automatically investigate calibrated visibility data, search all the radio emissions above a given noise floor and do the model fitting either on the CLEANed image or directly on the uv data. It then digests the model-fitting results, intelligently identifies the multi-epoch jet component correspondence, and recognizes the linear or non-linear proper motion patterns. The outputs including CLEANed image catalogue with polarization maps, animation cube, proper motion fitting and core light curves. For uncalibrated data, a user can easily add inline modules to do the calibration and self-calibration in a batch for a specific array.

  13. Engineering processes for the African VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Loots, Anita; Gaylard, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The African VLBI Network (AVN) is an initiative by the SKA-SA and HartRAO, business units of the National Research Foundation (NRF), Department of Science and Technology (DST), South Africa. The aim is to fill the existing gap of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)-capable radio telescopes in the African continent by a combination of new build as well as conversion of large redundant telecommunication antennas through an Inter-Governmental collaborative programme in Science and Technology. The issue of human capital development in the Continent in the techniques of radio astronomy engineering and science is a strong force to drive the project and is expected to contribute significantly to the success of Square Kilometer Array (SKA) in the Continent.

  14. Spacecraft Doppler tracking with a VLBI antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comoretto, G.; Iess, L.; Bertotti, B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Horton, T.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from Doppler-shift measurements to the Voyager-2 spacecraft at a distance of 26 AU, obtained using the 32-m VLBI antenna at Medicina (Italy) during July and August 1988. The apparatus comprises the el-az antenna, an S-X-band receiver, a hydrogen maser to generate the reference signal, a Mark III VLBI terminal, and a digital tone extractor capable of isolating a tone of known frequency from a noisy signal and giving its phase and amplitude. A signal transmitted in S-band from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) station in Australia and retransmitted coherently in X-band by Voyager, was received 7 h 6 min later at Medicina and at the DSN station in Madrid. Sample data are presented graphically and shown to be of generally high quality; further in-depth analysis is under way.

  15. A comparison between Lageos laser ranging and VLBI determined baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolenkiewicz, R.; Ryan, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Two independent measurement techniques, Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR), and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) are compared in the measurement of distances (or baselines) between several locations in the continental U.S. The results of this analysis is summarized where both the SLR and VLBI baseline lengths and their differences (SLR minus VLBI) are presented. A comparison of the 22 baselines shows a mean difference of 1.0 + or - 1.1 cm with a scatter about zero of 5.2 cm. No apparent systematic scale difference between the networks is evident. A map of the baselines is included and indicates their differences, SLR minus VLBI, in centimeters.

  16. The Mark 5 VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Mark 5 VLBI data system is a disk-based data-recording and playback system for high-data-rate VLBI observations, and has been adopted worldwide for VLBI observations. Approximately 150 Mark 5A systems, capable of recording/playback at 1024 Mbps, are now deployed around the world, directly replacing the Mark 4/VLBA tape-based systems which were prevalent for over 25 years. The Mark 5A system records to an 8-disk removable module which is normally transported to a central correlator facility for processing. The Mark 5B VLBI data system is designed to support the VSI-H international specification and is now being deployed. It is based on the same physical platform and uses the same disk-modules as the Mark 5A; it also supports the same maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps. Data formatting and timetagging is done internally within the Mark 5B, eliminating the need for external formatters. Backwards playback compatibility with Mark 5A is accomplished by an upgrade to the Mark 5A. An upgrade of the Mark 5B system, dubbed Mark 5B+, is now also available and capable of sustained recording at 2 Gbps. The Mark 5C system, currently in development, accepts sampled data through a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet OSI Layer 2 interface and will support sustained recording up to 4 Gbps. The Mark 5C will support a recording mode which is backwards compatible with the Mark 5B system for playback; Mark 5C is expected to be available in early 2008.

  17. Multiband VLBI Observations of CTA102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantakyro, F. T.; Baath, L. B.; Dallacasa, D.; Jones, D. L.; Wehrle, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    The source CTA102, known to exhibit low frequency variability, has been observed at six epochs (three at lambda 32 cm, two at lambda 18 cm, and one at lambda l.3 cm) with intercontinental VLBI arrays. On the basis of the changes observed in the structure, we believe that the flux density variations at these wavelengths are due to intrinsic processes and not due to interstellar scintillation. This source exhibits behaviour suggestive of being expanding with a very high apparent transverse velocity.

  18. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajima, K.; Hagiwara, Y.; An, T.; Baan, W. A.; Fujisawa, K.; Hao, L.; Jiang, W.; Jung, T.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kim, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Oh, S.-J.; Roh, D.-G.; Wang, M. Wu, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhang, M.

    2016-02-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  19. Comparison of VLBI TRF solutions based on Kalman filtering and recent ITRS realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Gross, Richard; Schuh, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Compared to previous prominent global terrestrial reference frames (TRF) solutions, such as the ITRF2008 or DTRF2008, the current accuracy requirements demand among other things extended parameterization to account for various non-linear signals present in the time series of station coordinates. The next generation of TRFs, built upon geodetic data until the end of 2014, employs different approaches to tackle in particular seasonal variations and post-seismic deformations. The ITRF2014, developed at the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Combination Center (CC) at Institut Géographique National, introduces harmonic, exponential and logarithmic functions to take into account aforementioned effects. In contrast, the ITRS realization of the IERS CC at Jet Propulsion Laboratory is based on Kalman filtering, which allows coordinate variations to be modeled in a stochastic sense besides the parameterized linear and seasonal signals. In our study, we compare these multi-technique TRFs with solutions solely based on VLBI data, including 104 radio telescopes and 4239 VLBI sessions, covering a time span of 34 years. We calculated a VLBI TRF based on the traditional least-squares adjustment of session-wise normal equations, and an ensemble of Kalman filter and smoother solutions with different parameterizations and stochastic models. In particular, we investigate the impact of different process noise levels for station coordinates, the choice of stochastic processes, e.g. random walks, and the application of time- and station-dependent noise models. For instance, we find that the estimation of seasonal signals, while important for predictions, does not affect the filtered coordinate time series when observational data is available. Furthermore, post-seismic deformations after major earthquakes require the process noise to be scaled accordingly. For instance, we detected coordinate differences of up to 5 cm immediately after the Chile 2010

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: First Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey. III (Xu+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Pearson, T. J.; Polatidis, A. G.; Wilkinson, P. N.

    1996-02-01

    We present the 5GHz results from the first Caltech-Jodrell Bank (CJ1) VLBI survey. The 1.6GHz maps were presented in two separate papers, Polatidis et al. and Thakkar et al. . These three papers complete the first stage of this program to map at both 1.6 and 5GHz all objects accessible to Mark II VLBI in the complete sample of 135 objects with 1.3>S(5Ghz)>=0.7Jy, Dec(1950)>=35deg, and |b|>10deg. The combination of the CJ1 sample with the Pearson-Readhead (PR) sample provides a complete, flux density-limited sample of 200 objects with S(5GHz)>=0.7Jy, Dec(1950)>=35deg, |b|>10deg for which all of the objects accessible to Mark II VLBI have been mapped at both 5GHz (129 objects) and 1.6GHz (132 objects). In addition to the 5GHz VLBI maps, we present in this paper 5GHz MERLIN observations of 20 objects and 1.4GHz VLA observations of 92 objects in the combined CJ1 + PR sample. The VLA maps, together with L-band (1.3-1.7GHz) maps available in the literature, provide a complete set of VLA maps for the combined CJ1 + PR sample. Finally, we present the radio spectra of the objects in the CJ1 sample. The combined CJ1 + PR VLBI surveys provide a sample which is large enough for a number of important astrophysical and cosmological studies. These will be presented in further papers in this series. (4 data files).

  1. Optimized scheduling of VLBI UT1 intensive sessions for twin telescopes employing impact factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leek, Judith; Artz, Thomas; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Daily Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) intensive measurements make an important contribution to the regular monitoring of Earth rotation variations. Since these variations are quite rapid, their knowledge is important for navigation with global navigation satellite system and for investigations in Earth sciences. Unfortunately, the precision of VLBI intensive observations is 2-3 times worse than the precision of regular 24h-VLBI measurements with networks of 5-10 radio telescopes. The major advancement of research in this paper is the improvement of VLBI intensive results by (a) using twin telescopes instead of single telescopes and (b) applying an entirely new scheduling concept for the individual observations. Preparatory investigations of standardintensive sessions suggest that the impact factors of the observations are well suited for the identification of the most influential observations which are needed for the determination of certain parameters within the entire design of a VLBI session. Based on this experience, the scheduling method is designed for optimizing the observations' geometry for a given network of radio telescopes and a predefined set of parameters to be estimated. The configuration of at least two twin telescopes, or one twin and two single telescopes, offers the possibility of building pairwise sub-nets that observe two different sources simultaneously. In addition to an optimized observing plan, a special parametrization for twin telescopes leads to an improved determination of Earth rotation variations, as it is shown by simulated observations. In general, an improvement of about 50 % in the formal errors can be realized using twin radio telescopes. This result is only due to geometric improvements as higher slew rates of the twin telescopes are not taken into account.

  2. Geodetic strain measurements in Washington.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Prescott, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two new geodetic measurements of strain accumulation in the state of Washington for the interval 1972-1979 are reported. Near Seattle the average principal strain rates are 0.07 + or - 0.03 mu strain/yr N19oW and -0.13 + or - 0.02 mu strain/yr N71oE, and near Richland (south central Washington) the average principal strain rates are -0.02 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N36oW and -0.04 + or - 0.01 mu strain/yr N54oE. Extension is taken as positive, and the uncertainties quoted are standard deviations. A measurement of shear strain accumulation (dilation not determined) in the epoch 1914- 1966 along the north coast of Vancouver Island by the Geodetic Survey of Canada indicates a marginally significant accumulation of right-lateral shear (0.06 + or - 0.03 mu rad/yr) across the plate boundary (N40oW strike). Although there are significant differences in detail, these strain measurements are roughly consistent with a crude dislocation model that represents subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate. The observed accumulation of strain implies that large, shallow, thrust earthquakes should be expected off the coast of Washington and British Columbia. However, this conclusion is not easily reconciled with either observations of elevation change along the Washington coast or the focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes in Washington. -Authors

  3. Geodetic aspects of seismological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Denis, Carlo

    2010-02-01

    Seismology is related to many problems of geodesy. The energy production of our planet is rather close to energy consumption of the Earth so that the energy balance can be disturbed significantly by minor processes acting on global scale. From this point of view the effect of tidal triggering of earthquakes is discussed by the study of tidal stress tensor components expressed in spherical system of coordinates. Tidal friction influences through the despinning of the axial rotation the geometrical flattening. This flattening variation causes stresses along the longitude and this phenomenon is closely related to the seismic energy release. Until now there is no unambiguous success to relate changes of the Earth orientation parameters with seismicity. Present-day accuracy of the length of day variations is not sufficient yet to detect spin variation generated by the greatest earthquakes. The polar motion is probably more sensitive to earthquakes and then there is a chance to detect the polar displacements generated by seismic events. In the last section of the present contribution, the strain rates derived from the static seismic moments and from space geodetic observations are compared. Future geodetic strain rate data will be useful in earthquake prediction.

  4. 1.3 mm WAVELENGTH VLBI OF SAGITTARIUS A*: DETECTION OF TIME-VARIABLE EMISSION ON EVENT HORIZON SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Bolin, David E.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Blundell, Ray; Gurwell, Mark A.; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Inoue, Makoto; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lamb, James; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2011-02-01

    Sagittarius A*, the {approx}4 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} black hole candidate at the Galactic center, can be studied on Schwarzschild radius scales with (sub)millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). We report on 1.3 mm wavelength observations of Sgr A* using a VLBI array consisting of the JCMT on Mauna Kea, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham in Arizona, and two telescopes of the CARMA array at Cedar Flat in California. Both Sgr A* and the quasar calibrator 1924-292 were observed over three consecutive nights, and both sources were clearly detected on all baselines. For the first time, we are able to extract 1.3 mm VLBI interferometer phase information on Sgr A* through measurement of closure phase on the triangle of baselines. On the third night of observing, the correlated flux density of Sgr A* on all VLBI baselines increased relative to the first two nights, providing strong evidence for time-variable change on scales of a few Schwarzschild radii. These results suggest that future VLBI observations with greater sensitivity and additional baselines will play a valuable role in determining the structure of emission near the event horizon of Sgr A*.

  5. Measurements of strain at plate boundaries using space based geodetic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robaudo, Stefano; Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the space based geodetic techniques of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and VLBI to study strain along subduction and transform plate boundaries and have interpreted the results using a simple elastic dislocation model. Six stations located behind island arcs were analyzed as representative of subduction zones while 13 sites located on either side of the San Andreas fault were used for the transcurrent zones. The length deformation scale was then calculated for both tectonic margins by fitting the relative strain to an exponentially decreasing function of distance from the plate boundary. Results show that space-based data for the transcurrent boundary along the San Andreas fault help to define better the deformation length scale in the area while fitting nicely the elastic half-space earth model. For subduction type bonndaries the analysis indicates that there is no single scale length which uniquely describes the deformation. This is mainly due to the difference in subduction characteristics for the different areas.

  6. Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Continuous measurements of regional crustal deformation between the 1992 Landers and 1994 Northridge earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bock, Y.; Wdowinski, S.; Fang, P.; Zhang, Jiahua; Williams, S.; Johnson, H.; Behr, J.; Genrich, J.; Dean, J.; Van Domselaar, M.; Agnew, D.; Wyatt, F.; Stark, K.; Oral, B.; Hudnut, K.; King, R.; Herring, T.; Dinardo, S.; Young, W.; Jackson, D.; Gurtner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in 1990 across the Pacific-North America plate boundary to continuously monitor crustal deformation. We describe the development of the array and the time series of daily positions estimated for its first 10 sites in the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (Mw=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (Mw=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. We compare displacement rates at four site locations with those reported by Feigl et al. [1993], which were derived from an independent set of Global Positioning System (GPS) and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements collected over nearly a decade prior to the Landers earthquake. The velocity differences for three sites 65-100 km from the earthquake's epicenter are of order of 3-5 mm/yr and are systematically coupled with the corresponding directions of coseismic displacement. The fourth site, 300 km from the epicenter, shows no significant velocity difference. These observations suggest large-scale postseismic deformation with a relaxation time of at least 800 days. The statistical significance of our observations is complicated by our incomplete knowledge of the noise properties of the two data sets; two possible noise models fit the PGGA data equally well as described in the companion paper by Zhang et al. [this issue]; the pre-Landers data are too sparse and heterogeneous to derive a reliable noise model. Under a fractal white noise model for the PGGA data we find that the velocity differences for all three sites are statistically different at the 99% significance level. A white noise plus flicker noise model results in significance levels of only 94%, 43%, and 88%. Additional investigations of the pre-Landers data, and analysis of longer spans of PGGA data, could have an important effect on the significance of these results and will be addressed in future work. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  8. GPU Based Software Correlators - Perspectives for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Kimura, Moritaka; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Caused by historical separation and driven by the requirements of the PC gaming industry, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have evolved to massive parallel processing systems which entered the area of non-graphic related applications. Although a single processing core on the GPU is much slower and provides less functionality than its counterpart on the CPU, the huge number of these small processing entities outperforms the classical processors when the application can be parallelized. Thus, in recent years various radio astronomical projects have started to make use of this technology either to realize the correlator on this platform or to establish the post-processing pipeline with GPUs. Therefore, the feasibility of GPUs as a choice for a VLBI correlator is being investigated, including pros and cons of this technology. Additionally, a GPU based software correlator will be reviewed with respect to energy consumption/GFlop/sec and cost/GFlop/sec.

  9. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-11-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer ( grace) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  10. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-09-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer (uc(grace)) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  11. VLBI Digital-Backend Intercomparison Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Beaudoin, Christopher; Cappallo, Roger; Niell, Arthur; Petrachenko, Bill; Ruszczyk, Chester A.; Titus, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Issues related to digital-backend (DBE) systems can be difficult to evaluate in either local tests or actual VLBI experiments. The 2nd DBE intercomparison workshop at Haystack Observatory on 25-26 October 2012 provided a forum to explicitly address validation and interoperability issues among independent global developers of DBE equipment. This special report discusses the workshop. It identifies DBE systems that were tested at the workshop, describes the test objectives and procedures, and reports and discusses the results of the testing.

  12. Realtime and High Accuracy VLBI in Chinese Lunar Exploration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, Zheng

    The Chinese VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) Network - CVN consists of five radio telescopes and one data processing center. CVN is a powerful tracking and navigation tool in the Chinese lunar exploration projects. To meet the quick response of the CE lunar probes navigation requirements, station observation data must be sent to the VLBI center and processed in the real time mode. CVN has demonstrated its ability in the CE -1 and CE-2 missions. In December 2013, the CE-3 lander was successfully sent to the lunar surface and the Yutu rover was released. The new VLBI center and Tianma antenna came into use. During the mission, the lander carried the special Differential Oneway Range (DOR) beacon instead of the normal continuous spectrum VLBI signals. To get the high-precision result, CVN used the delta-DOR technique to track the lander with very extreme accuracy. VLBI delay residuals after orbit determination was nearly 0.5ns. The accuracy of landing position is better than 100 meters. The e-VLBI technique made the observable turnover time as short as 20~40 seconds. The same beam VLBI was used to determine the relative position between the lander and rover with meter accuracy. In the subsequent lunar missions, the new deep stations will join CVN and extend the baseline length. After the soft landing and sampling, the lander will be launched from the lunar surface and finish rendezvous and docking with the orbiter. The VLBI synthesis mapping method and the same beam VLBI can get the accurate lander location and support the rendezvous and docking procedure.

  13. Prospect of Continuous VLBI Measurement of Earth Rotation in Monitoring Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Ma, Chopo; Clark, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system excite Earth's rotational variations in both length-of-day and polar motion. The excitation process is via the conservation of angular momentum. Therefore Earth rotation observations contain information about the integrated angular momentum (consisting of both the mass term and the motion term) of the geophysical fluids, which include atmosphere, hydrosphere, mantle, and the outer and inner cores. Such global information is often important and otherwise unattainable depending on the nature of the mass transport, its magnitude and time scale. The last few years have seen great advances in VLBI measurement of Earth rotation in precision and temporal resolution. These advances have opened new. areas in geophysical fluid studies, such as oceanic tidal angular momentum, atmospheric tides, Earth librations, and rapid atmospheric angular momentum fluctuations. Precision of 10 microseconds in UTI and 200 microarcseconds in polar motion can now be achieved on hourly basis. Building upon this heritage, the multi-network geodetic VLBI project, Continuous Observation of the Rotation of the Earth (CORE), promises to further these studies and to make possible studies on elusive but tell-tale geophysical processes such as oscillatory modes in the core and in the atmosphere. Currently the early phase of CORE is underway. Within a few years into the new mellinnium, the upcoming space gravity missions (such as GRACE) will measure the temporal variations in Earth's gravitational field, thus providing complementary information to that from Earth rotation study for a better understanding of global geophysical fluid processes.

  14. Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation Estimated with Geodetic Data from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    We use geodetic data taken over four years with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate: (1) motion between six major plates and (2) motion relative to these plates of ten sites in plate boundary zones. The degree of consistency between geodetic velocities and rigid plates requires the (one-dimensional) standard errors in horizontal velocities to be approx. 2 mm/yr. Each of the 15 angular velocities describing motion between plate pairs that we estimate with GPS differs insignificantly from the corresponding angular velocity in global plate motion model NUVEL-1A, which averages motion over the past 3 m.y. The motion of the Pacific plate relative to both the Eurasian and North American plates is observed to be faster than predicted by NUVEL-1A, supporting the inference from Very Long B ase- line Interferometry (VLBI) that motion of the Pacific plate has speed up over the past few m.y. The Eurasia-North America pole of rotation is estimated to be north of NUVEL-1A, consistent with the independent hypothesis that the pole has recently migrated northward across northeast Asia to near the Lena River delta. Victoria, which lies above the main thrust at the Cascadia subduction zone, moves relative to the interior of the overriding plate at 30% of the velocity of the subducting plate, reinforcing the conclusion that the thrust there is locked beneath the continental shelf and slope.

  15. Determination of tidal h Love number parameters in the diurnal band using an extensive VLBI data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Mathews, P. M.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1994-01-01

    We use over a decade of geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data to estimate parameters in a resonance expansion of the frequency dependence of the tidal h(sub 2) Love number within the diurnal band. The resonance is associated with the retrograde free core nutation (RFCN). We obtain a value for the real part of the resonance strength of (-0.27 +/- 0.03) x 10(exp -3); a value of -0.19 x 10(exp -3) is predicted theoretically. Uncertainties in the VLBI estimates of the body tide radial displacement amplitudes are approximately 0.5 mm (1.1 mm for the K1 frequency), but they do not yield sufficiently small Love number uncertainties for placing useful constraints on the frequency of the RFCN, given the much smaller uncertainties obtained from independent analyses using nutation or gravimetric data. We also consider the imaginary part of the tidal h(sub 2) Love number. The estimated imaginary part of the resonance strength is (0.00 +/- 0.02) x 10(exp -3). The estimated imaginary part of the nonresonant component of the Love number implies a phase angle in the diurnal tidal response of the Earth of 0.7 deg +/- 0.5 deg (lag).

  16. VLBI imaging and astrometry of the Gravity Probe B guide star HR 8703

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Ryan R.

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the spaceborne relativity experiment developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two predictions of general relativity (GR). The experiment will use four super-conducting gyroscopes, contained in a low-earth, polar orbiting spacecraft, to precisely measure the geodetic effect and the much smaller frame-dragging effect. According to GR, each of the effects will induce precessions in the gyroscopes. For the frame-dragging effect, the predicted precession is ˜42 mas/yr (mas ≡ milliarcsecond). The precessions will be measured with respect to a "guide star," namely the RS CVn binary star HR 8703 (IM Pegasi). The goal of the GP-B experiment is to measure the precessions with a standard error of about 0.5 mas/yr or better. To achieve this level of precision, the proper motion of the guide star must be determined in an inertial reference frame with a standard error ≤0.15 mas/yr. Nineteen sets of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at 8.4 GHz between January 1997 and June 2001 were made of HR 8703 and two extragalactic reference sources, 3C454.3 and B2250+194, in support of GP-B. We produced VLBI images of 3C454.3 and B2250+194 for each observing session, and VLBI images of HR 8703 for all but one of the observing sessions. The images of HR 8703 show a variety of radio source structures which range from compact single-emission-region structures <1 mas in angular diameter to complex double-lobe structures with lobe separations of ˜1.5 mas. Moreover, images from temporal subsets of several observing sessions show on hour time scales both structural evolution in the emission source and motions of the radio centroid of up to ˜1 mas. This is the first time that hourly activity on or close to a star has been observed directly, apart from the activity on the Sun. Based upon an astrometric analysis of the phase-referenced positions obtained at each epoch, we have (1) made precise determinations of HR 8703's parallax and

  17. Development of the Estimation Service of the Earth's Surface Fluid Load Effects for Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, H.; Gotoh, T.; Otsubo, T.

    2010-12-01

    Temporal changes of surface loadings due to the mass redistribution of the fluid envelope of the Earth, i.e., the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere, cause the Earth to deform and consequently change the coordinates of observation sites. The coordinate changes can be measured by space geodetic techniques such as VLBI and GPS. From the viewpoint of crustal movements, such displacements due to these noises should be eliminated. In 2006, for the reduction of these influences, we estimated the crustal displacements due to atmospheric loading (AL), non-tidal ocean loading (NTOL), continental water loading (CWL) and snow loading (SL) influences. And we showed that a combination of AL, NTOL, and CWL can eliminate about 20% of the annual signal in the GPS coordinate time series (Takiguchi et al., 2006). We also applied the correction to the data of 1997 Bungo channel slow slip event and confirmed that the loading correction can be well applied for the analysis of the slow slip event. In this study, we are developing the calculation service about the displacement of the Earth's surface loads for space geodetic techniques. Previous study, we showed the influences of several loads and the necessity to correct loads for precise geodetic analysis. However it is not easy to calculate the influences of loads. So, we are planning to develop the displacement database based on the web. This database runs as a service to calculate the load displacements at arbitrary time and arbitrary location by arbitrary users. This service can calculate the several loads such as AL, NTOL and CWL. We are also planning to provide the load corrected site coordinates about world wide GPS sites analyzed by the ‘concerto’ program version 4 for GPS developed by NICT. In the presentation, we will introduce the calculation service and the result of load correction analysis. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) 21740333).

  18. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Space Geodesy Networks for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael; Pavlis, Erricos; Ma, Chopo; Altamini, Zuheir; Noll, Carey; Stowers, David

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based networks of co-located space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS. and DORIS) are the basis for the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference frame (ITRF), which is our metric of reference for measurements of global change, The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established a task to develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long-term requirements for the reference frame. The GGOS goal is an origin definition at 1 mm or better and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on scientific requirements to address sea level rise with confidence, but other applications are not far behind. Recent studies including one by the US National Research Council has strongly stated the need and the urgency for the fundamental space geodesy network. Simulations are underway to examining accuracies for origin, scale and orientation of the resulting ITRF based on various network designs and system performance to determine the optimal global network to achieve this goal. To date these simulations indicate that 24 - 32 co-located stations are adequate to define the reference frame and a more dense GNSS and DORIS network will be required to distribute the reference frame to users anywhere on Earth. Stations in the new global network will require geologically stable sites with good weather, established infrastructure, and local support and personnel. GGOS wil seek groups that are interested in participation. GGOS intends to issues a Call for Participation of groups that would like to contribute in the network implementation and operation. Some examples of integrated stations currently in operation or under development will be presented. We will examine necessary conditions and challenges in

  19. New Geodetic Infrastructure for Australia: The NCRIS / AuScope Geospatial Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregoning, P.; Watson, C. S.; Coleman, R.; Johnston, G.; Lovell, J.; Dickey, J.; Featherstone, W. E.; Rizos, C.; Higgins, M.; Priebbenow, R.

    2009-12-01

    In November 2006, the Australian Federal Government announced AUS15.8M in funding for geospatial research infrastructure through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). Funded within a broader capability area titled ‘Structure and Evolution of the Australian Continent’, NCRIS has provided a significant investment across Earth imaging, geochemistry, numerical simulation and modelling, the development of a virtual core library, and geospatial infrastructure. Known collectively as AuScope (www.auscope.org.au), this capability area has brought together Australian’s leading Earth scientists to decide upon the most pressing scientific issues and infrastructure needs for studying Earth systems and their impact on the Australian continent. Importantly and at the same time, the investment in geospatial infrastructure offers the opportunity to raise Australian geodetic science capability to the highest international level into the future. The geospatial component of AuScope builds onto the AUS15.8M of direct funding through the NCRIS process with significant in-kind and co-investment from universities and State/Territory and Federal government departments. The infrastructure to be acquired includes an FG5 absolute gravimeter, three gPhone relative gravimeters, three 12.1 m radio telescopes for geodetic VLBI, a continent-wide network of continuously operating geodetic quality GNSS receivers, a trial of a mobile SLR system and access to updated cluster computing facilities. We present an overview of the AuScope geospatial capability, review the current status of the infrastructure procurement and discuss some examples of the scientific research that will utilise the new geospatial infrastructure.

  20. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  1. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  2. Extracting Independent Local Oscillatory Geophysical Signals by Geodetic Tropospheric Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, L.; Sivakumar, V.; Schuh, H.; Bohm, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) due to water vapor derived from space geodetic techniques and numerical weather prediction simulated-reanalysis data exhibits non-linear and non-stationary properties akin to those in the crucial geophysical signals of interest to the research community. These time series, once decomposed into additive (and stochastic) components, have information about the long term global change (the trend) and other interpretable (quasi-) periodic components such as seasonal cycles and noise. Such stochastic component(s) could be a function that exhibits at most one extremum within a data span or a monotonic function within a certain temporal span. In this contribution, we examine the use of the combined Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA): the EEMD-ICA algorithm to extract the independent local oscillatory stochastic components in the tropospheric delay derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) over six geodetic sites (HartRAO, Hobart26, Wettzell, Gilcreek, Westford, and Tsukub32). The proposed methodology allows independent geophysical processes to be extracted and assessed. Analysis of the quality index of the Independent Components (ICs) derived for each cluster of local oscillatory components (also called the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs)) for all the geodetic stations considered in the study demonstrate that they are strongly site dependent. Such strong dependency seems to suggest that the localized geophysical signals embedded in the ZTD over the geodetic sites are not correlated. Further, from the viewpoint of non-linear dynamical systems, four geophysical signals the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) index derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) anomaly from NCEP, the SIDC monthly Sun Spot Number (SSN), and the Length of Day (LoD) are linked to the extracted signal components from ZTD. Results from the synchronization

  3. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  4. Millimetron and Earth-Space VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the Millimetron mission operating in Space VLBI (SVLBI) mode will be the exploration of compact radio sources with extremely high angular resolution (better than one microsecond of arc). The space-ground interferometer Millimetron has an orbit around L2 point of the Earth - Sun system and allows operating with baselines up to a hundred Earth diameters. SVLBI observations will be accomplished by space and ground-based radio telescopes simultaneously. At the space telescope the received baseband signal is digitized and then transferred to the onboard memory storage (up to 100TB). The scientific and service data transfer to the ground tracking station is performed by means of both synchronization and communication radio links (1 GBps). Then the array of the scientific data is processed at the correlation center. Due to the (u,v) - plane coverage requirements for SVLBI imaging, it is necessary to propose observations at two different frequencies and two circular polarizations simultaneously with frequency switching. The total recording bandwidth (2x2x4 GHz) defines of the on-board memory size. The ground based support of the Millimetron mission in the VLBI-mode could be Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Pico Valletta (Spain), Plateau de Bure interferometer (France), SMT telescope in the US (Arizona), LMT antenna (Mexico), SMA array, (Mauna Kea, USA), as well as the Green Bank and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes (for 22 GHz observations). We will present simulation results for Millimetron-ALMA interferometer. The sensitivity estimate of the space-ground interferometer will be compared to the requirements of the scientific goals of the mission. The possibility of multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) to obtain high quality images will also be considered.

  5. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  6. e-VLBI detection of SN2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Kouveliotou, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M.

    2007-09-01

    We observed the Type Ibc SN2007gr on 6-7 September for 12 hours (21:00-09:00 UTC) at 4.97 GHz with the the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e- VLBI technique. Participating telescopes were Darnhall, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Medicina, Onsala, Torun and Westerbork (phased array of 14 telescopes). The aggregate bitrate was 256 Mbps, except for Darnhall which contributed with an effective data rate of 128 Mbps due to analog bandwidth restrictions.

  7. VLBI as a tool for planetary science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Avruch, I. M.

    The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique exploits the fundamental principles of optics to achieve ultimately high angular resolution in detecting signals from remote celestial sources. Originally it was developed for studies of natural celestial sources, but has a long and successful record of precise tracking of deep space missions. Higher data rates, lower noise temperatures of radio telescopes, advanced data processing equipment and algorithms enable VLBI tracking of distant planetary missions in the outer Solar System. Recently, this potential has been demonstrated by VLBI tracking of the Huygens probe during its parachute descent in the atmosphere and after touch-down on the surface of Titan. The key element of the experiment was a specially designed software VLBI processor (correlator) able to process signals arriving from the source in the optical near field (an unusual situation for a traditional VLBI processor. A spin-off of this development includes high spectral resolution tracking of the Smart-1 spacecraft and observations aimed at detection of water vapour in the Saturnian system. Prospective applications of the VLBI technique for tracking future planetary and deep space missions using the next generation of Earth-based radio facilities will be reviewed.

  8. Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Eduardo; Porcas, Richard W.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 6th Symposium of the European VLBI Network, held in Bonn on 25-28 June 2002. The initial aim of these biennial gatherings of European VLBI practitioners was to review in a timely manner new results and technical developments related to Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Now, however, interest and participation in the EVN Symposia reaches far beyond Europe, reflecting the fact that scientific research and development programs are carried out to a high degree in international and often truly global collaborations. More than 120 scientists from around the world registered for participation in the Symposium. The Symposium was hosted by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie and was held at the Gustav Stresemann Institut. In addition to the scientific sessions and poster presentations, the program included an EVN Users Meeting, an MPIfR versus Rest-of-the-World football match (highly appropriate given the competing World Cup event!), a visit to the MPIfR's 100m radio telescope in Effelsberg, and a Conference Dinner held in the nearby old walled town of Bad Müunstereifel. To maximize the usefulness of these proceedings (and possibly as a daring precedent) the Editors decided to demand the written versions of talks and posters and to complete the editorial work before the meeting, and to deliver the book to the participants at the beginning of the Symposium. We thank the authors for their cooperation in delivering publication-ready electronic manuscripts and for meeting the strict deadlines. It is highly gratifying that only a handful of the 100 presentations are not represented in this volume. The editors have made minor changes to some of the contributions in order to improve readability, and take responsibility for any errors arising from these changes. Besides the authors, many individuals have contributed to the preparation of the meeting and its proceedings. In addition to many members of the MPIfR staff, we

  9. Reliability and Stability of VLBI-Derived Sub-Daily EOP Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artz, Thomas; Boeckmann, Sarah; Jensen, Laura; Nothnagel, Axel; Steigenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown significant shortcomings in the model which is proposed by the IERS to account for the variations in the Earth s rotation with periods around one day and less. To overcome this, an empirical model can be estimated more or less directly from the observations of space geodetic techniques. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the quality and reliability of such a model based on VLBI observations. Therefore, the impact of the estimation method and the analysis options as well as the temporal stability are investigated. It turned out that, in order to provide a realistic accuracy measure of the model coefficients, the formal errors should be inflated by a factor of three. This coincides with the noise floor and the repeatability of the model coefficients and it captures almost all of the differences that are caused by different estimation techniques. The impact of analysis options is small but significant when changing troposphere parameterization or including harmonic station position variations.

  10. Atmospheric Delay Reduction Using KARAT for GPS Analysis and Implications for VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Hobiger, Thomas; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a state-of-the-art tool to estimate the atmospheric path delays by raytracing through mesoscale analysis (MANAL) data, which is operationally used for numerical weather prediction by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The tools, which we have named KAshima RAytracing Tools (KARAT)', are capable of calculating total slant delays and ray-bending angles considering real atmospheric phenomena. The KARAT can estimate atmospheric slant delays by an analytical 2-D ray-propagation model by Thayer and a 3-D Eikonal solver. We compared PPP solutions using KARAT with that using the Global Mapping Function (GMF) and Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) for GPS sites of the GEONET (GPS Earth Observation Network System) operated by Geographical Survey Institute (GSI). In our comparison 57 stations of GEONET during the year of 2008 were processed. The KARAT solutions are slightly better than the solutions using VMF1 and GMF with linear gradient model for horizontal and height positions. Our results imply that KARAT is a useful tool for an efficient reduction of atmospheric path delays in radio-based space geodetic techniques such as GNSS and VLBI.

