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Sample records for additional glycosylation sites

  1. Glycosylation site occupancy in health, congenital disorder of glycosylation and fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hülsmeier, Andreas J.; Tobler, Micha; Burda, Patricie; Hennet, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is an integral part in health and disease, as emphasized by the growing number of identified glycosylation defects. In humans, proteins are modified with a diverse range of glycoforms synthesized in complex biosynthetic pathways. Glycosylation disorders have been described in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) as well as in acquired disease conditions such and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A hallmark in a subset of CDG cases is the reduced glycosylation site occupancy of asparagine-linked glycans. Using an optimized method protocol, we determined the glycosylation site occupancy from four proteins of hepatic and lymphatic origin from CDG and NAFLD patients. We found variable degrees of site occupancy, depending on the tissue of origin and the disease condition. In CDG glycosylation sites of IgG2 and IgA1 were occupied to normal levels. In NAFLD haptoglobin and transferrin glycosylation sites were hyper-glycosylated, a property qualifying for its use as a potential biomarker. Furthermore, we observed, that glycosylation sites of liver-originating transferrin and haptoglobin are differentially occupied under physiological conditions, a further instance not noticed in serum proteins to date. Our findings suggest the use of serum protein hyperglycosylation as a biomarker for early stages of NAFLD. PMID:27725718

  2. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Louis; Lorin, Valérie; Jouvion, Grégory; Da Costa, Bruno; Escriou, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain endemic in poultry in several countries and still constitute a pandemic threat. Since the early 20th century, we experienced four influenza A pandemics. H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 viruses that respectively emerged during 1968 and 2009 pandemics are still responsible for seasonal epidemics. These viruses evolve regularly by substitutions in antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin (HA), which prevent neutralization by antibodies directed against previous strains (antigenic drift). For seasonal H3N2 viruses, an addition of N-glycosylation sites (glycosites) on H3 contributed to this drift. Here, we questioned whether additional glycosites on H5 could induce an escape of H5N1 virus from neutralization, as it was observed for seasonal H3N2 viruses. Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape.

  3. Identification of Glycopeptides with Multiple Hydroxylysine O-Glycosylation Sites by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Song, Ehwang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Mechref, Yehia; Tang, Haixu; Liu, Xiaowen

    2015-12-04

    Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in proteins, existing in ~50% of mammalian proteins. Several research groups have demonstrated that mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for glycopeptide identification; however, this problem is still challenging because of the enormous diversity of glycan structures and the microheterogeneity of glycans. In addition, a glycopeptide may contain multiple glycosylation sites, making the problem complex. Current software tools often fail to identify glycopeptides with multiple glycosylation sites, and hence we present GlycoMID, a graph-based spectral alignment algorithm that can identify glycopeptides with multiple hydroxylysine O-glycosylation sites by tandem mass spectra. GlycoMID was tested on mass spectrometry data sets of the bovine collagen α-(II) chain protein, and experimental results showed that it identified more glycopeptide-spectrum matches than other existing tools, including many glycopeptides with two glycosylation sites.

  4. Site-specific protein glycosylation analysis with glycan isomer differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Serenus; Nwosu, Charles C; Strum, John S; Seipert, Richard R; An, Hyun Joo; Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-05-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most common yet diverse post-translational modifications. Information on glycan heterogeneity and glycosite occupancy is increasingly recognized as crucial to understanding glycoprotein structure and function. Yet, no approach currently exists with which to holistically consider both the proteomic and glycomic aspects of a system. Here, we developed a novel method of comprehensive glycosite profiling using nanoflow liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS) that shows glycan isomer-specific differentiation on specific sites. Glycoproteins were digested by controlled non-specific proteolysis in order to produce informative glycopeptides. High-resolution, isomer-sensitive chromatographic separation of the glycopeptides was achieved using microfluidic chip-based capillaries packed with graphitized carbon. Integrated LC/MS/MS not only confirmed glycopeptide composition but also differentiated glycan and peptide isomers and yielded structural information on both the glycan and peptide moieties. Our analysis identified at least 13 distinct glycans (including isomers) corresponding to five compositions at the single N-glycosylation site on bovine ribonuclease B, 59 distinct glycans at five N-glycosylation sites on bovine lactoferrin, 13 distinct glycans at one N-glycosylation site on four subclasses of human immunoglobulin G, and 20 distinct glycans at five O-glycosylation sites on bovine κ-casein. Porous graphitized carbon provided effective separation of glycopeptide isomers. The integration of nano-LC with MS and MS/MS of non-specifically cleaved glycopeptides allows quantitative, isomer-sensitive, and site-specific glycoprotein analysis.

  5. Definition of the bacterial N-glycosylation site consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Kowarik, Michael; Young, N Martin; Numao, Shin; Schulz, Benjamin L; Hug, Isabelle; Callewaert, Nico; Mills, Dominic C; Watson, David C; Hernandez, Marcela; Kelly, John F; Wacker, Michael; Aebi, Markus

    2006-05-03

    The Campylobacter jejuni pgl locus encodes an N-linked protein glycosylation machinery that can be functionally transferred into Escherichia coli. In this system, we analyzed the elements in the C. jejuni N-glycoprotein AcrA required for accepting an N-glycan. We found that the eukaryotic primary consensus sequence for N-glycosylation is N terminally extended to D/E-Y-N-X-S/T (Y, X not equalP) for recognition by the bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) PglB. However, not all consensus sequences were N-glycosylated when they were either artificially introduced or when they were present in non-C. jejuni proteins. We were able to produce recombinant glycoproteins with engineered N-glycosylation sites and confirmed the requirement for a negatively charged side chain at position -2 in C. jejuni N-glycoproteins. N-glycosylation of AcrA by the eukaryotic OST in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurred independent of the acidic residue at the -2 position. Thus, bacterial N-glycosylation site selection is more specific than the eukaryotic equivalent with respect to the polypeptide acceptor sequence.

  6. Mapping Sites of O-Glycosylation and Fringe Elongation on Drosophila Notch.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Beth M; Rana, Nadia A; Moss, Hillary; Leonardi, Jessica; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Haltiwanger, Robert S

    2016-07-29

    Glycosylation of the Notch receptor is essential for its activity and serves as an important modulator of signaling. Three major forms of O-glycosylation are predicted to occur at consensus sites within the epidermal growth factor-like repeats in the extracellular domain of the receptor: O-fucosylation, O-glucosylation, and O-GlcNAcylation. We have performed comprehensive mass spectral analyses of these three types of O-glycosylation on Drosophila Notch produced in S2 cells and identified peptides containing all 22 predicted O-fucose sites, all 18 predicted O-glucose sites, and all 18 putative O-GlcNAc sites. Using semiquantitative mass spectral methods, we have evaluated the occupancy and relative amounts of glycans at each site. The majority of the O-fucose sites were modified to high stoichiometries. Upon expression of the β3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase Fringe with Notch, we observed varying degrees of elongation beyond O-fucose monosaccharide, indicating that Fringe preferentially modifies certain sites more than others. Rumi modified O-glucose sites to high stoichiometries, although elongation of the O-glucose was site-specific. Although the current putative consensus sequence for O-GlcNAcylation predicts 18 O-GlcNAc sites on Notch, we only observed apparent O-GlcNAc modification at five sites. In addition, we performed mass spectral analysis on endogenous Notch purified from Drosophila embryos and found that the glycosylation states were similar to those found on Notch from S2 cells. These data provide foundational information for future studies investigating the mechanisms of how O-glycosylation regulates Notch activity.

  7. Prediction of O-glycosylation Sites Using Random Forest and GA-Tuned PSO Technique.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hebatallah; Badr, Amr; Abdelhalim, M B

    2015-01-01

    O-glycosylation is one of the main types of the mammalian protein glycosylation; it occurs on the particular site of serine (S) or threonine (T). Several O-glycosylation site predictors have been developed. However, a need to get even better prediction tools remains. One challenge in training the classifiers is that the available datasets are highly imbalanced, which makes the classification accuracy for the minority class to become unsatisfactory. In our previous work, we have proposed a new classification approach, which is based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and random forest (RF); this approach has considered the imbalanced dataset problem. The PSO parameters setting in the training process impacts the classification accuracy. Thus, in this paper, we perform parameters optimization for the PSO algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, in order to increase the classification accuracy. Our proposed genetic algorithm-based approach has shown better performance in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve against existing predictors. In addition, we implemented a glycosylation predictor tool based on that approach, and we demonstrated that this tool could successfully identify candidate glycosylation sites in case study protein.

  8. Convenient and Precise Strategy for Mapping N-Glycosylation Sites Using Microwave-Assisted Acid Hydrolysis and Characteristic Ions Recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Qu, Jingyao; Meisner, Jeffrey; Zhao, Xinyuan; Li, Xu; Wu, Zhigang; Zhu, Hailiang; Yu, Zaikuan; Li, Lei; Guo, Yuxi; Song, Jing; Wang, Peng George

    2015-08-04

    N-glycosylation is one of the most prevalence protein post-translational modifications (PTM) which is involved in several biological processes. Alternation of N-glycosylation is associated with cellular malfunction and development of disease. Thus, investigation of protein N-glycosylation is crucial for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Currently, deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F is the most commonly used technique in N-glycosylation analysis. Additionally, a common error in N-glycosylation site identification, resulting from protein chemical deamidation, has largely been ignored. In this study, we developed a convenient and precise approach for mapping N-glycosylation sites utilizing with optimized TFA hydrolysis, ZIC-HILIC enrichment, and characteristic ions of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation. Using this method, we identified a total of 257 N-glycosylation sites and 144 N-glycoproteins from healthy human serum. Compared to deglycosylation with endoglycosidase, this strategy is more convenient and efficient for large scale N-glycosylation sites identification and provides an important alternative approach for the study of N-glycoprotein function.

  9. Intermolecular Addition of Glycosyl Halides to Alkenes Mediated by Visible Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-25

    Visible light, an amine reductant, and a Ru(bpy)32+ photocatalyst can be used to mediate the addition of glycosyl halides into alkenes to synthesize...and a Ru(bpy)32+ photocatalyst can be used to mediate the addition of glycosyl halides into alkenes to synthesize important C-glycosides. This method

  10. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of Endothelial Cell Receptor Tyrosine Kinase VEGFR-2.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Leon, Deborah R; Meyer, Rosana D; Rahimi, Nader; Costello, Catherine E

    2017-02-03

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an important receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays critical roles in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. The extracellular domain of VEGFR-2 is composed of seven immunoglobulin-like domains, each with multiple potential N-glycosylation sites (sequons). N-glycosylation plays a central role in RTK ligand binding, trafficking, and stability. However, despite its importance, the functional role of N-glycosylation of VEGFR-2 remains poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to characterize N-glycosylation sites in VEGFR-2 via enzymatic release of the glycans and concomitant incorporation of (18)O into formerly N-glycosylated sites followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis to determine N-glycosylation site occupancy and the site-specific N-glycan heterogeneity of VEGFR-2 glycopeptides. The data demonstrated that all seven VEGFR-2 immunoglobulin-like domains have at least one occupied N-glycosylation site. MS/MS analyses of glycopeptides and deamidated, deglycosylated (PNGase F-treated) peptides from ectopically expressed VEGFR-2 in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells identified N-glycans at the majority of the 17 potential N-glycosylation sites on VEGFR-2 in a site-specific manner. The data presented here provide direct evidence for site-specific, heterogeneous N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation site occupancy on VEGFR-2. The study has important implications for the therapeutic targeting of VEGFR-2, ligand binding, trafficking, and signaling.