  11. First Phase Development of Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator and Its Current Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator (KJJVC) development has been completed and installed to correlate the observed data from KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) in October 2009. KJJVC is able to process 16 stations, a maximum of 8 Gbps/station, and 8,192 output channels for VLBI data. The system configuration, the experimental results, and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  12. Earth Rotation Parameters From DSN VLBI: 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steppe, J.; Oliveau, S.; Sovers, O.

    1995-01-01

    A description of the DSN VLBI data set and of last year's analysis can be found in last year's report. Other than including another year's data, the main changes in this year's analysis from last year's are in the use of meteorological data for determining tropospheric parameters and in the weighting of the data to account for the uncertainty in the observables caused by tropospheric effects and source structure. A priori dry zenith tropospheric delays were determined from barometric pressure measurements at the DSN sites, corrected for height differences between the pressure sensor and the antennas. A priori wet zenith tropospheric delays were derived from tables of monthly average wet zenith delays for each station, which are based on historical radiosonde data. The Lanyi function was used for mapping zenith tropospheric delays to observed elevations. the temperature at the top of the boundary layer, a parameter in the Lanyi function, was taken to be the 24-hour average of the surface temperature at the station. Adjustments to the wet troposphere zenith delays were estimated every two to three hours.

  13. Tidal atmospheric and ocean loading in VLBI analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) analysis, reductions for tidal atmospheric and ocean loading are commonly used according to the IERS Conventions. In this presentation we examine such loading corrections from contemporary geophysical models within routine VLBI processing and discuss the internal consistency of the applied corrections for various effects. In detail, two gravitational ocean tide models, FES2004 and the recent FES2012 atlas with a much finer horizontal resolution and an improved description of hydrodynamic processes, are employed. Moreover, the contribution of atmospheric tidal loading is also re-considered based on data taken from two providers of station displacements, Goddard Space Flight Center and the TU Wien group. Those two models differ in terms of the underlying meteorological data, which can be a reason for inconsistency of VLBI reductions and may lead to systematics in the VLBI products at tidal frequencies. We validate this assumption in terms of Earth rotation parameters, by a tidal analysis of diurnal and semi-diurnal universal time and semi-diurnal polar motion variations as determined with the Vienna VLBI Software. Applying the loading models in a consistent way still leads to unexplained residuals at about 4-5 μas in the diurnal polar motion band, thus limiting the possibility of assessing geophysical models at this particular frequency.

  14. A study program for geodetic satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported on support of the GEOS-C Program, National Geodetic Satellite program, and the Earth Physics Program. The statement of work, and a description of the GEOS-C are presented along with the trip reports, and the Earth and Ocean Physics Application program.

  15. National Geodetic Satellite Program, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, S. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The work performed by individual contributors to the National Geodetic Satellite Program is presented. The purpose of the organization, the instruments used in obtaining the data, a description of the data itself, the theory used in processing the data, and evaluation of the results are detailed for the participating organizations.

  16. Error modeling for GPS geodetic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rim, Hyung Jin; Schutz, Bob E.; Tapley, Byron D.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to provide realistic error models for Global Positioning System (GPS) related numerical simulation. This study considers most of the important error sources for measurement and dynamic models which are currently being used for GPS geodetic applications. These error models were evaluated by comparing with real GPS data.

  17. The Southern California Dense GPS Geodetic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center is coordinating a effort by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the U.S. Geological Survey, and various academic institutions to establish a dense 250 station, continuously recording GPS geodetic array in southern California for measuring crustal deformation associated with slip on the numerous faults that underlie the major metropolitan areas of southern california.

  18. GEODYN- ORBITAL AND GEODETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation program, GEODYN, possesses the capability to estimate that set of orbital elements, station positions, measurement biases, and a set of force model parameters such that the orbital tracking data from multiple arcs of multiple satellites best fits the entire set of estimation parameters. The estimation problem can be divided into two parts: the orbit prediction problem, and the parameter estimation problem. GEODYN solves these two problems by employing Cowell's method for integrating the orbit and a Bayesian least squares statistical estimation procedure for parameter estimation. GEODYN has found a wide range of applications including determination of definitive orbits, tracking instrumentation calibration, satellite operational predictions, and geodetic parameter estimation, such as the estimations for global networks of tracking stations. The orbit prediction problem may be briefly described as calculating for some later epoch the new conditions of state for the satellite, given a set of initial conditions of state for some epoch, and the disturbing forces affecting the motion of the satellite. The user is required to supply only the initial conditions of state and GEODYN will provide the forcing function and integrate the equations of motion of the satellite. Additionally, GEODYN performs time and coordinate transformations to insure the continuity of operations. Cowell's method of numerical integration is used to solve the satellite equations of motion and the variational partials for force model parameters which are to be adjusted. This method uses predictor-corrector formulas for the equations of motion and corrector formulas only for the variational partials. The parameter estimation problem is divided into three separate parts: 1) instrument measurement modeling and partial derivative computation, 2) data error correction, and 3) statistical estimation of the parameters. Since all of the measurements modeled by

  19. Geodetic Glacier Mass Balance of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, L. M.; Elvehøy, H.; Kjøllmoen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in mainland Norway cover 2692 km2and span a large range from south to north. Glacier surface mass balance is monitored by the direct (also called glaciological, traditional or conventional) method and indirectly assessed by the geodetic (or cartographic) method. The current glacier monitoring programme includes direct surface mass-balance investigations on 14 glaciers. Since measurements started at Storbreen in 1949, mass balance has been measured on a total of 43 glaciers. The accuracy of the direct measurements depends on both the accuracy of the point observations and inter- and extrapolation of point values to spatially distributed values. Long series of measurements can be inhomogeneous because of changes in personnel, methods, and glacier topography. Reanalysing glacier mass balance series is recommended as standard procedure for every mass balance monitoring programme with increasing importance for long time series. Repeated, detailed glacier mapping by aerial photography and photogrammetric methods, and recently by laser scanning (LIDAR), have been performed to calculate geodetic mass balance. The geodetic results are used as an independent check of the direct method as well as to monitor volume, area and mass changes of glaciers that lack direct measurements. Since 2007, LIDAR campaigns have been conducted on a 1/3 of the glacier area in Norway including all current mass balance glaciers. The objectives of the surveys are to produce high quality digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos to document the present state of the glaciers and assess glacier changes since previous surveys. Furthermore, the DEMs and orthophotos provide an accurate baseline for future repeated mapping and glacier change detection. Here we present geodetic mass balance results for Norway over the last 50 years and compare the results with the direct in-situ measurements where available. We also show examples of how glacier mass balance data are being reanalyzed

  20. Considerations for improved Integration of Geodetic Techiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, K. U.

    2012-04-01

    The most demanding goal for the GGOS initiative is the definition of station positions to an accuracy of 1 mm and the corresponding velocities to 0.1 mm/year. Fundamental stations are corner stones for the geodetic reference frames because they are collocating and combining the relevant measurement techniques. However, this requires unprecedented control over local ties, intra- and inter- technique biases. The unperturbed distribution of frequency is an important requirement for all the space geodetic techniques. The distribution of time without jitter has importance for laser time transfer applications such as T2L2 and in the future ELT with ACES on the ISS. The timing system of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell is based on a radio frequency (5 MHz) distribution scheme and a grid of coaxial cables. Uncontrolable fluctuations in the electrical ground potential and variations in the dielectric properties of these transmission lines give rise to jitter and most likely even small systematic measurement errors. Modern frequency transfer concepts differ from these earlier methods by employing active delay compensation by utilizing control loops in tight (high bandwidth) feedback systems. Furthermore they work on much higher frequencies from hundreds of megahertz up to the optical regime. The definition of a new timing system for Wettzell based on compensated signal transmission lines and the evaluation of the end to end properties of such concepts is work in progress for the coming years with the aim to create a truly common clock for all space geodetic techniques on the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. This talk will introduce the important aspects and the potential of this next generation of timing systems.

  1. Observing atmospheric tides in Earth rotation parameters with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Böhm, Johannes; Schindelegger, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assess the contribution of diurnal (S1) and semi-diurnal (S2) atmospheric tides to variations in Earth rotation by analyzing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. Particular emphasis is placed on the dependency of S1 and S2 estimates on varying settings in the a priori delay model. We use hourly Earth rotation parameters (ERP) of polar motion and UT1 as determined with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) from 25 years of VLBI observations and we adjust diurnal and semi-diurnal amplitudes to the hourly ERP estimates after disregarding the effect of high-frequency ocean tides. Prograde and retrograde polar motion coefficients are obtained for several solutions differing in processing strategies (with/without thermal deformation, time span of observations, choice of a priori ERP model and celestial pole offsets) and we compare the corresponding harmonics with those derived from atmospheric and non-tidal oceanic angular momentum estimates.

  2. Parallel algorithm of VLBI software correlator under multiprocessor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weimin; Zhang, Dong

    2007-11-01

    The correlator is the key signal processing equipment of a Very Lone Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) synthetic aperture telescope. It receives the mass data collected by the VLBI observatories and produces the visibility function of the target, which can be used to spacecraft position, baseline length measurement, synthesis imaging, and other scientific applications. VLBI data correlation is a task of data intensive and computation intensive. This paper presents the algorithms of two parallel software correlators under multiprocessor environments. A near real-time correlator for spacecraft tracking adopts the pipelining and thread-parallel technology, and runs on the SMP (Symmetric Multiple Processor) servers. Another high speed prototype correlator using the mixed Pthreads and MPI (Massage Passing Interface) parallel algorithm is realized on a small Beowulf cluster platform. Both correlators have the characteristic of flexible structure, scalability, and with 10-station data correlating abilities.

  3. Development of a New VLBI Data Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Sergei; Gipson, John M.; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of a new VLBI analysis software under development at NASA GSFC. The new software will replace CALC/SOLVE and many related utility programs. It will have the capabilities of the current system as well as incorporate new models and data analysis techniques. In this paper we give a conceptual overview of the new software. We formulate the main goals of the software. The software should be flexible and modular to implement models and estimation techniques that currently exist or will appear in future. On the other hand it should be reliable and possess production quality for processing standard VLBI sessions. Also, it needs to be capable of processing observations from a fully deployed network of VLBI2010 stations in a reasonable time. We describe the software development process and outline the software architecture.

  4. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  5. Local Geoid Modelling using Astro-geodetic Camera System and GNSS/Leveling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Deniz, Rasim; Ozener, Haluk; Tevfik Ozludemir, M.; Albayrak, Muge

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic astronomy provides regional and local interpretations of the gravity field of the earth with deflections of the vertical components. Recently astro-geodetic data is used with combination of leveling, GNSS, and gravity (aerial, terrestrial) observations for validation purposes. Modern tools were developed in Europe and Asia as digital zenith camera systems (DZCS) and now it is possible to determine precise deflections of the vertical data with an accuracy of ±0.1 - 0.3 arc seconds. GNSS/Leveling geoid of Istanbul was modeled in 2005 with an accuracy of ±3.5 cm and needs to be improved using additional data such as astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical. This study presents the recent observations performed using DZCS of Turkey. The accuracy of the system was tested with GNSS/Leveling geoid model and the results were compared with geoid height differences and global geopotential models. We also introduce a new project that includes modernization of current astro-geodetic camera system, and the observations that are planned on a larger test network. In this respect, new observations are going to be performed on a test network with 25 points using astro-geodetic data, and the geoid height differences will be obtained in order to improve local geoid model of Istanbul.

  6. Historical Review of Astro-Geodetic Observations in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Delcev, S.; Vasilic, V.; Gucevic, J.

    2008-10-01

    Astro-geodetic determinations of vertical deflections in Serbia began during the first years of 20th century. The first field works were led by S. Bo\\vsković. After the 2nd World War, Military Geographic Institute, Department of Geodesy from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Federal Geodetic Directorate continued the determinations, needed for reductions of terrestrial geodetic measurements and the astro-geodetic geoid determination. Last years improvements of the astro-geodetic methods are carried out in the area of implementing modern measurement equipment and technologies.

  7. Observation VLBI Session RAPL02. the Results of the Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuprikov, A. A.

    Results of processing of data of a VLBI experiment titled RAPL02 are presented. These observations were made in 2011 February with 5 antennas. All 3 antennas of Petersberg's Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA) were used in this session. These were antennae in Svetloe, in Zelenchuck, and in Badary. Additionally, a 22-m antenna in Puschino as well as a 32-m antenna in Medicina (Italy) were also included into observations. The raw data correlation was made at the software correlator of Astro Space Center. The secondary data processing was made for 3 quasars, 3C273, 3C279, and 3C286.

  8. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  9. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  10. Phase reference VLBI astrometry fro Mira-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisuka, Kazuya; Miyoshi, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    We carried out phase reference VLBI observations at 43 GHz between SiO masers in Mira type variables and adjacent extragalactic continuum source with VLBA. Main aim of this obervation is determination of spatial distribution between SiO maser spots at υ=1 and υ=2, J=1→0 transition. Although the standard calibration was successful for each source, the phase reference calibration have not been successful. However, we will determine the absolute positional difference of each SiO maser spot within about 1 milliarcsecond due to the structure effect of reference source if the phase reference VLBI is successful.

  11. New Project for Constructing a VLBI2010 Antenna in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, Y.; Ishihara, M.; Kuroda, J.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kawabata, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has started a new project for constructing a VLBI2010 antenna (radio telescope) in Japan. The basic design of the specifications of the antenna has been investigated. The observation system will be fully compliant with the VLBI2010 concept. The candidate site for the location of the new antenna is near Tsukuba. The antenna will be installed at the site by the end of next fiscal year (March 2013). We briefly report about the results of the investigations for the design of the antenna specifications.

  12. e-VLBI observations of Cyg X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Fender, R.; Spencer, R.; Garrett, M.; Rushton, A.

    2008-04-01

    We observed the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 on April 9th, 2008 for 9.5 hours, between 03:30-13:00 UT, at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in e-VLBI mode (the data from the radio telescopes are sent over optical fibers in real-time to the correlator for processing). The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Cambridge, Medicina, Jodrell Bank MkII, Onsala (25 m), Torun and Westerbork (phased array).

  13. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.

    2008-11-01

    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 433 is in outburst. Trushkin & Nizhelskij (ATel #1819) reported a major flare already active during the RATAN-600 observations in the 1-22 GHz band on 2008 October 28.

  14. The Laurentide Ice Sheet at LGM: Space Geodetic and Absolute Gravity Observations Require a Multi-domed Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.

    2002-05-01

    Although surface geomorphological evidence has continued to suggest that the LGM form of the LIS was multi-domed, both explicit ice-mechanics based reconstructions such as that produced in the CLIMAP project, and models based upon the inversion of relative sea level observations such as ICE-4G(VM2), have led to the inference of single domed structures. Three recent sets of observations related to the isostatic adjustment process require that these single domed reconstructions be abandoned. The first of these consists of the VLBI based measurement of the rate of present day vertical motion at Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories of Canada, demonstrating that the rate predicted by the ICE-4G(VM2) model is more than a factor of two less than observed(Argus et al., 1999). The second consists of absolute gravity measurements on a traverse south from Churchill on Hudson Bay across the southern margin of the former LIS into the United States(Lambert et al., 2001). Finally there is the recent demonstration that the ICE-4G reconstruction of the process of post-LGM deglaciation has too little LGM mass (Peltier,2002). Analyses to be presented in this paper show that the additional LGM ice required by the latter analysis very precisely suffices to reconcile the misfits to the first two sets of observations when it is placed in a Keewatin Dome centred over the Yellowknife region. The resulting model of the LGM form of the LIS is then very close to that originally suggested by Dyke and Prest (1987). This modified form of the ICE-4G model is viable if and only if the depth dependence of mantle viscosity is very close to VM2. Models with higher viscosity in the lower mantle are ruled out by the data as they overpredict both the space geodetic and absolute gravity observations when ice thickness over Keewatin is significantly increased so as to satisfy far field requirements concerning the eustatic sea level depression at LGM.

  15. A solution of the geodetic boundary value problem to order e3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A solution is obtained for the geodetic boundary value problem which defines height anomalies to + or - 5 cm, if the earth were rigid. The solution takes into account the existence of the earth's topography, together with its ellipsoidal shape and atmosphere. A relation is also established between the commonly used solution of Stokes and a development correct to order e cubed. The data requirements call for a complete definition of gravity anomalies at the surface of the earth and a knowledge of elevation characteristics at all points exterior to the geoid. In addition, spherical harmonic representations must be based on geocentric rather than geodetic latitudes.

  16. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. I. OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, I. I.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We describe the NASA/Stanford gyroscope relativity mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B), and provide an overview of the following series of six astrometric and astrophysical papers that report on our radio observations and analyses made in support of this mission. The main goal of this 8.5 year program of differential very long baseline interferometry astrometry was to determine the proper motion of the guide star of the GP-B mission, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (IM Peg; HR 8703). This proper motion is determined with respect to compact, extragalactic reference sources. The results are -20.833 {+-} 0.090 mas yr{sup -1} and -27.267 {+-} 0.095 mas yr{sup -1} for, respectively, the right ascension and declination, in local Cartesian coordinates, of IM Peg's proper motion, and 10.370 {+-} 0.074 mas (i.e., 96.43 {+-} 0.69 pc) for its parallax (and distance). Each quoted uncertainty is meant to represent an {approx}70% confidence interval that includes the estimated contribution from systematic error. These results are accurate enough not to discernibly degrade the GP-B estimates of its gyroscopes' relativistic precessions: the frame-dragging and geodetic effects.

  17. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N. ); Shahid-Saless, B. )

    1990-08-15

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism.

  18. Volcano deformation--Geodetic monitoring techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    This book describes the techniques used by volcanologists to successfully predict several recent volcanic eruptions by combining information from various scientific disciplines, including geodetic techniques. Many recent developments in the use of state-of-the-art and emerging techniques, including Global Positioning System and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, mean that most books on volcanology are out of date, and this book includes chapters devoted entirely to these two techniques.

  19. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1989-01-01

    In General Relativity, the Principle of General Covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. Here, it is shown that the geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, nonrotating mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect, in an appropriately chosen coordinate frame whose origin falls freely along with the gyroscope and whose spatial coordinate axes point in fixed directions.

  20. Effects of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake on VLBI Geode- tic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D.; Behrend, D.; Kurihara, S.

    2012-12-01

    The VLBI antenna TSUKUB32 at Tsukuba, Japan observes in 24-hour observing sessions once per week with the R1 operational network and on additional days with other networks on a more irregular basis. Further, the antenna is an endpoint of the single-baseline, 1-hr Intensive Int2 sessions observed on the weekends for the determination of UT1. TSUKUB32 returned to normal operational observing one month after the earthquake. The antenna is 160 km west and 240 km south of the epicenter of the Tohoku earthquake. We looked at the transient behavior of the TSUKUB32 position time series following the earthquake and found that significant deformation is continuing. The eastward rate relative to the long-term rate prior to the earthquake was about 20 cm/yr four months after the earthquake and 9 cm/yr after one year. The VLBI series agrees closely with the corresponding JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) GPS series measured by the co-located GPS antenna TSUK. The co-seismic UEN displacement at Tsukuba as determined by VLBI was (-90 mm, 640 mm, 44 mm). We examined the effect of the variation of the TSUKUB32 position on EOP estimates and then used the GPS data to correct its position for the estimation of UT1 in the Tsukuba-Wettzell Int2 Intensive experiments. For this purpose and to provide operational UT1, the IVS scheduled a series of weekend Intensive sessions observing on the Kokee-Wettzell baseline immediately before each of the two Tsukuba-Wettzell Intensive sessions. Comparisons between the UT1 estimates from these weekend sessions and the USNO (United States Naval Observatory) combination series were used to validate the GPS correction to the TSUKUB32 position.

  1. U.S. Naval Observatory VLBI Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boboltz, David A.; Fey, Alan L.; Geiger, Nicole; Dieck, Chris; Hall, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the VLBI Analysis Center at the United States Naval Observatory for the 2012 calendar year. Over the course of the year, Analysis Center personnel continued analysis and timely submission of IVS-R4 databases for distribution to the IVS. During the 2012 calendar year, the USNO VLBI Analysis Center produced two VLBI global solutions designated as usn2012a and usn2012b. Earth orientation parameters (EOP) based on this solution and updated by the latest diurnal (IVS-R1 and IVS-R4) experiments were routinely submitted to the IVS. Sinex files based upon the bi-weekly 24-hour experiments were also submitted to the IVS. During the 2012 calendar year, Analysis Center personnel continued a program to use the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) operated by the NRAO for the purpose of measuring UT1-UTC. Routine daily 1-hour duration Intensive observations were initiated using the VLBA antennas at Pie Town, NM and Mauna Kea, HI. High-speed network connections to these two antennas are now routinely used for electronic transfer of VLBI data over the Internet to a USNO point of presence. A total of 270 VLBA Intensive experiments were observed and electronically transferred to and processed at USNO in 2012.

  2. Space Science Applications of Near-field VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimo, G.; Molera Calves, G.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T.

    2013-09-01

    The core of the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is the accurate estimation of the state-vector of a spacecraft using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking. We will describe a number of implementations of the PRIDE technique presenting past and current experiments, and discussing the involvement of PRIDE in future ESA's missions.

  3. Warkworth 12-m VLBI Station: WARK12M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Stuart; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Natusch, Tim; Woodburn, Lewis; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    The Warkworth 12-m radio telescope is operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy and Space Research (IRASR) at AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. Here we review the characteristics of the 12-m VLBI station and report on a number of activities and technical developments in 2012.

  4. Differences Between VLBI2010 and S/X Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    While the overall architecture is similar for the station hardware in current S/X systems and in the VLBI2010 systems under development, various functions are implemented differently. Some of these differences, and the reasons behind them, are described here.

  5. About the Compatibility of DORIS and VLBI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Il'in, Gennady; Smolentsev, Sergey; Sergeev, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the compatibility of the DORIS and VLBI observations at Badary Observatory. The DORIS beacon stands at 100-m distance from the main radio telescope dish and transmits signals on two frequencies: 2036.25 MHz and 401.25 MHz. The latter frequency is modulated to send messages containing an ID number, timing information, data from the meteorological sensors, and engineering data (e.g., power). Both frequencies affect the S/X band radio telescope receivers. The parameters of the DORIS signals were measured at the outputs of the S/X band intermediate frequency amplifier. It was found that: (1) The level of RFI, produced by the DORIS beacon, practically corresponds to the level of the system (antenna plus receiver) noise signal and does not overload the S/X band receivers. (2) The DORIS 401.25 MHz signal is out of the frequency bands recorded during standard VLBI sessions. As a result, RFI from DORIS does not affect VLBI observations. This conclusion was confirmed after data correlations of actual VLBI observations that were conducted with the DORIS beacon turned on/off.

  6. Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.

    PubMed Central

    Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

    1995-01-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars. PMID:11607602

  7. Position Corrections due to Uncalibrated GNSS Antenna Radomes at IGS Co-located Geodetic Observing Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, I.; Rebischung, P.; Ray, J.; Schmid, R.; Fisher, S.; Griffiths, J.

    2013-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) through the Infrastructure Committee, the Analysis Center Coordinator, the Antenna Working Group, the Reference Frame Working Group and the Central Bureau have organized a campaign from 2011 to 2013 to analyze the unknown bias in the estimated position for co-located stations due to an uncalibrated radome over the GNSS antenna. Co-located stations have more than one geodetic technique present (GNSS, VLBI, SLR, etc.) and they are a critical element for the realisation of the ITRF. Due to the use of uncalibrated radomes over the GNSS antennas at these important sites the "local ties' between techniques do not have the expected accuracy, and therefore a campaign to analyze the different radome effects was planned and executed at many of the affected IGS stations. The proposed approach is an expedient way to mitigate empirically an unwanted situation with these uncalibrated radomes in the IGS station network so as to try to improve the historic position time series of these stations for the next ITRF realisation. The process has involved removing the uncalibrated radome for a significant number of weeks and then putting the radome back on in the exact same position. The investigation proceeds with dedicated PPP analyses from different sources plus a detailed analysis of the weekly IGS station position combinations. This poster presents the campaign approach, the participating stations and the results. Co-located IGS GNSS sites with uncalibrated radomes

  8. The Acceleration of the Barycenter of Solar System Obtained from VLBI Observations and Its Impact on the ICRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    Since 1998 January 1, instead of the traditional stellar reference system, the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) has been realized by an ensemble of extragalactic radio sources that are located at hundreds of millions of light years away (if we accept their cosmological distances), so that the reference frame realized by extragalactic radio sources is assumed to be space-fixed. The acceleration of the barycenter of solar system (SSB), which is the origin of the ICRS, gives rise to a systematical variation in the directions of the observed radio sources. This phenomenon is called the secular aberration drift. As a result, the extragalactic reference frame fixed to the space provides a reference standard for detecting the secular aberration drift, and the acceleration of the barycenter with respect to the space can be determined from the observations of extragalactic radio sources. In this thesis, we aim to determine the acceleration of the SSB from astrometric and geodetic observations obtained by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), which is a technique using the telescopes globally distributed on the Earth to observe a radio source simultaneously, and with the capacity of angular positioning for compact radio sources at 10-milliarcsecond level. The method of the global solution, which allows the acceleration vector to be estimated as a global parameter in the data analysis, is developed. Through the formal error given by the solution, this method shows directly the VLBI observations' capability to constrain the acceleration of the SSB, and demonstrates the significance level of the result. In the next step, the impact of the acceleration on the ICRS is studied in order to obtain the correction of the celestial reference frame (CRF) orientation. This thesis begins with the basic background and the general frame of this work. A brief review of the realization of the CRF based on the kinematical and the dynamical methods is presented in Chapter 2

  9. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  10. Ostrogradski Hamiltonian approach for geodetic brane gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto

    2010-12-07

    We present an alternative Hamiltonian description of a branelike universe immersed in a flat background spacetime. This model is named geodetic brane gravity. We set up the Regge-Teitelboim model to describe our Universe where such field theory is originally thought as a second order derivative theory. We refer to an Ostrogradski Hamiltonian formalism to prepare the system to its quantization. This approach comprize the manage of both first- and second-class constraints and the counting of degrees of freedom follows accordingly.

  11. Absolute Geodetic Rotation Measurement Using Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, J. K.; Takase, K.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2011-09-23

    We demonstrate a cold-atom interferometer gyroscope which overcomes accuracy and dynamic range limitations of previous atom interferometer gyroscopes. We show how the instrument can be used for precise determination of latitude, azimuth (true north), and Earth's rotation rate. Spurious noise terms related to multiple-path interferences are suppressed by employing a novel time-skewed pulse sequence. Extended versions of this instrument appear capable of meeting the stringent requirements for inertial navigation, geodetic applications of Earth's rotation rate determination, and tests of general relativity.

  12. Baseline mathematics and geodetics for tracking operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R.

    1981-01-01

    Various geodetic and mapping algorithms are analyzed as they apply to radar tracking systems and tested in extended BASIC computer language for real time computer applications. Closed-form approaches to the solution of converting Earth centered coordinates to latitude, longitude, and altitude are compared with classical approximations. A simplified approach to atmospheric refractivity called gradient refraction is compared with conventional ray tracing processes. An extremely detailed set of documentation which provides the theory, derivations, and application of algorithms used in the programs is included. Validation methods are also presented for testing the accuracy of the algorithms.

  13. Positioning Reduction of Deep Space Probes Based on VLBI Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    In the background of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Project and the Yinghuo Project, through theoretical analysis, algorithm study, software development, data simulation, real data processing and so on, the positioning reductions of the European lunar satellite Smart-1 and Mars Express (MEX) satellite, as well as the Chinese Chang'e-1 (CE-1) and Chang'e-2 (CE-2) satellites are accomplished by using VLBI and USB tracking data in this dissertation. The progress is made in various aspects including the development of theoretical model, the construction of observation equation, the analysis of the condition of normal equation, the selection and determination of the constraint, the analysis of data simulation, the detection of outliers in observations, the maintenance of the stability of the solution of parameters, the development of the practical software system, the processing of the real tracking data and so on. The details of the research progress in this dissertation are written as follows: (1) The algorithm is analyzed concerning the positioning reduction of the deep spacecraft based on VLBI tracking data. Through data simulation, it is analyzed for the effects of the bias in predicted orbit, the white noises and systematic errors in VLBI delays, and USB ranges on the positioning reduction of spacecraft. Results show that it is preferable to suppress the dispersion of positioning data points by applying the constraint of geocentric distance of spacecraft when there are only VLBI tracking data. The positioning solution is a biased estimate via observations of three VLBI stations. For the case of four tracking stations, the uncertainty of the constraint should be in accordance with the bias in the predicted orbit. White noises in delays and ranges mainly result in dispersion of the sequence of positioning data points. If there is the systematic error of observations, the systematic offset of the positioning results is caused, and there are trend jumps in the shape of

  14. Measuring Crustal Deformation in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that there is a close relationship between deformation in the western United States and the large-scale motions of tectonic plates. Introduces very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) as one of the space-geodetic techniques, vector addition of the VLBI data and geological data, and a new geodetic network. (YP)

  15. GNSS Absolute Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and compare absolute calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.

  16. Absolute GNSS Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G.; Bilich, A.; Geoghegan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an absolute antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS absolute calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS absolute phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other absolute antenna calibration facilities, and outline future planned refinements to the system.

  17. An analysis and intercomparison of VLBI nutation estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Sovers, O. J.

    1986-01-01

    Nutation estimates from long duration VLBI experiments conducted by the Deep Space Network and reduced at JPL were compared with similar estimates from the IRIS/Polaris data reduced at Harvard. The two series were found to have an rms difference of 1.6 milliarcsec or less, and both exhibited the existence of seasonal errors in the IAU 1980 nutation theory. Most of the observed seasonal discrepancies could be removed by changing the period of the free core resonance to 431.5 solar days. The VLBI data constrain the resonance damping time to be at least one decade, and possibly much longer. Any free core nutation has an amplitude of less than 1 milliarcsec. Crude estimates of the atmospheric forcing of this resonance indicate that meteorological forcing could easily explain the observed free core nutation.

  18. Using GPS and VLBI technology to maintain 14 digit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the navigation of spacecraft to the outer planets, Jupiter and beyond, the JPL-NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has implemented three ensembles of atomic clocks at widely separated locations. These clocks must be maintained, synchronized, to with a few parts in 10 to the 13th power of each other and, the entire group must be maintained, to a lesser degree, in synchronism with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)NBS/USNO. Over the last 1 1/2 years the DSN has been using Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technology to perform these critical Frequency and Time (F&T) synchronization tasks. A year of F&T synchronization data collected from the intercomparison of 3 sets of cesium and hydrogen maser driven clock ensembles through the use of GPS and VLBI techniques are covered. Also covered, are some of the problems met and limitations of these two techniques at their present level of technology.

  19. Implementation and Testing of VLBI Software Correlation at the USNO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fey, Alan; Ojha, Roopesh; Boboltz, Dave; Geiger, Nicole; Kingham, Kerry; Hall, David; Gaume, Ralph; Johnston, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Washington Correlator (WACO) at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) is a dedicated VLBI processor based on dedicated hardware of ASIC design. The WACO is currently over 10 years old and is nearing the end of its expected lifetime. Plans for implementation and testing of software correlation at the USNO are currently being considered. The VLBI correlation process is, by its very nature, well suited to a parallelized computing environment. Commercial off-the-shelf computer hardware has advanced in processing power to the point where software correlation is now both economically and technologically feasible. The advantages of software correlation are manifold but include flexibility, scalability, and easy adaptability to changing environments and requirements. We discuss our experience with and plans for use of software correlation at USNO with emphasis on the use of the DiFX software correlator.

  20. On the monitoring model of reference point of VLBI antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, J.

    2013-08-01

    By parameterizing the rotation of VLBI antenna and modeling in local control network the coordinates of targets fixed on the antenna, it is expected to perform fully automatic monitoring of antenna parameters without any interference to normal operations of the telescope. Some insights and analysis are presented concerning the mathematical monitoring model, the setting of parameters and selection of constraints to the observation equation, which are verified via data simulation analysis to be rational and effective. Some factors which may affect the estimation precision of antenna parameters are analyzed in order to design and develop monitoring procedure, data analysis software and to make necessary preparation to practical application of the new monitoring concept of VLBI antenna.

  1. Geodetic control of neotectonics in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Heinz G.

    1983-09-01

    Net installations for measurements of movement started in 1973 along the Bocono Fault, which is the main fault in the Venezuelan Andes. Investigations of horizontal movements are made on three locations along this fault: Mucubaji at 3700 m height, Mitisus at 1700 m and Yacambu at 700 m. At Mucubaji there are two nets with 8 stations each and at Mitisus we have three nets represented by 29 stations. Each station has a concrete pillar with a forced centering device on top and has a 1-4 m 3 concrete plaform. These nets were measured several times, giving resulting difference vectors of a range of several cm. One of these nets is also a control net of a hydroelectrical Power Dam, installed near the fault trace. At Yacambu we have a 26 km extended tunnel net which is crossing the fault. This net was measured twice with difference vectors up to 6 cm. In the Maracaibo Basin Area the vertical component of subsidence due to oil extraction reaches 5 m as a result of continuous movements since 1925. Gravimetric research is also carried out over all the mentioned locations. In cooperation with the Universities of Hannover and Stuttgart and the German Geodetic Research Institute a programme was started to determine the geoid and deflections of the vertical in the high Andes mountains, especially around the Mucubaji fault site. Parallel to and in combination with these geodetic investigations seismological studies are carried out by a geophysical group from Merida University, Venezuela.

  2. Determination of the inner planet frame tie using VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of connecting the independent reference frames formed by the planetary ephemeris and the radio source catalog is one of growing importance to spacecraft navigation. Using quasar-relative VLBI delay data collected by the Deep Space Network, and Soviet coherent data from the Venus flyby of the Soviet Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft, a self-consistent estimate of the frame tie offset has been found, along with its uncertainty.

  3. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  4. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    A digital base band converter (DBBC) system has been developed by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (Noto, Italy) for increasing the sensitivity of European VLBI Network (EVN) by expanding the full observed bandwidth using numerical methods. The output data rate of this VLBI-backend is raised from 1 to 4 Gbps for each radiotelescope. All operations related to the signal processing (frequency translation, amplification, frequency generation with local oscillators, etc.) are transferred to the digital domain, which allows - in addition to well-known advantages coming from digital technologies - achieving better repeatability, precision, simplicity, etc. The maximum input band of DBBC system is 3.5 GHz, and the instantaneous bandwidth is up to 1 GHz for each radio frequency/intermediate frequency (RF/IF) out of the eight possible. This backend is a highly powerful platform for other radioastronomy applications, and a number of additional so-called personalities have been developed and used. This includes PFB (polyphase filter bank) receivers and Spectra for high resolution spectroscopy. An additional new development with the same aim - to use the DBBC system as a multi-purpose backend - is related to the bi-static radar observations including Radar VLBI. In such observations it is possible to study the population of space debris, with detection of even centimetre class fragments. A powerful transmitter is used to illuminate the sky region to be analyzed, and the echoes coming from known or unknown objects are reflected to one or more groundbased telescopes thus producing a single-dish or interferometric detection. The DBBC Radar VLBI personality is able to realize a high-resolution spectrum analysis, maintaining in the central area the echo signal at the expected frequency including the Doppler shift of frequency. For extremely weak signals a very large integration time is needed, so for this personality different input parameters are provided. The realtime information

  5. Planning of an Experiment for VLBI Tracking of GNSS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza; Hass, Ruediger; Molera, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    As a preparation for future possible orbit determination of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) satellites by VLBI observations an initial three-station experiment was planned and performed in January 2009. The goal was to get first experience and to verify the feasibility of using the method for accurate satellite tracking. GNSS orbits related to a satellite constellation can be expressed in the Terrestrial Reference Frame. A comparison with orbit results that might be obtained by VLBI can give valuable information on how the GNSS reference frame and the VLBI reference frame are linked. We present GNSS transmitter specifications and experimental results of the observations of some GLONASS satellites together with evaluations for the expected signal strengths at telescopes. The satellite flux densities detected on the Earth s surface are very high. The narrow bandwidth of the GNSS signal partly compensates for potential problems at the receiving stations, and signal attenuation is necessary. Attempts to correlate recorded data have been performed with different software.

  6. Navigation of the space VLBI mission-HALCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung Han; Ellis, Jordan; Mottinger, Neil

    1998-01-01

    In February 1997, the Japanese Space Agency ISAS launched the first space VLBI satellite, HALCA, with an 8 meter diameter wire mesh antenna and radio astronomy receivers capable of observing at 1.6, 4.8, and 22 Ghz. In a 560 by 21000 km orbit with a 6 hour period and 31 degree inclination, it observes celestial radio sources in conjunction with a world wide network of ground radio telescopes as part of an international collaborative effort which includes facilities in Japan, the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Europe. JPL is providing tracking and navigation support using a dedicated subnet of 11 meter antennas as well as co-observations using the DSN 70 meter antennas. This paper describes the spacecraft dynamics model and orbit determination strategies developed to meet the stringent trajectory accuracy requirements for generating predictions for the transfer of a stable uplink frequency to the spacecraft and for determining reconstructed orbits for delivery to the NRAO VLBI correlator and the international VLBI science community.

  7. Review of Space VLBI RadioAstron studies of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, Leonid; Kovalev, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    Space VLBI offers an unrivalled resolution in studies of the AGN phenomena. Since 2011, the Russia-led SVLBI mission RadioAstron conducts observations at 92, 18, 6 and 1.3 cm with baselines an order of magnitude longer than the Earth diameter, therefore offering an order of magnitude "sharper" view at the brightest radio sources than achieved with Earth-based VLBI systems. In our presentation we will review the current status of the RadioAstron's scientific programme. Over the first 4.5 years of the in-orbit operations, the mission achieved successful VLBI detections of extragalactic continuum radio sources at all four observing bands. To date, detections on SVLBI baselines have been obtained for more than 150 AGN's at projected baselines up to 350 000 km (about 28 Earth diameters, ED). The highest resolution achieved is 14 microarcscends from 1.3 cm observations. RadioAstron is an international project; it conducts observations with up to 30 Earth-based radio telescopes located on different continents. We will review results of total intensity and polarisation imaging with extreme angular resolution of blazars and nearby active galaxies. We will also discuss typical and maximum brightness temperatures of blazar cores from the AGN Survey obtained with RadioAstron. Physical implications for the AGN jets formation, magnetic field and emission mechanism will be discussed on the basis of the results obtained to date.

  8. Probing spacetime around Sagittarius A* using modeled VLBI closure phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga-Encinas, R.; Mościbrodzka, M.; Brinkerink, C.; Falcke, H.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The emission region and black hole shadow of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center, can be probed with millimeter Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Aims: Our goal is to probe the geometry of the emitting plasma around Sgr A* by using modeled mm-VLBI closure phase calculations at 1.3 mm and to constrain the observer's inclination angle and position angle of the black hole spin axis. Methods: We have simulated images for three different models of the emission of Sgr A*: an orbiting spot, a disk model, and a jet model. The orbiting spot model was used as a test case scenario, while the disk and jet models are physically driven scenarios based on standard three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot accretion flows. Our results are compared to currently available closure phase observational limits. Results: Our results indicate that more models with closer to edge-on viewing angles are consistent with observational limits. In general, jet and disk geometries can reproduce similar closure phases for different sets of viewing and position angles. Consequently, the favored black hole spin orientation and its magnitude are strongly model dependent. Conclusions: We find that both the jet and the disk models can explain current VLBI limits. We conclude that new observations at 1.3 mm and possibly at longer wavelengths including other triangles of VLBI baselines are necessary to interpret Sgr A* emission and the putative black hole spin parameters.

  9. Postglacial Rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Difficulty in establishing a reference frame fixed to the earth's interior complicates the measurement of the vertical (radial) motions of the surface. I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier]. The optimal translation of the geocenter is 1.7mm/year toward 36degN, 111degE when determined from the motions of 10 VLBI sites. This translation gives a better fit of observations to predictions than does the VLBI reference frame used by Ma and Ryan, but the improvement is statistically insignificant. The root mean square of differences decreases 20% to 0.73 mm/yr and the correlation coefficient increases from 0.76 to 0.87. Postglacial rebound is evident in the uplift of points in Sweden and Ontario that were beneath the ancient ice sheets of Fennoscandia and Canada, and in the subsidence of points in the northeastern U.S., Germany, and Alaska that were around the periphery of the ancient ice sheets.

  10. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main-sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  11. VLBI terrestrial reference frame contributions to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böckmann, Sarah; Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.

    2010-03-01

    In late 2008, the Product Center for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) issued a call for contributions to the next realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System, ITRF2008. The official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to ITRF2008 consists of session-wise datum-free normal equations of altogether 4,539 daily Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions from 1979.7 to 2009.0 including data of 115 different VLBI sites. It is the result of a combination of individual series of session-wise datum-free normal equations provided by seven analysis centers (ACs) of the IVS. All series are completely reprocessed following homogeneous analysis options according to the IERS Conventions 2003 and IVS Analysis Conventions. Altogether, nine IVS ACs analyzed the full history of VLBI observations with four different software packages. Unfortunately, the contributions of two ACs, Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA) and Geoscience Australia (AUS), had to be excluded from the combination process. This was mostly done because the IAA series exhibits a clear scale offset while the solution computed from normal equations contained in the AUS SINEX files yielded unreliable results. Based on the experience gathered since the combination efforts for ITRF2005, some discrepancies between the individual series were discovered and overcome. Thus, the consistency of the individual VLBI solutions has improved considerably. The agreement in terms of WRMS of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) horizontal components is 1 mm, of the height component 2 mm. Comparisons between ITRF2005 and the combined TRF solution for ITRF2008 yielded systematic height differences of up to 5 mm with a zonal signature. These differences can be related to a pole tide correction referenced to a zero mean pole used by four of five IVS ACs in the ITRF2005

  12. Analysis of the geodetic residuals as differences between geodetic and sum of the atmospheric and ocean excitation of polar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolaczek, B.; Pasnicka, M.; Nastula, J.

    2012-12-01

    Up to now studies of geophysical excitation of polar motion containing AAM (Atmospheric Angular Momentum), OAM (Oceanic Angular Momentum) and HAM (Hydrological Angular Momentum) excitation functions of polar motion have not achieved the total agreement between geophysical and determined geodetic excitation (GAM, Geodetic AngularMomentum) functions of polar motion...

  13. Frequency dependence of long-period tidal factors determined from gravity and space geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Nilsson, T.; Doi, K.; Aoyama, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle inelasticity of the earth cause the frequency dependence on zonal tidal signals. In particular, because inelastic effects of the medium of the Earth become larger for lower frequencies (Wahr, 1985) and the long-periods tides have their maximum values at the poles, tidal observations and analysis of long-period at high latitudes is advantageous for studying the dissipative properties in the Earth (Iwano et al., 2005). From this view point, Sato et al. (1995) and Iwano et al. (2005) analyzed the data of the gravity observations using superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Syowa Station in Antarctica. However, they concluded that the residuals from theory is mainly due to the inaccurate ocean models for ocean tidal loading correction. Recently, new two ocean tide models (FES2012 and TPXO8-atlas) were developed, which provide long-period ocean tide information. Thus, we reanalyzed the gravity data of Syowa Station using these new ocean tide models for ocean loading correction, and evaluated the gravimetric factors (δ). The estimated gravimetric factors are 1.15822 (FES2012) and 1.15541 (TPXO8-atlas) for Mm and 1.15396 and 1.15405 for Mf. Meanwhile, the zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew and Farrell (1978) were also estimated using zonal tidal signals with periods from 5 to 35 days in dUT1 (UTC-UT1), a tidally induced variation of the rotation rate of the Earth. This coefficient show also the frequency dependent zonal response. In this study, the values of estimated κ for different tidal frequencies from dUT1 observed by VLBI were compared to theory and to the results of previous determinations of κ from observations of space geodetic techniques. We used VieVs (Vienna VLBI Software) program for the estimation of dUT1 and processed all 24 hours from 1984 to 2012 and also processed the IERS C04 dUT1 series. These time series of dUT1 data were subtracted by the UT1 variations from atmospheric, hydrologic, and

  14. Joint Tracking of Chang'E-1 with VLBI and USB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaogong

    Chinese lunar exploration mission Chang'E-I made use of a Chinese Unified S-Band (USB) system and a network of four Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) antennas to meet the orbit determination/predication requirements of spacecraft tracking and scientific data analysis, which for the first time handled telemetry and control for a spacecraft at a distance of about 380,000 km. Chang'E-1 provided a perfect chance to quantify the contributions of VLBI to orbit determination/predication, and to test and evaluate the performance of the USB-VLBI joint system. We investigate in this paper the quality of the data and analyze the precision of orbit determination with different data arcs and data combinations during the 2-week journey from Earth to Chang'E-1's lunar mission orbit, using GEODYN II orbit determination software. The residuals of VLBI delay is about 3 ns (RMS, root-mean-squares), the residuals of VLBI delay-rate is about 0.6 ps/s, the residuals of ranging is about 1 2 m and Doppler is about 1 cm/s. Three flight phases are invistigated, namely 3 phasing orbits near Earth, the translunar trajectory and the lunar catputed orbits. We found including of VLBI data substantially improved orbit precision for short data arcs, therefore VLBI played an important role in assessing spacecraft manuvore performance. Given the differential nature of VLBI observables and their errors mostly from BBC's nonlinear phase-frequency responses, it appears for longer data arcs the VLBI contribution is relatively minor. We conclude that for Chang'E-I, the inclusion of VLBI data improved substantially the performance of orbit determination and prediction, even though the VLBI data acquisition and correlation imposes a major burden on data processing.

  15. Estimation of Geodetic and Geodynamical Parameters with VieVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicakova, Hana; Bohm, Johannes; Bohm, Sigrid; Nilsson, tobias; Pany, Andrea; Plank, Lucia; Teke, Kamil; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008 the VLBI group at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at TU Vienna has focused on the development of a new VLBI data analysis software called VieVS (Vienna VLBI Software). One part of the program, currently under development, is a unit for parameter estimation in so-called global solutions, where the connection of the single sessions is done by stacking at the normal equation level. We can determine time independent geodynamical parameters such as Love and Shida numbers of the solid Earth tides. Apart from the estimation of the constant nominal values of Love and Shida numbers for the second degree of the tidal potential, it is possible to determine frequency dependent values in the diurnal band together with the resonance frequency of Free Core Nutation. In this paper we show first results obtained from the 24-hour IVS R1 and R4 sessions.

  16. A preliminary geodetic data model for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Our ability to gather and assimilate integrated data collections from multiple disciplines is important for earth system studies. Moreover, geosciences data collection has increased dramatically, with pervasive networks of observational stations on the ground, in the oceans, in the atmosphere and in space. Contemporary geodetic observations from several space and terrestrial technologies contribute to our knowledge of earth system processes and thus are a valuable source of high accuracy information for many global change studies. Assimilation of these geodetic observations and numerical models into models of weather, climate, oceans, hydrology, ice, and solid Earth processes is an important contribution geodesists can make to the earth science community. Clearly, the geodetic observations and models are fundamental to these contributions. ESRI wishes to provide leadership in the geodetic community to collaboratively build an open, freely available content specification that can be used by anyone to structure and manage geodetic data. This Geodetic Data Model will provide important context for all geographic information. The production of a task-specific geodetic data model involves several steps. The goal of the data model is to provide useful data structures and best practices for each step, making it easier for geodesists to organize their data and metadata in a way that will be useful in their data analyses and to their customers. Built on concepts from the successful Arc Marine data model, we introduce common geodetic data types and summarize the main thematic layers of the Geodetic Data Model. These provide a general framework for envisioning the core feature classes required to represent geodetic data in a geographic information system. Like Arc Marine, the framework is generic to allow users to build workflow or product specific geodetic data models tailored to the specific task(s) at hand. This approach allows integration of the data with other existing

  17. Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The slip distribution and seismic moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean earthquakes were estimated from tsunami and coastal geodetic data. These two earthquakes generated transoceanic tsunamis, and the waveforms were recorded around the Pacific Ocean. In addition, coseismic coastal uplift and subsidence were measured around the source areas. For the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, inversion of the tsunami waveforms recorded at nearby coastal tide gauge and Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) stations combined with coastal geodetic data suggest two asperities: a northern one beneath the coast of Constitucion and a southern one around the Arauco Peninsula. The total fault length is approximately 400 km with seismic moment of 1.7 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The offshore DART tsunami waveforms require fault slips beneath the coasts, but the exact locations are better estimated by coastal geodetic data. The 22 May 1960 earthquake produced very large, ~30 m, slip off Valdivia. Joint inversion of tsunami waveforms, at tide gauge stations in South America, with coastal geodetic and leveling data shows total fault length of ~800 km and seismic moment of 7.2 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.2). The seismic moment estimated from tsunami or joint inversion is similar to previous estimates from geodetic data, but much smaller than the results from seismic data analysis.

  18. Meteor detections at the Metsähovi Fundamental Geodetic Research Station (Finland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja-Halli, A.; Gritsevich, M.; Näränen, J.; Moreno-Ibáñez, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Virtanen, J.; Zubko, N.; Peltoniemi, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview and present some spectacular examples of the recent meteor observations at the Metsähovi Geodetic Research Station. In conjunction with the Finnish Fireball Network the all-sky images are used to reconstruct atmospheric trajectories and to calculate the pre-impact meteor orbits in the Solar System. In addition, intensive collaborative work is pursued with the meteor research groups worldwide. We foresee great potential of this activity also for educational and outreach purposes.

  19. Comparison of VLBI, TV and traveling clock techniques for time transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. H.; Waltman, E. B.; Johnston, K. J.; Santini, N. J.; Klepczynski, W. J.; Matsakis, D. N.; Angerhofer, P. E.; Kaplan, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A three part experiment was conducted to develop and compare time transfer techniques. The experiment consisted of (1) a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), (2) a high precision portable clock time transfer system between the two sites, and (3) a television time transfer. A comparison of the VLBI and traveling clock shows each technique can perform satisfactorily at the five nsec level. There was a systematic offset of 59 nsec between the two methods, which we attributed to a difference in epochs between VLBI formatter and station clock. The VLBI method had an internal random error of one nsec at the three sigma level for a two day period. Thus, the Mark II system performed well, and VLBI shows promise of being an accurate method of time transfer. The TV system, which had technical problems during the experiment, transferred time with a random error of about 50 nsec.

  20. Development of a New VLBI Sampler Unit Dedicated to e-VLBI for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Earth Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Koyama, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Kimura, M.

    2005-12-01

    National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has developed three models of VLBI samplers, ADS1000, ADS2000 and K5/VSSP, dedicated to near real-time VLBI observation (e-VLBI) through a high-speed network connection for monitoring earth orientation parameters. Among these three models, the K5/VSSP, which is designed to be a PCI bus board mountable on a general purpose PC, has broadened the base for VLBI users, i.e., any PC equipped with the K5/VSSP PCI-bus board can be a VLBI recorder, and the data transfer through the Internet is easily realized. With the advent of K5/VSSP the development of software correlator also greatly progressed. Recently we have developed a new VLBI sampler named K5/VSSP32 as a successor to the K5/VSSP. Maximum sampling frequency is increased up to 32MHz. When the number of quantization bit is limited to one, the sampling frequency of 64MHz is possible. Moreover USB 2.0 (Universal Serial Bus specification revision 2.0) is adopted as an interface to connect the sampler with a host PC. It is hence possible to use note book PCs for VLBI observations if it is desired. Specifications are summarized in Table 1. We will report the results of some test observations using K5/VSSP32 at the meeting. Table1. Specifications of VLBI samplers \\begin{tabular}{ccccc} \\hline model & ADS1000 & ADS2000 & K5/VSSP & K5/VSSP32 \\hline # of CH & 1 & 16 & 4 & 4 per unit & & & & Max & & & & sampling & 1024MHz & 64MHz & 16MHz & 32MHz frequency & & & & # of & 1,2 & 2 & 1,2,4,8 & 1,2,4,8 AD bits & & & & Max data rate & 2048Mbps & 2048Mbps & 64Mbps & 256Mbps per unit & & & & Output & VSI-H & VSI-H & PCI-bus & USB 2.0 \\hline

  1. High Frequency Earth Rotation Parameters from Continuous VLBI Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.

    2009-04-01

    In most cases, VLBI sessions have a duration of 24 hours, and, on average, three sessions are being scheduled every week. Starting in 1994, several campaigns of continuous VLBI observations (CONT) have been organized in irregular intervals. Recent CONT campaigns contain observations of the same network over a fortnightly timespan. The aim of these campaigns is to provide state-of-the-art VLBI observations continuously over a longer period than just one day. The most recent campaign (CONT08) has been scheduled for a network of 11 observatories and an increased recording rate of 512 Mbit per second. Furthermore, the observing schedules had been modified so that the necessary turn over pause of 30 minutes between two 24h sessions, scheduled at the same time for all sites in earlier CONTs, took place at all sites at staggered intervals. One of the main scientific goals of these sessions is to generate continuous sub-daily Earth rotation parameters (ERP) in order to uncover discrepancies between theoretical models and observations. In prior campaigns, deviations at the ter-diurnal band have been detected. The fact that these deviations have not been detectable in all CONT sessions so far could be a hint that further discrepancies may be revealed by the new session setup. As a first step in dealing with the new CONT08 data, we performed an assessment of the quality of the CONT08 sessions. In this presentation, we describe the new scheduling setup and we compare the derived sub-daily ERP to those derived in prior campaigns.

  2. Low-frequency VLBI in space and interstellar refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, B.; Booth, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    The proposed orbiting Quasat antenna, equipped with a low-frequency capability (e.g. 327 MHz), would be uniquely suited for studying refractive focusing (slow scintillation) in the interstellar medium, which is suspected of being responsible for at least some apparent low-frequency variability of extragalactic sources. The authors consider in some detail various technical considerations, including the decorrelating effects of the ionosphere and interplanetary medium, and conclude that low-frequency VLBI observations involving Quasat and Earth-based antennas would be feasible, particularly if sources are observed when they are in the anti-solar hemisphere.

  3. Ground-based VLBI observations of orbiters and landers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimo, G.; Duev, D.; Molera Calves, G.; Bocanegra Bohamon, T.; Pogrebenko, S.; Gurvits, L.

    2015-10-01

    Phase referencing near-field VLBI observations and radial Doppler measurements of spacecraft provide ultra-precise estimates of spacecraft state vectors. These measurements can be used for a variety of scientific applications, both fundamental and applied, including planetary science, improvement of ephemerides, ultra-precise celestial mechanics of planetary systems, gravimetry, spacecraft orbit determination, and fundamental physics. Precise determination of the lateral position of spacecraft on the celestial sphere is the main deliverable of the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE). This technique is complementary to radio science experiments and addresses those areas of spacecraft mission science objectives that require accurate estimation of spacecraft state vector.

  4. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  5. The state-of-the-art of Russian VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, A.; Smolentsev, S.; Salnikov, A.; Surkis, I.; Gayazov, I.; Kurdubov, S.; Rahimov, I.; Diakov, A.; Shpilevsky, V.; Melnikov, A.; Zimovsky, V.; Fedotov, L.; Skurikhina, E.

    2013-08-01

    The state-of-the-art of the of Russian VLBI network ''Quasar'' is presented. The observations are carried out within the scope of two domestic programs: Ru-U for the operational determination of Universal Time in near real-time and Ru-E for the determination of EOP from 24-hour sessions. Correlation of the data is performed at the IAA correlator ARC. The IAA analysis center performs data processing with the QUASAR and OCCAM/GROSS software packages. Since July 2012 we start everyday Ru-U observations. The results and analysis of this data is presented.

  6. Theory of post-block 2 VLBI observable extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen T.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the post-Block II fringe-fitting software called 'Fit' are described. The steps needed to derive the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) charged-particle corrected group delay, phase delay rate, and phase delay (the latter without resolving cycle ambiguities) are presented beginning with the set of complex fringe phasors as a function of observation frequency and time. The set of complex phasors is obtained from the JPL/CIT Block II correlator. The output of Fit is the set of charged-particle corrected observables (along with ancillary information) in a form amenable to the software program 'Modest.'

  7. AUV-aided Seafloor Geodetic Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Fujita, M.; Colombo, O. L.; Sato, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Zheng, H.; Nagahashi, K.

    2007-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and seafloor platform to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and seafloor platform make it possible to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Trial model of the on-board and the seafloor units were finished. Space-saving design for the on-board unit, which controls both acoustic ranging system and GPS, was one of big issues to be overcome. We reviewed the current system configuration and made it simple. It was miniaturized, and then it was put into two cylinders. The cylinder No.1 contains the PHINS (IXSEA), an inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyroscope technology. Another one, the cylinder No.2, contains the SF-2050M (NAVCOM Technology) GPS receiver and the acoustic ranging units. The original chassis of the SF-2050M was removed to minimize the volume of the unit and then only the electrical boards of the GPS receiver was installed into the cylinder No.2. There is no commercialized GPS antenna that can receive both L1 and L2 signals and has pressure capability of 2,000 m depth in the sea. Then we developed the pressure housing for the GPS antenna. The small size antenna corresponding to the L1 and L2 signals was installed in it. The transducer, for underwater acoustic ranging, employed on both the on-board and the seafloor units has been newly developed by Dr. Tom Ensign, Engineering acoustic Inc.. This transducer has a spherical

  8. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  9. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  10. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  11. Plate tectonics from VLBI and SLR global data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Robaudo, Stefano

    1992-01-01

    This study is based on data derived from fifteen years of observations of the SLR (side-looking radar) network and six years of the VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) network. In order to use all available information VLBI and SLR global data sets were combined in a least squares fashion to calculate station horizontal velocities. All significant data pertaining to a single site contribute to the station horizontal motion. The only constraint on the solution is that no vertical motion is allowed. This restriction does not greatly affect the precision of the overall solution given the fact that the expected vertical motion for most stations, even those experiencing post glacial uplift, is well under 1 cm/yr. Since the average baseline is under 4,000 km, only a small fraction of the station vertical velocity is translated into baseline rates so that the error introduced in the solution by restricting up-down station movement is minimal. As a reference, station velocities were then compared to the ones predicted by the NUVEL-1 geological model of DeMets et al. (1990). The focus of the study is on analyzing these discrepancies for global plate tectonics as well as regional tectonic settings. The method used also allows us not only to derive horizontal motion for individual stations but also to calculate Euler vectors for those plates that have enough stations located on the stable interior like North America, Pacific, Eurasia, and Australia.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Loading Service for VLBI and SLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, L.; Boy, J.

    2003-12-01

    Time series of 3D site displacements caused by atmospheric pressure loading are computed for all VLBI and SLR sites from May 1976 using 6-hourly pressure field with a spatial resolution of 2.5x2.5 degrees from NCEP Reanalysis. Atmospheric pressure tides are removed from the NCEP Reanalysis data. Loading due to atmospheric tides is computed separately using Ponte-Ray (2002) model. These series are automatically updated on a daily basis. They are available on the Web at http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/aplo . We have validated our model of atmospheric pressure loading by estimating the admittance factors of the pressure loading time series using the data set of 3.5 millions of VLBI observations. These admittance factors can be interpreted as correlation coefficients between the true (unknown) site displacements and our model. The average admittance factors are 0.95 -+ 0.02 for vertical displacement and 1.00 -+ 0.07 for the horizontal displacements. Closeness of these admittance factors to unity allows us to conclude that our model is adequate at the level of measurements noise.

  13. The VLBI time delay function for synchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1972-01-01

    The VLBI is a satellite tracking technique that to date was applied largely to the tracking of synchronous orbits. These orbits are favorable for VLBI in that the remote satellite range allows continuous viewing from widely separated stations. The primary observable, geometric time delay is the time difference for signal propagation between satellite and baseline terminals. Extraordinary accuracy in angular position data on the satellite can be obtained by observation from baselines of continental dimensions. In satellite tracking though the common objective is to derive orbital elements. A question arises as to how the baseline vector bears on the accuracy of determining the elements. Our approach to this question is to derive an analytic expression for the time delay function in terms of Kepler elements and station coordinates. The analysis, which is for simplicity based on elliptic motion, shows that the resolution for the inclination of the orbital plane depends on the magnitude of the baseline polar component and the resolution for in-plane elements depends on the magnitude of a projected equatorial baseline component.

  14. Amplitude Correction Factors of Korean VLBI Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3, NRAO~512, OJ 287, BL Lac, 3C 279, 1633+382, and 1510-089, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We find that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combination of two steps of 2-bit quantization in KVN observing systems and characteristics of Daejeon correlator.

  15. Precision VLBI astrometry: Instrumentation, algorithms and pulsar parallax determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, A. T.

    2009-02-01

    (Abridged) This thesis describes the development of DiFX, the first general-purpose software correlator for radio interferometry, and its use with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) to complete the largest VLBI pulsar astrometry program undertaken to date in the Southern Hemisphere. This two year astrometry program has resulted in the measurement of seven new pulsar parallaxes, more than trebling the number of measured VLBI pulsar parallaxes in the Southern Hemisphere. The measurements included a determination of the distance and transverse velocity of PSR J0437-4715 with better than 1% accuracy, enabling improved tests of General Relativity, and the first significant measurement of parallax for the famous double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B, which will allow tests of General Relativity in this system to proceed to the 0.01% level. The DiFX software correlator developed to enable this science has been extensively tested and is now an integral part of the upgraded LBA Major National Research Facility; furthermore, it has been selected to facilitate a substantial sensitivity upgrade for the US Very Long Baseline Array.

  16. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Observed with VLBI and SLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, D.; Peltier, W.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    In global geodetic solutions vertical rates of site motion are usually estimated relative to the geocenter (center of figure) of the solid earth. The velocity of the geocenter is estimated assuming that the plates are rigid, that the velocities of the plates equal those in NUVEL-1A (DeMets et al. 1990, 1994) and that the uplift, subsidence, and intraplate deformation due to glacial isostatic adjustment is negligible.

  17. Current Status of the Development of a Transportable and Compact VLBI System by NICT and GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, Atsutoshi; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Ujihara, Hideki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Kurihara, Shinobu; Miura, Yuji; Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Tanimoto, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometer for Baseline Length Evaluation) is under development by NICT and GSI. The main part of MARBLE is a transportable VLBI system with a compact antenna. The aim of this system is to provide precise baseline length over about 10 km for calibrating baselines. The calibration baselines are used to check and validate surveying instruments such as GPS receiver and EDM (Electro-optical Distance Meter). It is necessary to examine the calibration baselines regularly to keep the quality of the validation. The VLBI technique can examine and evaluate the calibration baselines. On the other hand, the following roles are expected of a compact VLBI antenna in the VLBI2010 project. In order to achieve the challenging measurement precision of VLBI2010, it is well known that it is necessary to deal with the problem of thermal and gravitational deformation of the antenna. One promising approach may be connected-element interferometry between a compact antenna and a VLBI2010 antenna. By measuring repeatedly the baseline between the small stable antenna and the VLBI2010 antenna, the deformation of the primary antenna can be measured and the thermal and gravitational models of the primary antenna will be able to be constructed. We made two prototypes of a transportable and compact VLBI system from 2007 to 2009. We performed VLBI experiments using theses prototypes and got a baseline length between the two prototypes. The formal error of the measured baseline length was 2.7 mm. We expect that the baseline length error will be reduced by using a high-speed A/D sampler.

  18. Geodetic Imaging of Glacio-Seismotectonic Processes in Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J.; Bruhn, R.; Forster, R.; Hofton, M.

    2008-12-01

    Across southern Alaska the northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin. Over the last couple of decades the rate of ongoing deformation associated with subduction and a locked main thrust zone has been estimated by geodetic measurements. In the last five years more extensive geodetic measurements, structural and tectonic field studies, thermochronolgy, and high-resolution lidar have been acquired and analyzed as part of the STEEP project [Pavlis et al., 2006]. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds remains uncertain, however, due to complex variations in the style of tectonic deformation, pervasive and changing glaciation, and the logistical challenges of conducting field studies in formidable topography. In this study, we analyze new high-resolution lidar data to extract locations, geometry, and heights of seismogenic faults and zones of active folding across the Malaspina-Seward-Bagley region of the southern Alaska plate boundary that is hypothesized to accommodate upper crustal shortening and right-lateral slip. Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar swath data acquired by Krabill et al. in the summer of 2005 and ICESat data (1993-present) cross a number of proposed faults and folds partially masked by glaciation, including the Malaspina thrust, Esker Creek, Chugach-St.Elias thrust, and Contact. Focal mechanisms from this region indicate mostly shallow (0-30 km) thrust and oblique strike-slip faulting. Similarly, rupture in the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) started as a shallow, north-dipping thrust that later changed to more steeply NE dipping with a large right-lateral strike-slip component. Additionally, we are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-Band SAR ice

  19. VLBI observations of SN 2011dh: imaging of the youngest radio supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Yang, J.; Marcaide, J. M.; Guirado, J. C.; Ros, E.; Alberdi, A.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Argo, M. K.; van der Horst, A. J.; Garrett, M. A.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the VLBI detection of supernova SN 2011dh at 22 GHz using a subset of the EVN array. The observations took place 14 days after the discovery of the supernova, thus resulting in a VLBI image of the youngest radio-loud supernova ever. We provide revised coordinates for the supernova with milli-arcsecond precision, linked to the ICRF. The recovered flux density is a factor ~2 below the EVLA flux density reported by other authors at the same frequency and epoch of our observations. This discrepancy could be due to extended emission detected with the EVLA or to calibration problems in the VLBI and/or EVLA observations.

  20. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 General Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the third General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astromctry IVS), held in Otlawa, Canada, February 9-11,2004. The keynote of the third GM was visions for the next decade following the main theme of "Today's Results and Tomorrow's Vision". with a recognition that the outstanding VLBI results available today are the foundation and motivation for the next generation VLBI system requirements. The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts.

  1. Submicrosecond comparison of international clock synchronization by VLBI and the NTS satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Wardrip, S. C.; Bussion, J.; Oaks, J.; Mccaskill, T.; Warren, H.; Whitworth, G.

    1979-01-01

    The intercontinental clock synchronization capabilities of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) were compared using both methods to synchronize the Cesium clocks at the NASA Deep Space Net complexes at Madrid, Spain and Goldstone, California. Verification of the accuracy of both systems was examined. The VLBI experiments used the Wideband VLBI Data Acquisition System developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The NTS Satellites were designed and built by the Naval Research Laboratory used with NTS Timing Receivers developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two methods agreed at about the one-half microsecond level.

  2. Data-adaptive detection of transient deformation in geodetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walwer, Damian; Calais, Eric; Ghil, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of dense and continuously operating Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) networks worldwide has led to a significant increase in geodetic data sets that sometimes capture transient-deformation signals. It is challenging, however, to extract such transients of geophysical origin from the background noise inherent to GNSS time series and, even more so, to separate them from other signals, such as seasonal redistributions of geophysical fluid mass loads. In addition, because of the very large number of continuously recording GNSS stations now available, it has become impossible to systematically inspect each time series and visually compare them at all neighboring sites. Here we show that Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA), a method derived from the analysis of dynamical systems, can be used to extract transient deformations, seasonal oscillations, and background noise present in GNSS time series. M-SSA is a multivariate, nonparametric, statistical method that simultaneously exploits the spatial and temporal correlations of geophysical fields. The method allows for the extraction of common modes of variability, such as trends with nonconstant slopes and oscillations shared across time series, without a priori hypotheses about their spatiotemporal structure or their noise characteristics. We illustrate this method using synthetic examples and show applications to actual GPS data from Alaska to detect seasonal signals and microdeformation at the Akutan active volcano. The geophysically coherent spatiotemporal patterns of uplift and subsidence thus detected are compared to the results of an idealized model of such processes in the presence of a magma chamber source.

  3. The SCEC geodetic transient detection validation exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Rowena B.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the number and size of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) networks has grown substantially worldwide. A steadily increasing volume of freely available GPS measurements, combined with the application of new approaches for mining these data for signals of interest, has led to the identification of a large and diverse collection of time‐varying Earth processes. One phenomenon that has been observed is transient fault slip (also termed slow slip events or silent earthquakes) occurring over time spans of days to years (e.g., Linde et al., 1996; Hirose et al., 1999; Dragert et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2002; Kostoglodov et al., 2003; Douglas et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Ide et al., 2007; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Schwartz and Rokosky, 2007; Szeliga et al., 2008). Such events have been widely observed in subduction zones but are also found in other tectonic settings (Linde et al., 1996; Cervelli et al., 2002; Murray and Segall, 2005; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Montgomery‐Brown et al., 2009; Shelly, 2010; and references therein). Although retrospective study of slow‐slip events using geodetic observations is driving the formulation of new models for fault‐zone behavior and constitutive laws (e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000; Liu and Rice, 2007; Lapusta and Liu, 2009; Segall and Bradley, 2012a), much of the research on near‐real‐time detection and characterization of anomalous behaviors along fault zones has focused solely on the use of seismic tremor (e.g., Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al., 2006; Ito et al., 2007).