  11. Absolute Quantitation of Glycosylation Site Occupancy Using Isotopically Labeled Standards and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhikai; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather

    2014-06-01

    N-linked glycans are required to maintain appropriate biological functions on proteins. Underglycosylation leads to many diseases in plants and animals; therefore, characterizing the extent of glycosylation on proteins is an important step in understanding, diagnosing, and treating diseases. To determine the glycosylation site occupancy, protein N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) is typically used to detach the glycan from the protein, during which the formerly glycosylated asparagine undergoes deamidation to become an aspartic acid. By comparing the abundance of the resulting peptide containing aspartic acid against the one containing non-glycosylated asparagine, the glycosylation site occupancy can be evaluated. However, this approach can give inaccurate results when spontaneous chemical deamidation of the non-glycosylated asparagine occurs. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method to measure the glycosylation site occupancy that does not rely on converting glycosylated peptides to their deglycosylated forms. Specifically, the overall protein concentration and the non-glycosylated portion of the protein are quantified simultaneously by using heavy isotope-labeled internal standards coupled with LC-MS analysis, and the extent of site occupancy is accurately determined. The efficacy of the method was demonstrated by quantifying the occupancy of a glycosylation site on bovine fetuin. The developed method is the first work that measures the glycosylation site occupancy without using PNGase F, and it can be done in parallel with glycopeptide analysis because the glycan remains intact throughout the workflow.

  12. Analysis of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase N-glycosylation sites and performance of partially non-glycosylated enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gonaus, Christoph; Maresch, Daniel; Schropp, Katharina; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2017-04-01

    Pyranose Dehydrogenase 1 from the basidiomycete Agaricus meleagris (AmPDH1) is an oxidoreductase capable of oxidizing a broad variety of sugars. Due to this and its ability of dioxidation of substrates and no side production of hydrogen peroxide, it is studied for use in enzymatic bio-fuel cells. In-vitro deglycosylated AmPDH1 as well as knock-out mutants of the N-glycosylation sites N(75) and N(175), near the active site entrance, were previously shown to improve achievable current densities of graphite electrodes modified with AmPDH1 and an osmium redox polymer acting as a redox mediator, up to 10-fold. For a better understanding of the role of N-glycosylation of AmPDH1, a systematic set of N-glycosylation site mutants was investigated in this work, regarding expression efficiency, enzyme activity and stability. Furthermore, the site specific extend of N-glycosylation was compared between native and recombinant wild type AmPDH1. Knocking out the site N(252) prevented the attachment of significantly extended N-glycan structures as detected on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but did not significantly alter enzyme performance on modified electrodes. This suggests that not the molecule size but other factors like accessibility of the active site improved performance of deglycosylated AmPDH1/osmium redox polymer modified electrodes. A fourth N-glycosylation site of AmPDH1 could be confirmed by mass spectrometry at N(319), which appeared to be conserved in related fungal pyranose dehydrogenases but not in other members of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase structural family. This site was shown to be the only one that is essential for functional recombinant expression of the enzyme.

  13. Characterization of the Glycosylation Site of Human PSA Prompted by Missense Mutation using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Ehwang; Hu, Yunli; Hussein, Ahmed; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-07-02

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. It is a glycoprotein possessing a single glycosylation site at N69. During our previous study of PSA N69 glycosylation, additional glycopeptides were observed in the PSA sample that were not previously reported and did not match glycopeptides of impure glycoproteins existing in the sample. This extra glycosylation site of PSA is associated with a mutation in KLK3 genes. Among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KLKs families, the rs61752561 in KLK3 genes is an unusual missense mutation resulting in the conversion of D102 to N in PSA amino acid sequence. Accordingly, a new N-linked glycosylation site is created with an N102MS motif. Here we report the first qualitative and quantitative glycoproteomic study of PSA N102 glycosylation site by LC-MS/MS. We successfully applied tandem MS to verify the amino acid sequence possessing N102 glycosylation site and associated glycoforms of PSA samples acquired from different suppliers. Among the three PSA samples, HexNAc2Hex5 was the predominant glycoform at N102, while HexNAc4Hex5Fuc1NeuAc1 or HexNAc4Hex5Fuc1NeuAc2 was the primary glycoforms at N69. D102 is the first amino acid of "kallikrein loop", which is close to a zinc-binding site and catalytic triad. The different glycosylation of N102 relative to N69 might be influenced by the close vicinity of N102 to these functional sites and steric hindrance.

  14. Automated measurement of site-specific N-glycosylation occupancy with SWATH-MS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2015-07-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by oligosaccharyltransferase that is important in regulating many aspects of protein function. Analysis of protein glycosylation, including glycoproteomic measurement of the site-specific extent of glycosylation, remains challenging. Here, we developed methods combining enzymatic deglycosylation and protease digestion with SWATH-MS to enable automated measurement of site-specific occupancy at many glycosylation sites. Deglycosylation with peptide-endoglycosidase H, leaving a remnant N-acetylglucosamine on asparagines previously carrying high-mannose glycans, followed by trypsin digestion allowed robust automated measurement of occupancy at many sites. Combining deglycosylation with the more general peptide-N-glycosidase F enzyme with AspN protease digest allowed robust automated differentiation of nonglycosylated and deglycosylated forms of a given glycosylation site. Ratiometric analysis of deglycosylated peptides and the total intensities of all peptides from the corresponding proteins allowed relative quantification of site-specific glycosylation occupancy between yeast strains with various isoforms of oligosaccharyltransferase. This approach also allowed robust measurement of glycosylation sites in human salivary glycoproteins. This method for automated relative quantification of site-specific glycosylation occupancy will be a useful tool for research with model systems and clinical samples.

  15. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of Recombinant Pentameric and Hexameric Human IgM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moh, Edward S. X.; Lin, Chi-Hung; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2016-07-01

    Glycosylation is known to play an important role in IgG antibody structure and function. Polymeric IgM, the largest known antibody in humans, displays five potential N-glycosylation sites on each heavy chain monomer. IgM can exist as a pentamer with a connecting singly N-glycosylated J-chain (with a total of 51 glycosylation sites) or as a hexamer (60 glycosylation sites). In this study, the N-glycosylation of recombinant pentameric and hexameric IgM produced by the same human cell type and culture conditions was site-specifically profiled by RP-LC-CID/ETD-MS/MS using HILIC-enriched tryptic and GluC glycopeptides. The occupancy of all putative N-glycosylation sites on the pentameric and hexameric IgM were able to be determined. Distinct glycosylation differences were observed between each of the five N-linked sites on the IgM heavy chains. While Asn171, Asn332, and Asn395 all had predominantly complex type glycans, differences in glycan branching and sialylation were observed between the sites. Asn563, a high mannose-rich glycosylation site that locates in the center of the IgM polymer, was only approximately 60% occupied in both the pentameric and hexameric IgM forms, with a difference in relative abundance of the glycan structures between the pentamer and hexamer. This study highlights the information obtained by characterization of the site-heterogeneity of a highly glycosylated protein of high molecular mass with quaternary structure, revealing differences that would not be seen by global glycan or deglycosylated peptide profiling.

  16. Site-specific characterization of envelope protein N-glycosylation on Sanofi Pasteur's tetravalent CYD dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dubayle, Jean; Vialle, Sandrine; Schneider, Diane; Pontvianne, Jérémy; Mantel, Nathalie; Adam, Olivier; Guy, Bruno; Talaga, Philippe

    2015-03-10

    Recently, several virus studies have shown that protein glycosylation play a fundamental role in the virus-host cell interaction. Glycosylation characterization of the envelope proteins in both insect and mammalian cell-derived dengue virus (DENV) has established that two potential glycosylation residues, the asparagine 67 and 153 can potentially be glycosylated. Moreover, it appears that the glycosylation of these two residues can influence dramatically the virus production and the infection spreading in either mosquito or mammalian cells. The Sanofi Pasteur tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD) consists of four chimeric viruses produced in mammalian vero cells. As DENV, the CYDs are able to infect human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro via C-type lectins cell-surface molecules. Despite the importance of this interaction, the specific glycosylation pattern of the DENV has not been clearly documented so far. In this paper, we investigated the structure of the N-linked glycans in the four CYD serotypes. Using MALDI-TOF analysis, the N-linked glycans of CYDs were found to be a mix of high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans. Site-specific N-glycosylation analysis of CYDs using nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS demonstrates that both asparagine residues 67 and 153 are glycosylated. Predominant glycoforms at asparagine 67 are high mannose-type structures while mainly complex- and hybrid-type structures are detected at asparagine 153. In vitro studies have shown that the immunological consequences of infection by the CYD dengue viruses 1-4 versus the wild type parents are comparable in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Our E-protein glycan characterizations of CYD are consistent with those observations from the wild type parents and thus support in vitro studies. In addition, these data provide new insights for the role of glycans in the dengue virus-host cell interactions.

  17. Effects of N-Glycosylation Site Removal in Archaellins on the Assembly and Function of Archaella in Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Murphy, Kathleen; Berezuk, Alison; Khursigara, Cezar M.; Chong, James P. J.; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2015-01-01

    In Methanococcus maripaludis S2, the swimming organelle, the archaellum, is composed of three archaellins, FlaB1S2, FlaB2S2 and FlaB3S2. All three are modified with an N-linked tetrasaccharide at multiple sites. Disruption of the N-linked glycosylation pathway is known to cause defects in archaella assembly or function. Here, we explored the potential requirement of N-glycosylation of archaellins on archaellation by investigating the effects of eliminating the 4 N-glycosylation sites in the wildtype FlaB2S2 protein in all possible combinations either by Asn to Glu (N to Q) substitution or Asn to Asp (N to D) substitutions of the N-glycosylation sequon asparagine. The ability of these mutant derivatives to complement a non-archaellated ΔflaB2S2 strain was examined by electron microscopy (for archaella assembly) and swarm plates (for analysis of swimming). Western blot results showed that all mutated FlaB2S2 proteins were expressed and of smaller apparent molecular mass compared to wildtype FlaB2S2, consistent with the loss of glycosylation sites. In the 8 single-site mutant complements, archaella were observed on the surface of Q2, D2 and D4 (numbers after N or Q refer to the 1st to 4th glycosylation site). Of the 6 double-site mutation complementations all were archaellated except D1,3. Of the 4 triple-site mutation complements, only D2,3,4 was archaellated. Elimination of all 4 N-glycosylation sites resulted in non-archaellated cells, indicating some minimum amount of archaellin glycosylation was necessary for their incorporation into stable archaella. All complementations that led to a return of archaella also resulted in motile cells with the exception of the D4 version. In addition, a series of FlaB2S2 scanning deletions each missing 10 amino acids was also generated and tested for their ability to complement the ΔflaB2S2 strain. While most variants were expressed, none of them restored archaellation, although FlaB2S2 harbouring a smaller 3-amino acid

  18. Effects of N-glycosylation site removal in archaellins on the assembly and function of archaella in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Murphy, Kathleen; Berezuk, Alison; Khursigara, Cezar M; Chong, James P J; Jarrell, Ken F