  4. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of geodetic data in the vicinity of the Crustal Dynamics Program (CDP) site at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VNDN) is presented. The utility of space-geodetic data in the monitoring of transient strains associated with earthquakes in tectonically active areas like California is investigated. Particular interest is in the possibility that space-geodetic methods may be able to provide critical new data on deformations precursory to large seismic events. Although earthquake precursory phenomena are not well understood, the monitoring of small strains in the vicinity of active faults is a promising technique for studying the mechanisms that nucleate large earthquakes and, ultimately, for earthquake prediction. Space-geodetic techniques are now capable of measuring baselines of tens to hundreds of kilometers with a precision of a few parts in 108. Within the next few years, it will be possible to record and analyze large-scale strain variations with this precision continuously in real time. Thus, space-geodetic techniques may become tools for earthquake prediction. In anticipation of this capability, several questions related to the temporal and spatial scales associated with subseismic deformation transients are examined.

  5. LAGEOS geodetic analysis-SL7.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Dunn, P. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Douglas, N. B.; Fricke, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Laser ranging measurements to the LAGEOS satellite from 1976 through 1989 are related via geodetic and orbital theories to a variety of geodetic and geodynamic parameters. The SL7.1 analyses are explained of this data set including the estimation process for geodetic parameters such as Earth's gravitational constant (GM), those describing the Earth's elasticity properties (Love numbers), and the temporally varying geodetic parameters such as Earth's orientation (polar motion and Delta UT1) and tracking site horizontal tectonic motions. Descriptions of the reference systems, tectonic models, and adopted geodetic constants are provided; these are the framework within which the SL7.1 solution takes place. Estimates of temporal variations in non-conservative force parameters are included in these SL7.1 analyses as well as parameters describing the orbital states at monthly epochs. This information is useful in further refining models used to describe close-Earth satellite behavior. Estimates of intersite motions and individual tracking site motions computed through the network adjustment scheme are given. Tabulations of tracking site eccentricities, data summaries, estimated monthly orbital and force model parameters, polar motion, Earth rotation, and tracking station coordinate results are also provided.

  6. Preliminary Space VLBI Requirements for Observing Time on Ground Radio Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, David L.; Murphy, David W.; Preston, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An initial estimate has been made of the observing time required on ground radio telescopes by the space VLBI missions Radioastron and VSOP. Typical science programs have been adopted for both missions.

  7. Submicrosecond comparison of intercontinental clock synchronization by VLBI and the NTS satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Wardrip, S. C.; Bussion, J.; Oaks, J.; Mccaskill, T.; Warren, H.; Whitworth, G.

    1979-01-01

    The intercontinental clock synchronization capabilities of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) were compared in May 1978 by using both methods to synchronize the cesium clocks at the NASA Deep Space Net complexes at Madrid, Spain, and Goldstone, California. The VLBI experiments used the Wideband VLBI Data Acquisition System. The Navigation Technology Satellites were used with NTS Timing Receivers developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two methods agreed at about the one-half microsecond level. The VLBI system also obtained long-term stability information on the HP5061A004 cesium standards by measuring delta T/T over four 3- to 4-day intervals, obtaining stability estimates of (1 + or - 1)x10 to the -13th power for the combined timing systems.

  8. A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy.

    PubMed

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Stauffer, John R; Bower, Geoffrey C

    2014-08-29

    Because of its proximity and its youth, the Pleiades open cluster of stars has been extensively studied and serves as a cornerstone for our understanding of the physical properties of young stars. This role is called into question by the "Pleiades distance controversy," wherein the cluster distance of 120.2 ± 1.5 parsecs (pc) as measured by the optical space astrometry mission Hipparcos is significantly different from the distance of 133.5 ± 1.2 pc derived with other techniques. We present an absolute trigonometric parallax distance measurement to the Pleiades cluster that uses very long baseline radio interferometry (VLBI). This distance of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc is the most accurate and precise yet presented for the cluster and is incompatible with the Hipparcos distance determination. Our results cement existing astrophysical models for Pleiades-age stars.

  9. Solid Earth Tide Parameters from VLBI Measurements and FCN Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krásná, H.; Böhm, J.; Böhm, S.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    In a common global adjustment of the 24-hour IVS sessions from 1984.0 till 2011.0 with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS), we have estimated simultaneously terrestrial reference frame (station positions and velocities), celestial reference frame (radio source positions), and Earth orientation parameters, together with complex Love and Shida numbers for diurnal tides and their frequency dependence caused by the resonance with the Free Core Nutation (FCN). As the FCN period is contained in the solid Earth tidal displacements and also in the motion of the Celestial Intermediate Pole w.r.t. the celestial reference system, it is determined from both phenomena as a common parameter in the global solution. Our estimated FCN period of -431.18 ± 0.10 sidereal days is slightly different from the value -431.39 sidereal days adopted in the IERS Conventions 2010.

  10. Antenna technology for orbital Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, E. C.

    1983-05-01

    Since it is not economically feasible to construct steerable antennas much larger than 100 meters on Earth (400 meters for fixed telescopes), radio interferometry became a very useful technique for high resolution astronomy observations of quasars, galactic nuclei, and interstellar hydroxyl (OH) and water vapor (H2O) masers. The subsystems necessary to do the space VLBI experiment appear are available but require space qualifications. There are several 50-meter antenna concepts that could be used. Certainly there are problems to be solved. Feed positioning with respect to reflector, pointing such a large structure to accuracy indicated, and integration into the Shuttle control system are all significant engineering challenges. However, there are no problems that are insurmountable in the latter part of this decade.

  11. E-VLBI-activities at the FS Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Dassing, Reiner

    The FS-Wettzell carries out the daily-INTENSIVE observations which were required for the rapid determination of DUT1. The data volume is roughly 40 GB. So fare the data were shipped via currier services to the correlator which requires 2-3 days transportation time. The INTENSIVE time series is a real candidate for E-VLBI. It will reduce the delay due to data transport strongly. Considering the remote location of Wettzell - apart from the fast INTERNET links, considering the current high cost for a fast connection, in the next future the installation of a 34 Gbps-internet connection will be realistic. It will strongly support the data transmission on start the delay time to only a few hours. This report give an overview about the activities on the realisation of such a fast link. First attempts are reported made from the next nodal point at the University Regensburg, making use of a 155Mbps connection.

  12. El Nino, La Nina and VLBI Measured LOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Thomas A.; Gipson, J. M.; Ma, C.

    1998-01-01

    VLBI is one of the most important techniques for measuring Earth orientation parameters (EOP), and is unique in its ability to make high accuracy measurements of UT1, and its time derivative, which is related to changes in the length of day, conventionally called LOD. These measurements of EOP give constraints on geophysical models of the solid-Earth, atmosphere and oceans. Changes in EOP are due either to external torques from gravitational forces, or to the exchange of angular momentum between the Earth, atmosphere and oceans. The effect of the external torques is strictly harmonic and nature, and is therefore easy to remove. We analyze an LOD time series derived from VLBI measurements with the goal of comparing this to predictions from AAM, and various ENSO indices. Previous work by ourselves and other investigators demonstrated a high degree of coherence between atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and EOP. We continue to see this. As the angular momentum of the atmosphere increases, the rate of rotation of the Earth decreases, and vice versa. The signature of the ENSO is particularly strong. At the peak of the 1982-83 El Nino increased LOD by almost 1 ms. This was subsequently followed by a reduction in LOD of 0.75 ms. At its peak, in February of 1998, the 1997-98 El Nino increased LOD by 0.8 msec. As predicted at the 1998 Spring AGU, this has been followed by an abrupt decrease in LOD which is currently -0.4 ms. At this time (August, 1998) the current ENSO continues to develop in new and unexpected ways. We plan to update our analysis with all data available prior to the Fall AGU.

  13. Mark 6: A Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.; Lapsley, D. E.; Taveniku, M.

    2011-07-01

    A new real-time high-data-rate disk-array system based on entirely commercial-off-the-shelf hardware components is being evaluated for possible use as a next-generation VLBI data system. The system, developed by XCube Communications of Nashua, NH, USA was originally developed for the automotive industry for testing/evaluation of autonomous driving systems that require continuous capture of an array of video cameras and automotive sensors at ~8Gbps from multiple 10GigE data links and other data sources. In order to sustain the required recording data rate, the system is designed to account for slow and/or failed disks by shifting the load to other disks as necessary in order to maintain the target data rate. The system is based on a Linux OS with some modifications to memory management and drivers in order to guarantee the timely movement of data, and the hardware/software combination is highly tuned to achieve the target data rate; data are stored in standard Linux files. A kit is also being designed that will allow existing Mark 5 disk modules to be modified to be used with the XCube system (though PATA disks will need to be replaced by SATA disks). Demonstrations of the system at Haystack Observatory and NRAO Socorro have proved very encouraging; some modest software upgrades/revisions are being made by XCube in order to meet VLBI-specific requirements. The system is easily expandable, with sustained 16 Gbps likely to be supported before end CY2011.

  14. Results from the Second Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Cohen, M. H.; Henstock, D. R.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Browne, I. W. A.; Patnaik, A.

    1993-12-01

    We present results from the second Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI survey (CJ2). This is a Mark 2 snapshot VLBI survey of flat- and peaked-spectrum sources. The CJ2 survey extends the morphological study of the Pearson & Readhead (1988, ApJ, 328, 114) and Caltech-Jodrell Bank (Polatidis et al. 1993, Xu et al. 1993 submitted to ApJ, hereafter CJ) surveys to 400 sources. The CJ2 survey has three cosmological goals: 1) to populate the proper motion--redshift diagram for superluminal sources; 2) to populate the size--redshift diagram for compact sources (both diagrams can be used to estimate the deceleration parameter, q_0); and 3) to search for small-separation gravitationally-lensed systems and hence to look directly for mass concentrations in the unexplored range of 10(6) - 10(9) \\solmass. Approximately 10% of the sources are found to be interesting, unusual objects worth further study. The CJ2 sample is drawn from the Patnaik et al. (1992, MNRAS, 254, 655) list of ~ 900 compact flat-spectrum sources north of delta = 35° with 6 cm flux densities greater than 200 mJy. We have selected the strongest 197 of these sources subject to the further criteria that they are out of the galactic plane (|b| > 10°), flat-spectrum (alpha flatter than -0.5), and have not been previously observed in the PR or CJ surveys. All 197 sources have now been successfully imaged at 6 cm with ~ 1 mas resolution and a typical dynamic range of 500:1. The vast majority (171/197) of these sources have core-jet morphologies and are therefore well suited for the cosmological tests described above. Roughly 9% (18/197) are candidate compact symmetric objects. This group of sources is not well understood and is of considerable current interest (Readhead et al. 1993, ApJ, in press).

  15. Ultra-rapid earth rotation determination with VLBI during CONT11 and CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas; Kurihara, Shinobu; Hara, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    In 2007 the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) and the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) started a collaboration project aiming at determining the earth rotation angle, usually expressed as UT1-UTC, in near real-time. In the beginning of this project dedicated one hour long one-baseline experiments were observed periodically using the VLBI stations Onsala (Sweden) and Tsukuba (Japan). The strategy is that the observed VLBI data are sent in real-time via the international optical fibre backbone to the correlator at Tsukuba where the data are correlated with a software correlator and analyzed in near-real time with the c5++ VLBI data analysis software, thus producing UT1-UTC results with very low latency. The latency between the observation at the stations and the determination of UT1-UTC is on the order of a few minutes, thus we can talk about an ultra-rapid determination of UT1-UTC. An offline version of this strategy was adopted in 2009 for the regular VLBI intensive series INT-2, organized by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), that involves Wettzell (Germany) and Tsukuba. Since March 2010 the INT-2 is using real-time e-transfer, too, and since June 2010 also automated analysis. Starting in 2009 the ultra-rapid approach was applied to regular 24 hour long IVS VLBI-sessions that involve Tsukuba and Onsala, so that ultra-rapid UT1-UTC results can be produced already during ongoing VLBI-sessions. This strategy was successfully operated during the 15 days long continuous VLBI campaigns CONT11 and CONT14. In this presentation we give an overview of the ultra-rapid concept, present the results derived during CONT11 and CONT14, and compare these ultra-rapid results to results derived from post-processing

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Second Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey. II. (Henstock+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henstock, D. R.; Browne, I. W. A.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Taylor, G. B.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    1996-10-01

    This is the second of two papers presenting the Second Caltech- Jodrell Bank VLBI survey (CJ2). The CJ2 sample consists of 193 flat- and gigahertz-peaked-spectrum sources selected at 4850 MHz. In this paper we present images of the remaining 102 sources with ~1 mas resolution, obtained using VLBI snapshot observations at 4992 MHz with a global array. We also present integrated radio spectra for the entire CJ2 sample. (2 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Second Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey. I. (Taylor+ 1994)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. B.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Henstock, D. R.; Browne, I. W. A.; Wilkinson, P. N.

    1996-10-01

    We define the sample for the second Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI survey. This is a sample of 193 flat- or gigahertz-peaked-spectrum sources selected at 4850 MHz. This paper presents images of 91 sources with a resolution of ~1 mas, obtained using VLBI observations at 4992 MHz with a global array. The remaining images and the integrated radio spectra will be presented in a forthcoming paper by Henstock et al. (4 data files).

  18. Mobile VLBI deployment plans of the Crustal Dynamics Project for the western United States and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trask, D. W.; Vegos, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Current plans for the Mobile VLBI program are addressed. Present mobile stations and their past activities are summarized, and past and future modes of obtaining data are compared, including the 'burst' and 'leap frog' modes. The observational campaign for Mobile VLBI is described, emphasizing the portions in Canada and Alaska. The extent to which the mobile stations are utilized and the ways in which the site visit yield may be increased are discussed.

  19. Ultra-rapid earth rotation determination with VLBI during CONT11 and CONT14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Hobiger, Thomas; Kurihara, Shinobu; Hara, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    In 2007 the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) and the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) started a collaboration project aiming at determining the earth rotation angle, usually expressed as UT1-UTC, in near real-time. In the beginning of this project dedicated one hour long one-baseline experiments were observed periodically using the VLBI stations Onsala (Sweden) and Tsukuba (Japan). The strategy is that the observed VLBI data are sent in real-time via the international optical fibre backbone to the correlator at Tsukuba where the data are correlated with a software correlator and analyzed in near-real time with the c5++ VLBI data analysis software, thus producing UT1-UTC results with very low latency. The latency between the observation at the stations and the determination of UT1-UTC is on the order of a few minutes, thus we can talk about an ultra-rapid determination of UT1-UTC. An offline version of this strategy was adopted in 2009 for the regular VLBI intensive series INT-2, organized by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), that involves Wettzell (Germany) and Tsukuba. Since March 2010 the INT-2 is using real-time e-transfer, too, and since June 2010 also automated analysis. Starting in 2009 the ultra-rapid approach was applied to regular 24 hour long IVS VLBI-sessions that involve Tsukuba and Onsala, so that ultra-rapid UT1-UTC results can be produced already during ongoing VLBI-sessions. This strategy was successfully operated during the 15 days long continuous VLBI campaigns CONT11 and CONT14. In this presentation we give an overview of the ultra-rapid concept, present the results derived during CONT11 and CONT14, and compare these ultra-rapid results to results derived from post-processing.

  20. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  1. Development of an e-VLBI Data Transport Software Suite with VDIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Moritaka; Hobiger, Thomas; Kokado, Kensuke; Nozawa, Kentarou; Kurihara, Shinobu; Shinno, Takuya; Takahashi, Fujinobu

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a software library (KVTP-lib) for VLBI data transmission over the network with the VDIF (VLBI Data Interchange Format), which is the newly proposed standard VLBI data format designed for electronic data transfer over the network. The software package keeps the application layer (VDIF frame) and the transmission layer separate, so that each layer can be developed efficiently. The real-time VLBI data transmission tool sudp-send is an application tool based on the KVTP-lib library. sudp-send captures the VLBI data stream from the VSI-H interface with the K5/VSI PC-board and writes the data to file in standard Linux file format or transmits it to the network using the simple- UDP (SUDP) protocol. Another tool, sudp-recv , receives the data stream from the network and writes the data to file in a specific VLBI format (K5/VSSP, VDIF, or Mark 5B). This software system has been implemented on the Wettzell Tsukuba baseline; evaluation before operational employment is under way.

  2. Persistence of Coseismic Rupture Asperities as inferred from Interseismic Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, R. V.; Hetland, E. A.; Simons, M.

    2009-12-01

    Inversions of geodetic data from interseismic periods produce models that are locked over spatially smooth and extensive regions, in contrast to the smaller discrete asperities estimated by earthquake source studies. Such smooth, broad regions may be a consequence of a lack of model resolution and the resulting need for regularization inherent to the use of onshore geodetic data. It is also possible that the inferred interseismically coupled regions are larger than the collective asperity sizes for known earthquakes due to an incomplete earthquake catalogue, and may imply the potential for large earthquakes in the future. Hence, the different levels of apparent coupling implied by interseismic and seismic-source inversions have very different implications for regional seismic hazard. Here, we test the hypothesis that mechanical coupling on asperities inferred from the locations of past earthquakes alone is sufficient to explain currently available geodetic observations or alternatively, that these data require additional regions of the megathrust to be coupled. Underlying our approach is the assumption that known asperities persist across multiple earthquake cycles. We use a 3-D mechanical model of stress-dependent interseismic creep along the megathrust, considering frictional rheologies and known spatio-temporal distribution of large earthquakes (Hetland et al. 2009). These mechanical models predict that late in the seismic cycle, there are relatively smooth, long wavelength regions of very low slip-rates on the megathrust interface surrounding these asperities, owing to the "stress-shadow" effect of seismic ruptures. We test whether such "physical" smoothing preserves any signature of the original asperities, in contrast to the artificial smoothing produced by model regularization in inversions of interseismic geodetic data. As a first step to applying the above modeling approach to realistic faults, we have extended the method to handle arbitrary, geo

  3. Toward the establishment of IERS reference frame through the intercomparison of Earth Rotation Parameters determined with independent VLBI networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.

    The celestial and the terrestrial reference frames were improved with VLBI techniques. To extend VLBI network or to combine VLBI stations into a new network, the celestial and terrestrial reference frames should be unique and consistent. Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) can be used both to test the self-consistency of the data set through the intercomparison of the results with independent networks and to establish the IERS reference frame because ERP are conversion parameters between celestial and terrestrial reference frames.

  4. VLBI observation program for the International Earth Rotation Service and necessity for a domestic committee in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.; Takahashi, F.; Yokoyama, K.

    VLBI observation plan for the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) is described which aims more efficient program in Pacific area. To improve and to maintain the technical level of VLBI observation, Communications Research Laboratory (Japan) and Haystack Observatory (USA) were nominated as VLBI technical development centers in 1990 by the IERS directing board. Plan of functions and its organization are described. Finally, it is pointed out that a domestic IERS committee is necessary in Japan.

  5. Free geometric adjustment of the DOC/DOD cooperative worldwide geodetic satellite (BC-4) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, J. P.; Kumar, M.; Mueller, I. I.; Saxena, N.

    1973-01-01

    The application of observations from the ANNA satellite to solve geodetic problems is discussed. The establishment of a worldwide network of optical observing stations by the National Geodetic Survey is reported. The geodetic network is composed of 49 observing stations, more or less evenly distributed throughout the world. A method for using correlated satellite observations for the accurate recovery of ground station positions and applying the result to the adjustment of the National Geodetic Survey worldwide network was developed.

  6. GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.; DeVries, D.J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

  7. Detecting multiple breaks in geodetic time series using indicator saturation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Pretis, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the timing and magnitude of breaks in geodetic time series has been the source of much discussion. Instruments recording different geophysical phenomena may record long term trends, quasi-periodic signals at a variety of time scales from days to decades, and sudden breaks due to natural or anthropogenic causes, ranging from instrument replacement to earthquakes. Records can not always be relied upon to be continuous in time, yet one may desire to accurately bridge gaps without performing interpolation. We apply the novel Indicator Saturation (IS) method to identify breaks in a synthetic GPS time series used for the Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiments (DOGEX). The IS approach differs from alternative break detection methods by considering every point in the time series as a break, until it is demonstrated statistically that it is not. Saturating a model with a full set of break functions and removing all but significant ones, formulates the detection of breaks as a problem of model selection. This allows multiple breaks of different forms (from impulses, to shifts in the mean, and changing trends) without requiring a minimum break-length to be detected, while simultaneously modelling any underlying variation driven by additional covariates. To address selection bias in the coefficients, we demonstrate the bias-corrected estimates of break coefficients when using step-shifts in the mean of the modelled time-series. The regimes of the time-varying mean of the time-series (the `coefficient path' of the intercept determined by the detected breaks) can be used to conduct hypothesis tests on whether subsequent shifts offset each other - for example whether a measurement change induces a temporary bias rather than a permanent one. We explore this non-classical analysis method to see if it can bring about the sub millimetre errors in long term rates of land motion currently required by the GPS community.

  8. Strategies for Space-Geodetic Monitoring of Infraseismic and Subseismic Transient Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of space-geodetic data in elucidating infraseismic and subseismic phenomena is assessed. Existing seismological, geodetic, and other data to characterize the distribution of infraseismic and subseismic transients are used. Strategies for space-geodetic monitoring of infraseismic and subseismic transients along major plate boundaries are developed.

  9. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  10. Coastal sea level measurements using a single geodetic GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a method to derive local sea level variations using data from a single geodetic-quality Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using GPS (Global Positioning System) signals. This method is based on multipath theory for specular reflections and the use of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data. The technique could be valuable for altimeter calibration and validation. Data from two test sites, a dedicated GPS tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in Sweden and the Friday Harbor GPS site of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, are analyzed. The sea level results are compared to independently observed sea level data from nearby and in situ tide gauges. For OSO, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement is better than 5 cm, while it is in the order of 10 cm for Friday Harbor. The correlation coefficients are better than 0.97 for both sites. For OSO, the SNR-based results are also compared with results from a geodetic analysis of GPS data of a two receivers/antennae tide gauge installation. The SNR-based analysis results in a slightly worse RMS agreement with respect to the independent tide gauge data than the geodetic analysis (4.8 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively). However, it provides results even for rough sea surface conditions when the two receivers/antennae installation no longer records the necessary data for a geodetic analysis.

  11. A 3-D Multilateration: A Precision Geodetic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Fliegel, H. F.; Jaffe, R. M.; Muller, P. M.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1972-01-01

    A system was designed with the capability of determining 1-cm accuracy station positions in three dimensions using pulsed laser earth satellite tracking stations coupled with strictly geometric data reduction. With this high accuracy, several crucial geodetic applications become possible, including earthquake hazards assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital determination.

  12. Statistical analysis of geodetic networks for detecting regional events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granat, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We present an application of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to analysis of geodetic time series in Southern California. Our model fitting method uses a regularized version of the deterministic annealing expectation-maximization algorithm to ensure that model solutions are both robust and of high quality.

  13. VLBI observations of flared optical quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Tao; Cui, Yu-Zhu; Paragi, Zsolt; Frey, Sándor; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2016-08-01

    A bright optical flare was detected in the high-redshift (z = 2.133) quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341 on 2014 April 13. The absolute magnitude of the object reached -30.0 during the flare, making it the brightest one (in flaring stage) among all known quasars so far. The 15-GHz flux density of CGRaBS J0809+5341 monitored in the period from 2008 to 2016 also reached its peak at the same time. To reveal any structural change possibly associated with the flare in the innermost radio structure of the quasar, we conducted a pilot very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observation of CGRaBS J0809+5341 using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz on 2014 November 18, about seven months after the prominent optical flare. Three epochs of follow-up KaVA (Korean VLBI Network and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry Array) observations were carried out at 22- and 43-GHz frequencies from 2015 February 25 to June 4, with the intention of exploring a possibly emerging new radio jet component associated with the optical flare. However, these high-resolution VLBI observations revealed only the milliarcsecond-scale compact "core" that was known in the quasar from earlier VLBI images, and showed no sign of any extended jet structure. Neither the size nor the flux density of the "core" changed considerably after the flare, according to our VLBI monitoring. The results suggest that any putative radio ejecta associated with the major optical and radio flare could not yet be separated from the "core" component, or the newly-born jet was short-lived.

  14. VLBI observations of flared optical quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Tao; Cui, Yu-Zhu; Paragi, Zsolt; Frey, Sándor; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Gabányi, Krisztina É.

    2016-10-01

    A bright optical flare was detected in the high-redshift (z = 2.133) quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341 on 2014 April 13. The absolute magnitude of the object reached -30.0 during the flare, making it the brightest one (in flaring stage) among all known quasars so far. The 15-GHz flux density of CGRaBS J0809+5341 monitored in the period from 2008 to 2016 also reached its peak at the same time. To reveal any structural change possibly associated with the flare in the innermost radio structure of the quasar, we conducted a pilot very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observation of CGRaBS J0809+5341 using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz on 2014 November 18, about seven months after the prominent optical flare. Three epochs of follow-up KaVA (Korean VLBI Network and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry Array) observations were carried out at 22- and 43-GHz frequencies from 2015 February 25 to June 4, with the intention of exploring a possibly emerging new radio jet component associated with the optical flare. However, these high-resolution VLBI observations revealed only the milliarcsecond-scale compact "core" that was known in the quasar from earlier VLBI images, and showed no sign of any extended jet structure. Neither the size nor the flux density of the "core" changed considerably after the flare, according to our VLBI monitoring. The results suggest that any putative radio ejecta associated with the major optical and radio flare could not yet be separated from the "core" component, or the newly-born jet was short-lived.

  15. Providing hydrogen maser timing stability to orbiting VLBI radio telescope observations by post-measurement compensation of linked frequency standard imperfections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, James C.

    1994-01-01

    Orbiting VLBI (OVLBI) astronomical observations are based upon measurements acquired simultaneously from ground-based and earth-orbiting radio telescopes. By the mid-1990s, two orbiting VLBI observatories, Russia's Radioastron and Japan's VSOP, will augment the worldwide VLBI network, providing baselines to earth radio telescopes as large as 80,000 km. The challenge for OVLBI is to effectuate space to ground radio telescope data cross-correlation (the observation) to a level of integrity currently achieved between ground radio telescopes. VLBI radio telescopes require ultrastable frequency and timing references in order that long term observations may be made without serious cross-correlation loss due to frequency source drift and phase noise. For this reason, such instruments make use of hydrogen maser frequency standards. Unfortunately, space-qualified hydrogen maser oscillators are currently not available for use on OVLBI satellites. Thus, the necessary long-term stability needed by the orbiting radio telescope may only be obtained by microwave uplinking a ground-based hydrogen maser derived frequency to the satellite. Although the idea of uplinking the frequency standard intrinsically seems simple, there are many 'contaminations' which degrade both the long and short term stability of the transmitted reference. Factors which corrupt frequency and timing accuracy include additive radio and electronic circuit thermal noise, slow or systematic phase migration due to changes of electronic circuit temporal operating conditions (especially temperature), ionosphere and troposphere induced scintillations, residual Doppler-incited components, and microwave signal multipath propagation. What is important, though, is to realize that ultimate stability does not have to be achieved in real-time. Instead, information needed to produce a high degree of coherence in the subsequent cross-correlation operation may be derived from a two-way coherent radio link, recorded and later

  16. VLBI-derived troposphere parameters during CONT08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Böhm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Engelhardt, G.; Haas, R.; Lanotte, R.; MacMillan, D. S.; Negusini, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Titov, O.; Schuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    Time-series of zenith wet and total troposphere delays as well as north and east gradients are compared, and zenith total delays ( ZTD) are combined on the level of parameter estimates. Input data sets are provided by ten Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) for the CONT08 campaign (12-26 August 2008). The inconsistent usage of meteorological data and models, such as mapping functions, causes systematics among the ACs, and differing parameterizations and constraints add noise to the troposphere parameter estimates. The empirical standard deviation of ZTD among the ACs with regard to an unweighted mean is 4.6 mm. The ratio of the analysis noise to the observation noise assessed by the operator/software impact (OSI) model is about 2.5. These and other effects have to be accounted for to improve the intra-technique combination of VLBI-derived troposphere parameters. While the largest systematics caused by inconsistent usage of meteorological data can be avoided and the application of different mapping functions can be considered by applying empirical corrections, the noise has to be modeled in the stochastic model of intra-technique combination. The application of different stochastic models shows no significant effects on the combined parameters but results in different mean formal errors: the mean formal errors of the combined ZTD are 2.3 mm (unweighted), 4.4 mm (diagonal), 8.6 mm [variance component (VC) estimation], and 8.6 mm (operator/software impact, OSI). On the one hand, the OSI model, i.e. the inclusion of off-diagonal elements in the cofactor-matrix, considers the reapplication of observations yielding a factor of about two for mean formal errors as compared to the diagonal approach. On the other hand, the combination based on VC estimation shows large differences among the VCs and exhibits a comparable scaling of formal errors. Thus, for the combination of troposphere parameters a combination of the two

  17. The Contribution of the Geodetic Community (WG4) to EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Bastos, L. C.; Bruyninx, C.; D'Agostino, N.; Dousa, J.; Ganas, A.; Lidberg, M.; Nocquet, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    WG4 - "EPOS Geodetic Data and Infrastructure" is the Working Group of the EPOS project responsible to define and prepare the integration of the existing Pan-European Geodetic Infrastructures into a unique future consistent infrastructure that supports the European Geosciences, which is the ultimate goal of the EPOS project. The WG4 is formed by representatives of the participating EPOS countries and from EUREF (European Reference Frame), which also ensures the inclusion and the contact with countries that formally are not part of the current phase of EPOS. In reality, the fact that Europe is formed by many countries (having different laws and policies) lacking an infrastructure similar to UNAVCO (which concentrates the effort of the local geo-science community) raises the difficulties to create a common geodetic infrastructure serving not only the entire geo-science community, but also many other areas of great social-economic impact. The benefits of the creation of such infrastructure (shared and easily accessed by all) are evident in order to optimize the existing and future geodetic resources. This presentation intends to detail the work being produced within the working group WG4 related with the definition of strategies towards the implementation of the best solutions that will permit to the end-users, and in particular geo-scientists, to access the geodetic data, derived solutions, and associated metadata using transparent and uniform processes. Discussed issues include the access to high-rate data in near real-time, storage and backup of historical and future data, the sustainability of the networks in order to achieve long-term stability in the observation infrastructure, seamless access to the data, open data policies, and processing tools.

  18. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce costs below ship based methods of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the design of the Wave Glider payload and seafloor geodetic monument, as well as a discussion of nearshore and offshore field tests and operational procedures. An assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions will be made by integrating the seafloor pressure measurements recovered during field testing with independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height made by the sea surface payload.

  19. Maintenance of the Geodetic Reference Frame in the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oria, A.; Brodsky, B. L.; Labrecque, J.; Miller, J. J.; Moreau, M.; Pearlman, M.; Nelson, R.

    2007-12-01

    In the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the satellite coordinates and the underlying World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) reference frame are derived from observables such as pseudorandom noise (PRN) signals, and carrier phase, which are referenced to on-board atomic clocks. Systematic errors exist in both the estimated satellite coordinates and the reference frame. The reference frame utilizes external inputs in the form of International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) coordinates and constrains the results to be compatible with the ITRF coordinates for a set of global reference stations. The ITRF is, in turn, obtained from the combined analysis of GPS, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) data. The current realization of the reference frame could be described as circular in that an independent method of external verification is currently not available. To ensure the continued successful operation of the GPS it is necessary to have the capability of analyzing systematic errors by an independent means from current radiometric observables and data from foreign sources. In practice, accuracy of the standards used for measurement should be better than the expected, required operational measurement accuracy by a factor of ten to ensure that the desired requirement is met. Currently, the accuracy of both the ITRF and the WGS 84 is estimated to be on the order of 1 to 2 parts per billion, leading to expected drifts of 0.6 to 1.2 cm per year. The experience of the last three decades has indicated an approximate improvement by a factor of ten per decade. Therefore, while current accuracy of the ITRF and WGS 84 reference frames marginally meets civilian and military requirements, it is very likely that, within the lifetime of GPS III, the accuracy of the reference frames will be unable to meet the anticipated requirements. This report examines

  20. Contribution of X/Ka VLBI to Multi-Wavelength Celestial Frame Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Clark, J. E.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an update of Sotuela et al. (2011) which improves their simulated Gaia frame tie precision by approximately 10% by adding three additional VLBI observing sessions. Astrometry at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) using NASAs Deep Space Network has detected 466 quasars with accuracies of 200-300 micro-arc seconds. A program is underway to reduce errors by a factor of 2-3. From our sample, 245 sources have optical magnitudes V less than 20 and should also be detectable by Gaia. A covariance study using existing X/Ka data and simulated Gaia uncertainties for the 345 objects yields a frame tie precision of 10-15 micro-arc seconds (1 - sigma). The characterization of wavelength dependent systematic from extended source morphology and core shift should benefit greatly from adding X/Ka-band measurements to S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) measurements thus helping to constrain astrophysical models of the wavelength dependence of positions.

  1. Long-Term Stability of Radio Sources in VLBI Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Gerald; Thorandt, Volkmar

    2010-01-01

    Positional stability of radio sources is an important requirement for modeling of only one source position for the complete length of VLBI data of presently more than 20 years. The stability of radio sources can be verified by analyzing time series of radio source coordinates. One approach is a statistical test for normal distribution of residuals to the weighted mean for each radio source component of the time series. Systematic phenomena in the time series can thus be detected. Nevertheless, an inspection of rate estimation and weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) variations about the mean is also necessary. On the basis of the time series computed by the BKG group in the frame of the ICRF2 working group, 226 stable radio sources with an axis stability of 10 as could be identified. They include 100 ICRF2 axes-defining sources which are determined independently of the method applied in the ICRF2 working group. 29 stable radio sources with a source structure index of less than 3.0 can also be used to increase the number of 295 ICRF2 defining sources.