    2015-01-01

    In Methanococcus maripaludis S2, the swimming organelle, the archaellum, is composed of three archaellins, FlaB1S2, FlaB2S2 and FlaB3S2. All three are modified with an N-linked tetrasaccharide at multiple sites. Disruption of the N-linked glycosylation pathway is known to cause defects in archaella assembly or function. Here, we explored the potential requirement of N-glycosylation of archaellins on archaellation by investigating the effects of eliminating the 4 N-glycosylation sites in the wildtype FlaB2S2 protein in all possible combinations either by Asn to Glu (N to Q) substitution or Asn to Asp (N to D) substitutions of the N-glycosylation sequon asparagine. The ability of these mutant derivatives to complement a non-archaellated ΔflaB2S2 strain was examined by electron microscopy (for archaella assembly) and swarm plates (for analysis of swimming). Western blot results showed that all mutated FlaB2S2 proteins were expressed and of smaller apparent molecular mass compared to wildtype FlaB2S2, consistent with the loss of glycosylation sites. In the 8 single-site mutant complements, archaella were observed on the surface of Q2, D2 and D4 (numbers after N or Q refer to the 1st to 4th glycosylation site). Of the 6 double-site mutation complementations all were archaellated except D1,3. Of the 4 triple-site mutation complements, only D2,3,4 was archaellated. Elimination of all 4 N-glycosylation sites resulted in non-archaellated cells, indicating some minimum amount of archaellin glycosylation was necessary for their incorporation into stable archaella. All complementations that led to a return of archaella also resulted in motile cells with the exception of the D4 version. In addition, a series of FlaB2S2 scanning deletions each missing 10 amino acids was also generated and tested for their ability to complement the ΔflaB2S2 strain. While most variants were expressed, none of them restored archaellation, although FlaB2S2 harbouring a smaller 3-amino acid

  19. Three N-Glycosylation Sites of Human Acetylcholinesterase Shares Similar Glycan Composition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miranda L; Luk, Wilson K W; Lau, Kei M; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheng, Anthony W M; Gong, Amy G W; Lin, Huangquan; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is a glycoprotein possessing three conserved N-linked glycosylation sites in mammalian species, locating at 296, 381, and 495 residues of the human sequence. Several lines of evidence demonstrated that N-glycosylation of AChE affected the enzymatic activity, as well as its biosynthesis. In order to determine the role of three N-glycosylation sites in AChE activity and glycan composition, the site-directed mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in wild-type human AChE(T) sequence was employed to generate the single-site mutants (i.e., AChE(T) (N296Q), AChET (N381Q), and AChE(T) (N495Q)) and all site mutant (i.e., AChE(T) (3N→3Q)). The mutation did not affect AChE protein expression in the transfected cells. The mutants, AChE(T) (3N→3Q) and AChE(T) (N381Q), showed very minimal enzymatic activity, while the other mutants showed reduced activity. By binding to lectins, Con A, and SNA, the glycosylation profile was revealed in those mutated AChE. The binding affinity with lectins showed no significant difference between various N-glycosylation mutants, which suggested that similar glycan composition should be resulted from different N-glycosylation sites. Although the three glycosylation sites within AChE sequence have different extent in affecting the enzymatic activity, their glycan compositions are very similar.

  20. Confident assignment of site-specific glycosylation in complex glycoproteins in a single step.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Kshitij; Staples, Gregory O; Leymarie, Nancy; Leon, Deborah R; Turiák, Lilla; Huang, Yu; Yip, Shun; Hu, Han; Heckendorf, Christian F; Zaia, Joseph

    2014-10-03

    A glycoprotein may contain several sites of glycosylation, each of which is heterogeneous. As a consequence of glycoform diversity and signal suppression from nonglycosylated peptides that ionize more efficiently, typical reversed-phase LC-MS and bottom-up proteomics database searching workflows do not perform well for identification of site-specific glycosylation for complex glycoproteins. We present an LC-MS system for enrichment, separation, and analysis of glycopeptides from complex glycoproteins (>4 N-glycosylation sequons) in a single step. This system uses an online HILIC enrichment trap prior to reversed-phase C18-MS analysis. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the system using a set of glycoproteins including human transferrin (2 sequons), human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (5 sequons), and influenza A virus hemagglutinin (9 sequons). The online enrichment renders glycopeptides the most abundant ions detected, thereby facilitating the generation of high-quality data-dependent tandem mass spectra. The tandem mass spectra exhibited product ions from both glycan and peptide backbone dissociation for a majority of the glycopeptides tested using collisionally activated dissociation that served to confidently assign site-specific glycosylation. We demonstrated the value of our system to define site-specific glycosylation using a hemagglutinin containing 9 N-glycosylation sequons from a single HILIC-C18-MS acquisition.

  1. The Influence of Artificially Introduced N-Glycosylation Sites on the In Vitro Activity of Xenopus laevis Erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Kazumichi; Meguro, Mizue; Sato, Kei; Tanizaki, Yuta; Nogawa-Kosaka, Nami; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), the primary regulator of erythropoiesis, is a heavily glycosylated protein found in humans and several other mammals. Intriguingly, we have previously found that EPO in Xenopus laevis (xlEPO) has no N-glycosylation sites, and cross-reacts with the human EPO (huEPO) receptor despite low homology with huEPO. In this study, we introduced N-glycosylation sites into wild-type xlEPO at the positions homologous to those in huEPO, and tested whether the glycosylated mutein retained its biological activity. Seven xlEPO muteins, containing 1–3 additional N-linked carbohydrates at positions 24, 38, and/or 83, were expressed in COS-1 cells. The muteins exhibited lower secretion efficiency, higher hydrophilicity, and stronger acidic properties than the wild type. All muteins stimulated the proliferation of both cell lines, xlEPO receptor-expressing xlEPOR-FDC/P2 cells and huEPO receptor-expressing UT-7/EPO cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the muteins retained their in vitro biological activities. The maximum effect on xlEPOR-FDC/P2 proliferation was decreased by the addition of N-linked carbohydrates, but that on UT-7/EPO proliferation was not changed, indicating that the muteins act as partial agonists to the xlEPO receptor, and near-full agonists to the huEPO receptor. Hence, the EPO-EPOR binding site in X. laevis locates the distal region of artificially introduced three N-glycosylation sites, demonstrating that the vital conformation to exert biological activity is conserved between humans and X. laevis, despite the low similarity in primary structures of EPO and EPOR. PMID:25898205

  2. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following passage of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 t...

  3. Quantitative site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation by LC-MS using different glycopeptide-enrichment strategies.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, Jessica; Karas, Michael; Eichhorn, Thomas; Hendriks, Robertus; Andrecht, Sven

    2009-12-15

    A common technique for analysis of protein glycosylation is HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, analysis is challenging due to a low abundance of glycopeptides in complex protein digests, microheterogeneity at the glycosylation site, ion suppression effects, and competition for ionization by coeluting peptides. Specific sample preparation is necessary for a comprehensive and site-specific glycosylation analysis by MS. In this study we qualitatively compared hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and hydrazine chemistry for the enrichment of all N-linked glycopeptides and titanium dioxide for capturing sialylated glycopeptides from a complex peptide mixture. Bare silica, microcrystalline cellulose, amino-, amide- (TSKgel Amide-80), and sulfobetaine-(ZIC-HILIC) bonded phases were evaluated for HILIC enrichment. The experiments revealed that ZIC-HILIC and TSKgel Amide-80 are very specific for capturing glycopeptides under optimized conditions. Quantitative analysis of N-glycosidase F-released and 2-aminobenzamide-labeled glycans of a ZIC-HILIC-enriched monoclonal antibody demonstrated that glycopeptides could be enriched without bias for particular glycan structures and without significant losses. Sialylated glycopeptides could be efficiently enriched by titanium dioxide and in addition to HILIC both methods enable a comprehensive analysis of protein glycosylation by MS. Enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides by hydrazine chemistry resulted in lower peptide recovery using a more complex enrichment scheme.

  4. HMMpTM: improving transmembrane protein topology prediction using phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, Georgios N; Bagos, Pantelis G; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades a large number of computational methods have been developed for predicting transmembrane protein topology. Current predictors rely on topogenic signals in the protein sequence, such as the distribution of positively charged residues in extra-membrane loops and the existence of N-terminal signals. However, phosphorylation and glycosylation are post-translational modifications (PTMs) that occur in a compartment-specific manner and therefore the presence of a phosphorylation or glycosylation site in a transmembrane protein provides topological information. We examine the combination of phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction with transmembrane protein topology prediction. We report the development of a Hidden Markov Model based method, capable of predicting the topology of transmembrane proteins and the existence of kinase specific phosphorylation and N/O-linked glycosylation sites along the protein sequence. Our method integrates a novel feature in transmembrane protein topology prediction, which results in improved performance for topology prediction and reliable prediction of phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. The method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/HMMpTM.

  5. Glycosylation is crucial for a proper catalytic site organization in human glucocerebrosidase.

    PubMed

    Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Siebert, Marina; Verli, Hugo; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza

    2016-04-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzyme, a peripheral membrane-associated glycoprotein that hydrolyses glucosylceramide in lysosomes. Glycosylation is essential for the development of a catalytically active enzyme, specifically in the first site, located at Asn19. However, both the molecular basis of the relevance of N-glycosylation over GCase activity and the effects of glycosylation over its structure and dynamics are still not fully understood. Thus, the present work evaluated GCase enzyme in increasing glycosylation content using triplicate unbiased molecular dynamics simulations. Accordingly, the N-linked glycan chains caused local conformational stabilization effects over the protein, as well as in regions flanking the enzyme catalytic dyad. In the case of the Asn19-linked glycan, it also occurred around region 438-444, where one of the most prevalent GCase mutations is found. Markedly, an increasing catalytic dyad organization was related to increasing glycosylation contents, offering the first atomic-level explanation for the experimental observation that GCase activity is controlled by glycosylation, especially at Asn19.

  6. The Patterns of Coevolution in Clade B HIV Envelope's N-Glycosylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Garimalla, Swetha; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Pashov, Anastas D.

    2015-01-01

    The co-evolution of the potential N-glycosylation sites of HIV Clade B gp120 was mapped onto the coevolution network of the protein structure using mean field direct coupling analysis (mfDCA). This was possible for 327 positions with suitable entropy and gap content. Indications of pressure to preserve the evolving glycan shield are seen as well as strong dependencies between the majority of the potential N-glycosylation sites and the rest of the structure. These findings indicate that although mainly an adaptation against antibody neutralization, the evolving glycan shield is structurally related to the core polypeptide, which, thus, is also under pressure to reflect the changes in the N-glycosylation. The map we propose fills the gap in previous attempts to tease out sequon evolution by providing a more general molecular context. Thus, it will help design strategies guiding HIV gp120 evolution in a rational way. PMID:26110648

  7. Carbohydrates on Proteins: Site-Specific Glycosylation Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Glycosylation on proteins adds complexity and versatility to these biologically vital macromolecules. To unveil the structure-function relationship of glycoproteins, glycopeptide-centric analysis using mass spectrometry (MS) has become a method of choice because the glycan is preserved on the glycosylation site and site-specific glycosylation profiles of proteins can be readily determined. However, glycopeptide analysis is still challenging given that glycopeptides are usually low in abundance and relatively difficult to detect and the resulting data require expertise to analyze. Viewing the urgent need to address these challenges, emerging methods and techniques are being developed with the goal of analyzing glycopeptides in a sensitive, comprehensive, and high-throughput manner. In this review, we discuss recent advances in glycoprotein and glycopeptide analysis, with topics covering sample preparation, analytical separation, MS and tandem MS techniques, as well as data interpretation and automation.

  8. Carbohydrates on Proteins: Site-Specific Glycosylation Analysis by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation on proteins adds complexity and versatility to these biologically vital macromolecules. To unveil the structure-function relationship of glycoproteins, glycopeptide-centric analysis using mass spectrometry (MS) has become a method of choice because the glycan is preserved on the glycosylation site and site-specific glycosylation profiles of proteins can be readily determined. However, glycopeptide analysis is still challenging given that glycopeptides are usually low in abundance and relatively difficult to detect and the resulting data require expertise to analyze. Viewing the urgent need to address these challenges, emerging methods and techniques are being developed with the goal of analyzing glycopeptides in a sensitive, comprehensive, and high-throughput manner. In this review, we discuss recent advances in glycoprotein and glycopeptide analysis, with topics covering sample preparation, analytical separation, MS and tandem MS techniques, as well as data interpretation and automation.

  9. Site-specific O-Glycosylation Analysis of Human Blood Plasma Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marcus; Marx, Kristina; Reichl, Udo; Wuhrer, Manfred; Rapp, Erdmann

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific glycosylation analysis is key to investigate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins, e.g. in the context of antigenicity and disease progression. The analysis, though, is quite challenging and time consuming, in particular for O-glycosylated proteins. In consequence, despite their clinical and biopharmaceutical importance, many human blood plasma glycoproteins have not been characterized comprehensively with respect to their O-glycosylation. Here, we report on the site-specific O-glycosylation analysis of human blood plasma glycoproteins. To this end pooled human blood plasma of healthy donors was proteolytically digested using a broad-specific enzyme (Proteinase K), followed by a precipitation step, as well as a glycopeptide enrichment and fractionation step via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, the latter being optimized for intact O-glycopeptides carrying short mucin-type core-1 and -2 O-glycans, which represent the vast majority of O-glycans on human blood plasma proteins. Enriched O-glycopeptide fractions were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled online to an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in positive-ion mode. Peptide identity and glycan composition were derived from low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragment spectra acquired in multistage mode. To pinpoint the O-glycosylation sites glycopeptides were fragmented using electron transfer dissociation. Spectra were annotated by database searches as well as manually. Overall, 31 O-glycosylation sites and regions belonging to 22 proteins were identified, the majority being acute-phase proteins. Strikingly, also 11 novel O-glycosylation sites and regions were identified. In total 23 O-glycosylation sites could be pinpointed. Interestingly, the use of Proteinase K proved to be particularly beneficial in this context. The identified O-glycan compositions most probably correspond to mono- and disialylated core-1

  10. Modification of N-glycosylation sites allows secretion of bacterial chondroitinase ABC from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Muir, Elizabeth M; Fyfe, Ian; Gardiner, Sonya; Li, Li; Warren, Philippa; Fawcett, James W; Keynes, Roger J; Rogers, John H

    2010-01-15

    Although many eukaryotic proteins have been secreted by transfected bacterial cells, little is known about how a bacterial protein is treated as it passes through the secretory pathway when expressed in a eukaryotic cell. The eukaryotic N-glycosylation system could interfere with folding and secretion of prokaryotic proteins whose sequence has not been adapted for glycosylation in structurally appropriate locations. Here we show that such interference does indeed occur for chondroitinase ABC from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris, and can be overcome by eliminating potential N-glycosylation sites. Chondroitinase ABC was heavily glycosylated when expressed in mammalian cells or in a mammalian translation system, and this process prevented secretion of functional enzyme. Directed mutagenesis of selected N-glycosylation sites allowed efficient secretion of active chondroitinase. As these proteoglycans are known to inhibit regeneration of axons in the mammalian central nervous system, the modified chondroitinase gene is a potential tool for gene therapy to promote neural regeneration, ultimately in human spinal cord injury.

  11. Pannexin1 channels contain a glycosylation site that targets the hexamer to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Boassa, Daniela; Ambrosi, Cinzia; Qiu, Feng; Dahl, Gerhard; Gaietta, Guido; Sosinsky, Gina

    2007-10-26

    Pannexins are newly discovered channel proteins expressed in many different tissues and abundantly in the vertebrate central nervous system. Based on membrane topology, folding and secondary structure prediction, pannexins are proposed to form gap junction-like structures. We show here that Pannexin1 forms a hexameric channel and reaches the cell surface but, unlike connexins, is N-glycosylated. Using site-directed mutagenesis we analyzed three putative N-linked glycosylation sites and examined the effects of each mutation on channel expression. We show for the first time that Pannexin1 is glycosylated at Asn-254 and that this residue is important for plasma membrane targeting. The glycosylation of Pannexin1 at its extracellular surface makes it unlikely that two oligomers could dock to form an intercellular channel. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy confirmed that Pannexin1 junctional areas do not appear as canonical gap junctions. Rather, Pannexin1 channels are distributed throughout the plasma membrane. We propose that N-glycosylation of Pannexin1 could be a significant mechanism for regulating the trafficking of these membrane proteins to the cell surface in different tissues.

  12. Perturbing the folding energy landscape of the bacterial immunity protein Im7 by site-specific N-linked glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark M.; Bartlett, Alice I.; Nerenberg, Paul S.; Friel, Claire T.; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.; Stultz, Collin M.; Radford, Sheena E.; Imperiali, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation modulates protein folding and stability through a variety of mechanisms. As such there is considerable interest in the development of general rules to predict the structural consequences of site-specific glycosylation and to understand how these effects can be exploited in the design and development of modified proteins with advantageous properties. In this study, expressed protein ligation is used to create site-specifically glycosylated variants of the bacterial immunity protein Im7 modified with the chitobiose disaccharide (GlcNAc-GlcNAc). Glycans were introduced at seven solvent exposed sites within the Im7 sequence and the kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of N-linked glycosylation analyzed. The values for glycan incorporation were found to range from +5.2 to -3.8 kJ·mol-1. In several cases, glycosylation influences folding by modulating the local conformational preferences of the glycosylated sequence. These locally mediated effects are most prominent in the center of α-helices where glycosylation negatively effects folding and in compact turn motifs between segments of ordered secondary structure where glycosylation promotes folding and enhances the overall stability of the native protein. The studies also provide insight into why glycosylation is commonly identified at the transition between different types of secondary structure and when glycosylation may be used to elaborate protein structure to protect disordered sequences from proteolysis or immune system recognition. PMID:21148421

  13. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Anne A.; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the −2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the −2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native ‘QYNST’ sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity. PMID:26482295

  14. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  15. Substitute sweeteners: diverse bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases with unique N-glycosylation site preferences.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Anne A; Chai, Yi; Natarajan, Aravind; Perregaux, Emily; Jaroentomeechai, Thapakorn; Guarino, Cassandra; Smith, Jessica; Zhang, Sheng; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2015-10-20

    The central enzyme in the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway is the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), PglB, which transfers preassembled glycans to specific asparagine residues in target proteins. While C. jejuni PglB (CjPglB) can transfer many diverse glycan structures, the acceptor sites that it recognizes are restricted predominantly to those having a negatively charged residue in the -2 position relative to the asparagine. Here, we investigated the acceptor-site preferences for 23 homologs with natural sequence variation compared to CjPglB. Using an ectopic trans-complementation assay for CjPglB function in glycosylation-competent Escherichia coli, we demonstrated in vivo activity for 16 of the candidate OSTs. Interestingly, the OSTs from Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, exhibited significantly relaxed specificity towards the -2 position compared to CjPglB. These enzymes glycosylated minimal N-X-T motifs in multiple targets and each followed unique, as yet unknown, rules governing acceptor-site preferences. One notable example is D. gigas PglB, which was the only bacterial OST to glycosylate the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G at its native 'QYNST' sequon. Overall, we find that a subset of bacterial OSTs follow their own rules for acceptor-site specificity, thereby expanding the glycoengineering toolbox with previously unavailable biocatalytic diversity.

  16. Additional N-glycosylation in the N-terminal region of recombinant human alpha-1 antitrypsin enhances the circulatory half-life in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Shin; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sang Mee; Park, Soon Jae

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylation affects the circulatory half-lives of therapeutic proteins. However, the effects of an additional N-glycosylation in the unstructured region or the loop region of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) on the circulatory half-life of the protein are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of an additional N-glycosylation site (Q4N/D6T, Q9N, D12N/S14T, A70N, G148T, R178N, or V212N) to the three naturally occurring N-glycosylation sites in human A1AT. A single-dose (445 μg/kg) pharmacokinetic study using male Sprague-Dawley rats showed that, among the seven recombinant A1AT (rA1AT) mutants, Q9N and D12N/S14T showed the highest serum concentration and area under the curve values, as well as similar circulatory half-lives that were 2.2-fold higher than plasma-derived A1AT and 1.7-fold higher than wild-type rA1AT. We further characterized the Q9N mutant regarding the N-glycan profile, sialic acid content, protease inhibitory activity, and protein stability. The results indicate that an additional N-glycosylation in the flexible N-terminal region increases the circulatory half-life of rA1AT without altering its protease inhibitory activity. Our study provides novel insight into the use of rA1AT for the treatment of emphysema with an increased injection interval relative to the clinically used plasma-derived A1AT.

  17. Biosynthesis of trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoproteins: N-glycosylation and addition of a phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    The variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) of Trypanosoma brucei are synthesized with a hydrophobic COOH-terminal peptide that is cleaved and replaced by a glycophospholipid, which anchors VSG to the surface membrane. The kinetics of VSG processing were studied by metabolic labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 3/H)myristic acid. The COOH-terminal oligosaccharide-containing structure remaining after phospholipase removal of dimyristyl glycerol from membrane-form VSG could be detected serologically within 1 min of polypeptide synthesis in two T. brucei variants studied. Addition of the oligosaccharide-containing structure was resistant to tunicamycin. VSGs synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin displayed lower apparent molecular weights, consistent with the complete inhibition of N-glycosylation at one (variant 117), two (variant 221), or at least three (variant 118) internal asparagine sites. In dual-labeling studies, cycloheximide caused rapid inhibition of both (/sup 35/S)methionine and (/sup 3/H)myristic acid incorporation.

  18. Distinct roles of N-glycosylation at different sites of corin in cell membrane targeting and ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhou, Tiantian; Peng, Jianhao; Xu, Ping; Dong, Ningzheng; Chen, Shenghan; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-16

    Corin is a membrane-bound protease essential for activating natriuretic peptides and regulating blood pressure. Human corin has 19 predicted N-glycosylation sites in its extracellular domains. It has been shown that N-glycans are required for corin cell surface expression and zymogen activation. It remains unknown, however, how N-glycans at different sites may regulate corin biosynthesis and processing. In this study, we examined corin mutants, in which each of the 19 predicted N-glycosylation sites was mutated individually. By Western analysis of corin proteins in cell lysate and conditioned medium from transfected HEK293 cells and HL-1 cardiomyocytes, we found that N-glycosylation at Asn-80 inhibited corin shedding in the juxtamembrane domain. Similarly, N-glycosylation at Asn-231 protected corin from autocleavage in the frizzled-1 domain. Moreover, N-glycosylation at Asn-697 in the scavenger receptor domain and at Asn-1022 in the protease domain is important for corin cell surface targeting and zymogen activation. We also found that the location of the N-glycosylation site in the protease domain was not critical. N-Glycosylation at Asn-1022 may be switched to different sites to promote corin zymogen activation. Together, our results show that N-glycans at different sites may play distinct roles in regulating the cell membrane targeting, zymogen activation, and ectodomain shedding of corin.

  19. Glycosylation site of the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Allergenic implications of the carbohydrate moiety.

    PubMed

    Batanero, E; Villalba, M; Rodríguez, R

    1994-01-01

    The electrophoretic analysis of purified Ole e I, the major allergen from Olea europaea pollen, reveals the presence of two main variants, glycosylated (20.0 kDa) and non-glycosylated (18.5 kDa) components. The glycosylated variant has been identified as a concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein. Its carbohydrate moiety has a molecular mass of about 1.3 kDa (5% weight of the glycosylated allergen), based on mass spectrometry analysis. Enzymatic treatment of native Ole e I with the specific glycosidase PNGase F accounts for an oligosaccharide N-linked to the polypeptide chain. This treatment does not sensibly modify the secondary structure of the protein but diminishes the affinity of the allergen for specific IgE antibodies. Tryptic digestion of Ole e I reveals the presence of a single carbohydrate-containing peptide. This peptide was recognized by the sera of hypersensitive individuals. The amino acid sequence of this peptide is Phe-Lys-Leu-Asn-Thr-Val-Asn-Gly-Thr-Thr-Arg, asparagine at the seventh being the carbohydrate attaching site. The obtained data are discussed in terms of the potential role of the sugar moiety in the allergenic activity of Ole e I.