  2. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry: General Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the second General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Tsukuba, Japan, February 4-7, 2002. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2002. The key-note of the second GM was prospectives for the future, in keeping with the re-organization of the IAG around the motivation of geodesy as 'an old science with a dynamic future' and noting that providing reference frames for Earth system science that are consistent over decades on the highest accuracy level will provide a challenging role for IVS. The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 72 papers and five abstracts of papers presented at the GM. The volume also includes reports about three splinter meetings held in conjunction with the GM: a mini-TOW (Technical Operations Workshop), the third IVS Analysis Workshop and a meeting of the analysis working group on geophysical modeling.

  3. Earth rotation information derived from MERIT and POLARIS VLBI observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. S.; Carter, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced methods involving observations of extraterrestrial objects, such as artificial satellites or quasars, may make it possible to monitor geometrical variations in survey networks of regional, continental, and global scale with a spatial resolution of a few centimeters and a temporal resolution of better than one day. However, in connection with a realization of this potential, it is necessary to account for variations in the orientation of the earth in space. The accuracy provided by the conventional approaches for determining the orientation of the earth is not sufficient in this case. However, an appropriate method could be based on the utilization of independent clock radio interferometry (commonly referred to as VLBI) observations of extragalactic radio sources. The project POLARIS (Polar-motion Analysis by Radio Interferometric Sampling) is concerned with an implementation of this method. The MERIT (Monitor Earth Rotation and Intercompare the Techniques of observation and analysis) observations represent an aid to project POLARIS. Attention is given to details regarding these programs and the results obtained thus far.

  4. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; Proctor, Robert; Rayhrer, Benno

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  5. Prospects for UT1 Measurements from VLBI Intensive Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensives are one-hour single baseline sessions to provide Universal Time (UT1) in near real-time up to a delay of three days if a site is not e-transferring the observational data. Due to the importance of UT1 estimates for the prediction of Earth orientation parameters, as well as any kind of navigation on Earth or in space, there is not only the need to improve the timeliness of the results but also their accuracy. We identify the asymmetry of the tropospheric delays as the major error source, and we provide two strategies to improve the results, in particular of those Intensives which include the station Tsukuba in Japan with its large tropospheric variation. We find an improvement when (1) using ray-traced delays from a numerical weather model, and (2) when estimating tropospheric gradients within the analysis of Intensive sessions. The improvement is shown in terms of reduction of rms of length-of-day estimates w.r.t. those derived from Global Positioning System observations

  6. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2006-08-01

    We have used a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array at 18 cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 μJy beam-1, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 μJy. Comparison with high-sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4+/-2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, although the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzzling differences, and differential free-free absorption, synchrotron aging, and expansion losses may all be playing a role. Comparison with the nearby starburst galaxy M82 supports the hypothesis that the activity in Arp 220 is essentially a scaled-up version of that in M82.

  7. Intercomparison of the earth rotation parameters determined by two independent VLBI networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Kawaguchi, N.; Heki, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1989-10-01

    The earth rotation parameters (ERP) are being monitored independently with three very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) networks in the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) program. The available ERP from different VLBI networks should be consistent and comparable with each other for accurate ERP monitoring. However, systematic offsets have been found between the ERP results of the IRIS-Pacific (IRIS-P) and IRIS-Atlantic (IRIS-A) networks. Since the IRIS-P VLBI network consists of two station groups belonging to different global VLBI projects, the source and station coordinates used in each group are required to be expressed in a unified system for analysis. The data base of the Crustal Dynamics Project (CDP) experiment series 'POLAR', including both CDP and IRIS regular stations, is introduced to obtain the unified station coordinates in the IRIS system. Thereby, the ERP determined by IRIS-P VLBI data come to be in agreement with those of the other regular program IRIS-A. The average offsets between IRIS-P and -A of x-pole, y-pole, UT1, nutation in longitude, and nutation in obliquity are 0.45 marcsec, -1.14 marcsec, -0.035 msec, -0.82 marcsec and 0.18 marcsec each, and are comparable to the formal errors.

  8. Satellite emission radio interferometric earth surveying series - GPS geodetic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    A concept called SERIES (satellite emissions radio interferometric earth surveying) which makes use of GPS (global positioning system) radio transmissions without any satellite modifications, is described. Through the use of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and its calibration methods, 0.5 to 3 cm three dimensional baseline accuracy can be achieved over distances of 2 to 200 km respectively, with only 2 hours of on-site data acquisition. Attention is given to such areas as: the radio flux equivalent of GPS transmissions, synthesized delay precision, transmission and frequency subsystem requirements, tropospheric and ionospheric errors. Applications covered include geodesy and seismic tectonics.

  9. Multiple Geodetic Observations for Identifying Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and the Causes of Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamisiea, M. E.; Williams, S. D. P.; Hughes, C. W.; Bingley, R.; Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the Earth's and ocean's response to past changes in global ice extent and ocean volume, collectively termed glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), is necessary for interpreting observations of present-day sea level change. GIA has the largest effect on sea-level observations nearest the locations of the former ice sheets. Under the former loading centers, crustal uplift contributes to a local relative sea-level fall while the collapsing forebulge surrounding these centers accentuates a local sea-level rise. Some of the longest tide gauge records are in these regions. However, GIA also causes global deformation and geoid changes that introduce systematic differences between global averages of tide gauge and altimetry observations. Clearly accounting for the GIA contribution to sea-level change while identifying other present-day contributors is greatly assisted by additional geodetic measurements. Time-variable satellite gravity observations highlight the regional GIA signal, on length scales of hundreds of kilometers, while also locating water mass changes on the continents and the oceans. As the spatial density of GNSS observations has increased, it has become easier to discern the regional characteristics of crustal deformation (e.g. Blewitt et al. abstract in U009). Combined, these two observations allow for greater separation of GIA and water mass changes. More importantly for society, though, the regional crustal estimates could be combined with coastal altimetry products to create regional estimates of relative sea-level change, the observation most relevant for coastal planning. In this presentation we discuss how the various geodetic measurements complement each other and allow us to identify various components of sea level change, including GIA. We illustrate how the weakness of any individual observation component can be overcome by comparison with the other components. A sustained and global geodetic observing system is essential for

  10. Comparison of Geodetic and Late Pleistocene Slip Rates for the Southern Dead Sea Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, W. J.; Gomez, F.; Abu Rajab, J. S.; Al-Tarazi, E.

    2012-12-01

    Comparisons of short-term (geodetic) and Late Quaternary slip rates have been used to assess time-variable fault kinematics along various active faults, globally. Differences between such types slip rates may have implications for crustal rheology and/or temporal variations in plate motion. This research aims to compare the geodetically-derived slip rates with slip rates based on Late Pleistocene landforms along the southern Dead Sea fault system (DSFS). The DSFS is an active, left-lateral transform that accommodates differential movement between the Arabian and Sinai plates. A number of slip rates have been previously reported ranging from 2 to 6mm/yr. However, comparison of various slip rates requires ensuring that associated uncertainties are assessed using a standard. New GPS velocities from Jordan are combined with other available GPS data, and are used to model slip rates using elastic block models. Resulting slip rates are 4.3 to 5.3 mm/yr with fault locking depths of 8 - 15 km. Late Pleistocene rates are assessed from published observations, as well as new data. New mapping of offset alluvial fans in the southern Wadi Araba was facilitated by multi-spectral imagery and high-resolution digital elevation model. These fans correlate with regional aggradation events, with the resulting Late Pleistocene slip rates ranging from 4.2 to 5.1 mm/yr. Statistically, the geodetic and neotectonic slip rates are identical. Additionally, a 3-dimensional slip vector for the last earthquake in the northern Wadi Araba is constructed using close-range photogrammetry of a faulted Byzantine aqueduct that indicates both horizontal and vertical displacements. Previous studies suggested characteristic earthquake slip, so slip rates and this slip vector provide a means of assessing mean EQ recurrence interval, as well as the role of earthquakes in constructing the long-term topography along this part of the transform.

  11. Differential Very Long Baseline Interferometry (delta VLBI) spacecraft tracking system demonstration. Part 2: Data acquisition and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, C. S.; Moultrie, B.; Callahan, P. S.; Donivan, F. F.; Wu, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    A set of experiments in the use of Differential Very Long Baseline Interferometry (delta VLBI) for spacecraft navigation were completed. Data using both Voyager spacecraft and a single quasar were acquired during the Jupiter encounter time period. The data were processed and analyzed to assess the navigation accuracy of delta VLBI. The data reduction and techniques for assessing data quality and consistency are discussed.

  12. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce the costs of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Traditional ship-based methods of acquiring these measurements are often prohibitively expensive. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for the University of Hawaii Wave Glider which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider is able to interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of ocean bottom pressure and temperature data. The Wave Glider also functions as an integral part of the seafloor geodetic observing system, recording accurate sea surface elevations and barometric pressure; direct measurements of two of the primary sources of seafloor pressure change. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the results of our field tests and an assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions by

  13. Correlated errors in geodetic time series: Implications for time-dependent deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, J.; Johnson, H.

    1997-01-01

    addition, the seasonal noise can be as large as 3 mm in amplitude but typically is less than 0.5 mm. Because of the presence of random-walk noise in these time series, modeling and interpretation of the geodetic data must account for this source of error. By way of example we show that estimating the time-varying strain tensor (a form of spatial averaging) from geodetic data having both random-walk and white noise error components results in seemingly significant variations in the rate of strain accumulation; spatial averaging does reduce the size of both noise components but not their relative influence on the resulting strain accumulation model. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Vlbi Astrometric Orbit Solutions Of The Triple Systems Algol And Ux Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucien Mutel, Robert; Peterson, W. M.; Guedel, M.; Goss, M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-epoch phase-referenced VLBI observations are a powerful technique to make sub-milliarcsecond astrometric measurements. We report on high-accuracy orbit and proper motion determination of the well-known active binaries Algol and UX Arietis, combining multi-epoch HSA and VLBA phase-referenced observations with archival VLBI datasets. We find that both Algol and UX Arietis are triple systems, For Algol, we refine the proper motion and outer orbit solutions, confirming the recent optical result of Zavala et al. (2010) that component C's position angle had been reported in error by 180 deg. For UX Arietis, we find a third component orbital solution that accounts for previous VLBI reports of an acceleration term in the proper motion fit.

  15. Proceedings of the Sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, February 7-13, 2010. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2010. The keynote of the sixth GM was the new perspectives of the next generation VLBI system under the theme "VLBI2010: From Vision to Reality". The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross-section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 88 papers. All papers were edited by the editors for usage of the English language, form, and minor content-related issues.

  16. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  17. Indirect approach to invariant point determination for SLR and VLBI systems: an assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, John; Sarti, Pierguido; Johnston, Gary M.; Vittuari, Luca

    2007-06-01

    We assess the accuracy of some indirect approaches to invariant point (IVP), or system reference point, determination of satellite laser ranging (SLR) and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) systems using both observed and simulated survey data sets. Indirect IVP determination involves the observation of targets located on these systems during specific rotational sequences and by application of geometrical models that describe the target motion during these sequences. Of concern is that most SLR and VLBI systems have limited rotational freedom thereby placing constraint on the reliability of parameter estimation, including the IVP position. We assess two current approaches to IVP analysis using survey data observed at the Yarragadee (Australia) SLR and the Medicina (Italy) VLBI sites and also simulated data of a large rotationally constrained (azimuth-elevation) VLBI system. To improve reliability we introduce and assess some new geometric conditions, including inter-axis, inter-circle and inter-target conditions, to existing IVP analysis strategies. The error component of a local tie specifically associated with the indirect determination of SLR and VLBI IVP is less than 0.5 mm. For systems with significant rotational limits we find that the inter-axis and inter-circle conditions are critical to the computation of unbiased IVP coordinates at the sub-millimetre level. When the inter-axis and inter-circle geometric conditions are not imposed, we retrieve biased vertical coordinates of the IVP (in our simulated VLBI system) in the range of 1.2 3.4 mm. Using the new geometric conditions we also find that the axis-offset estimates can be recovered at the sub- millimetre accuracy (0.5 mm).

  18. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  19. Cartografical And Geodetical Aspects Of The Krakus Mound In Cracow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    In this work the fate of the Krakus Mound, the oldest of all existing Krakow's mounds, has been presented. The work was carried out based on selected iconographic, cartographic and geodetic documents. Using as an example old views, panoramas of the city and maps, various functions that the Krakus Mound was fulfilling over its long history were shown. An attempt was made to document the military significance of this mound and the surrounding hills. The particular astro-geodetic importance of the Krakus Mound on the scale of the city and southern Poland region was widely discussed. The Krakus Mound also inscribed itself in the history of the use of GPS technology as well as research on the local determination of the geoid in the area of Krakow.

  20. Seismic and geodetic studies of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Imperial Valley exhibits perhaps the most active current tectonism in the United States; patterns of gravitational and thermal anomalies, along with geodetic measurements, strike-slip faulting, and recent volcanism suggest that the continental crust may still be spreading (Elders et al., 1972). In recent years, the United States Geological Survey and Caltech have added new seismic stations into a dense network in the Imperial Valley to study in detail the relationship between geothermal areas and earthquakes, and to understand the tectonic processes taking place there. The purposes of this study are to: (1) examine crustal structure using recently available data on P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes; (2) examine the leveling data for evidence of tectonic subsidence or uplift; and (3) study correlations between seismicity, seismic velocity, geodetic motion, geothermal activity, and local geology to provide a more consistent picture of the tectonics of the Imperial Valley.

  1. A Kalman filter for combining high frequency Earth rotation parameters from VLBI and GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Karbon, M.; Schuh, H.

    2013-08-01

    We present a Kalman filter for combination of sub-diurnal Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) estimated from different techniques. We test this filter by combining ERP estimated from VLBI and GPS for the CONT08 campaign. We find that the Kalman filter works and give reasonable results. The combined solution is dominated by the GPS data since the ERP from this technique have much lower formal errors. However VLBI is important for providing the absolute value of dUT1 since GPS is only sensitive to the time derivative of dUT1, i.e. the length of day.

  2. Near-field VLBI and its applications to Space Science Missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimo, G.; Molera Calves, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Duev, D. A.; Bocanegra Bohamon, T.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Near-field Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a radio astronomical technique that, when applied to observations of spacecraft, provides unique insights on those areas of space mission scientific return, which require precise determination of lateral position of spacecraft on the celestial sphere. The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) exploits near-field VLBI for accurate estimation of the state-vector of a spacecraft using arrays of radio telescopes available around the world. We will present new results of recent experiments with current ESA's missions (Venus Express, Mars Express, Gaia) while showing the numerous implementations of the PRIDE technique.

  3. A 2.3-GHz maser at Usuda, Japan, for TDRSS-orbiting VLBI experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    A 2.3 GHz traveling-wave maser/closed-cycle refrigerator (TWM/CCR) that is used in the DSN was installed and successfully operated on the 64 m antenna at Usuda, Japan. The TWM/CCR supported the first very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment to use an orbiting spacecraft as one of the receiving antennas. The experiment required a 15 K receiving system over a 2271 to 2285 MHz bandwidth. The maser installation was made during June 1986, and successful VLBI measurements were made during July and August 1986 and again in January 1987.

  4. EVN e-VLBI detections of MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; van der Horst, A. J.; Granot, J.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Kuulkers, E.; Gehrels, N.; Woods, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    We observed MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) following its sub-millimeter and centimeter radio detections (de Ugarte Postigo et al. 2010, GCN #11304; van der Horst et al. 2010, ATel #2874) with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in real-time e-VLBI mode on 30 September 2010, from 13:30 to 18:30 UT at 4.9 GHz. The participating telescopes were Cambridge, Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Hartebeesthoek, Medicina, Onsala, Torun and Westerbork sending data at a rate of ~1024 Mbps to the EVN Data Processor at JIVE.

  5. Early results from a prototype VLBI clock monitoring system. [Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Madrid, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Four sets of experiments were conducted to measure the relative epoch offsets between atomic clocks in California, Australia, and Spain by means of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The experiments were conducted using an incomplete R & D VLBI system with a number of inherent limitations. The results indicate that the measurement objective of epoch offset to 10 nanoseconds will be met. Tables show the measured offset, the residual to fit, and the square root Allan variance. Graphs show the rate change and the rate reset.

  6. Crowdsourced Contributions to the Nation's Geodetic Elevation Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS), a United States Department of Commerce agency, is engaged in providing the nation's fundamental positioning infrastructure - the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) - which includes the framework for latitude, longitude, and elevation determination as well as various geodetic models, tools, and data. Capitalizing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology for improved access to the nation's precise geodetic elevation infrastructure requires use of a geoid model, which relates GNSS-derived heights (ellipsoid heights) with traditional elevations (orthometric heights). NGS is facilitating the use of crowdsourced GNSS observations collected at published elevation control stations by the professional surveying, geospatial, and scientific communities to help improve NGS' geoid modeling capability. This collocation of published elevation data and newly collected GNSS data integrates together the two height systems. This effort in turn supports enhanced access to accurate elevation information across the nation, thereby benefiting all users of geospatial data. By partnering with the public in this collaborative effort, NGS is not only helping facilitate improvements to the elevation infrastructure for all users but also empowering users of NSRS with the capability to do their own high-accuracy positioning. The educational outreach facet of this effort helps inform the public, including the scientific community, about the utility of various NGS tools, including the widely used Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). OPUS plays a key role in providing user-friendly and high accuracy access to NSRS, with optional sharing of results with NGS and the public. All who are interested in helping evolve and improve the nationwide elevation determination capability are invited to participate in this nationwide partnership and to learn more about the geodetic infrastructure which is a vital component of viable spatial data for

  7. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    A satellite laser ranging experiment conducted by NASA since 1972 has measured the relative motion between the North America and Pacific plates in California. Based on these measurements, the 896-km distance between San Diego and Quincy, California, is shortening at 62 + or - 9 mm/yr. This geodetic estimate is consistent with the rate of motion between the two plates, calculated from geological data to be 53 + or - 3 mm/yr averaged over the past few million years.

  8. Geodetic data support trapping of ethane in Titan's polar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Rambaux, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Titan's surface is characterized by polar depressions that strongly influence interpretations of the gravity data. This study investigates several geodynamical models that can explain these depressions. For each model, the values of the three moments of inertia are computed numerically by discretizing the interior in spherical coordinates. The study shows that a Pratt model where the polar subsurface is made of ethane clathrates can explain the polar depression, the abrupt jump in altitude at about 60 degrees latitude, and the values of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. This model, proposed by Choukroun and Sotin [1], is based on the stability of ethane clathrate hydrates relative to methane clathrate hydrates. In addition to fitting the geodetic data, it explains the absence of ethane in Titan's atmosphere although ethane is the main product of the photolysis of methane. Other geophysical models based on latitudinal variations in the tidal heating production or in the heat flux at the base of the icy crust do not provide such a good match to the gravity and topographic observations. The ethane-clathrate model predicts that all the ethane produced by photolysis of methane at the present rate during the last billion years could be stored in the polar subsurface. It is consistent with the age of Titan's surface and that of Titan's atmospheric methane inferred from geological and geochemical observations by the Cassini/Huygens mission. The present study also emphasizes the role of mass anomalies on the interpretation of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. It shows that for Titan, a slow rotator, the values of the two equatorial moments of inertia (MoI) are largely affected by the polar depressions whereas the value of polar MoI is not. Therefore, as pointed out by previous calculations [2], calculating the moment of inertia (MoI) factor from the value of J2 could lead to major errors. This is not the case for our preferred Titan's model for which the negative polar

  9. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the

  10. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  11. VLBI Analysis with the Multi-Technique Software GEOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierulf, Halfdan Pascal; Andersen, Per-Helge; Boeckmann, Sarah; Kristiansen, Oddgeir

    2010-01-01

    GEOSAT is a multi-technique geodetic analysis software developed at Forsvarets Forsknings Institutt (Norwegian defense research establishment). The Norwegian Mapping Authority has now installed the software and has, together with Forsvarets Forsknings Institutt, adapted the software to deliver datum-free normal equation systems in SINEX format. The goal is to be accepted as an IVS Associate Analysis Center and to provide contributions to the IVS EOP combination on a routine basis. GEOSAT is based on an upper diagonal factorized Kalman filter which allows estimation of time variable parameters like the troposphere and clocks as stochastic parameters. The tropospheric delays in various directions are mapped to tropospheric zenith delay using ray-tracing. Meteorological data from ECMWF with a resolution of six hours is used to perform the ray-tracing which depends both on elevation and azimuth. Other models are following the IERS and IVS conventions. The Norwegian Mapping Authority has submitted test SINEX files produced with GEOSAT to IVS. The results have been compared with the existing IVS combined products. In this paper the outcome of these comparisons is presented.

  12. Renewed Geodetic Unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. V.; Stiros, S. C.; Moschas, F.; Saltogianni, V.; Feng, L.; Farmer, G. T.; Psimoulis, P.; Jiang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Santorini Caldera, in the southern Aegean, is part of a well-developed, and very active volcanic system fueled by subduction along the Hellenic arc that is responsible for the largest volcanic eruption in human history (~1650 B.C.). After approximately 50 years of relative seismic quiescence within the caldera and an episode of minor inflation, the volcano has recently reawakened with an exponentially increasing inflation signal, beginning in January 2011. The GPS network, including 3 continuous stations and biennial surveys of 19 campaign stations, showed essentially no deformation between 2006 and 2010. Following a cluster of microseismicity within the caldera two surveys in June and August 2011 were made, while two additional permanent GPS stations were installed. From this data, we found uplift and nearly-radial expansion up to 1 cm/month. This deformation is well-explained by a Mogi-source at the northern part of the caldera, with an approximately 6-10 million m3 volumetric growth at approximately 4 km depth, and tendency for development of a new dome offshore. It is likely that stresses from this magma source are responsible for a cluster of microseismity that began in January 2011 along a radial lineament of young volcanics, called the 'Kameni Line'.

  13. VLBI Observations of Gamma-Ray-Quiet AGN: Comparing Radio Core Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Murphy, D. W.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Costa, M. E.; McCulloch, P.; Edwards, P. G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Tzioumis, A. K.; King, E. A.; Jones, D. L.; Preston, R. A.; Meier, D. L.; van Ommen, T. D.; Nicolson, G. D.; Quick, J. F. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present VLBI and Australia Telescope Compact Array images, and derive source frame radio-core brightness temperatures for three prominent, flat-spectrum extragalactic radio sources, notable because they have not been detected as gamma-ray sources with the EGRET instrument.

  14. Status quo and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Choliy, Vasyl; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Karbon, Maria; Krasna, Hana; McCallum, Jamie; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Shabala, Stas; Soja, Benedikt; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008, and in recent years important contributions have been made by other groups all over the world. The software is written in Matlab which makes it easy for students to get an insight in VLBI processing and which allows short and concise source code. The current version 2.1 of VieVS has improved capabilities in terms of the global solution and the graphical user interface compared to earlier releases. Furthermore, more sophisticated approaches are now available in terms of scheduling VLBI sessions. Presently, we are working on the new version 2.2 which will be released this summer and which will be presented at the 5th VieVS User-Workshop in September 2014. For example, it will be equipped with a source structure simulator, as well as more refined possibilities for scheduling and the global solution. In a test version, we will also provide a graphical user interface built with Qt instead of Matlab.

  15. THE APPLICATION OF MULTIVIEW METHODS FOR HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRIC SPACE VLBI AT LOW FREQUENCIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Imai, H.; Asaki, Y.; Hong, X.-Y.; Shen, Z.

    2013-06-15

    High-precision astrometric space very long baseline interferometry (S-VLBI) at the low end of the conventional frequency range, i.e., 20 cm, is a requirement for a number of high-priority science goals. These are headlined by obtaining trigonometric parallax distances to pulsars in pulsar-black hole pairs and OH masers anywhere in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. We propose a solution for the most difficult technical problems in S-VLBI by the MultiView approach where multiple sources, separated by several degrees on the sky, are observed simultaneously. We simulated a number of challenging S-VLBI configurations, with orbit errors up to 8 m in size and with ionospheric atmospheres consistent with poor conditions. In these simulations we performed MultiView analysis to achieve the required science goals. This approach removes the need for beam switching requiring a Control Moment Gyro, and the space and ground infrastructure required for high-quality orbit reconstruction of a space-based radio telescope. This will dramatically reduce the complexity of S-VLBI missions which implement the phase-referencing technique.

  16. Using radio stars to link the Gaia and VLBI reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-09-01

    A possible method for linking the optical Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) to the VLBI-based International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is to use radio stars in a manner similar to that in the linking of the Hipparcos Celestial Reference Frame (HCRF) to ICRF. In this work, an obtainable accuracy of the orientation angles between GCRF and ICRF frames was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. If the uncertainties in the radio star positions obtained by VLBI are in the range of 0.1-4 mas and those obtained by Gaia are in the range of 0.005-0.4 mas, the orientation angle uncertainties are 0.018-0.72 mas if 46 radio stars are used, 0.013-0.51 mas if 92 radio stars are used, and 0.010-0.41 mas if 138 radio stars are used. The general conclusion from this study is that a properly organized VLBI programme for radio star observation with a reasonable load on the VLBI network can allow for the realization of GCRF-ICRF link with an error of about 0.1 mas.

  17. Status and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Böhm, S.; Madzak, M.; Nafisi, V.; Plank, L.; Spicakova, H.; Sun, J.; Tierno Ros, C.; Schuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is a new VLBI analysis software which has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. In this software, which is written in Matlab, the most recent IERS Conventions and are implemented, and through a graphical user interface it is easy to use. Lately, two new modules have been added to the official version of VieVS. One is a simulation module (VIE_SIM) which allows to create simulated VLBI observations. The other is a global solution module (VIE_GLOB) which can be used for combining several sessions in a global solution in order to derive e.g. a terrestrial and/or a celestial reference frame. In this presentation an overview of VieVS and its current status will be given and its performance will be demonstrated by showing selected results. We also discuss the planned future developments of VieVS. These include the possibility to use external tropospheric delays obtained, e.g. by ray-tracing through numerical weather models, to use external ionospheric corrections from, e.g. GNSS TEC maps, and to implement a Kalman filter solution. We also plan to cover earlier steps in the VLBI data processing chain, like ambiguity resolution, which have not been considered so far in VieVS.

  18. Atmospheric modeling for co-located VLBI antennas and twin telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Heinkelmann, Robert; Lu, Cuixian; Schuh, Harald

    2015-07-01

    In the next generation VLBI network, the VLBI global observing system (VGOS), there will be several twin telescopes, i.e. stations equipped with a pair of VLBI telescopes with identical design. In this work we test the possibility of combining the tropospheric parameters of these two telescopes within the VLBI data analysis. This is done through simulations of a possible future VGOS network containing one twin telescope. We simulate the tropospheric delays with the help of a turbulence model, approximately taking into account the distance between the antennas. The results show that the combination of tropospheric delays can improve the station position repeatability by about 15 % as long as the distance is smaller than 1 km. The main improvement is in the repeatability of the baseline vector between the antennas. However, the results are strongly dependent on how the observations are scheduled for the twin telescope. The simulation results are confirmed by an analysis of the CONT14 campaign, where the tropospheric parameters of the two Hobart antennas are combined. Furthermore, we also discuss the study of combining other parameters for the twin telescope, i.e. the clocks and/or the station positions.

  19. Combining GPS and VLBI earth-rotation data for improved universal time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) routinely measures Earth orientation in support of spacecraft tracking and navigation using very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) with the deep-space tracking antennas. The variability of the most unpredictable Earth-orientation component, Universal Time 1 (UT1), is a major factor in determining the frequency with which the DSN measurements must be made. The installation of advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers at the DSN sites and elsewhere may soon permit routine measurements of UT1 variation with significantly less dependence on the deep-space tracking antennas than is currently required. GPS and VLBI data from the DSN may be combined to generate a precise UT1 series, while simultaneously reducing the time and effort the DSN must spend on platform-parameter calibrations. This combination is not straightforward, however, and a strategy for the optimal combination of these data is presented and evaluated. It appears that, with the aid of GPS, the frequency of required VLBI measurements of Earth orientation could drop from twice weekly to once per month. More stringent real-time Earth orientation requirements possible in the future would demand significant improvements in both VLBI and GPS capabilities, however.

  20. A Principle of Forming and Developing Geodetic Bases in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staňková, Hana; Černota, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The development of satellite geodesy and creation of geocentric and geodetic bases have become an impulse for the integration and modernization of national geodesic bases into the global continental frame. In the area of cadastral practice classic planar coordinate systems and established figures have been used for a long time. Nowadays, searching for the relationship between standard (classic) geodetic systems and the newly existing geocentric system is still the current issue of geodetic practice.

  1. 86 GHz VLBI survey of Ultra compact radio emission in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Dhanya; Lobanov, Andrei; Ros, Eduardo; Krichbaum, Thomas; Zensus, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations at 86 GHz reach a resolution of about 50 μas and sample the scales as small as 10 ^{3} - 10 ^{4} Schwartzchild radii of the central black hole in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and uncover the jet regions where acceleration and collimation of the relativistic flow takes place. The high resolution millimetre VLBI studies makes it possible to look deeper into the core and inner jets of AGN which is invisible at centimetre and longer wavelengths due to self absorption or free-free absorption by the torus. We have done a large global VLBI survey of 162 unique ultra compact radio sources at 86 GHz (˜3 mm) conducted in 2010 - 2011. All the sources were detected and imaged; increasing by a factor of ˜2, the total number of AGN ever imaged with VLBI at 86 GHz. The survey data attained a baseline sensitivity of 0.1 Jy and the image sensitivity of 5 mJy/beam. We have used Gaussian model fitting to represent the structure of the observed sources and to estimate the flux densities and sizes of the core and jet components. The model fitting yields estimates of the brightness temperature (T _{b}) of the VLBI bright core (base) of the jet and inner jet components of AGN, taking into account the resolution limits of the data at 3 mm.The brightness temperatures of the VLBI cores peak at ˜10 ^{11} K. We have applied a basic population model with a single value of intrinsic brightness temperature,T _{o}, in order to reproduce the observed distribution of T _{b}. Our data are consistent with a population of sources that have T _{o} ˜(1-7)×10 ^{11} K in the VLBI cores and T _{o} ≤ 5 ×10 ^{10} K in the jets. We also find a correlation between the brightness temperatures obtained from the model fits with estimates of the brightness temperature limits made directly from the visibility data. For objects with sufficient structural detail detected, we investigated the effect of adiabatic energy losses on the evolution of

  2. Report on the ESO Workshop ''mm-wave VLBI with ALMA and Radio Telescopes around the World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, H.; Laing, R.; Testi, L.; Zensus, A.

    2012-09-01

    Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mm-VLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy and the inclusion of ALMA into a global network will bring unprecedented sensitivity. The workshop on mm-VLBI reviewed the broad range of science topics, from imaging the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy, through masers in the Milky Way and distant galaxies to jets in radio galaxies. Plans were laid to develop a science case and a European organisation to promote mm-VLBI including ALMA.

  3. Parallax of a Mira variable R Ursae Majoris studied with astrometric VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Akiharu; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Matsui, Makoto; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Jike, Takaaki

    2016-10-01

    We have measured an annual parallax of the Mira variable R Ursae Majoris (R UMa) with the VLBI Exploration for Radio Astronomy (VERA). From the monitoring VLBI observations over a span of about two years, we detected H2O maser spots in the LSR velocity range from 37 to 42 km s-1. We derived an annual parallax of 1.97 ± 0.05 mas, and this gives a corresponding distance of 508 ± 13 pc. The VLBI maps revealed 72 maser spots distributed in an ˜110 au area around the expected stellar position. Circumstellar kinematics of the maser spots were also revealed by subtracting a systemic motion in the Hipparcos catalog from proper motions of each maser spot derived from our VLBI observations. Infrared photometry was also conducted to measure a K-band apparent magnitude, and we obtained a mean magnitude of mK = 1.19 ± 0.02 mag. Using the trigonometric distance, mK is converted to a K-band absolute magnitude of MK = -7.34 ± 0.06 mag. This result gives a much more accurate absolute magnitude for R UMa than previously provided. We solved a zero-point of the MK-log P relation for the Galactic Mira variables and obtained a relation of MK = -3.52 log P + (1.09 ± 0.14). Other long-period variables, including red supergiants, whose distances were determined with astrometric VLBI, were also compiled to explore the different sequences of the MK-log P relation.

  4. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  5. EARLY SCIENCE WITH THE KOREAN VLBI NETWORK: THE QCAL-1 43 GHz CALIBRATOR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Leonid; Lee, Sang-Sung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Junghwan; Sohn, Bong Won; Byun, Do-Young; Chung, Moon-Hee; Je, Do-Heung; Wi, Seog-Oh; Song, Min-Gyu; Kang, Jiman; Han, Seog-Tae; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Bong Gyu; Chung, Hyunsoo; Kim, Hyun-Goo

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the catalog of correlated flux densities in three ranges of baseline projection lengths of 637 sources from a 43 GHz (Q band) survey observed with the Korean VLBI Network. Of them, 14 objects used as calibrators were previously observed, but 623 sources have not been observed before in the Q band with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The goal of this work in the early science phase of the new VLBI array is twofold: to evaluate the performance of the new instrument that operates in a frequency range of 22-129 GHz and to build a list of objects that can be used as targets and as calibrators. We have observed the list of 799 target sources with declinations down to -40 Degree-Sign . Among them, 724 were observed before with VLBI at 22 GHz and had correlated flux densities greater than 200 mJy. The overall detection rate is 78%. The detection limit, defined as the minimum flux density for a source to be detected with 90% probability in a single observation, was in the range of 115-180 mJy depending on declination. However, some sources as weak as 70 mJy have been detected. Of 623 detected sources, 33 objects are detected for the first time in VLBI mode. We determined their coordinates with a median formal uncertainty of 20 mas. The results of this work set the basis for future efforts to build the complete flux-limited sample of extragalactic sources at frequencies of 22 GHz and higher at 3/4 of the celestial sphere.

  6. Parallax of a Mira variable R Ursae Majoris studied with astrometric VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Akiharu; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Matsui, Makoto; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Jike, Takaaki

    2016-08-01

    We have measured an annual parallax of the Mira variable R Ursae Majoris (R UMa) with the VLBI Exploration for Radio Astronomy (VERA). From the monitoring VLBI observations over a span of about two years, we detected H2O maser spots in the LSR velocity range from 37 to 42 km s-1. We derived an annual parallax of 1.97 ± 0.05 mas, and this gives a corresponding distance of 508 ± 13 pc. The VLBI maps revealed 72 maser spots distributed in an ˜110 au area around the expected stellar position. Circumstellar kinematics of the maser spots were also revealed by subtracting a systemic motion in the Hipparcos catalog from proper motions of each maser spot derived from our VLBI observations. Infrared photometry was also conducted to measure a K-band apparent magnitude, and we obtained a mean magnitude of mK = 1.19 ± 0.02 mag. Using the trigonometric distance, mK is converted to a K-band absolute magnitude of MK = -7.34 ± 0.06 mag. This result gives a much more accurate absolute magnitude for R UMa than previously provided. We solved a zero-point of the MK-log P relation for the Galactic Mira variables and obtained a relation of MK = -3.52 log P + (1.09 ± 0.14). Other long-period variables, including red supergiants, whose distances were determined with astrometric VLBI, were also compiled to explore the different sequences of the MK-log P relation.