  20. Differential Site Accessibility Mechanistically Explains Subcellular-Specific N-Glycosylation Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ling Yen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Fanayan, Susan; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins perform extra- and intracellular functions in innate and adaptive immunity by lectin-based interactions to exposed glyco-determinants. Herein, we document and mechanistically explain the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation determinants on glycoproteins trafficking through the shared biosynthetic machinery of human cells. LC-MS/MS-based quantitative glycomics showed that the secreted glycoproteins of eight human breast epithelial cells displaying diverse geno- and phenotypes consistently displayed more processed, primarily complex type, N-glycans than the high-mannose-rich microsomal glycoproteins. Detailed subcellular glycome profiling of proteins derived from three breast cell lines (MCF7/MDA468/MCF10A) demonstrated that secreted glycoproteins displayed significantly more α-sialylation and α1,6-fucosylation, but less α-mannosylation, than both the intermediately glycan-processed cell-surface glycoproteomes and the under-processed microsomal glycoproteomes. Subcellular proteomics and gene ontology revealed substantial presence of endoplasmic reticulum resident glycoproteins in the microsomes and confirmed significant enrichment of secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins in the respective subcellular fractions. The solvent accessibility of the glycosylation sites on maturely folded proteins of the 100 most abundant putative N-glycoproteins observed uniquely in the three subcellular glycoproteomes correlated with the glycan type processing thereby mechanistically explaining the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation. In conclusion, human cells have developed mechanisms to simultaneously and reproducibly generate subcellular-specific N-glycosylation using a shared biosynthetic machinery. This aspect of protein-specific glycosylation is important for structural and functional glycobiology and discussed here in the context of the spatio-temporal interaction of glyco-determinants with lectins central to infection and immunity

  1. Sequence analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen: identification of glycosylation sites and homology with the immunoglobulin supergene family.

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, R J; Mooser, G; Pande, H; Lee, T D; Shively, J E

    1987-01-01

    A direct method for the determination of N-linked glycosylation sites in highly glycosylated proteins is described. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a nonspecific crossreacting antigen (NCA) were chemically deglycosylated, and peptide maps were prepared by reverse-phase HPLC. The peptides were sequenced on a gas-phase microsequencer, and glycosylation sites were identified as the phenylthiohydantoin derivative of N-acetylglucosaminylasparagine. The sequences were confirmed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Highly homologous, extended amino-terminal sequences were determined for CEA and two NCAs, NCA-95 and NCA-55. Cysteine-containing sequences for CEA and NCA-95 show up to 95% sequence homology, and the CEA sequences also show internal sequence homologies. A comparison of the CEA sequences with known protein sequences suggests that CEA may be a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family. The protein sequence data have been used to identify a genomic DNA clone for one of the NCA antigens [Thompson, J., Pande, H., Paxton, R. J., Shively, L., Padma, A., Simmer, R. L., Todd, C. W., Riggs, A. D. & Shively, J. E. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press] and a cDNA clone for CEA [Zimmermann, W., Ortlieb, B., Friedrich, R. & von Kleist, S. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press]. Images PMID:3469650

  2. New features of site-specific horseradish peroxidase (HRP) glycosylation uncovered by nano-LC-MS with repeated ion-isolation/fragmentation cycles.

    PubMed

    Wuhrer, Manfred; Balog, Crina I A; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2005-05-25

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is widely used in biomedical research as a reporter enzyme in diagnostic assays. In addition, it is of considerable interest as a model glycoprotein with core-xylosylated and -(alpha1-3)-fucosylated N-glycans that form antigenic elements of plant allergens and parasitic helminths. Using a combination of techniques comprising (1) nano-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS with multiple selection/fragmentation cycles of HRP tryptic (glyco-)peptides, (2) nano-electrospray MS of intact HRP, and (3) carbohydrate linkage analysis, it was revealed that most of the HRP N-glycosylation sites can be occupied with an alternative Fuc(1-3)GlcNAc-disaccharide. Two main variants of HRP occur: The major population (approximately 60%) has eight glycosylation sites carrying core(1-3)fucosylated, xylosylated, trimannosyl N-glycans, with the ninth potential N-glycosylation site Asn316 not occupied. Another group of HRP carries seven of the above-mentioned N-glycans, with an eighth N-glycosylation site carrying the alternative Fuc(1-3)GlcNAc-unit (approximately 35%). In addition, minor subsets of HRP were found to contain a xylosylated, trimannosyl N-glycan lacking core-fucosylation as a ninth N-glycan attached to Asn316, which has hitherto been assumed to be unoccupied. The finding of these new features of glycosylation of an already exceptionally well-studied glycoprotein underscores the potential of the nano-LC-MS(n) based analytical approach followed.

  3. The effects of N-glycosylation sites and the N-terminal region on the biological function of {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 and its secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Mami; Murata, Takeomi; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2005-04-08

    Human {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 ({beta}3GnT2) is thought to be an enzyme that extends the polylactosamine acceptor chains, but its function and structure analysis are unknown. To obtain insight into the structure of {beta}3GnT2, the effects of N-glycosylation on its biological function were evaluated using the addition of inhibitors, site-directed mutagenesis of potential N-glycosylation sites, and deletion of its N-terminal region using a fusion protein with GFP{sub uv} in a baculovirus expression system. Four of five potential N-glycosylation sites were found to be occupied, and their biological function and secretion were inhibited with the treatment of N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin. The N-glycosylation at Asn219 was necessary for the {beta}3GnT activity; moreover, N-glycosylation at Asn127 and Asn219 was critical for efficient protein secretion. When Ser221 was replaced with Thr, fusion protein was expressed as a single band, indicating that the double band of the expressed fusion protein was due to the heterogeneity of the glycosylation at Asn219. The truncated protein consisting of amino acids 82-397 (GFP{sub uv}-{beta}3GnT2{delta}83), which lacked both one N-glycosylation site at Asn79 and the stem region of glycosyltransferase, was expressed as only a small form and showed no {beta}3GnT activity. These results suggest that the N-glycosylation site at Asn219, which is conserved throughout the {beta}1,3-glycosyltransferase family, is indispensable not only with regard to its biological function, but also to its secretion. The N-terminal region, which belongs to a stem region of glycosyltransferase, might also be important to the active protein structure.

  4. Alterations in potential sites for glycosylation predominate during evolution of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope gene in macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Overbaugh, J; Rudensey, L M

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a hallmark of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome, but the role of distinct HIV variants in the development of AIDS is unclear. Envelope (env) is the most highly variable gene in HIV as well as in other retroviruses. We have previously demonstrated that variation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env is primarily localized in two regions (V1 and V4) during progression to simian AIDS. To determine whether there is a common genotype that evolves as AIDS develops, a total of 160 SIV env genes isolated directly from the tissue DNAs of four macaques infected with cloned virus were compared. Common amino acid sequence changes were identified within V1, V4, and, in the late stages of disease, near V3. At several positions, the same amino acid change was seen frequently in the variant genomes from all four animals. As AIDS developed, the majority of viruses evolved an extended sequence in V1 that was rich in serine and threonine residues and shared similarity with proteins modified by O-linked glycosylation. Several of the predominant common sequence changes in V1 and V4 created new sites for N-linked glycosylation. Thus, common features of the SIV variants that evolve during progression to AIDS are motifs that potentially allow for structural and functional changes in the env protein as a result of carbohydrate addition. PMID:1527847

  5. Mutations within potential glycosylation sites in the capsid protein of hepatitis E virus prevent the formation of infectious virus particles.

    PubMed

    Graff, Judith; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Torian, Udana; Nguyen, Hanh; St Claire, Marisa; Yu, Claro; Purcell, Robert H; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2008-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus is a nonenveloped RNA virus. However, the single capsid protein resembles a typical glycoprotein in that it contains a signal sequence and potential glycosylation sites that are utilized when recombinant capsid protein is overexpressed in cell culture. In order to determine whether these unexpected observations were biologically relevant or were artifacts of overexpression, we analyzed capsid protein produced during a normal viral replication cycle. In vitro transcripts from an infectious cDNA clone mutated to eliminate potential glycosylation sites were transfected into cultured Huh-7 cells and into the livers of rhesus macaques. The mutations did not detectably affect genome replication or capsid protein synthesis in cell culture. However, none of the mutants infected rhesus macaques. Velocity sedimentation analyses of transfected cell lysates revealed that mutation of the first two glycosylation sites prevented virion assembly, whereas mutation of the third site permitted particle formation and RNA encapsidation, but the particles were not infectious. However, conservative mutations that did not destroy glycosylation motifs also prevented infection. Overall, the data suggested that the mutations were lethal because they perturbed protein structure rather than because they eliminated glycosylation.

  6. Global site-specific N-glycosylation analysis of HIV envelope glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liwei; Diedrich, Jolene K.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Pauthner, Matthias; He, Lin; Park, Sung-Kyu Robin; Sok, Devin; Su, Ching Yao; Delahunty, Claire M.; Menis, Sergey; Andrabi, Raiees; Guenaga, Javier; Georgeson, Erik; Kubitz, Michael; Adachi, Yumiko; Burton, Dennis R.; Schief, William R.; Yates III, John R.; Paulson, James C.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and the focus for design of an antibody-based HIV vaccine. The Env trimer is covered by ∼90N-linked glycans, which shield the underlying protein from immune surveillance. bNAbs to HIV develop during infection, with many showing dependence on glycans for binding to Env. The ability to routinely assess the glycan type at each glycosylation site may facilitate design of improved vaccine candidates. Here we present a general mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy that uses specific endoglycosidases to introduce mass signatures that distinguish peptide glycosites that are unoccupied or occupied by high-mannose/hybrid or complex-type glycans. The method yields >95% sequence coverage for Env, provides semi-quantitative analysis of the glycosylation status at each glycosite. We find that most glycosites in recombinant Env trimers are fully occupied by glycans, varying in the proportion of high-mannose/hybrid and complex-type glycans. PMID:28348411

  7. Site-directed mutagenesis of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF): analysis of O-glycosylation sites and properties.

    PubMed

    Davis-Fleische, K M; Brigstock, D R; Besner, G E

    2001-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a 22 kDa, O-glycosylated protein. HeLa cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human HB-EGF produced a secreted, bioactive protein, with Mr 22,000 that was decreased to 14,000 by treatment with O-glycanase. Site-directed mutagenesis of HB-EGF cDNA using oligonucleotide- and PCR-directed techniques was performed to change the potential glycosylation sites, Thr75 and Thr85, to alanine residues to prevent O-glycosylation. Purification and characterization of the mutant proteins demonstrated that: (i) both O-glycosylation sites of HB-EGF are utilized, (ii) HB-EGF secretion does not require O-glycosylation, (iii) removal of O-glycans does not affect proteolytic cleavage of the HB-EGF precursor, nor does it influence HB-EGF intracellular trafficking or subcellular localization, and (iv) HB-EGF produced by HeLa cells is heavily sialylated. Comparisons between glycosylation mutants and wild-type HB-EGF revealed no significant apparent differences in receptor binding activity.

  8. Selection against glycosylation sites in potential target proteins of the general HMWC N-glycosyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tan, Nikki Y; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Davis, Margaret R; Wong, Linette W; Naidu, Ranjitha; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2014-03-14

    The HMWABC system of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) encodes the HMWA adhesin glycoprotein, which is glycosylated by the HMWC glycosyltransferase. HMWC is a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase, homologues of which are widespread in the Pasteurellaceae. We developed an assay for nonbiased detection of glycoproteins in NTHi based on metabolic engineering of the Leloir pathway and growth in media containing radiolabelled monosaccharides. The only glycoprotein identified in NTHi by this assay was HMWA. However, glycoproteomic analyses ex vivo in Escherichia coli showed that HMWC of NTHi was a general glycosyltransferase capable of glycosylating selected asparagines in proteins other than its HMWA substrate, including Asn78 in E. coli 30S ribosomal protein S5. The equivalent residue in S5 homologues in H. influenzae or other sequenced Pasteurellaceae genomes is not asparagine, and these organisms also showed significantly fewer than expected potential sites of glycosylation in general. Expression of active HMWC in E. coli resulted in growth inhibition compared with expression of inactive enzyme, consistent with glycosylation by HMWC detrimentally affecting the function of some E. coli proteins. Together, this supports the presence of a selective pressure in the Pasteurellaceae against glycosylation sites that would be modified by the general N-glycosyltransferase activity of HMWC.

  9. Application of a Quantitative LC-MS Multiattribute Method for Monitoring Site-Specific Glycan Heterogeneity on a Monoclonal Antibody Containing Two N-Linked Glycosylation Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Chu, Lily; Li, Wenzhou; Lawson, Ken; Apostol, Izydor; Eris, Tamer

    2017-02-27

    A significant challenge of traditional glycan mapping techniques is that they do not provide site-specific glycosylation information. Therefore, for proteins containing multiple glycosylation sites, the individual glycan species present at a particular site cannot be differentiated from those species present at the other glycosylation sites on the molecule. Quantification of glycoform has previously been demonstrated using a multiattribute method (MAM), which can quantify multiple post-translational modifications including deamidation, oxidation, glycosylation variants, and fragmentation ( Rogers, R. S.; Nightlinger, N. S.; Livingston, B.; Campbell, P.; Bailey, R.; Balland, A. MAbs 2015 , 7 , 881 - 890 ; ref 1). In this paper we describe the application of an MAM based method for site specific quantification of N-linked glycan heterogeneity present on an IgG1 mAb molecule containing two distinct N-linked glycosylation sites: one present on the heavy chain (HC) variable region (Fab) and the other present on the conserved HC constant region (Fc). MAM is a peptide mapping method utilizing mass spectrometry to detect and quantify specific peptides of interest. The ionization properties of the glycopeptides with different classes of glycan structural variants, including high mannose, sialylated, and terminal galactosylated species were studied in detail. Our results demonstrate that MAM quantification of individual glycan species from both the Fab and Fc N-Linked glycosylation sites is consistent with quantification using the traditional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) analysis of enzymatically released and fluorescently labeled glycans. Furthermore, no significant impact from the glycoform on the ionization properties of the glycopeptide is observed. Our work demonstrates that the MAM method is a suitable approach for providing quantitative, site-specific glycan information for profiling of N-linked glycans on immunoglobulins.

  10. Characterization of site-specific glycosylation of secreted proteins associated with multi-drug resistance of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cheng, Kai; Dong, Jiaqiang; Tian, Miaomiao; Chai, Na; Guo, Hao; Li, Jinjing; You, Xin; Dong, Mingming; Ye, Mingliang; Nie, Yongzhan; Zou, Hanfa; Fan, Daiming

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains a great obstacle to effective chemotherapy for gastric cancer. A number of secreted glycoproteins have been reported to be involved in the development of MDR in gastric cancer. However, whether glycosylation of secreted glycoproteins changes during MDR of gastric cancer is unclear. Our present work manifested that N-glycosites and site-specific glycoforms of secreted proteins in drug-resistant cell lines were distinctly different from those in the parental cell line for the first time. Further characterization highlighted the significance of some aberrantly glycosylated secretory proteins in MDR, suggesting that manipulating the glycosylation of specific glycoproteins could be a potential target for overcoming multi-drug resistance in gastric cancer. PMID:27015365

  11. Site-Directed Glycosylation of Peptide/Protein with Homogeneous O-Linked Eukaryotic N-Glycans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Jiang, Kuan; Zhu, Hailiang; Ma, Cheng; Yu, Zaikuan; Li, Lei; Guan, Wanyi; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhu, He; Chen, Yanyi; Li, Shanshan; Li, Jing; Cheng, Jiansong; Zhang, Lianwen; Wang, Peng George

    2016-09-21

    Here we report a facile and efficient method for site-directed glycosylation of peptide/protein. The method contains two sequential steps: generation of a GlcNAc-O-peptide/protein, and subsequent ligation of a eukaryotic N-glycan to the GlcNAc moiety. A pharmaceutical peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and a model protein, bovine α-Crystallin, were successfully glycosylated using such an approach. It was shown that the GLP-1 with O-linked N-glycan maintained an unchanged secondary structure after glycosylation, suggesting the potential application of this approach for peptide/protein drug production. In summary, the coupled approach provides a general strategy to produce homogeneous glycopeptide/glycoprotein bearing eukaryotic N-glycans.

  12. Synthetic glycosylation of proteins using N-(beta-saccharide) iodoacetamides: applications in site-specific glycosylation and solid-phase enzymic oligosaccharide synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S Y; Guile, G R; Dwek, R A; Arsequell, G

    1994-01-01

    A simple and efficient synthetic glycosylation method suitable for use in solid-phase enzymic oligosaccharide synthesis and site-specific glycosylation of recombinant proteins to produce defined glycoforms is described. This strategy utilizes N-(beta-saccharide) haloacetamides for attaching oligosaccharides specifically to cysteine residues of proteins in solution to form neoglycoproteins. The alkylation reaction was tested using N-(beta-chitotriose) bromoacetamide and an unprotected synthetic hexapeptide containing a single cysteine residue. The glycosylated product was confirmed by amino acid and hexosamine analyses as well as laser desorption mass spectrometry. Similarly N-(beta-chitotriose) iodoacetamide was covalently linked to non-reduced BSA to produce a defined glycoform of this protein. The specific attachment of chitotriose at the single cysteine residue in non-reduced serum albumin was suggested by Ellman's assay for free thiols. This was verified by amino acid sequencing of tryptic glycopeptide derived from this neoglycoprotein. Multiple sugar attachment was accomplished using fully reduced serum albumin as demonstrated by the formation of two neoglycoproteins using iodoacetamide derivatives of galactose beta 1-3-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc) and the major xylose/fucose-class plant-type oligosaccharide of horseradish peroxidase. These two neoglycoproteins with an average of 18-21 sugar residues attached were assayed positively for binding to peanut agglutinin and a sugar-specific anti-(horseradish peroxidase) monoclonal antibody YZ1/2.23 respectively. Sialylation of the neoglycoprotein containing Gal beta 1-3GalNAc was accomplished using alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase and radiolabelled CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Significantly, glycan attachment using this conjugation method is reversible as demonstrated by the release of oligosaccharides from these two neoglycoproteins using hydrazinolysis. Therefore this method could provide invaluable

  13. Golgi Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation is a very common modification of protein and lipid, and most glycosylation reactions occur in the Golgi. Although the transfer of initial sugar(s) to glycoproteins or glycolipids occurs in the ER or on the ER membrane, the subsequent addition of the many different sugars that make up a mature glycan is accomplished in the Golgi. Golgi membranes are studded with glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and nucleotide sugar transporters arrayed in a generally ordered manner from the cis-Golgi to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), such that each activity is able to act on specific substrate(s) generated earlier in the pathway. The spectrum of glycosyltransferases and other activities that effect glycosylation may vary with cell type, and thus the final complement of glycans on glycoconjugates is variable. In addition, glycan synthesis is affected by Golgi pH, the integrity of Golgi peripheral membrane proteins, growth factor signaling, Golgi membrane dynamics, and cellular stress. Knowledge of Golgi glycosylation has fostered the development of assays to identify mechanisms of intracellular vesicular trafficking and facilitated glycosylation engineering of recombinant glycoproteins. PMID:21441588

  14. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  15. Rates of processing of the high mannose oligosaccharide units at the three glycosylation sites of mouse thyrotropin and the two sites of free alpha-subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Perkel, V.S.; Magner, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    We have determined the structures of high mannose (Man) oligosaccharide units at individual glycosylation sites of mouse TSH. Mouse thyrotropic tumor tissue was incubated with D-(2-/sup 3/H)Man with or without (/sup 14/C)tyrosine ((/sup 14/C) Tyr) for 2, 3, or 6 h, and for a 3-h pulse followed by a 2-h chase. TSH heterodimers or free alpha-subunits were obtained from homogenates using specific antisera. After reduction and alkylation, subunits were treated with trypsin. The tryptic fragments were then loaded on a reverse phase HPLC column to separate tryptic fragments bearing labeled oligosaccharides. The N-linked oligosaccharides were released with endoglycosidase-H and analyzed by paper chromatography. Man9GlcNac2 and Man8GlcNac2 units predominated at each time point and at each specific glycosylation site, but the processing of high Man oligosaccharides differed at each glycosylation site. The processing at Asn23 of TSH beta-subunits was slower than that at Asn56 or Asn82 of alpha-subunits. The processing at Asn82 was slightly faster than that at Asn56 for both alpha-subunits of TSH heterodimers and free alpha-subunits. The present study demonstrates that the early processing of oligosaccharides differs at the individual glycosylation sites of TSH and free alpha-subunits, perhaps because of local conformational differences.

  16. Physical stability comparisons of IgG1-Fc variants: effects of N-glycosylation site occupancy and Asp/Gln residues at site Asn 297.

    PubMed

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2014-06-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of various IgG1-Fc proteins produced from the yeast Pichia pastoris with different glycosylation site occupancy (di-, mono-, and nonglycosylated) were determined. In addition, the physical stability profiles of three different forms of nonglycosylated Fc molecules (varying amino-acid residues at site 297 in the CH 2 domain due to the point mutations and enzymatic digestion of the Fc glycoforms) were also examined. The physical stability of these IgG1-Fc glycoproteins was examined as a function of pH and temperature by high-throughput biophysical analysis using multiple techniques combined with data visualization tools (three index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts). Across the pH range of 4.0-6.0, the di- and monoglycosylated forms of the IgG1-Fc showed the highest and lowest levels of physical stability, respectively, with the nonglycosylated forms showing intermediate stability depending on solution pH. In the aglycosylated Fc proteins, the introduction of Asp (D) residues at site 297 (QQ vs. DN vs. DD forms) resulted in more subtle changes in structural integrity and physical stability depending on solution pH. The utility of evaluating the conformational stability profile differences between the various IgG1-Fc glycoproteins is discussed in the context of analytical comparability studies.

  17. Site-specific glycosylation of the human cytomegalovirus tegument basic phosphoprotein (UL32) at serine 921 and serine 952.