  7. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The high cost of acquiring geodetic data from the sea floor has limited the observations available to help us understand and model the behavior of seafloor geodetic processes. To address this problem, the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii is developing a cost effective approach for accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure without the requirement for costly ship time. There is a recognized need to vastly increase our underwater geodetic observing capacity. Most of the largest recorded earthquakes and most devastating tsunamis are generated at subduction zones underwater. Similarly, many volcanoes are partly (e.g. Santorini) or completely (e.g. Loihi) submerged, and are not well observed and understood. Furthermore, landslide features ring many ocean basins, and huge debris deposits surround many volcanic oceanic islands. Our approach will lower the cost of collecting sea-floor geodetic data, reducing the barriers preventing us from acquiring the information we need to observe and understand these types of structures and provide a direct societal benefit in improving hazard assessment. The capability is being developed by equipping one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders with an integrated acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, processing unit, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the sea floor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data, but seafloor pressure data includes contribution from a variety of sources and on its own may not provide the accuracy required for geodetic investigations. Independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height can be used to remove these contributions from the observed sea floor pressure timeseries. We will integrate our seafloor pressure measurements with air

  8. Geodetic strain of Greece in the interval 1892-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, R.; England, P.; Parsons, B.; Billiris, H.; Paradissis, D.; Veis, G.

    1997-11-01

    A first-order triangulation of Greece was carried out in the 1890s. Reoccupation, using Global Positioning System receivers, of 46 of the 93 original markers yielded estimates of the deformation of the region over the intervening interval. Broad regions have similar geodetic strain over the 100-year time span. Strain north of the Gulf of Korinthos is predominantly north-south extension, though with a significant east-west component. The central Peloponnisos is relatively stable, whereas the gulfs of the southern Peloponnisos are all characterized by uniaxial east-west extension. The seismic expression of strain for the entire region, calculated from the seismic moment tensors of earthquakes of MS≥5.8 during the past 100 years, accounts for only 20-50% of the geodetically determined strain. At a scale of 50-100 km, the fraction of the strain that is expressed seismically varies much more than this range. In particular, whereas seismic strain in the eastern Gulf of Korinthos over the past 100 years is commensurate with the geodetic strain, there is rapid extension across the western Gulf of Korinthos (˜0.3 μstrain yr-1), with negligible seismic strain for the 100 year period prior to 1992. The Egion earthquake of June 1995 in the western Gulf of Korinthos released only a small proportion (≤20%) of the elastic strain that had accumulated in that region. The observed distribution of displacements can be explained by the relative rotation of two plates with a broad accommodation zone between them, but it is equally consistent with the deformation that would be expected of a sheet of fluid moving toward a low-pressure boundary at the Hellenic Trench. A simple calculation implies that if the region does behave as a fluid, then its effective viscosity is ˜1022-1023 Pa s. Such viscosities are consistent with the deformation of a lithosphere obeying a rheological law similar to that obtained for olivine in the laboratory.

  9. Simulating Ground Motions from Geodetic Data for ShakeMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, D.; Rhie, J.; Murray, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed an automated finite-source analysis procedure making use of data recorded by regional distance broadband stations. The method determines the best fault plane by testing the two possible nodal planes of the regional distance moment tensor. Both line-source and plane-source inversions are performed, and the source parameters from these inversions are used to characterize rupture finiteness and directivity. Near-fault ground motions obtained by integrating the derived slip distribution with near-fault Green's functions can be used to augment ShakeMap. For example, source finiteness information significantly improved the initial ShakeMaps of the 2003 Mw6.5 San Simeon, California, earthquake. Our present work has two primary thrusts: 1) development of a method for the near-realtime inversion of GPS data to independently determine finite-fault geometry and orientation, and slip distribution, and 2) investigation of methods to simulate high-frequency ground motions from the geodetic slip models. In this study, we will present a method for converting slip models obtained from GPS data into kinematic models whose rupture process is governed by the rupture and slip velocities. Preliminary results show that simply assuming a rupture-to-shear velocity ratio of 0.8 and a slip velocity derived from a constant stress drop model performs well. We will demonstrate the approach for the 1994 Northridge earthquake by simulating motions using the Wald et al. (1996) kinematic model, a uniform slip model, and the geodetic slip model of Hudnut et al. (1996). The simulated motions for the geodetic model will be compared to both the kinematic model reference and the data in both the time domain and the spectral acceleration domain. We will also compare the simulations in terms of peak ground velocity ShakeMaps. Finally the results will be characterized in terms of the uncertainty due to the unknown rupture velocity and stress drop.

  10. Geodetic activities of the Department of Defense under IGY programs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, O.W.; Daugherty, K.I.

    1983-10-16

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) activities that contributed to the International Geophysical Year's active, passive, and cooperative satellite programs. The DOD continues to support the deployment, enhancement, and application of novel technology in such areas as satellite altimetry, gravity radiometry, inertial surveying, interferometry, airborne gravimetry, inertial surveying, and CCD and laser methods for geodetic astronomy. Also noted are such major department initiatives as the Global Positioning System, which will become operational toward the end of this decade.

  11. Refraction effects of atmosphere on geodetic measurements to celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problem is considered of obtaining accurate values of refraction corrections for geodetic measurements of celestial bodies. The basic principles of optics governing the phenomenon of refraction are defined, and differential equations are derived for the refraction corrections. The corrections fall into two main categories: (1) refraction effects due to change in the direction of propagation, and (2) refraction effects mainly due to change in the velocity of propagation. The various assumptions made by earlier investigators are reviewed along with the basic principles of improved models designed by investigators of the twentieth century. The accuracy problem for various quantities is discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium Management of Geodetic Data, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, L. E.

    Data management has become a major issue in many phases of geodesy. This is true because many geodetic projects involve very large data sets that must be managed and manipulated by computers. Data received from a variety of sources and often in disparate formats and quality must be sorted, validated, and selected, and then put into a form that can be read and processed by the host computer. Data packages have to be produced in forms required by customers. For some final products, tables, maps, and other visual data presentation graphics need to be constructed from the processed data by automated methods.

  13. Seafloor geodetic reference station branched from submarine cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Asakawa, K.; Yokobiki, T.; Iwase, R.; Goto, T.; Sato, M.; Nagahashi, K.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and submarine cable to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and submarine cable make it possible to provide permanent seafloor reference point, to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Prototype of the on-board system which should be installed on an AUV was finished. Several trials had been done with the system in the sea. The results from them showed that the new on-board system will reach to the higher level in performance than the current system in the near future. And then we started to dedicate ourselves mainly to developing new seafloor transponder. The current seafloor transponder system is stand-alone one which runs on internal batteries. We expect five to ten years for the lifetime of the current seafloor transponder, even though it depends on how often we perform measurements with the transponder. Replacement of the seafloor transponder will be needed when we target seafloor crustal deformation that has long time cycle more than several decades. Continuity of seafloor geodetic observation will be stopped. New seafloor transponder which we have been developing is one which can be connected to a submarine cable by wet-mate connectors. Power is supplied through submarine cable and then the new seafloor transponder will be a permanent reference station for seafloor geodetic survey. Submarine cable can supply accurate GPS time (1pps) and clock

  14. On differential transformations between Cartesian and curvilinear (geodetic) coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soler, T.

    1976-01-01

    Differential transformations are developed between Cartesian and curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. Only matrix algebra is used for the presentation of the basic concepts. After defining the reference systems used the rotation (R), metric (H), and Jacobian (J) matrices of the transformations between cartesian and curvilinear coordinate systems are introduced. A value of R as a function of H and J is presented. Likewise an analytical expression for J(-1) as a function of H(-2) and R is obtained. Emphasis is placed on showing that differential equations are equivalent to conventional similarity transformations. Scaling methods are discussed along with ellipsoidal coordinates. Differential transformations between elipsoidal and geodetic coordinates are established.

  15. Optimal Design of Geodetic Network Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajedian, Sanaz; Bagheri, Hosein

    2010-05-01

    A geodetic network is a network which is measured exactly by techniques of terrestrial surveying based on measurement of angles and distances and can control stability of dams, towers and their around lands and can monitor deformation of surfaces. The main goals of an optimal geodetic network design process include finding proper location of control station (First order Design) as well as proper weight of observations (second order observation) in a way that satisfy all the criteria considered for quality of the network with itself is evaluated by the network's accuracy, reliability (internal and external), sensitivity and cost. The first-order design problem, can be dealt with as a numeric optimization problem. In this designing finding unknown coordinates of network stations is an important issue. For finding these unknown values, network geodetic observations that are angle and distance measurements must be entered in an adjustment method. In this regard, using inverse problem algorithms is needed. Inverse problem algorithms are methods to find optimal solutions for given problems and include classical and evolutionary computations. The classical approaches are analytical methods and are useful in finding the optimum solution of a continuous and differentiable function. Least squares (LS) method is one of the classical techniques that derive estimates for stochastic variables and their distribution parameters from observed samples. The evolutionary algorithms are adaptive procedures of optimization and search that find solutions to problems inspired by the mechanisms of natural evolution. These methods generate new points in the search space by applying operators to current points and statistically moving toward more optimal places in the search space. Genetic algorithm (GA) is an evolutionary algorithm considered in this paper. This algorithm starts with definition of initial population, and then the operators of selection, replication and variation are applied

  16. Miniature interferometer terminals for earth surveying /MITES/ - Geodetic results and multipath effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counselman, C. C., III

    Experiments which confirm theoretical predictions regarding the use of MITES terminals for measuring baseline vectors on the ground using interferometric observations of earth-orbiting satellites are presented. A set of five global positioning satellites (GPS) were observed by MITES antennas at 1.3 hour time intervals on each of two days, and it is found that this distribution facilitates the correct resolution of interferometer fringe ambiguities. In addition, experiments show that multipath interference does not pose significant problems at the centimeter level. MITES is still being developed using baseline lengths of up to 4,000 km, and a new system should demonstrate improved geodetic accuracy, and will probably require one hour observation intervals.

  17. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-08-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  18. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  19. Current status of the EPOS WG4 - GNSS and Other Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rui; Bastos, Luisa; Bruyninx, Carine; D'Agostino, Nicola; Dousa, Jan; Ganas, Athanassios; Lidberg, Martin; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    WG4 - "EPOS Geodetic Data and Other Geodetic Data" is the Working Group of the EPOS project in charge of defining and preparing the integration of the existing Pan-European Geodetic Infrastructures that will support European Geosciences, which is the ultimate goal of the EPOS project. The WG4 is formed by representatives of the participating EPOS countries (23) but it is also open to the entire geodetic community. In fact, WG4 also already includes members from countries that formally are not integrating EPOS in this first step. The geodetic component of EPOS (WG4) is dealing essentially with Research Infrastructures focused on continuous operating GNSS (cGNSS) in the current phase. The option of concentrating the efforts on the presently most generalized geodetic tool supporting research on Solid Earth was decided in order to optimize the existing resources. Nevertheless, WG4 will continue to pursue the development of tools and methodologies that permit the access of the EPOS community to other geodetic information (e.g., gravimetry). Furthermore, although the focus is on Solid Earth applications, other research and technical applications (e.g., reference frames, meteorology, space weather) can also benefit from the efforts of WG4 EPOS towards the optimization of the geodetic resources in Europe. We will present and discuss the plans for the implementation of the thematic and core services (TCS) for geodetic data within EPOS and the related business plan. We will focus on strategies towards the implementation of the best solutions that will permit to the end-users, and in particular geo-scientists, to access the geodetic data, derived solutions, and associated metadata using transparent and uniform processes. Five pillars have been defined proposed for the TCS: Dissemination, Preservation, Monitoring, and Analysis of geodetic data plus the Support and Governance Infrastructure. Current proposals and remaining open questions will be discussed.

  20. Terrestrial reference frame solution with the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS and implication of tropospheric gradient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicakova, H.; Plank, L.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) has been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at TU Vienna since 2008. In this presentation, we present the module Vie_glob which is the part of VieVS that allows the parameter estimation from multiple VLBI sessions in a so-called global solution. We focus on the determination of the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) using all suitable VLBI sessions since 1984. We compare different analysis options like the choice of loading corrections or of one of the models for the tropospheric delays. The effect of atmosphere loading corrections on station heights if neglected at observation level will be shown. Time series of station positions (using a previously determined TRF as a priori values) are presented and compared to other estimates of site positions from individual IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) Analysis Centers.

  1. Adaptive fault discretization for the inversion of geodetic data with an application to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Recent development of geodetic observations allows us to image slip distribution on buried faults during interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic peiords. The capability of imaging fault slips at depth from geodetic data is, however, limited because geodetic observations are almost always done at Earth's surface. In addition, the absence of or limited offshore geodetic measurements make detailed imaging of the slip on a shallow offshore fault difficult. In geodetic inversions, spatial distribution of fault slips is often obtained by applying smoothing constraints. However, the optimum choice of the smoothing parameter is not straightforward. Although several studies have proposed methods to choose the optimum smoothing parameter, they do not always give a definitive optimum parameter. Also a single smoothing parameter cannot take the heterogeneous spatial resolution on the fault plane into account. Here I propose a method to adaptively discretize a fault plane of arbitrary shape according to the spatial resolution to ope with the heterogeneous spatial resolution on the fault plane. The method applies Singular Value Decomposition of the data kernel, a matrix that relates the observation to the fault slip, to truncate higher modes, and continues to discretize the fault plane by Voronoi diagrams as long as diagonal elements of the model resolution matrix are above a specified threshold. The only parameter that needs to be set in this method is the truncation threshold of eigenmodes that is determined roughly by the signal-to-noise ratio of the observation. Note that the real dataset is not necessary to evaluate the spatial resolution of the fault slip but only the truncation threshold of eigenmodes needs to be preset. I applied the method to the coseismic displacement field associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. I evaluated the spatial resolution of the inverted fault slip with and without offshore GPS measurements. The spatial resolution at a depth of 50 km is

  2. Geodetic contributions to IWRM-projects in middle Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Günter

    2010-12-01

    The district of Gunung Kidul in middle Java is one of the poorest regions in Indonesia. The essential reason is the acute water scarcity in this karst region during the months of the dry season. As a consequence of the poor living conditions many people have migrated away and therefore the development of the region is stagnating. During the last few years two projects have been initiated under the theme “Integrated Water Resources Management” in order to improve the water supply situation, both funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and realized essentially by institutes of the University of Karlsruhe. Geodetic sub-projects are integrated into both projects. Special surveying activities had been, and have still to be, carried out to realise the geometrical basis for several other sub-projects. The particular contributions are 3D cave measurements for visualisation and planning, staking out of drilling points and construction axes, the definition of a common reference system, the surveying of the water distribution network and its technical facilities, the setting up and the management of a geographical information system (GIS), as well as special measurements such as dam monitoring or controlling of a vertical drilling machine. The paper reviews these projects and describes the geodetic activities.

  3. GPS orbit determination at the National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenewerk, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) independently generates precise ephemerides for all available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Beginning in 1991, these ephemerides were produced from double-differenced phase observations solely from the Cooperative International GPS Network (CIGNET) tracking sites. The double-difference technique combines simultaneous observations of two satellites from two ground stations effectively eliminating satellite and ground receiver clock errors, and the Selective Availability (S/A) signal degradation currently in effect. CIGNET is a global GPS tracking network whose primary purpose is to provide data for orbit production. The CIGNET data are collected daily at NGS and are available to the public. Each ephemeris covers a single week and is available within one month after the data were taken. Verification is by baseline repeatability and direct comparison with other ephemerides. Typically, an ephemeris is accurate at a few parts in 10(exp 7). This corresponds to a 10 meter error in the reported satellite positions. NGS is actively investigating methods to improve the accuracy of its orbits, the ultimate goal being one part in 10(exp 8) or better. The ephemerides are generally available to the public through the Coast Guard GPS Information Center or directly from NGS through the Geodetic Information Service. An overview of the techniques and software used in orbit generation will be given, the current status of CIGNET will be described, and a summary of the ephemeris verification results will be presented.

  4. SR calculation of the geodetic precession of gpb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell

    2003-03-01

    The gpb satellite, see http://www.nas.edu/ssb/gpb.html, should enter a low circular polar orbit about earth July 2003. Its near-perfect gyroscopes will probe the metric of space near the earth. An in-plane precession is expected, termed the geodetic effect, because measured distance is not Euclidean in the presence of gravity. The circumference of a circle tangent to the outside of the gyroscope is, by SR, shortened slightly more than a circle tangent to the inside. The gyroscope axis is slowly tilted backward (counter to the orbital direction) by this geodetic effect, ΔΘ = -3π GM/r c^2 = -3π v^2/c^2 rad/rev = -6.55467 arcsec/year. This is identical to the GR result, arXiv:gr-qc/9909054 v2 21 Sep 1999, except for the sign. After including small perturbations due to the sun and the earth's oblateness, GR expects +6.58048 and SR expects - 6.56124 arcsec/yr. The predicted precision of the experiment is 0.00045 arcsec/yr. Let the experiment decide.

  5. An improved algorithm for geocentric to geodetic coordinate conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.

    1996-02-01

    The problem of performing transformations from geocentric to geodetic coordinates has received an inordinate amount of attention in the literature. Numerous approximate methods have been published. Almost none of the publications address the issue of efficiency and in most cases there is a paucity of error analysis. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this problem aimed at developing more efficient methods for real time applications such as DIS. Iterative algorithms have been proposed that are not of optimal efficiency, address only one error component and require a small but uncertain number of relatively expensive iterations for convergence. In a recent paper published by the author a new algorithm was proposed for the transformation of geocentric to geodetic coordinates. The new algorithm was tested at the Visual Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Simulation and Training, the University of Central Florida, and found to be 30 percent faster than the best previously published algorithm. In this paper further improvements are made in terms of efficiency. For completeness and to make this paper more readable, it was decided to revise the previous paper and to publish it as a new report. The introduction describes the improvements in more detail.

  6. Strain Analysis in Horizontal Geodetic Network of Dams for Control of Stability and Monitoring Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, S.; Ardalan, A. A.; Khodakarami, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dams as one of the engineering structures play very important role in human life. Because, from primary human needs such as providing drinking water to professional needs such as water powerhouse creation in order to provide power for industrial centers, hospitals, manufactures and agriculture, have considerable dependent on dams. In addition destruction of a dam can be as dangerous as earthquake. Therefore maintenance, stability control and monitoring deformation of them is indispensable. In order to control stability of dams and their around lands and monitoring deformation a network is created by surveyor, geologist and dam experts on crest and body of dam or on land near the dam. Geodetic observations are done in this network by precise surveying instrument in deferent time then by using linear least square parametric adjustment method, adjusted coordinates with their variance- covariance matrix and error ellipses, redundancy numbers for observation, blunders and … are estimated in each epoch. Then displacement vectors are computed in each point of network, After that by use of Lagrangeian deformation idea and constitution of deformation equations movement, displacement model is determined and strain tensor is computed. we can induce deformation information from strain tensor in different ways such as strain ellipse then interpret deformation that happen in each point of network. Also we can compute rigid rotation from anti-symmetric part of displacement gradient tensor. After processing tow consequence epochs observations of horzontal geodetic network of Hnna dam in southwest of Esfahan, the most semi-major axis of error ellipse is estimated about 0.9mm for point D10, largest displacement is 1.4mm for point C3 that it's semimajor axis of displacement error ellipse is 1.3mm and there is different shear in all of network points exceptional points D2,C3 and C2. There is different dilatation in most of points. These amount of maximum shear and dilatation are

  7. A future geodetic monitoring system for vertical land motion in the Perth basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filmer, Mick; Featherstone, Will; Morgan, Linda; Schenk, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Vertical land movement (VLM) affects many regions around the world and can have various causes, such as tectonics, glacial isostatic adjustment and resource extraction. Geodetic monitoring systems are employed in different configurations to identify VLM to provide knowledge for hazard mapping, risk assessment and land planning. We describe results from historical geodetic observations, and efforts to establish a monitoring system in the Western Australian city of Perth, which is subject to VLM, most probably caused by groundwater extraction over the past ~100 years. The most direct evidence of VLM in Perth is provided by two continuously operating GNSS (CGNSS) stations HIL1 (from 1997) and PERT (from 1992). However, these stations provide estimates only at discrete locations. In addition, the data from HIL1 is subject to frequent equipment changes and PERT ceased operation in early 2012. The CGNSS VLM rates reach ~-6 mm/yr, but are not linear over time and appear to be highly correlated with the rates of groundwater extraction. Limited sequences of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images are available over short periods between 1992-2009, and although these suggest spatially variable VLM rates reaching -5 mm/yr at some locations, the uncertainty from the small number of images suggest that these results should be treated cautiously. If it remains necessary to extract groundwater for Perth (possibly at increased rates), an ongoing monitoring programme is needed. This should be based on combined GNSS, InSAR and levelling observation programmes. Historical levelling data from the early 1970s is currently being extracted from hardcopy archives into digital file format for analysis and adjustment. These data will be used to establish an original reference network for later geodetic observations comprising repeat levelling campaigns connected to periodic GNSS campaigns and CGNSS stations, but most importantly, a regular and structured acquisition of In

  8. Transforming geocentric cartesian coordinates to geodetic coordinates by using differential search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civicioglu, Pinar

    2012-09-01

    In order to solve numerous practical navigational, geodetic and astro-geodetic problems, it is necessary to transform geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates or vice versa. It is very easy to solve the problem of transforming geodetic coordinates into geocentric cartesian coordinates. On the other hand, it is rather difficult to solve the problem of transforming geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates as it is very hard to define a mathematical relationship between the geodetic latitude (φ) and the geocentric cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z). In this paper, a new algorithm, the Differential Search Algorithm (DS), is presented to solve the problem of transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates and its performance is compared with the performances of the classical methods (i.e., Borkowski, 1989; Bowring, 1976; Fukushima, 2006; Heikkinen, 1982; Jones, 2002; Zhang, 2005; Borkowski, 1987; Shu, 2010 and Lin, 1995) and Computational-Intelligence algorithms (i.e., ABC, JDE, JADE, SADE, EPSDE, GSA, PSO2011, and CMA-ES). The statistical tests realized for the comparison of performances indicate that the problem-solving success of DS algorithm in transforming the geocentric cartesian coordinates into geodetic coordinates is higher than those of all classical methods and Computational-Intelligence algorithms used in this paper.

  9. The Spring 1985 high precision baseline test of the JPL GPS-based geodetic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John M.; Thornton, Catherine L.; Stephens, Scott A.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Lichten, Stephen M.; Sovers, Ojars J.; Kroger, Peter M.; Skrumeda, Lisa L.; Border, James S.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    1987-01-01

    The Spring 1985 High Precision Baseline Test (HPBT) was conducted. The HPBT was designed to meet a number of objectives. Foremost among these was the demonstration of a level of accuracy of 1 to 2:10 to the 7th power, or better, for baselines ranging in length up to several hundred kilometers. These objectives were all met with a high degree of success, with respect to the demonstration of system accuracy in particular. The results from six baselines ranging in length from 70 to 729 km were examined for repeatability and, in the case of three baselines, were compared to results from colocated VLBI systems. Repeatability was found to be 5:10 to the 8th power (RMS) for the north baseline coordinate, independent of baseline length, while for the east coordinate RMS repeatability was found to be larger than this by factors of 2 to 4. The GPS-based results were found to be in agreement with those from colocated VLBI measurements, when corrected for the physical separations of the VLBI and CPG antennas, at the level of 1 to 2:10 to the 7th power in all coordinates, independent of baseline length. The results for baseline repeatability are consistent with the current GPA error budget, but the GPS-VLBI intercomparisons disagree at a somewhat larger level than expected. It is hypothesized that these differences may result from errors in the local survey measurements used to correct for the separations of the GPS and VLBI antenna reference centers.

  10. The Impact of the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Kawabata, R.

    2012-12-01

    A 9.0-magnitude earthquake named "the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" hit eastern areas of Japan on March 11. The gear wheel for the elevation drive of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI antenna swayed due to the earthquake, but there was no critical damage to the antenna or other equipment. Many aftershocks followed in the few weeks afterwards. Tsukuba 32-m returned to IVS VLBI observing on April 4. The observed VLBI sessions produced VLBI positions for Tsukuba, and co-seismic and post-seismic displacements were detected by VLBI. By the way, GSI has installed and maintains over 1,200 GNSS-based control stations, a large number of triangulation points, and benchmarks throughout Japan. Since the crustal displacement was widespread and its magnitude was very large, we needed to revise the coordinates of many control points. This revision covered the eastern half of Honshu Island with 438 GNSS-based control stations, approximately 43,000 triangulation points, and approximately 1,400 benchmarks. New coordinates, except for these benchmarks, were calculated based on the amount of displacement detected by VLBI on May 10.

  11. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    eventually built up before the ALS acquisition, is corrected. As snow cover biases are particular uncertain, a statistical approach has been applied to assess combined DTM errors by using the population of DTM differences over stable terrain. This method incorporates all known and unknown error sources from the surface difference in stable areas and uses its median thickness for correction in all altitudinal belts. In addition, intensity data of the ALS surveys are used to classify the optical surface properties into ice and firn zones. The resulting grids with according conversion factors (900 and 700 kg/m³ for ice and firn, respectively) are combined to calculate mass changes. In a last step, the survey dates are adjusted, using numerous field observations. On an annual time scale, the geodetic mass balances of HEF corrected using this approach, correlate well with the results from the homogenized direct glaciological method. Significant deviations occur in years with few measurements in the uppermost areas applying the direct glaciological method, due to strong melt in areas not equipped with ablation stakes (cf. Figure 2 for 2002/03) or inaccessibility due to weather conditions. On the basis of these results, the conventional error risk (e.g. confidence levels), was adopted in order to test the null hypothesis and to check if unexplained discrepancies suggest reanalyses of glaciological mass balances. Regarding the cumulative mass balance, the deviations between the two methods tend to become smaller the longer the period of comparison extends. Averaged between 2001 and 2011 the largest sources of differences are snow cover and density assumptions having high uncertainties in their estimates and/or leading to higher error ranges in the geodetic mass balances. Some errors were found to have a minor impact and are not treated explicitly, such as uncertainties in different glacier outlines used in both methods or the influence of snow covered and snow free crevasses in

  12. Incorporating GPS geodetic data into the undergraduate classroom to improve data and information literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of an NSF-funded project, we are incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) geodesy into the classroom to improve data and information literacy among undergraduate students. Our objectives are: to introduce statistical concepts essential for the interpretation of large datasets; to promote communication skills; to enhance critical thinking; and to build teamwork. GPS geodesy is ideal for illustrating data literacy concepts. Data precision and accuracy depend upon several factors, including type of equipment, environmental conditions, length of occupations, monument design, site location, configuration of the geodetic network, and processing strategies. All of these can be varied, allowing the students to learn the trade-offs among cost, time, and quality and to determine the most efficient methodology for specific problems. In addition, precision, accuracy, and errors govern the interpretations that can be made and the potential to distinguish among competing models. Our focus is a semester-long course that uses GPS geodesy in real-world applications and also requires integration of GPS data into oral presentations and written reports. Students work in teams on "cases" that pose hypotheses for testing. The cases are derived from our on-going research projects and take advantage of on-line continuous GPS (CGPS) data as well as our archived campaign data. The case studies are: 1) Microplate tectonics in the northeastern Caribbean; 2) Inflation/deflation cycles of the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat; and 3) Contribution of monument instability to the overall error in geodetic data from the New Madrid Seismic Zone. All course materials will be on-line and available for the community.

  13. Development of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques in New Zealand: Array simulation, image synthesis and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, S. D.

    2008-04-01

    This thesis presents the design and development of a process to model Very Long Base Line Interferometry (VLBI) aperture synthesis antenna arrays. In line with the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Institute for Radiophysics and Space Research (IRSR) aims to develop the knowledge, skills and experience within New Zealand, extensive use of existing radio astronomical software has been incorporated into the process namely AIPS (Astronomical Imaging Processing System), MIRIAD (a radio interferometry data reduction package) and DIFMAP (a program for synthesis imaging of visibility data from interferometer arrays of radio telescopes). This process has been used to model various antenna array configurations for two proposed New Zealand sites for antenna in a VLBI array configuration with existing Australian facilities and a passable antenna at Scott Base in Antarctica; and the results are presented in an attempt to demonstrate the improvement to be gained by joint trans-Tasman VLBI observation. It is hoped these results and process will assist the planning and placement of proposed New Zealand radio telescopes for cooperation with groups such as the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA), others in the Pacific Rim and possibly globally; also potential future involvement of New Zealand with the SKA. The developed process has also been used to model a phased building schedule for the SKA in Australia and the addition of two antennas in New Zealand. This has been presented to the wider astronomical community via the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand Journal, and is summarized in this thesis with some additional material. A new measure of quality ("figure of merit") for comparing the original model image and final CLEAN images by utilizing normalized 2-D cross correlation is evaluated as an alternative to the existing subjective visual operator image comparison undertaken to date by other groups. This new unit of measure is then used ! in the presentation of the

  14. Ground-based VLBI relativistic time delay model for Spacecrafts in Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. W.; Zheng, Y.; Du, L.

    2003-02-01

    The ground VLBI relativistic time delay model for spacecraft in the solar system is derived, first in the barycentric reference system and then transferred to the non-spinning geocentric reference system. A universal analyzed expression is presented, from which another model given by Ping Jinsong can be obtained. It is also pointed that several models for extra-galactic sources are available from the formula such as Zhu-Groten?Shapiro and IERS(92,96) recommended models if the geocentric distances of the sources become infinite large. Adopting the formula given here is recommended in processing VLBI observable due to its rigorousness and errors-free. The using limitation of the formula and estimation in magnitude for various neglecting items as well as the computation steps in details are also discussed.

  15. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry: 2000 General Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the first General Meeting of the International Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Koetzting, Germany, February 21-24, 2000. The content of this volume also appears on the IVS web site at: http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2000. The goal of the program committee for the General Meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. The program included reports, tutorials, invited and contributed papers, and poster presentations. The tutorial papers should be particularly useful references because each one provides an overview and introduction to a topic relevant to VLBI.

  16. Radio Brightness Temperatures and Angular Dimensions of Recently Predicted Vl-Bi Small-Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Muestro que analisis recientes publicados de fuentes de radio galacticas y extragalacticas predicen estructuras en pequera escala en fuentes de radio extendidas, remanentes de supernova, vientos protoestelares, nubes moleculares, distorsiones del fondo de 3 K, enanas blancas magnetizadas, estrellas de tipo tardio y el Sol. Discuto las temperatu- ras de brillo de radio de estas estructuras y sus ditnensiones. Muestro que estas estructuras son detectables con las sensibilidades actuales de VLBI (o en el futuro cercano). ABSTRACT. I show that recently published analysis of galactic and extragalactic radio sources make predictions of small-scale structures in extended radio sources, supernovae remnants, protostellar winds, molecu- lar clouds, distortions of the 3 K background, magnetized white dwarf binaries, late-type stars and the sun. I discuss the radio brightness temperatures of these structures and their dimensions. I show that these structures are detectable with present (or near future) VLBI sensitivities. : RADIO SOURCES-EXTENDED

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: First Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey. II. (Thakkar+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, D. D.; Xu, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Pearson, T. J.; Taylor, G. B.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Polatidis, A. G.; Wilkinson, P. N.

    1996-10-01

    We report lambda-18 cm VLBI observations made in 1991 September of a further 25 objects from the first Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey (the CJ1 survey). The CJ1 sample is a complete, flux-density limited sample of 135 radio sources with total flux density at lambda-6cm between 0.7 and 1.3Jy. These observations complete the lambda-18cm part of the survey. Together with the results of Paper I (Polatidis et al., ), we have now observed 81 CJ1 sources at lambda-18cm. Later papers in the series will present lambda-6cm observations and the analysis and interpretation of the results. (2 data files).

  18. New determination of the position of the pulsar B0329+54 with Chinese VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Zheng, Xingwu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Weihua; Zheng, Weimin; Shu, Fengchun; Li, Jinling; Yu, Yun; Hao, Longfei; Yuan, Jianping; Xia, Bo

    2010-08-01

    We present the first successful CVN (Chinese VLBI Network) phase-referencing observation of the pulsar B0329+54 on October 16, 2008 in S band. A new background source, J0347+5557, 2.5° away from the pulsar was employed as a position reference, which is closer to the pulsar and better for the ‘nodding’ mode than that used in previous observations. The position by fitting image of the pulsar relative to the calibrator is accurately determined at the level of tens of μas, which is comparable with the present differential VLBI astrometric accuracy, proving that CVN will be a potential powerful tool for astrometry and astrophysics.

  19. Reducing the draconitic errors in GNSS geodetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Solano, C. J.; Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.; Bloßfeld, M.; Fritsche, M.

    2014-06-01

    Systematic errors at harmonics of the GPS draconitic year have been found in diverse GPS-derived geodetic products like the geocenter -component, station coordinates, -pole rate and orbits (i.e. orbit overlaps). The GPS draconitic year is the repeat period of the GPS constellation w.r.t. the Sun which is about 351 days. Different error sources have been proposed which could generate these spurious signals at the draconitic harmonics. In this study, we focus on one of these error sources, namely the radiation pressure orbit modeling deficiencies. For this purpose, three GPS+GLONASS solutions of 8 years (2004-2011) were computed which differ only in the solar radiation pressure (SRP) and satellite attitude models. The models employed in the solutions are: (1) the CODE (5-parameter) radiation pressure model widely used within the International GNSS Service community, (2) the adjustable box-wing model for SRP impacting GPS (and GLONASS) satellites, and (3) the adjustable box-wing model upgraded to use non-nominal yaw attitude, specially for satellites in eclipse seasons. When comparing the first solution with the third one we achieved the following in the GNSS geodetic products. Orbits: the draconitic errors in the orbit overlaps are reduced for the GPS satellites in all the harmonics on average 46, 38 and 57 % for the radial, along-track and cross-track components, while for GLONASS satellites they are mainly reduced in the cross-track component by 39 %. Geocenter -component: all the odd draconitic harmonics found when the CODE model is used show a very important reduction (almost disappearing with a 92 % average reduction) with the new radiation pressure models. Earth orientation parameters: the draconitic errors are reduced for the -pole rate and especially for the -pole rate by 24 and 50 % respectively. Station coordinates: all the draconitic harmonics (except the 2nd harmonic in the North component) are reduced in the North, East and Height components, with

  20. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Research effort on behalf of the Crustal Dynamics Project focused on the development of methodologies suitable for the analysis of space-geodetic data sets for the estimation of crustal motions, in conjunction with results derived from land-based geodetic data, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data. These methodologies were used to provide estimates of both global plate motions and intraplate deformation in the western U.S. Results from the satellite ranging experiment for the rate of change of the baseline length between San Diego and Quincy, California indicated that relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates over the course of the observing period during 1972 to 1982 were consistent with estimates calculated from geologic data averaged over the past few million years. This result, when combined with other kinematic constraints on western U.S. deformation derived from land-based geodesy, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data, places limits on the possible extension of the Basin and Range province, and implies significant deformation is occurring west of the San Andreas fault. A new methodology was developed to analyze vector-position space-geodetic data to provide estimates of relative vector motions of the observing sites. The algorithm is suitable for the reduction of large, inhomogeneous data sets, and takes into account the full position covariances, errors due to poorly resolved Earth orientation parameters and vertical positions, and reduces baises due to inhomogeneous sampling of the data. This methodology was applied to the problem of estimating the rate-scaling parameter of a global plate tectonic model using satellite laser ranging observations over a five-year interval. The results indicate that the mean rate of global plate motions for that interval are consistent with those averaged over several million years, and are not consistent with quiescent or greatly accelerated plate motions. This methodology was also

  1. Methodology for the combination of sub-daily Earth rotation from GPS and VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, T.; Bernhard, L.; Nothnagel, A.; Steigenberger, P.; Tesmer, S.

    2012-03-01

    A combination procedure of Earth orientation parameters from Global Positioning System (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations was developed on the basis of homogeneous normal equation systems. The emphasis and purpose of the combination was the determination of sub-daily polar motion (PM) and universal time (UT1) for a long time-span of 13 years. Time series with an hourly resolution and a model for tidal variations of PM and UT1-TAI (dUT1) were estimated. In both cases, 14-day nutation corrections were estimated simultaneously with the ERPs. Due to the combination procedure, it was warranted that the strengths of both techniques were preserved. At the same time, only a minimum of de-correlating or stabilizing constraints were necessary. Hereby, a PM time series was determined, whose precision is mainly dominated by GPS observations. However, this setup benefits from the fact that VLBI delivered nutation and dUT1 estimates at the same time. An even bigger enhancement can be seen for the dUT1 estimation, where the high-frequency variations are provided by GPS, while the long term trend is defined by VLBI. The estimated combined tidal PM and dUT1 model was predominantly determined from the GPS observations. Overall, the combined tidal model for the first time completely comprises the geometrical benefits of VLBI and GPS observations. In terms of root mean squared (RMS) differences, the tidal amplitudes agree with other empirical single-technique tidal models below 4 μ as in PM and 0.25 μ s in dUT1. The noise floor of the tidal ERP model was investigated in three ways resulting in about 1 μ as for diurnal PM and 0.07 μ s for diurnal dUT1 while the semi-diurnal components have a slightly better accuracy.

  2. Early science with the Korean VLBI network: evaluation of system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Song, Min-Gyu; Oh, Chung Sik; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Je, Do-Heung; Wi, Seog-Oh; Sohn, Bong Won; Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Chung, Moon-Hee; Kang, Jiman; Han, Seog-Tae; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Bong Gyu; Chung, Hyunsoo; Petrov, Leonid; and others

    2014-04-01

    We report the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observing performance of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). The KVN is the first millimeter-dedicated VLBI network in East Asia. The KVN consists of three 21 m radio telescopes with baseline lengths in a range of 305-476 km. The quasi-optical system equipped on the antennas allows simultaneous observations at 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz. The first fringes of the KVN were obtained at 22 GHz on 2010 June 8. Test observations at 22 and 43 GHz on 2010 September 30 and 2011 April 4 confirmed that the full cycle of VLBI observations works according to specification: scheduling, antenna control system, data recording, correlation, post-correlation data processing, astrometry, geodesy, and imaging analysis. We found that decorrelation due to instability in the hardware at times up to 600 s is negligible. The atmosphere fluctuations at KVN baseline are partly coherent, which allows us to extend integration time under good winter weather conditions up to 600 s without significant loss of coherence. The post-fit residuals at KVN baselines do not exhibit systematic patterns, and the weighted rms of the residuals is 14.8 ps. The KVN is ready to image compact radio sources both in snapshot and full-track modes with residual noise in calibrated phases of less than 2 deg at 22 and 43 GHz and with dynamic ranges of ∼300 for snapshot mode and ∼1000 for full-track mode. With simultaneous multi-frequency observations, the KVN can be used to make parsec-scale spectral index maps of compact radio sources.

  3. The introduction to the VLBI post-correlation processing in Chang'E-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    The VLBI technology has been chosen in Chinese first lunar project Chang-e working together with USB technology to measure the S C angular position and to determine the orbit during its approaching to the moon and orbiting Several experiments have been carried to investigate the effectivity of the percept and the flexibility in the implementation In this report I ll give an introduction to the post-correlation processing stage

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: First Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI Survey. I. (Polatidis+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polatidis, A. G.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Xu, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Pearson, T. J.; Taylor, G. B.; Vermeulen, R. C.

    1996-10-01

    We present the first results from the first Caltech-Jodrell Bank VLBI survey (the CJ1 survey). The CJ1 sample includes 135 radio sources with total flux density 1.3Jy>S_6cm>=0.7Jy, declination delta_1950>=35deg, and Galactic latitude |b^II|>10deg. It extends the flux density limit of the complete "PR" sample studied by Pearson & Readhead from 1.3 to 0.7Jy and increases the total number of sources from 65 to 200. The complete survey includes VLBI images at both lambda-18 and 6cm of all objects in the extended sample that have cores strong enough to be mapped with the Mark II VLBI system. These images provide a large enough sample to study, for example, the variety of morphologies exhibited by compact radio sources, cosmological evolution, superluminal motion, and misalignment between parsec-scale and kiloparsec-scale radio structures. In this paper we present lambda-18cm VLBI observations of 56 CJ1 and 31 PR sources made in 1990-1991, including images of 82 sources. The observations were made with a "snapshot" technique in which each source was observed in three 20-30-minute scans using an array of 12-16 antennas. The images have resolution 3-10mas and dynamic range greater than 100:1. Later papers in the series will present the remaining lambda-18cm observations, the lambda-6cm observations, and the analysis and interpretation of the results. (4 data files).

  5. DETECTING CHANGING POLARIZATION STRUCTURES IN SAGITTARIUS A* WITH HIGH FREQUENCY VLBI

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham

    2009-12-01

    Sagittarius A* is the source of near infrared, X-ray, radio, and (sub)millimeter emission associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. In the submillimeter regime, Sgr A* exhibits time-variable linear polarization on timescales corresponding to <10 Schwarzschild radii of the presumed 4 x 10{sup 6} M {sub sun} black hole. In previous work, we demonstrated the potential for total-intensity (sub)millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to detect time-variable-and periodic-source structure changes in the Sgr A* black hole system using nonimaging analyses. Here, we extend this work to include full polarimetric VLBI observations. We simulate full-polarization (sub)millimeter VLBI data of Sgr A* using a hot spot model that is embedded within an accretion disk, with emphasis on nonimaging polarimetric data products that are robust against calibration errors. Although the source-integrated linear polarization fraction in the models is typically only a few percent, the linear polarization fraction on small angular scales can be much higher, enabling the detection of changes in the polarimetric structure of Sgr A* on a wide variety of baselines. The shortest baselines track the source-integrated linear polarization fraction, while longer baselines are sensitive to polarization substructures that are beam-diluted by connected-element interferometry. The detection of periodic variability in source polarization should not be significantly affected even if instrumental polarization terms cannot be calibrated out. As more antennas are included in the (sub)millimeter-VLBI array, observations with full polarization will provide important new diagnostics to help disentangle intrinsic source polarization from Faraday rotation effects in the accretion and outflow region close to the black hole event horizon.

  6. Impact of different NWM-derived mapping functions on VLBI and GNSS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Thalia; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Nievinski, Felipe; Mendonça, Marco; Santos, Marcelo; Schuh, Harald

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the issue of the tropospheric mapping functions (MF) employed for VLBI and GNSS data analysis is addressed. IERS Conventions (2010) recommend for standard operational solutions, the use of MF based on numerical weather models (NWM) to improve troposphere modeling. The Vienna Mapping Functions 1 (VMF1) map the atmospheric delay from zenith to the line of sight as an elevation dependent function and are capable of better accounting for real weather phenomena compared to MF without NWM input data. However, the spatial resolution of the NWM itself, directly impacts the ability to model atmospheric conditions effectively. Therefore, we employ the UNB-VMF1 which utilize the high resolution model from the Canadian Meteorological Centre based on the Global Deterministic Prediction System (CMC GDPS). The latter, as a modern operational model, contains the latest application of atmospheric physics and parameterizations and is relieved from spatially based systematic effects. For our investigations, we analyze all rapid turnaround VLBI experiments spanning a five year period using the VieVS@GFZ software, as well as the entire data set from IGS sites that observed at the same interval using GAPS: UNB Precise Point Positioning software. Using the independent UNB ray-tracing algorithm we derive hydrostatic and wet "a" coefficients of MF as well as zenith delays from ray-tracing in CMC NWM. The solutions we produced differ only in the choice of the MF. The VLBI and GNSS analysis are fully consistent. The comparison is conducted on both global and local parameters (station positions and velocities, Earth rotation parameters, zenith wet delays and first order tropospheric gradients) between VLBI and GNSS derived products as well as between employing VMF1 (ECMWF operational analysis) and UNB-VMF1 (CMC).

  7. PRIDE and MarcoPolo-R: VLBI applications for Near-Earth Asteroids science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimo, G.; Molera-Calves, G.; Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T.

    2012-09-01

    The core of the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is the accurate estimation of the state-vector of a spacecraft using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking. In this contribution, we will describe the technique and the technical requirements as well as the multidisciplinary scientific outcome of PRIDE as a part of the ESA mission MarcoPolo-R towards the Near-Earth Asteroids.

  8. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL VLBI parameter estimation software MODEST, 19 94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of the document Observation Model and Parameter Partials for the JPL VLBI Parameter Estimation Software 'MODEST'---1991, dated August 1, 1991. It supersedes that document and its four previous versions (1983, 1985, 1986, and 1987). A number of aspects of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) model were improved from 1991 to 1994. Treatment of tidal effects is extended to model the effects of ocean tides on universal time and polar motion (UTPM), including a default model for nearly diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tidal UTPM variations, and partial derivatives for all (solid and ocean) tidal UTPM amplitudes. The time-honored 'K(sub 1) correction' for solid earth tides has been extended to include analogous frequency-dependent response of five tidal components. Partials of ocean loading amplitudes are now supplied. The Zhu-Mathews-Oceans-Anisotropy (ZMOA) 1990-2 and Kinoshita-Souchay models of nutation are now two of the modeling choices to replace the increasingly inadequate 1980 International Astronomical Union (IAU) nutation series. A rudimentary model of antenna thermal expansion is provided. Two more troposphere mapping functions have been added to the repertoire. Finally, corrections among VLBI observations via the model of Treuhaft and lanyi improve modeling of the dynamic troposphere. A number of minor misprints in Rev. 4 have been corrected.

  9. Outlining a strategic vision for terrestrial geodetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David A.; Oldow, John S.; Walker, J. Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Charting the Future of Terrestrial Laser Scanning in the Earth Sciences and Related Fields; Boulder, Colorado, 17-19 October 2011 A workshop hosted by UNAVCO and funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) brought together 80 participants representing a spectrum of research fields with the objective of outlining a strategic vision for the future of terrestrial geodetic imaging as applied to a broad range of research activities at all levels of the community. Earth science investigations increasingly require accurate representation of the Earth surface using three-dimensional data capture, display, and analysis at a centimeter scale to quantitatively characterize and model complex processes. Recognizing this community need, researchers at several universities and UNAVCO established the NSF-funded Interdisciplinary Alliance for Digital Field Data Acquisition and Exploration (INTERFACE) project to support a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) instrument pool and data collection expertise now based at UNAVCO

  10. Analysis of variance of an underdetermined geodetic displacement problem

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, D.

    1982-06-01

    It has been suggested recently that point displacements in a free geodetic network traversing a strike-slip fault may be estimated from repeated surveys by minimizing only those displacement components normal to the strike. It is desirable to justify this procedure. We construct, from estimable quantities, a deformation parameter which is an F-statistic of the type occurring in the analysis of variance of linear models not of full rank. A test of its significance provides the criterion to justify the displacement solution. It is also interesting to study its behaviour as one varies the supposed strike of the fault. Justification of a displacement solution using data from a strike-slip fault is found, but not for data from a rift valley. The technique can be generalized to more complex patterns of deformation such as those expected near the end-zone of a fault in a dislocation model.

  11. Effects of Tropospheric Spatio-Temporal Correlated Noise on the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero-Wolf, A. F.; Jacobs, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The standard VLBI analysis models measurement noise as purely thermal errors modeled according to uncorrelated Gaussian distributions. As the price of recording bits steadily decreases, thermal errors will soon no longer dominate. It is therefore expected that troposphere and instrumentation/clock errors will increasingly become more dominant. Given that both of these errors have correlated spectra, properly modeling the error distributions will become more relevant for optimal analysis. This paper will discuss the advantages of including the correlations between tropospheric delays using a Kolmogorov spectrum and the frozen ow model pioneered by Treuhaft and Lanyi. We will show examples of applying these correlated noise spectra to the weighting of VLBI data analysis.

  12. Geodetic Measurements of Slow Slip and Tremor in Parkfield, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbridge, B. G.; Burgmann, R.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    It has been proposed that large bursts of deep tremor ( >20km depth) near Parkfield, CA are associated with quasi-periodic shear dislocations on the deep extent of the San Andreas Fault. Geodetic studies have shown that slow slip accompanies tremor in several subduction zones [e.g. Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Ide et al 2008]. However, prior to this study deformation associated with tremor in a transform fault environment had not been observed despite the ubiquitous presence of tremor and LFEs [Shelly et al, 2007; Nadeau et al 2005] and targeted attempts to observe this deformation [Smith 2009]. In this study we report geodetic measurements of surface strains associated with large tremor swarms that are inferred to be concurrent with slow-slip events with moment magnitudes exceeding 5 [Guilhem et al 2012]. The strain rates associated with these events are below the detection level of GPS networks, thus in order to observe this deformation we have utilized two long-baseline laser strainmeters (LSM) located in Cholame, CA. In order to overcome a small signal-to noise-ratio in the strainmeter data, we have stacked the strain records associated with more than 50 large tremor-burst events, each approximately 10 days in duration. The average surface strains associated with these events are on the order of several nanometers and correspond to fault slip on the order of 5 millimeters per event (assuming a fault patch extending ~25 km along-strike and ~15km in depth). The measured moment associated with these events is a factor of two smaller than previously proposed based on theoretical estimates [Guilhem et al 2012]. In this study we also explore the deformation associated with a large increase in tremor activity following the August 24, 2014 M6.0 Napa earthquake, the largest observed burst in the Parkfield-Cholame area since the large tremor rate increase associated with the 2004 Parkfield M6 earthquake.

  13. Detection of Coastline Deformation Using Remote Sensing and Geodetic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Dogru, A.; Ozener, H.; Turgut, B.

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas are being destroyed due to the usage that effect the natural balance. Unconsciously sand mining from the sea for nearshore nourishment and construction uses are the main ones. Physical interferences for mining of sand cause an ecologic threat to the coastal environment. However, use of marine sand is inevitable because of economic reasons or unobtainable land-based sand resources. The most convenient solution in such a protection-usage dilemma is to reduce negative impacts of sand production from marine. This depends on the accurate determination of criteriaon production place, style, and amount of sand. With this motivation, nearshore geodedic surveying studies performed on Kilyos Campus of Bogazici University located on the Black Sea coast, north of Istanbul, Turkey between 2001-2002. The study area extends 1 km in the longshore. Geodetic survey was carried out in the summer of 2001 to detect the initial condition for the shoreline. Long-term seasonal changes in shoreline positions were determined biannually. The coast was measured with post-processed kinematic GPS. Besides, shoreline change has studied using Landsat imagery between the years 1986-2015. The data set of Landsat 5 imageries were dated 05.08.1986 and 31.08.2007 and Landsat 7 imageries were dated 21.07.2001 and 28.07.2015. Landcover types in the study area were analyzed on the basis of pixel based classification method. Firstly, unsupervised classification based on ISODATA (Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique) has been applied and spectral clusters have been determined that gives prior knowledge about the study area. In the second step, supervised classification was carried out by using the three different approaches which are minimum-distance, parallelepiped and maximum-likelihood. All pixel based classification processes were performed with ENVI 4.8 image processing software. Results of geodetic studies and classification outputs will be presented in this paper.

  14. A Regional Geodetic Reference Frame for Asia and the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J.; Hu, G.; Jia, M.

    2009-04-01

    In 1994, the United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Pacific resolved to establish a Permanent Committee comprising of national surveying and mapping agencies to address the concept of establishing a common geographic information infrastructure for the region. This resolution subsequently led to the establishment of the Permanent Committee for GIS Infrastructure for the Asia and Pacific (PCGIAP). One of the goals of the PCGIAP was to establish and maintain a precise understanding of the relationship between permanent geodetic stations across the region. To this end, campaign-style geodetic-GPS observations, coordinated by Geoscience Australia, have been undertaken throughout the region since 1997. In this presentation, we discuss the development of an Asia Pacific regional reference frame based on the PCGIAP GPS campaign data, which now includes data from 417 non-IGS GPS stations and provides long term crustal deformation estimates for over 200 GPS stations throughout the region. We overview and evaluate: our combination strategy with particular emphasis on the alignment of the solution onto the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF); the sensitivity of the solution to reference frame site selection; the treatment of regional co-seismic and post-seismic deformation; and the Asia-Pacific contribution to the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Working Group on "Regional Dense Velocity Fields". The level of consistency of the coordinate estimates with respect to ITRF2005 is 6, 5, 15 mm, in the east, north and up components, respectively, while the velocity estimates are consistent at 2, 2, 6 mm/yr in the east, north and up components, respectively.

  15. Radio emission of SN1993J: the complete picture. I. Re-analysis of all the available VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Guirado, J. C.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Ros, E.

    2011-02-01

    We have performed a complete re-calibration and re-analysis of all the available Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry (VLBI) observations of supernova SN1993J, following an homogeneous and well-defined methodology. VLBI observations of SN1993J at 69 epochs, spanning 13 years, were performed by two teams, which used different strategies and analysis tools. The results obtained by each group are similar, but their conclusions on the supernova expansion and the shape and evolution of the emitting region differ significantly. From our analysis of the combined set of observations, we have obtained an expansion curve with unprecedented time resolution and coverage. We find that the data from both teams are compatible when analyzed with the same methodology. One expansion index (m3 = 0.87 ± 0.02) is enough to model the expansion observed at 1.7 GHz, while two expansion indices (m1 = 0.933 ± 0.010 and m2 = 0.796 ± 0.005), separated by a break time, tbr = 390 ± 30 days, are needed to model the data, at frequencies higher than 1.7 GHz, up to day ~4000 after explosion. We thus confirm the wavelength dependence of the size of the emitting region reported by one of the groups. We also find that all sizes measured at epochs later than day ~4000 after explosion are systematically smaller than our model predictions (i.e., an additional expansion index might be needed to properly model these data). We also estimate the fractional shell width (0.31 ± 0.02, average of all epochs and frequencies) and the level of opacity to the radio emission by the ejecta. We find evidence of a spectral-index radial gradient in the supernova shell, which is indicative of a frequency-dependent ejecta opacity. Finally, we study the distribution and evolution of the azimuthal anisotropies (hot spots) found around the radio shell during the expansion. These anisotropies have intensities of ~20% of the mean flux density of the shell, and appear to systematically evolve during the expansion.

  16. The simulation of lunar gravity field recovery from D-VLBI of Chang’E-1 and SELENE lunar orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianguo; Ping, Jingsong; Matsumoto, K.; Li, Fei

    2008-07-01

    The lunar gravity field is a foundation to study the lunar interior structure, and to recover the evolution history of the Moon. It is still an open and key topic for lunar science. For above mentioned reasons, it becomes one of the important scientific objectives of recent lunar missions, such as KAGUYA (SELENE) the Japanese lunar mission and Chang’E-1, the Chinese lunar mission. The Chang’E-1 and the SELENE were successfully launched in 2007. It is estimated that these two missions can fly around the Moon longer than 6 months simultaneously. In these two missions, the Chinese new VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) network will be applied for precise orbit determination (POD) by using a differential VLBI (D-VLBI) method during the mission period. The same-beam D-VLBI technique will contribute to recover the lunar gravity field together with other conventional observables, i.e. R&RR (Range and Range Rate) and multi-way Doppler. Taking VLBI tracking conditions into consideration and using the GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA [Rowlands, D.D., Marshall, J.A., Mccarthy, J., et al. GEODYN II System Description, vols. 1 5. Contractor Report, Hughes STX Corp. Greenbelt, MD, 1997; Ullman, R.E. SOLVE program: mathematical formulation and guide to user input, Hughes/STX Contractor Report, Contract NAS5-31760. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1994], we simulated the lunar gravity field recovering ability with and without D-VLBI between the Chang’E-1 and SELENE main satellite. The cases of overlapped flying and tracking period of 30 days, 60 days and 90 days have been analyzed, respectively. The results show that D-VLBI tracking between two lunar satellites can improve the gravity field recovery remarkably. The results and methods introduced in this paper will benefit the actual missions.

  17. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.

    2010-07-01

    Glacier mass balance is measured with the direct or the geodetic method. In this study, the geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers in 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances in the same periods. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is -0.5 m w.e./year. The mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.7 m w.e., the minimum -7.3 m w.e. and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance resulting from the accuracy of the DEMs ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.002 m w.e. for LIDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover and density changes of the surface layer contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. for the period of 10 years to the difference to the direct method. The characteristics of published data of Griesgletscher, Gulkana Glacier, Lemon Creek glacier, South Cascade, Storbreen, Storglaciären, and Zongo Glacier is similar to these Austrian glaciers. For 26 analyzed periods with an average length of 18 years the mean difference between the geodetic and the direct data is -0.4 m w.e., the minimum -7.2 m w.e. and the maximum 3.6 m w.e. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Specific glaciers show specific trends of the difference between the direct and the geodetic data according to their type and state. In conclusion, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, but differ systematically.

  18. Development of a composite geodetic structure for space construction, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Primary physical and mechanical properties were defined for pultruded hybrid HMS/E-glass P1700 rod material used for the fabrication of geodetic beams. Key properties established were used in the analysis, design, fabrication, instrumentation, and testing of a geodetic parameter cylinder and a lattice cone closeout joined to a short cylindrical geodetic beam segment. Requirements of structural techniques were accomplished. Analytical procedures were refined and extended to include the effect of rod dimensions for the helical and longitudinal members on local buckling, and the effect of different flexural and extensional moduli on general instability buckling.

  19. GEODYN system description, volume 1. [computer program for estimation of orbit and geodetic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, M. M.; Goad, C. C.; Martin, T. V.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for the estimation of orbit and geodetic parameters is presented. The areas in which the program is operational are defined. The specific uses of the program are given as: (1) determination of definitive orbits, (2) tracking instrument calibration, (3) satellite operational predictions, and (4) geodetic parameter estimation. The relationship between the various elements in the solution of the orbit and geodetic parameter estimation problem is analyzed. The solution of the problems corresponds to the orbit generation mode in the first case and to the data reduction mode in the second case.

  20. A experiment on radio location of objects in the near-Earth space with VLBI in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M.; Antipenko, A.; Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukov, D.; Dementjev, A.; Dugin, N.; Konovalenko, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Liu, X.; Nabatov, A.; Nesteruk, V.; Pupillo, G.; Reznichenko, A.; Salerno, E.; Shmeld, I.; Shulga, O.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Tikhomirov, Yu.; Tkachenko, A.; Volvach, A.; Yang, W.-J.

    An experiment on radar location of space debris objects using of the method of VLBI was carried out in April, 2012. The radar VLBI experiment consisted in irradiation of some space debris objects (4 rocket stages and 5 inactive satellites) with a signal of the transmitter with RT-70 in Evpatoria, Ukraine. Reflected signals were received by a complex of radio telescopes in the VLBI mode. The following VLBI stations took part in the observations: Ventspils (RT-32), Urumqi (RT-25), Medicina (RT-32) and Simeiz (RT-22). The experiment included measurements of the Doppler frequency shift and the delay for orbit refining, and measurements of the rotation period and sizes of objects by the amplitudes of output interferometer signals. The cross-correlation of VLBI-data is performed at a correlator NIRFI-4 of Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod). Preliminary data processing resulted in the series of Doppler frequency shifts, which comprised the information on radial velocities of the objects. Some results of the experiment are presented.

  1. Data Center at NICT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Sekido, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    The Data Center at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) archives and releases the databases and analysis results processed at the Correlator and the Analysis Center at NICT. Regular VLBI sessions of the Key Stone Project VLBI Network were the primary objective of the Data Center. These regular sessions continued until the end of November 2001. In addition to the Key Stone Project VLBI sessions, NICT has been conducting geodetic VLBI sessions for various purposes, and these data are also archived and released by the Data Center.

  2. Magma-tectonic interactions in Kīlauea's Southwest Rift Zone in 2006 through coupled geodetic/seismological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, C.; Roman, D. C.; Poland, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    For much of the first 20 years of Kīlauea's 1983-present Pu'u 'Ō'ō eruption, deformation was characterized by subsidence at the volcano's summit and along both the East Rift Zone (ERZ) and Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). At the end of 2003, however, Kīlauea's summit began a 4-year period of inflation due to a surge in magma supply to the volcano. In 2006, the SWRZ also experienced atypical inflation, which was last observed in 1981-82 during a series of dike intrusions. To investigate the active magma sources and their interactions with faulting in the SWRZ during 2006, we integrate contemporary geodetic data from InSAR and GPS with double-couple fault-plane solutions for volcano-tectonic earthquakes and Coulomb stress modeling. According to the rate of deformation measured in daily GPS data, two distinct periods can be defined, spanning January to 15 March 2006 (period 1) and 16 March to 30 September 2006 (period 2). Geodetic models suggest that, during period 1, deformation, due to pressurization of magma in a vertical prolate-spheroidal conduit, in the south caldera area. In addition, a major seismic swarm occurred in both the SWRZ and ERZ. Our preliminary results also suggest that, during period 2, magma was still overpressurizing the same prolate-spheroid but a subhorizontal sill also intruded further to the southwest in the seismic SWRZ (SSWRZ). The beginning of period 2 also corresponds to a switch from subsidence to inflation of the SWRZ. Faulting in the upper ERZ is primarily strike-slip, with no obvious change in FPS orientation between periods 1 and 2. In contrast, faulting in the upper SSWRZ occurs as dip-slip motion on near-vertical faults. SSWRZ FPS show a mix of orientations including NW- and NE-striking faults, which along with relative earthquake locations, suggest a series of right-stepping fault segments, particularly during period 2. Calculated Coulomb stress changes indicate that faulting in the upper SSWRZ may result from stresses produced by

  3. Development of a composite geodetic structure for space construction, phase 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development of a geodetic beam and beam builder for on orbit construction of large truss type space structures is discussed. The geodetic beam is a lightweight, open lattice structure composed of an equilateral gridwork of crisscrossing rods. The beam provides a high degree of stiffness and minimizes structural distortion, due to temperature gradients, through the incorporation of a new graphite and glass reinforced thermoplastic composite material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. A low power consuming, high production rate, beam builder automatically fabricates the geodetic beams in space using rods preprocessed on Earth. Three areas of the development are focused upon; (1) geodetic beam designs for local attachment of equipment or beam to beam joining in a parallel or crossing configurations, (2) evaluation of long life pultruded rods capable of service temperatures higher than possible with the HMS/P1700 rod material, and (3) evalaution of high temperature joint encapsulant materials.

  4. Improvement of a geodetic triangulation through control points established by means of satellite or precision traversing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, N. K.

    1972-01-01

    Whether any significant increment to accuracy could be transferred from a super-control continental net (continental satellite net or super-transcontinental traverse) to the fundamental geodetic net (first-order triangulation) is discussed. This objective was accomplished by evaluating the positional accuracy improvement for a triangulation station, which is near the middle of the investigated geodetic triangulation net, by using various station constraints over its geodetic position. This investigation on a 1858 kilometer long triangulation chain shows that the super-control net can provide a useful constraint to the investigated geodetic triangulation net, and thus can improve it only when the accuracy of super-control net is at least 1 part in 500,000.

  5. Three-dimensional stochastic adjustment of volcano geodetic network in Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, C.; van der Laat, R.; Cattin, P.-H.; Del Potro, R.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano geodetic networks are a key instrument to understanding magmatic processes and, thus, forecasting potentially hazardous activity. These networks are extensively used on volcanoes worldwide and generally comprise a number of different traditional and modern geodetic surveying techniques such as levelling, distances, triangulation and GNSS. However, in most cases, data from the different methodologies are surveyed, adjusted and analysed independently. Experience shows that the problem with this procedure is the mismatch between the excellent correlation of position values within a single technique and the low cross-correlation of such values within different techniques or when the same network is surveyed shortly after using the same technique. Moreover one different independent network for each geodetic surveying technique strongly increase logistics and thus the cost of each measurement campaign. It is therefore important to develop geodetic networks which combine the different geodetic surveying technique, and to adjust geodetic data together in order to better quantify the uncertainties associated to the measured displacements. In order to overcome the lack of inter-methodology data integration, the Geomatic Institute of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) has developed a methodology which uses a 3D stochastic adjustment software of redundant geodetic networks, TRINET+. The methodology consists of using each geodetic measurement technique for its strengths relative to other methodologies. Also, the combination of the measurements in a single network allows more cost-effective surveying. The geodetic data are thereafter adjusted and analysed in the same referential frame. The adjustment methodology is based on the least mean square method and links the data with the geometry. Trinet+ also allows to run a priori simulations of the network, hence testing the quality and resolution to be expected for a determined network even

  6. Geodetically constrained slip on the Main Himalayan Thrust fault from the 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Jolivet, R.; González, P. J.; Avouac, J. P.; Hollingsworth, J.; Searle, M. P.; Stevens, V.

    2015-12-01

    Large thrust faults accommodate crustal shortening caused by the collision of tectonic plates, contributing to the growth of topography over geological timescales. The Himalayan belt, which results from the collision of India into Asia, has been the locus of some of the largest earthquakes to strike the continents, including the recent 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain how topography is sustained and how the current convergence across the Himalaya is accommodated - whether this is predominately along a single thrust or is more distributed, involving out-of-sequence additional faulting. Here we use geodetically-derived surface displacements to show that whilst the Gorkha earthquake was blind, it ruptured the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), highlighting its ramp-and-flat geometry. Reconciling independent geological, geomorphological, geophysical and geodetic observations, we quantify the geometry of the MHT in the Kathmandu area. Present-day convergence across the Himalaya is mostly accommodated along the MHT, and no out-of-sequence thrusting is required to explain the higher uplift and incision rates at the front of the high range. Whilst the vast majority of slip is buried at depth, triggered near surface slip was imaged in the Sentinel-1 coseismic interferograms along a 26 km long discontinuity, 10 km north of the Main Frontal Thrust. This surface break follows the trace of the Main Dun Thrust (MDT), a relatively minor splay. This displacement is seen to grow in the central portion of the splay in the proceeding week. Slip from the largest (Mw 7.3) aftershock that occurred 17 days later fills in most of the eastern gap in the slip contours of the mainshock at the lower edge of the fault rupture. In addition to the region west of the Gorkha rupture, a large portion of the MHT remains unbroken south of Kathmandu presenting a continuing seismic hazard. At the shallow end of the rupture, slip tapers off sharply and

  7. Improved constraint on magmatic systems from geodetic and other data using physics-based eruption models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Segall, P.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of ground deformation at volcanoes can be used with simple kinematic models of idealized magma chambers to place valuable constraints on the location, depth, volume change history, and possibly shape of volcanic source reservoirs, but cannot generally be used to estimate their total volume or the properties of the melt in the chamber (including pressure). Analysis of gas emissions, lava dome growth, and the petrology of extruded rock can provide constraints on melt properties and possibly chamber volume, but considered independently, these observations can paint only an incomplete picture of the volcanic system. We argue that a physics-based model of a volcanic eruption can link realistic magmatic processes with diverse time-evolving observations, and thereby make it possible to use all available information simultaneously to place better constraints on properties of the magmatic system than is possible by considering each independently. We have developed a model of an effusive silicic volcanic eruption that is capable of predicting time-evolving pressures, volatile concentrations, and other properties of melt in the chamber and conduit, and from which observations of ground deformation and lava dome extrusion may be calculated. A Bayesian inverse formulation allows for the incorporation of additional information into the problem and generates probabilistic estimates for model parameters. We have applied the technique to the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), constraining model parameters using geodetic and extrusive flux time series, as well as independent estimates of chamber pressure (from plagioclase equilibration data) and dissolved water concentration (derived from gas emissions). In contrast to more traditional inversions using only geodetic data and kinematic forward models, we are able to provide constraint on the absolute volume of the magma chamber, properties of the melt including its compressibility and volatile content, and

  8. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (<2 cm) due to the distance and low magnitude of the earthquake. We use TDEFNODE to model the displacements using two different modeling approaches. In the first model, we solve for homogeneous slip on free rectangular fault(s), and in the second model we solve for distributed slip on the main thrust, realized using different slab models. The results indicate that we can match the seismic moment release, with models indicating rupture of a large area, with a low magnitude of slip. The slip is at shallow-to-intermediate depths on the main thrust off the coast of El Salvador. Additionally, we observe a deeper region of slip to the east, that reaches towards the Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  9. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  10. Damage and restoration of geodetic infrastructure caused by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen M.; Stein, Ross S.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Satalich, Jay; Richards, John H.