    PubMed Central

    Greis, K D; Gibson, W; Hart, G W

    1994-01-01

    The virion basic phosphoprotein (BPP), UL32, of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a 149-kDa tegument protein that represents about 15% of the virion protein mass and is modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAc has been postulated to mediate subunit-subunit interaction in many different types of intracellular protein complexes, while BPP may play a role in viral assembly and/or envelopment. This report describes the identification of the major O-GlcNAc attachment sites on the HCMV (AD169) BPP. Because the amount of BPP isolated from infectious virions was insufficient to determine the site(s) of glycosylation, the full-length protein has been characterized following overexpression in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. The recombinant protein (rBPP) was electrophoretically (by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and immunologically (by Western immunoassaying) indistinguishable from the BPP isolated from HCMV virions. In addition, the rBPP was modified by O-GlcNAc, and a comparison of the tryptic glycopeptides from the rBPP and native virion BPP indicated that their O-GlcNAc sites are the same. Furthermore, the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment to the rBPP were mapped on high-performance liquid chromatography-purified glycopeptides by gas phase microsequencing, manual Edman degradation, and electrospray-mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment to the BPP are Ser-921 and Ser-952. Identification of these sites will now enable mutagenesis studies to determine the influence of O-GlcNAc on the intracellular location, protein-protein interaction, and biological function of BPP. Finally, the fidelity of the addition of O-GlcNAc to rBPP in insect cells compared with native virion BPP is documented to demonstrate the possible general applicability of the baculovirus expression system to study O-GlcNAc on other low-abundance proteins. Images PMID:7966627

  18. Additive-controlled stereoselective glycosylations of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected glucosamine or galactosamine thioglycoside donors with phenols based on preactivation protocol.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi; Xiong, De-Cai; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2015-02-11

    Stereo-controllable glycosylation reactions of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected glucosamine thioglycoside donor with different phenol acceptors based on preactivation protocol, are described. It was found that BF3·Et2O worked as α-directing additive, while TTBP acted as β-directing additive. Simply by altering additives, either α-aryl glycosides or β-aryl glycosides were achieved in a stereoselective manner. The additives were also applied to the stereoselective glycosylation reactions of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected galactosamine donor with phenol substrates.

  19. The additionally glycosylated variant of human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is linked to estrogen-dependence of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Becchis, M; Frairia, R; Ferrera, P; Fazzari, A; Ondei, S; Alfarano, A; Coluccia, C; Biglia, N; Sismondi, P; Fortunati, N

    1999-03-01

    Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), the plasma carrier for androgens and estradiol, inhibits the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells through its membrane receptor, cAMP, and PKA. In addition, the SHBG membrane receptor is preferentially expressed in estrogen-dependent (ER+/PR+) breast cancers which are also characterized by a lower proliferative rate than tumors negative for the SHBG receptor. A variant SHBG with a point mutation in exon 8, causing an aminoacid substitution (Asp 327-->Asn) and thus, the introduction of an additional N-glycosylation site, has been reported. In this work, the distribution of the SHBG variant was studied in 255 breast cancer patients, 32 benign mammary disease patients, and 120 healthy women. The presence of the SHBG mutation was evaluated with PCR amplification of SHBG exon 8 and Hinf I restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) procedure. This technique allowed us to identify 54 SHBG variants (53 W/v and 1 v/v) in breast cancer patients (21.2%), 5 variants (4 W/v and 1 v/v) in benign mammary disease patients (15.6%), and 14 variants (W/v) in the control group (11.6%). The results of PCR and RFLP were confirmed both by nucleotide sequence of SHBG exon 8 and western blot of the plasma SHBG. No differences in the mean plasma level of the protein were observed in the three populations. The frequency of the SHBG variant was significantly higher in ER+/PR+ tumors and in tumors diagnosed in patients over 50 years of age than in the control group. This observation suggests the existence of a close link between the estrogen-dependence of breast cancer and the additionally glycosylated SHBG, further supporting a critical role of the protein in the neoplasm.

  20. A second gene for the African green monkey poliovirus receptor that has no putative N-glycosylation site in the functional N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Ise, I; Sato, Y; Yonekawa, H; Gotoh, O; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    Using cDNA of the human poliovirus receptor (PVR) as a probe, two types of cDNA clones of the monkey homologs were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from an African green monkey kidney cell line. Either type of cDNA clone rendered mouse L cells permissive for poliovirus infection. Homologies of the amino acid sequences deduced from these cDNA sequences with that of human PVR were 90.2 and 86.4%, respectively. These two monkey PVRs were found to be encoded in two different loci of the genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that duplication of the PVR gene in the monkey genome had occurred after the species differentiation between humans and monkeys. The NH2-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain, domain 1, of the second monkey PVR, which lacks a putative N-glycosylation site, mediated poliovirus infection. In addition, a human PVR mutant without N-glycosylation sites in domain 1 also promoted viral infection. These results suggest that domain 1 of the monkey receptor also harbors the binding site for poliovirus and that sugar moieties possibly attached to this domain of human PVR are dispensable for the virus-receptor interaction. Images PMID:1331508

  1. Mutation of a Single Envelope N-Linked Glycosylation Site Enhances the Pathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bouzar, Amel Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock; Cosse, Jean-Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; Callebaut, Isabelle; Reichert, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have coevolved with their host to ensure efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system in which lymphoproliferative disorders develop in ruminants after latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly but fortunately, such a hyperpathogenic BLV strain was never observed in the field or designed in vitro. In this study, we sought to understand the role of envelope N-linked glycosylation with the hypothesis that this posttranslational modification could either favor BLV infection by allowing viral entry or allow immune escape by using glycans as a shield. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site (N230) that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Indeed, mutation N230E unexpectedly leads to enhanced fusogenicity and protein stability. IMPORTANCE Infection by retroviruses requires the interaction of the viral envelope protein (SU) with a membrane-associated receptor allowing fusion and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cell. We show that N-linked glycosylation of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) SU protein is, as expected, essential for cell infection in vitro. Consistently, mutation of all glycosylation sites of a BLV provirus destroys infectivity in vivo. However, single mutations do not significantly modify replication in vivo. Instead, a particular mutation at SU codon 230 increases replication and accelerates pathogenesis. This unexpected observation has important consequences in terms of disease control and managing. PMID:26085161

  2. A Single N-Linked Glycosylation Site in the Japanese Encephalitis Virus prM Protein Is Critical for Cell Type-Specific prM Protein Biogenesis, Virus Particle Release, and Pathogenicity in Mice ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Hahn, Youn-Soo; Lee, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Young-Min

    2008-01-01

    The prM protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) contains a single potential N-linked glycosylation site, N15-X16-T17, which is highly conserved among JEV strains and closely related flaviviruses. To investigate the role of this site in JEV replication and pathogenesis, we manipulated the RNA genome by using infectious JEV cDNA to generate three prM mutants (N15A, T17A, and N15A/T17A) with alanine substiting for N15 and/or T17 and one mutant with silent point mutations introduced into the nucleotide sequences corresponding to all three residues in the glycosylation site. An analysis of these mutants in the presence or absence of endoglycosidases confirmed the addition of oligosaccharides to this potential glycosylation site. The loss of prM N glycosylation, without significantly altering the intracellular levels of viral RNA and proteins, led to an ≈20-fold reduction in the production of extracellular virions, which had protein compositions and infectivities nearly identical to those of wild-type virions; this reduction occurred at the stage of virus release, rather than assembly. This release defect was correlated with small-plaque morphology and an N-glycosylation-dependent delay in viral growth. A more conservative mutation, N15Q, had the same effect as N15A. One of the four prM mutants, N15A/T17A, showed an additional defect in virus growth in mosquito C6/36 cells but not human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y or hamster BHK-21 cells. This cell type dependence was attributed to abnormal N-glycosylation-independent biogenesis of prM. In mice, the elimination of prM N glycosylation resulted in a drastic decrease in virulence after peripheral inoculation. Overall, our findings indicate that this highly conserved N-glycosylation motif in prM is crucial for multiple stages of JEV biology: prM biogenesis, virus release, and pathogenesis. PMID:18524814

  3. A single N-linked glycosylation site in the Japanese encephalitis virus prM protein is critical for cell type-specific prM protein biogenesis, virus particle release, and pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Hahn, Youn-Soo; Lee, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Young-Min

    2008-08-01

    The prM protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) contains a single potential N-linked glycosylation site, N(15)-X(16)-T(17), which is highly conserved among JEV strains and closely related flaviviruses. To investigate the role of this site in JEV replication and pathogenesis, we manipulated the RNA genome by using infectious JEV cDNA to generate three prM mutants (N15A, T17A, and N15A/T17A) with alanine substituting for N(15) and/or T(17) and one mutant with silent point mutations introduced into the nucleotide sequences corresponding to all three residues in the glycosylation site. An analysis of these mutants in the presence or absence of endoglycosidases confirmed the addition of oligosaccharides to this potential glycosylation site. The loss of prM N glycosylation, without significantly altering the intracellular levels of viral RNA and proteins, led to an approximately 20-fold reduction in the production of extracellular virions, which had protein compositions and infectivities nearly identical to those of wild-type virions; this reduction occurred at the stage of virus release, rather than assembly. This release defect was correlated with small-plaque morphology and an N-glycosylation-dependent delay in viral growth. A more conservative mutation, N15Q, had the same effect as N15A. One of the four prM mutants, N15A/T17A, showed an additional defect in virus growth in mosquito C6/36 cells but not human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y or hamster BHK-21 cells. This cell type dependence was attributed to abnormal N-glycosylation-independent biogenesis of prM. In mice, the elimination of prM N glycosylation resulted in a drastic decrease in virulence after peripheral inoculation. Overall, our findings indicate that this highly conserved N-glycosylation motif in prM is crucial for multiple stages of JEV biology: prM biogenesis, virus release, and pathogenesis.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the preferences for the amino acid residues flanking archaeal N-linked glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-05-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide to an asparagine residue in polypeptide chains. Using positional scanning peptide libraries, we assessed the effects of amino acid variations on the in vitro glycosylation efficiency within and adjacent to an N-glycosylation consensus, Asn-X-Ser/Thr, with an archaeal OST from Pyrococcus furiosus. The amino acid variations at the X(-2), X(-1) and X(+1) positions in the sequence X(-2)-X(-1)-Asn-X-Ser/Thr-X(+1) strongly influenced the glycosylation efficiency to a similar extent at position X. The rank orders of the amino acid preferences were unique at each site. We experimentally confirmed that the archaeal OST does not require an acidic residue at the -2 position, unlike the eubacterial OSTs. Pro was disfavored at the -1 and +1 positions, although the exclusion was not as strict as that at X, whereas Pro was the most favored amino acid residue among those studied at the -2 position. The overall amino acid preferences are correlated with a conformational propensity to extend around the sequon. The results of the library experiments revealed that the optimal acceptor sequence was PYNVTK, with a K(m) of 10 µM. The heat-stable, single-subunit OST of P. furiosus is a potential candidate enzyme for the production of recombinant glycoproteins in bacterial cells. Quantitative assessment of the amino acid preferences of the OST enzyme will facilitate the proper design of a production system.

  5. Glycan structure and site of glycosylation in the ER-resident glycoprotein, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferases 1 from rat, porcine, bovine, and human.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Shusaku; Seko, Akira; Ito, Yukishige; Kanie, Osamu

    2014-08-29

    Here we report glycan structures and their position of attachment to a carrier protein, uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1), as detected using tandem mass spectrometry. UGGT1 acts as a folding sensor of newly synthesized glycosylated polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the transferase itself is known to be glycosylated. The structure of glycan attached to UGGT1, however, has not been investigated. In this study, we reveal the site of glycosylation (N269) and the glycan structures (Hex5-8HexNAc2) in UGGT1 obtained from rat (Rattus norvegicus), pig (Sus scrofa), cow (Bos taurus), and human (Homo sapiens).

  6. The S-layer glycoprotein of the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is glycosylated at multiple sites with chitobiose-linked N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Peyfoon, Elham; Meyer, Benjamin; Hitchen, Paul G; Panico, Maria; Morris, Howard R; Haslam, Stuart M; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Dell, Anne

    2010-09-29

    Glycosylation of the S-layer of the crenarchaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been investigated using glycoproteomic methodologies. The mature protein is predicted to contain 31 N-glycosylation consensus sites with approximately one third being found in the C-terminal domain spanning residues L(1004)-Q(1395). Since this domain is rich in Lys and Arg and therefore relatively tractable to glycoproteomic analysis, this study has focused on mapping its N-glycosylation. Our analysis identified nine of the 11 consensus sequence sites, and all were found to be glycosylated. This constitutes a remarkably high glycosylation density in the C-terminal domain averaging one site for each stretch of 30-40 residues. Each of the glycosylation sites observed was shown to be modified with a heterogeneous family of glycans, with the largest having a composition Glc(1)Man(2)GlcNAc(2) plus 6-sulfoquinovose (QuiS), consistent with the tribranched hexasaccharide previously reported in the cytochrome b(558/566) of S. acidocaldarius. S. acidocaldarius is the only archaeal species whose N-glycans are known to be linked via the chitobiose core disaccharide that characterises the N-linked glycans of Eukarya.