    1996-01-01

    We seek to restore the integrity of the geodetic network in the San Fernando, Simi, Santa Clarita Valleys and in the northern Los Angeles Basin by remeasurement of the network and identification of BMs which experienced non-tectonic displacements associated with the Northridge earthquake. We then use the observed displacement of BMs in the network to portray or predict the permanent vertical and horizontal deformation associated with the 1994 Northridge earthquake throughout the area, including sites where we lack geodetic measurements. To accomplish this, we find the fault geometry and earthquake slip that are most compatible with the geodetic and independent seismic observations of the earthquake. We then use that fault model to predict the deformation everywhere at the earth's surface, both at locations where geodetic observations exist and also where they are absent. We compare displacements predicted for a large number of numerical models of the earthquake faulting to the coseismic displacements, treating the earthquake fault as a cut or discontinuity embedded in a stiff elastic solid. This comparison is made after non-tectonic deformation has been removed from the measured elevation changes. The fault slip produces strain in the medium and deforms the ground surface. The model compatible with seismic observations that best fits the geodetic data within their uncertainties is selected. The acceptable model fault bisects the mainshock focus, and the earthquake size , magnitude, is compatible with the earthquake size measured seismically. Our fault model was used to identify geodetic monuments on engineered structures that were anomalously displaced by the earthquake.

  11. Integrated velocity field from ground and satellite geodetic techniques: application to Arenal volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Cyril; del Potro, Rodrigo; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Ebmeier, Susanna K.; Guillaume, Sébastien; Cattin, Paul-Henri; Van der Laat, Rodolfo

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of ground deformation can be used to identify and interpret geophysical processes occurring at volcanoes. Most studies rely on a single geodetic technique, or fit a geophysical model to the results of multiple geodetic techniques. Here we present a methodology that combines GPS, Total Station measurements and InSAR into a single reference frame to produce an integrated 3-D geodetic velocity surface without any prior geophysical assumptions. The methodology consists of five steps: design of the network, acquisition and processing of the data, spatial integration of the measurements, time series computation and finally the integration of spatial and temporal measurements. The most significant improvements of this method are (1) the reduction of the required field time, (2) the unambiguous detection of outliers, (3) an increased measurement accuracy and (4) the construction of a 3-D geodetic velocity field. We apply this methodology to ongoing motion on Arenal's western flank. Integration of multiple measurement techniques at Arenal volcano revealed a deformation field that is more complex than that described by individual geodetic techniques, yet remains consistent with previous studies. This approach can be applied to volcano monitoring worldwide and has the potential to be extended to incorporate other geodetic techniques and to study transient deformation.

  12. Preliminary results from GPS geodetic observations after the January 12, 2010, Mw 7.0 earthquake in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; Mattioli, Glen S.; Freed, Andrew M.; Jansma, Pamela; Macly, Jeannette; Stamps, Sarah; Chaussard, Estelle; Saint Preux, Frantz; Macly, Jeannitte; Mildor, Saint Louis

    2010-05-01

    We have been collecting Global Positioning System (GPS) data along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary to assess slip partitioning, block behavior, and elastic strain accumulation since 1986 when six stations were installed in the northeastern Caribbean. The network was expanded significantly each year from 1994 onward with the addition of Haiti in 2003. Several reoccupations have been completed in Haiti since that time, permitting characterization of the GPS-derived interseismic velocity field. The January 12, 2010 Haiti (Mw=7.0) earthquake traversed the GPS geodetic network and likely occurred on a segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, one of the major structures of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary, which likely last ruptured in 1751. Modeling of the interseismic GPS-derived velocity field in the northeastern Caribbean by Manaker et al. (2008) was consistent with full locking of this segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault and the potential of an earthquake with Mw=7.2 at any time should all strain be released during a single event. The Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, therefore, was not unexpected. To constrain co-seismic deformation and stress loading of adjacent fault segments, we collected data on the existing GPS geodetic network in Haiti in February 2010. Preliminary results indicate significant transpression associated with the recent events.

  13. The geodetic requirements for commercial data base management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Charles R.

    1982-06-01

    There are many data base management systems now available as commercially marketed software packages. Although most of these packages were initially aimed at bussiness or administrative data processing applications, they may frequently also be the right tool for a scientific data processing task. This becomes more apparent as we notice that scientific computer programmers are spending more and more time on data management requirements rather than the coding of mathematical algorithms. In a scientific environment, a generalized data base management package is best viewed as a tool for programmers, rather than as a tool for direct, independent use by end users or by agency management. To the end user, the most attractive feature of a commerical DBMS is usually the interactive retrieval and update language. To the programmer, the most attractive feature is more likely to be the strong support for various types of keyed access. All of the manipulations necessary to build and maintain indices and other tables can be treated as procedural abstractions. Coupled with a procedural language, a DBMS offers the programmer a higher level (in the sense of more abstract) language. The most important geodetic requirement on a commercial DBMS is therefore that the package contain a strong Data Manipulation Language, with strong support for the algorithmic language used for scientific processing.

  14. Tidal investigations at Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Sekowski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    In 2009 three LaCoste&Romberg model G gravimeters owed by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK) were equipped with a modern type of feedback system (LRFB-300) which gives a wide range of possibilities for gravimetric measurements. One of the modified LCR gravimeters (G1036) is used for continuous tidal recordings in Borowa Gora Geodetic - Geophysical Observatory of IGiK, is situated north of Warsaw. Good quality data is now collected from February of 2012. A set of Linux shell scripts have been developed to provide reliable readout recordings (via bluetooth) as well as automatic handling of any exceptional situations. The system runs with the LCR-G1036 from the beginning of February 2012, and since then the completeness of the recording visibly improved compared to previous recordings reaching nearly 98%. The tidal observation have been calibrated several times during the course of recordings, four times with the A10-020 and once with the FG5-230. Also some results concerning the calibration of the tidal recordings with relative meters is presented. A special period (end of 2013) is emphasized where the A10-020 performs measurements every hour for a two weeks alongside three LCR meters. The local tidal model is developed and presented with comparison to the model used in absolute gravity determinations with the A10-020 at Borowa Gora and on the stations of the gravity control.

  15. Empirical methods of reducing the observations in geodetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadaj, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents empirical methodology of reducing various kinds of observations in geodetic network. A special case of reducing the observation concerns cartographic mapping. For numerical illustration and comparison of methods an application of the conformal Gauss-Krüger mapping was used. Empirical methods are an alternative to the classic differential and multi-stages methods. Numerical benefits concern in particular very long geodesics, created for example by GNSS vectors. In conventional methods the numerical errors of reduction values are significantly dependent on the length of the geodesic. The proposed empirical methods do not have this unfavorable characteristics. Reduction value is determined as a difference (or especially scaled difference) of the corresponding measures of geometric elements (distances, angles), wherein these measures are approximated independently in two spaces based on the known and corresponding approximate coordinates of the network points. Since in the iterative process of the network adjustment, coordinates of the points are systematically improved, approximated reductions also converge to certain optimal values.

  16. Treatment of Geodetic Survey Data as Fuzzy Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, G.; Heer, E.; Hahn, J.

    2015-08-01

    Geodetic survey data are typically analysed using the assumption that measurement errors can be modelled as noise. The least squares method models noise with the normal distribution and is based on the assumption that it selects measurements with the highest probability value (Ghilani, 2010, p. 179f). There are environment situations where no clear maximum for a measurement can be detected. This can happen, for example, if surveys take place in foggy conditions causing diffusion of light signals. This presents a problem for automated systems because the standard assumption of the least squares method does not hold. A measurement system trying to return a crisp value will produce an arbitrary value that lies within the area of maximum value. However repeating the measurement is unlikely to create a value following a normal distribution, which happens if measurement errors can be modelled as noise. In this article we describe a laboratory experiment that reproduces conditions similar to a foggy situation and present measurement data gathered from this setup. Furthermore we propose methods based on fuzzy set theory to evaluate the data from our measurement.

  17. An efficient algorithm for geocentric to geodetic coordinate conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    The problem of performing transformations from geocentric to geodetic coordinates has received an inordinate amount of attention in the literature. Numerous approximate methods have been published. Almost none of the publications address the issue of efficiency and in most cases there is a paucity of error analysis. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this problem aimed at developing more efficient methods for real time applications such as DIS. Iterative algorithms have been proposed that are not of optimal efficiency, address only one error component and require a small but uncertain number of relatively expensive iterations for convergence. In this paper a well known rapidly convergent iterative approach is modified to eliminate intervening trigonometric function evaluations. A total error metric is defined that accounts for both angular and altitude errors. The initial guess is optimized to minimize the error for one iteration. The resulting algorithm yields transformations correct to one centimeter for altitudes out to one million kilometers. Due to the rapid convergence only one iteration is used and no stopping test is needed. This algorithm is discussed in the context of machines that have FPUs and legacy machines that utilize mathematical subroutine packages.

  18. Geodetic secular velocity errors due to interannual surface loading deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Mémin, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Geodetic vertical velocities derived from data as short as 3 yr are often assumed to be representative of linear deformation over past decades to millennia. We use two decades of surface loading deformation predictions due to variations of atmospheric, oceanic and continental water mass to assess the effect on secular velocities estimated from short time-series. The interannual deformation is time-correlated at most locations over the globe, with the level of correlation depending mostly on the chosen continental water model. Using the most conservative loading model and 5-yr-long time-series, we found median vertical velocity errors of 0.5 mm yr-1 over the continents (0.3 mm yr-1 globally), exceeding 1 mm yr-1 in regions around the southern Tropic. Horizontal velocity errors were seven times smaller. Unless an accurate loading model is available, a decade of continuous data is required in these regions to mitigate the impact of the interannual loading deformation on secular velocities.

  19. Applications of high-frequency resolution, wide-field VLBI: observations of nearby star-forming galaxies & habitable exoplanetary candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampadarath, Hayden

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the maximum observable field of view of Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) observations was limited, predominantly, by the ability to process large volumes of data. However, the availability of software correlators and high performance computing have provided the means to overcome these restrictions, giving rise to the technique of wide-field VLBI. This thesis reports on the application of this technique to investigate two different science cases: (1) to explore the use of VLBI for targeted searches for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI); (2) to investigate the compact radio source populations, supernovae, and star formation rates and the interstellar media of nearby star-forming galaxies. Radio sources detected with VLBI will display characteristic variations as a function of time and frequency that are dependent on their locations with respect to the observing phase centre. Thus, a planet with a radio emitting civilisation, bright enough to be detected, can be identified and separated from human generated signals through VLBI observations. This idea was tested on a VLBI observation of the planetary system Gliese 581. The dataset was searched for candidate SETI signals, in both time and frequency, with amplitudes greater than five times the baseline sensitivity on all baselines. Candidate signals were selected and through the use of automated, statistical data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. The results of this study place an upper limit of 7 MW/Hz on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system, within this frequency range. While the study was unable to identify any signals originating from Gliese 581, the techniques presented are applicable to the next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  20. Automated analysis of Kokee-Wettzell Intensive VLBI sessions—algorithms, results, and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareinen, Niko; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    The time-dependent variations in the rotation and orientation of the Earth are represented by a set of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). Currently, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only technique able to measure all EOP simultaneously and to provide direct observation of universal time, usually expressed as UT1-UTC. To produce estimates for UT1-UTC on a daily basis, 1-h VLBI experiments involving two or three stations are organised by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), the IVS Intensive (INT) series. There is an ongoing effort to minimise the turn-around time for the INT sessions in order to achieve near real-time and high quality UT1-UTC estimates. As a step further towards true fully automated real-time analysis of UT1-UTC, we carry out an extensive investigation with INT sessions on the Kokee-Wettzell baseline. Our analysis starts with the first versions of the observational files in S- and X-band and includes an automatic group delay ambiguity resolution and ionospheric calibration. Several different analysis strategies are investigated. In particular, we focus on the impact of external information, such as meteorological and cable delay data provided in the station log-files, and a priori EOP information. The latter is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our main findings are that it is easily possible to analyse the INT sessions in a fully automated mode to provide UT1-UTC with very low latency. The information found in the station log-files is important for the accuracy of the UT1-UTC results, provided that the data in the station log-files are reliable. Furthermore, to guarantee UT1-UTC with an accuracy of less than 20 μs, it is necessary to use predicted a priori polar motion data in the analysis that are not older than 12 h.

  1. THE BENEFITS OF VLBI ASTROMETRY TO PULSAR TIMING ARRAY SEARCHES FOR GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, D. R.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.

    2013-11-10

    Precision astrometry is an integral component of successful pulsar timing campaigns. Astrometric parameters are commonly derived by fitting them as parameters of a timing model to a series of pulse times of arrival (TOAs). TOAs measured to microsecond precision over spans of several years can yield position measurements with sub-milliarcsecond precision. However, timing-based astrometry can become biased if a pulsar displays any red spin noise or a red signal produced by the stochastic gravitational wave background. We investigate how noise of different spectral types is absorbed by timing models, leading to significant estimation biases in the astrometric parameters. We find that commonly used techniques for fitting timing models in the presence of red noise (Cholesky whitening) prevent the absorption of noise into the timing model remarkably well if the time baseline of observations exceeds several years, but are inadequate for dealing with shorter pulsar data sets. Independent of timing, pulsar-optimized very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is capable of providing position estimates precise to the sub-milliarcsecond levels needed for high-precision timing. In order to make VLBI astrometric parameters useful in pulsar timing models, the transformation between the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and the dynamical solar system ephemeris used for pulsar timing must be constrained to within a few microarcseconds. We compute a transformation between the ICRF and pulsar timing frames and quantitatively discuss how the transformation will improve in coming years. We find that incorporating VLBI astrometry into the timing models of pulsars for which only a couple of years of timing data exist will lead to more realistic assessments of red spin noise and could enhance the amplitude of gravitational wave signatures in post-fit timing residuals by factors of 20 or more.

  2. Probing the active massive black hole candidate in the center of NGC 404 with VLBI

    SciTech Connect

    Paragi, Z.; Frey, S.; Kaaret, P.; Cseh, D.; Kharb, P.

    2014-08-10

    Recently, Nyland et al. argued that the radio emission observed in the center of the dwarf galaxy NGC 404 originates in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by a massive black hole (MBH, M ≲ 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}). High-resolution radio detections of MBHs are rare. Here we present sensitive, contemporaneous Chandra X-ray, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations with the European VLBI Network. The source is detected in the X-rays, and shows no long-term variability. If the hard X-ray source is powered by accretion, the apparent low accretion efficiency would be consistent with a black hole (BH) in the hard state. Hard state BHs are known to show radio emission compact on the milliarcsecond scales. However, the central region of NGC 404 is resolved out on 10 mas (0.15-1.5 pc) scales. Our VLBI non-detection of a compact, partially self-absorbed radio core in NGC 404 implies that either the BH mass is smaller than 3{sub −2}{sup +5}×10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, or the source does not follow the fundamental plane of BH activity relation. An alternative explanation is that the central BH is not in the hard state. The radio emission observed on arcsecond (tens of parsecs) scales may originate in nuclear star formation or extended emission due to AGN activity, although the latter would not be typical considering the structural properties of low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies with confirmed nuclear activity.

  3. Lunar Gravity Field Determination Using SELENE Same-Beam Differential VLBI Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Liu, Q.; Kikuchi, F.; Sato, K.; Hanada, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Kawano, N.; Namiki, N.; Iwata, T.; Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Harada, Y.; Chen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A lunar gravity field model up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics, named SGM 100i, has been determined from SELENE and historical tracking data, with an emphasis on using same-beam S-band differential VLBI data obtained in the SELENE mission between January 2008 and February 2009. Orbit consistency throughout the entire mission period of SELENE as determined from orbit overlaps for the two sub-satellites of SELENE involved in the VLBI tracking improved consistently from several hundreds of metres to several tens of metres by including differential VLBI data. Through orbits that are better determined, the gravity field model is also improved by including these data. Orbit determination performance for the new model shows improvements over earlier 100th degree and order models, especially for edge-on orbits over the deep far side. Lunar Prospector orbit determination shows an improvement of orbit consistency from I-day predictions for 2-day arcs of 6 m in a total sense, with most improvement in the along and cross-track directions. Data fit for the types and satellites involved is also improved. Formal errors for the lower degrees are smaller, and the new model also shows increased correlations with topography over the far side. The estimated value for the lunar GM for this model equals 4902.80080 +/- 0.0009 cu km/sq s (10 sigma). The lunar degree 2 potential Love number k2 was also estimated, and has a value of 0.0255 +/- 0.0016 (10 sigma as well).

  4. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  5. The VLBI structure of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.

    2016-02-01

    The nature and origin of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars and their relationship to non-BAL quasars are an open question. The BAL quasars are probably normal quasars seen along a particular line of sight. Alternatively, they are young or recently refueled. The high resolution radio morphology of BAL quasars is very important to understand the radio properties of BAL quasars. We present VLBA observations at L and C bands for a sample of BAL quasars. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties, and distinguish the present models of explaining BAL phenomena.

  6. The S2 VLBI Systems: DAS, RT/PT and Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William T.; Bujold, Marc; Cannon, Wayne H.; Carlson, Brent R.; Dewdney, Peter E.; Feil, Georg H.; Newby, Paul; Novikov, Alexander; Popelar, Josef; Wietfeldt, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The S2 VLBI system synthesizes wide IF bandwidths by rapidly switching the local oscillator (LO) frequency in a small (1-4) number of baseband converters (BBC's). Data are recorded on video cassettes using an array of 8 VHS transports. Characteristics of the S2 Data Acquisition System (DAS), the S2 Record and Playback Terminals (RT and PT) and the S2 Correlator are summarized. The bandwidth synthesis (BWS) frequency switching sequence used in a series of system validation experiments is presented.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 86GHz VLBI survey of compact radio sources (Lobanov+ 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov; A. P.; Krichbaum; T. P.; Graham; D. A.; Witzel; A.; Kraus; A.; Zensus; J. A.; Britzen; S.; Greve; A.; Grewing; M.

    2000-10-01

    File table1 contains the list of observed sources, providing the source coordinates (J2000) and redshift, detection status, type, optical magnitude, and brightness temperature of the radio emission. File table4 contains the description of the VLBI data, and provide the observed total and correlated flux densities, the parameters of single gaussian component model fits, and the parameters of hybrid images of the observed sources. File table5 contains multicomponent model fits for the sources with detected extended structures and the brightness temperatures derived from these model fits. (3 data files).

  8. EOP Determination from Domestic Observations of the Russian VLBI Network "QUASAR"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, A.; Ipatov, A.; Smolentsev, S.; Salnikov, A.; Surkis, I.; Gayazov, I.; Skurikhina, E.; Kurdubov, S.; Rahimov, I.; Diakov, A.; Sergeev, R.; Shpilevsky, V.; Melnikov, A.; Zimovsky, V.; Fedotov, L.; Ivanov, D.; Mardishkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present the state-of-the-art Russian VLBI network "Quasar". Domestic observations are carried out within the scope of two programs: Ru-U for the operational determination of Universal Time in near real-time and Ru-E for the determination of EOP from 24-hour sessions. Correlation of the data is performed at the IAA correlator ARC. The IAA Analysis Center performs data processing with the QUASAR and OCCAM/GROSS software packages. We show the progress in the EOP determination accuracy after upgrading the registration system to the R1002M DAS developed at IAA.

  9. Installation of a seafloor geodetic network offshore northern Chile (GeoSEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The seafloor stores crucial information on sub-seafloor processes, including stress, elastic strain, and earthquake and tsunami generation. This information may be extracted through the nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy. The target of the recently installed GeoSEA array (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) is to measure crustal deformation in mm-scale on the marine forearc and outer rise of the South American subduction system around 21°S. This segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary has last ruptured in an earthquake in 1877 and was identified as a seismic gap prior to the 2014 Iquique/Pisagua earthquake (Mw=8.1). The southern portion of the segment remains unbroken by a recent earthquake. Seafloor geodetic measurements provide a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The GeoSEA Network consists of autonomous seafloor transponders installed on 4 m high tripods, which were lowered to the seabed on the deep-sea cable of RV SONNE in December 2015. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years and measure acoustic distance, tilt and pressure. An additional component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is capable to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. We have chosen three areas on the middle and lower slope and the outer rise for the set-up of three sub-arrays. The array in Area 1 on the middle continental slope consists of 8 transponders located in pairs on four topographic ridges, which are surface expressions of faults at depth. Area 2 is located on the outer rise seaward of the trench where 5 stations monitor extension across plate-bending related normal faults. The third area is located at water depth >5000 m on the lower continental slope

  10. Verification of the astrometric performance of the Korean VLBI network, using comparative SFPR studies with the VLBA AT 14/7 mm

    SciTech Connect

    Rioja, María J.; Dodson, Richard; Jung, TaeHyun; Sohn, Bong Won; Byun, Do-Young; Cho, Se-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Sung; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Oh, Chung Sik; Han, Seog-Tae; Je, Do-Heung; Chung, Moon-Hee; Wi, Seog-Oh; Kang, Jiman; Lee, Jung-Won; Chung, Hyunsoo; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Agudo, Iván; and others

    2014-11-01

    The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a new millimeter VLBI dedicated array with the capability to simultaneously observe at multiple frequencies, up to 129 GHz. The innovative multi-channel receivers present significant benefits for astrometric measurements in the frequency domain. The aim of this work is to verify the astrometric performance of the KVN using a comparative study with the VLBA, a well-established instrument. For that purpose, we carried out nearly contemporaneous observations with the KVN and the VLBA, at 14/7 mm, in 2013 April. The KVN observations consisted of simultaneous dual frequency observations, while the VLBA used fast frequency switching observations. We used the Source Frequency Phase Referencing technique for the observational and analysis strategy. We find that having simultaneous observations results in superior compensation for all atmospheric terms in the observables, in addition to offering other significant benefits for astrometric analysis. We have compared the KVN astrometry measurements to those from the VLBA. We find that the structure blending effects introduce dominant systematic astrometric shifts, and these need to be taken into account. We have tested multiple analytical routes to characterize the impact of the low-resolution effects for extended sources in the astrometric measurements. The results from the analysis of the KVN and full VLBA data sets agree within 2σ of the thermal error estimate. We interpret the discrepancy as arising from the different resolutions. We find that the KVN provides astrometric results with excellent agreement, within 1σ, when compared to a VLBA configuration that has a similar resolution. Therefore, this comparative study verifies the astrometric performance of the KVN using SFPR at 14/7 mm, and validates the KVN as an astrometric instrument.

  11. Dual Frequency VLBI Monitoring of a Large Sample of Compact Extragalactic Sources at 8 and 32 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Majid, W. A.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Snedeker, L.; García-Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Horiuchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out regular monitoring of 400+ compact extragalactic sources using large DSN (Deep Space Network) antennas over intercontinental baselines at 8, and 32 GHz simultaneously. This program provides precision astrometric measurements of AGN compact cores, used to maintain the JPL extragalactic reference frame. In addition to astrometric observables, this program has the potential to provide regular flux density measurements at each of these observing frequencies with precision at the level of 10-20%. Such monitoring of compact radio emission serves as a direct measure of AGN core activity, probing intrinsic jet parameters and providing the opportunity for discriminating between different models of the high-energy emission in these objects by cross-correlating the radio and gamma-ray flux densities. Simultaneous multi-frequency observations will provide high precision spectral information of AGN compact emission regions at the parsec-scale unaffected by the errors often introduced when combining multi-frequency data obtained at different epochs. The spectral index can be used to compare the relativistic electron energy distribution with the photon spectral index seen in gamma-rays. For instance, if Compton up-scattering by the radio synchrotron electron population is the basic process producing the gamma-rays, the spectra in both spectral regions should be directly related. By providing measurements on both East-West and North-South baselines with large antennas and Gbit/s recording capability, our program can probe sources at the 30 mJy flux limit (10-sigma), potentially increasing the sample to a fainter population of sources. In these regards, our program complements well existing northern and southern hemisphere VLBI monitoring programs, by providing flux measurements at 32 GHz, covering a fainter population sample, and by filling the gap for sources in the [-20:-40] degree declination range. Further, our program also provides additional flexibility

  12. A Revised Caribbean Plate Motion Model: GPS Geodetic Results From the Dominica NSF- REU Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauria, K.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Demets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    Velocities from sixteen campaign GPS sites on the Caribbean island of Dominica are analyzed in combination with fifteen existing Caribbean GPS sites to further constrain Caribbean plate motion. High precision GPS geodesy was used to determine the site positions of 16 sites in Dominica between 2000 and 2007. All observations were obtained using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antennae, primarily choke rings. Generally, three consecutive 24 hour observation days were acquired for each site at every epoch. Absolute point positions were obtained using GIPSY-OASIS II along with final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files from JPL. All site velocities are calculated relative to ITRF05 and legacy site velocities from elsewhere in the eastern and western stable Caribbean were transformed from ITRF00 to ITRF05 before inversion. The addition of Dominican GPS data from the 16 new sites resulted in no statistically significant (the 95% confidence level) change in the Caribbean Euler pole as recently published by DeMets et al., 2007. Our calculated pole is 35.929°N, 102.536° E, and rotating at a rate of .2610 degrees/m.yr. The updated rotation model verifies the previously published pole and supports the conclusion that within current error bounds, Dominica is part of the stable Caribbean plate, with residual motions on the order of only a few mm/yr.

  13. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  14. Synthetic inversions for density in the Earth's interior from seismic waveform and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, N.; Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Density plays an important role in the Earth's interior. On one hand, it is the driving force behind convection; on the other, in imaging efforts, it serves to discriminate between thermal and compositional heterogeneities. Despite its importance, the Earth's 3D density structure remains difficult to infer from surface observations. Gravity measurements, for instance, are sensitive to density but suffer from inherent and strong non-uniqueness. The travel times of seismic body and surface waves are only weakly sensitive to density, and trade-offs with velocity structure are often large. New opportunities for the recovery of density in the Earth may arise from recently developed full-waveform inversion methods that go beyond traditional traveltime tomography. In this study, we assess to which extent, and in which way, full-waveform inversion can be combined with gravity and other geodetic measurements to better constrain global-scale density structure. To this end, we perform synthetic tests in 2D in which we systematically assess the effect on density recovery of different (joint) inversion schemes, types of data used and constraints applied. Our synthetic inversions are based on numerical wave propagation and adjoint techniques to compute seismic Fréchet sensitivity kernels, which are combined with synthetic gravity data to drive gradient-based optimisation schemes. Additional constraints such as a predefined velocity structure, or Earth's mass and inertia tensor, may be imposed using a projected descent scheme.

  15. Effect of Ocean Tide Models on the Precise Orbit Determination of Geodetic Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Oka, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.

    2005-12-01

    Several ocean tide models are tested with precise observation data of satellite laser ranging to geodetic satellites, Starlette and Stella. Four ocean models, NAO.99b, CSR 3.0 (standard model in IERS Conventions 2003), CSR 4.0, and GOT99.2b were implemented in our orbit analysis software "concerto ver. 4". NAO.99b model was developed by assimilating tidal solutions from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data into hydrodynamical model. Eight constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1, N2, P1, K2, Q1) were taken into account in each ocean tide model. Moreover, eight additional constituents (M1, J1, OO1, 2N2, Mu2, Nu2, L2, T2) can be included in NAO.99b model. Effect of ocean tides on geopotential coefficients were computed to 20th order. SLR data to Starlette and Stella were divided into arcs of 7 days length and 52 arcs (Jan. 2 - Dec. 30, 2004) were analyzed. Using different ocean tide model, orbits of these satellites were determined and weighted rms of postfit residuals are compared. We found that the NAO.99b model with 16 constituents can reduce weighted rms of postfit residuals using to the level of about 6.0 cm (Starlette) and 9.6 cm (Stella). These values are about 3-5 % smaller compared to other ocean tide models.

  16. The astro-geodetic use of CCD for gravity field refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstbach, G.

    1996-07-01

    The paper starts with a review of geoid projects, where vertical deflections are more effective than gravimetry. In alpine regions the economy of astrogeoids is at least 10 times higher, but many countries do not make use of this fact - presumably because the measurements are not fully automated up to now. Based upon the experiences of astrometry of high satellites and own tests the author analyses the use of CCD for astro-geodetic measurements. Automation and speeding up will be possible in a few years, the latter depending on the observation scheme. Sensor characteristics, cooling and reading out of the devices should be harmonized. Using line sensors in small prism astrolabes, the CCD accuracy will reach the visual one (±0.2″) within 5-10 years. Astrogeoids can be combined ideally with geological data, because vertical variation of rock densities does not cause systematic effects (contrary to gravimetry). So a geoid of ±5 cm accuracy (achieved in Austria and other alpine countries by 5-10 points per 1000 km 2) can be improved to ±2 cm without additional observations and border effects.

  17. GeoSEA: Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the Seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Flueh, Ernst R.; Petersen, Florian; Behrmann, Jan-Hinrich; Devey, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Space geodetic observations of crustal deformation have contributed greatly to our understanding of plate tectonic processes in general, and plate subduction in particular. Measurements of interseismic strain have documented the active accumulation of strain, and subsequent strain release during earthquakes. However, techniques such as GPS cannot be applied below the water surface because the electromagnetic energy is strongly attenuated in the water column. Evidence suggests that much of the elastic strain build up and release (and particularly that responsible for both tsunami generation and giant earthquakes) occurs offshore. To quantify strain accumulation and assess the resultant hazard potential we urgently need systems to resolve seafloor crustal deformation. Here we report on first results of sea trials of a newly implemented seafloor geodesy array. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the Seafloor) array consists of a seafloor transponder network comprising 35 units and a wave glider acting as a surface unit (GeoSURF) to ensure satellite correspondence, data transfer and monitor system health. Seafloor displacement occurs in the horizontal (x,y) and vertical direction (z). The vertical displacement is measured by monitoring pressure variations at the seafloor. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be measured either using an acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning (requiring a suitably equipped vessel to perform repeated cruises to provide the GPS fixes) or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor to determine relative distances by using the travel time observations to each other, which is the technique tested during our short sea trials. For horizontal direct path measurements, the system utilizes acoustic ranging techniques with a ranging precision better than 15 mm and long term stability over 2 km distances. Vertical motion is obtained from pressure gauges. Integrated inclinometers

  18. Current status of the EPOS WG4 - GNSS and Other Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rui; Bastos, Luísa; Bruyninx, Carine; D'Agostino, Nicola; Dousa, Jan; Ganas, Athanassios; Lidberg, Martin; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

    2013-04-01

    WG4 - "EPOS Geodetic Data and Other Geodetic Data" is the Working Group of the EPOS project in charge of defining and preparing the integration of the existing Pan-European Geodetic Infrastructures that will support the European Geosciences, which is the ultimate goal of the EPOS project. The WG4 is formed by representatives of the participating EPOS countries (23) but it is also open to the entire geodetic community. In fact, WG4 also includes members from countries that formally are not part of the current phase of EPOS. In an ongoing effort, the majority of existing GNSS Research Infrastructures in Europe were identified. The current database, available at http://epos-couch.cloudant.com/epos-couch/_design/epos-couch/, lists a total of 50 Research Infrastructures managing a total of 1534 GNSS CORS sites. This presentation intends to detail the work being produced within the working group WG4 related with the definition of strategies towards the implementation of the best solutions that will permit to the end-users, and in particular geo-scientists, to access the geodetic data, derived solutions, and associated metadata using transparent and uniform processes. The first step toward the design of an implementation and business plan is the definition of the core services for geodetic data within EPOS. In this talk, we will present the current status of the discussion about the content of core services. Three levels of core services could be distinguished, for which their content need to be defined. The 3 levels are: (1) the core services associated to data (diffusion, archive, long-term preservation, quality check, rapid analysis) (2) core services associated to geodetic products (analysis, products definition like position time series, velocity field and Zenithal Total Delay) (3) User oriented services (reference frames, real-time solutions for early warning systems, strain rate maps, meteorology, space weather, …). Current propositions and remaining open

  19. Dixon resultant's solution of systems of geodetic polynomial equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paláncz, Béla; Zaletnyik, Piroska; Awange, Joseph L.; Grafarend, Erik W.

    2008-08-01

    The Dixon resultant is proposed as an alternative to Gröbner basis or multipolynomial resultant approaches for solving systems of polynomial equations inherent in geodesy. Its smallness in size, high density (ratio on the number of nonzero elements to the number of all elements), speed, and robustness (insensitive to combinatorial sequence and monomial order, e.g., Gröbner basis) makes it extremely attractive compared to its competitors. Using 3D-intersection and conformal C 7 datum transformation problems, we compare its performance to those of the Sturmfels’s resultant and Gröbner basis. For the 3D-intersection problem, Sturmfels’s resultant needed 0.578 s to solve a 6 × 6 resultant matrix whose density was 0.639, the Dixon resultant on the other hand took 0.266 s to solve a 4 × 4 resultant matrix whose density was 0.870. For the conformal C 7 datum transformation problem, the Dixon resultant took 2.25 s to compute a quartic polynomial in scale parameter whereas the computaton of the Gröbner basis fails. Using relative coordinates to compute the quartic polynomial in scale parameter, the Gröbner basis needed 0.484 s, while the Dixon resultant took 0.016 s. This highlights the robustness of the Dixon resultant (i.e., the capability to use both absolute and relative coordinates with any order of variables) as opposed to Gröbner basis, which only worked well with relative coordinates, and was sensitive to the combinatorial sequence and order of variables. Geodetic users uncomfortable with lengthy expressions of Gröbner basis or multipolynomial resultants, and who aspire to optimize on the attractive features of Dixon resultant, may find it useful.

  20. The role of topography in geodetic gravity field modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsberg, R.; Sideris, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields. On local scales, the short-wavelength gravity variations due to the topography may, in rugged terrain, be an order of magnitude larger than other effects. In such cases, explicit or implicit terrain reduction procedures are mandatory in order to obtain good prediction results. Such effects may be computed by space-domain integration or by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) methods. Numerical examples are given for areas of the Canadian Rockies. In principle, good knowledge of the topographic densities is required to produce the smoothest residual field. Densities may be determined from sample measurements or by gravimetric means, but both are somewhat troublesome methods in practice. The use of a standard density, e.g., 2.67 g/cu cm, may often yield satisfactory results and may be put within a consistent theoretical framework. The independence of density assumptions is the key point of the classical Molodensky approach to the geodetic boundary value problem. The Molodensky solutions take into account that land gravity field observations are done on a non-level surface. Molodensky's problem may be solved by integral expansions or more effective FFT methods, but the solution should not be intermixed with the use of terrain reductions. The methods are actually complimentary and may both be required in order to obtain the smoothest possible signal, least prone to aliasing and other effects coming from sparse data coverage, typical of rugged topography.