  7. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation Characterization of Windmill Palm Tree Peroxidase Using Novel Tools for Analysis of Plant Glycopeptide Mass Spectrometry Data.

    PubMed

    Baker, Margaret R; Tabb, David L; Ching, Travers; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Sakharov, Ivan Y; Li, Qing X

    2016-06-03

    Plant secretory (Class III) peroxidases are redox enzymes that rely on N-glycosylation for full enzyme activity and stability. Peroxidases from palm tree leaves comprise the most stable and active plant peroxidases characterized to date. Herein, site-specific glycosylation and microheterogeneity of windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei) peroxidase are reported. The workflow developed in this study includes novel tools, written in R, to aid plant glycan identification, pGlycoFilter, for annotation of glycopeptide fragmentation spectra, gPSMvalidator, and for relative quantitation of glycoforms, glycoRQ. Mass spectrometry analysis provided a detailed glycosylation profile at the 13 sites of N-linked glycosylation on windmill palm tree peroxidase. Glycan microheterogeneity was observed at each site. Site Asn211 was the most heterogeneous and contained 30 different glycans. Relative quantitation revealed 90% of each glycosylation site was occupied by three or fewer glycans, and two of the 13 sites were partially unoccupied. Although complex and hybrid glycans were identified, the majority of glycans were paucimannosidic, characteristic of plant vacuolar glycoproteins. Further studies pertaining to the glycan structure-activity relationships in plant peroxidases can benefit from the work outlined here.

  8. Missense mutations near the N-glycosylation site of the A2 domain lead to various intracellular trafficking defects in coagulation factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Zheng, Chunlei; Zhu, Min; Zhu, Xiaofan; Yang, Renchi; Misra, Saurav; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Missense mutation is the most common mutation type in hemophilia. However, the majority of missense mutations remain uncharacterized. Here we characterize how hemophilia mutations near the unused N-glycosylation site of the A2 domain (N582) of FVIII affect protein conformation and intracellular trafficking. N582 is located in the middle of a short 310-helical turn (D580-S584), in which most amino acids have multiple hemophilia mutations. All 14 missense mutations found in this 310-helix reduced secretion levels of the A2 domain and full-length FVIII. Secreted mutants have decreased activities relative to WT FVIII. Selected mutations also lead to partial glycosylation of N582, suggesting that rapid folding of local conformation prevents glycosylation of this site in wild-type FVIII. Protease sensitivity, stability and degradation of the A2 domain vary among mutants, and between non-glycosylated and glycosylated species of the same mutant. Most of the mutants interact with the ER chaperone BiP, while only mutants with aberrant glycosylation interact with calreticulin. Our results show that the short 310-helix from D580 to S584 is critical for proper biogenesis of the A2 domain and FVIII, and reveal a range of molecular mechanisms by which FVIII missense mutations lead to moderate to severe hemophilia A. PMID:28327546

  9. A study of the effects of altering the sites for N-glycosylation in alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor variants M and S.

    PubMed Central

    Samandari, T.; Brown, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    alpha-1-Proteinase inhibitor (A1Pi) is a monomeric secreted protein glycosylated at asparagines 46, 83, and 247. For this study cDNAs for M (normal) and S (Glu264-->Val) variants of A1Pi were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to produce the combinations of single, double, and triple mutants that can be generated by changing the codons normally specifying these Asn residues to encode Gln. The fates of the mutant proteins were followed in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. All variants with altered glycosylation sites are secreted at reduced rates, are partially degraded, accumulate intracellularly, and some form Nonidet P-40-insoluble aggregates. The carbohydrate attached at Asn83 seems to be of particular importance to the export of both A1PiM and A1PiS from the endoplasmic reticulum. All mutations affecting glycosylation of A1PiS notably reduce secretion, cause formation of insoluble aggregates, and influence degradation of the altered proteins. The variant of A1PiS missing all three glycosylation sites is poorly secreted, is incompletely degraded, and accumulates in unusual perinuclear vesicles. These studies show that N-linked oligosaccharides in A1Pi are vital to its efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum and that the consequences of changing the normal pattern of glycosylation vary depending upon the sites altered and the variant of A1Pi bearing these alterations. PMID:8401226

  10. Identification of protein O-glycosylation site and corresponding glycans using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry via mapping accurate mass and retention time shift.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Juan; Lin, Jen-Hui; Tsai, Jung-Heng; Chu, Yen-Yin; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chen, Shun-Li; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2014-12-05

    We reported an improved combinatorial approach for identifying site-specific O-glycosylation using both glycan cleaved and non-cleaved methods. In this approach, a non-reducing β-elimination kit coupled with non-specific enzymes performed efficient digestion, O-glycan cleavage, and partial dephosphorylation without significant side reactions, thus enabling an automatic database search for the cleaved O-glycosylation or serine/threonine (S/T) phosphorylation sites. From the same sample concurrently prepared without β-elimination, the corresponding intact O-glycopeptides were mapped by accurate precursor ion mass using an in-house glycan database majorly composed of GalNAc (mucin-type) core and the retention-time shift (ΔRt). Each glycopeptide assignment was verified by the detection of glycan-specific fragments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) to estimate False Discovery Rate (FDR). Using fetuin as a model, all identified S/T elimination sites were matched to multiple intact glycopeptides with a 31% FDR. This considerably reduced to 0% FDR by ΔRt filtering. This approach was then applied to a protein mixture composed of therapeutic Factor IX and Enbrel(®) mixed with fetuin and kappa-casein. A total of 26 glycosylation sites each of which corresponds to 1-4 glycans were positively mapped and confirmed. The FDR decreased from 33% to 3.3% by ΔRt filtering and exclusion of repeated peptide tags that covered the same glycosylation sites. Moreover, the phosphorylation and O-glycosylation on the same site such as T159 of Factor IX and T170 of kappa-casein were able to be unambiguously differentiated. Thus, our approach is useful for in-depth characterization of site-specific O-glycosylation of a simple mixture such as protein-based therapeutics.

  11. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Characterization of the Scope of Protein O-Glycosylation in Bacteroides fragilis*

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, C. Mark; Coyne, Michael J.; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2011-01-01

    Among bacterial species demonstrated to have protein O-glycosylation systems, that of Bacteroides fragilis and related species is unique in that extracytoplasmic proteins are glycosylated at serine or threonine residues within the specific three-amino acid motif D(S/T)(A/I/L/M/T/V). This feature allows for computational analysis of the proteome to identify candidate glycoproteins. With the criteria of a signal peptidase I or II cleavage site or a predicted transmembrane-spanning region and the presence of at least one glycosylation motif, we identified 1021 candidate glycoproteins of B. fragilis. In addition to the eight glycoproteins identified previously, we confirmed that another 12 candidate glycoproteins are in fact glycosylated. These included four glycoproteins that are predicted to localize to the inner membrane, a compartment not previously shown to include glycosylated proteins. In addition, we show that four proteins involved in cell division and chromosomal segregation, two of which are encoded by candidate essential genes, are glycosylated. To date, we have not identified any extracytoplasmic proteins containing a glycosylation motif that are not glycosylated. Therefore, based on the list of 1021 candidate glycoproteins, it is likely that hundreds of proteins, comprising more than half of the extracytoplasmic proteins of B. fragilis, are glycosylated. Site-directed mutagenesis of several glycoproteins demonstrated that all are glycosylated at the identified glycosylation motif. By engineering glycosylation motifs into a naturally unglycosylated protein, we are able to bring about site-specific glycosylation at the engineered sites, suggesting that this glycosylation system may have applications for glycoengineering. PMID:21115495

  13. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213.

  14. Reliable Determination of Site-Specific In Vivo Protein N-Glycosylation Based on Collision-Induced MS/MS and Chromatographic Retention Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benlian; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-05-01

    Site-specific glycopeptide mapping for simultaneous glycan and peptide characterization by MS is difficult because of the heterogeneity and diversity of glycosylation in proteins and the lack of complete fragmentation information for either peptides or glycans with current fragmentation technologies. Indeed, multiple peptide and glycan combinations can readily match the same mass of glycopeptides even with mass errors less than 5 ppm providing considerably ambiguity and analysis of complex mixtures of glycopeptides becomes quite challenging in the case of large proteins. Here we report a novel strategy to reliably determine site-specific N-glycosylation mapping by combining collision-induced dissociation (CID)-only fragmentation with chromatographic retention times of glycopeptides. This approach leverages an experimental pipeline with parallel analysis of glyco- and deglycopeptides. As the test case we chose ABCA4, a large integral membrane protein with 16 predicted sites for N-glycosylation. Taking advantage of CID features such as high scan speed and high intensity of fragment ions together combined with the retention times of glycopeptides to conclusively identify the non-glycolytic peptide from which the glycopeptide was derived, we obtained virtually complete information about glycan compositions and peptide sequences, as well as the N-glycosylation site occupancy and relative abundances of each glycoform at specific sites for ABCA4. The challenges provided by this example provide guidance in analyzing complex relatively pure glycoproteins and potentially even more complex glycoprotein mixtures.

  15. Reliable determination of site-specific in vivo protein N-glycosylation based on collision-induced MS/MS and chromatographic retention time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Benlian; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Chance, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Site-specific glycopeptide mapping for simultaneous glycan and peptide characterization by MS is difficult because of the heterogeneity and diversity of glycosylation in proteins and the lack of complete fragmentation information for either peptides or glycans with current fragmentation technologies. Indeed, multiple peptide and glycan combinations can readily match the same mass of glycopeptides even with mass errors less than 5 ppm providing considerably ambiguity and analysis of complex mixtures of glycopeptides becomes quite challenging in the case of large proteins. Here we report a novel strategy to reliably determine site-specific N-glycosylation mapping by combining collision-induced dissociation (CID)-only fragmentation with chromatographic retention times of glycopeptides. This approach leverages an experimental pipeline with parallel analysis of glyco- and deglycopeptides. As the test case we chose ABCA4, a large integral membrane protein with 16 predicted sites for N-glycosylation. Taking advantage of CID features such as high scan speed and high intensity of fragment ions together combined with the retention times of glycopeptides to conclusively identify the non-glycolytic peptide from which the glycopeptide was derived, we obtained virtually complete information about glycan compositions and peptide sequences, as well as the N-glycosylation site occupancy and relative abundances of each glycoform at specific sites for ABCA4. The challenges provided by this example provide guidance in analyzing complex relatively pure glycoproteins and potentially even more complex glycoprotein mixtures.

  16. Deciphering the effect of the different N-glycosylation sites on the secretion, activity, and stability of cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feifei; Zhang, Weixin; Zhang, Fengjie; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-07-01

    N-linked glycosylation modulates and diversifies the structures and functions of the eukaryotic proteome through both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on proteins. We investigated the significance of the three N-linked glycans on the catalytic domain of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH1) from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in its secretion and activity. While the removal of one or two N-glycosylation sites hardly affected the extracellular secretion of CBH1, eliminating all of the glycosylation sites did induce expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes, and secretion of this CBH1 variant was severely compromised in a calnexin gene deletion strain. Further characterization of the purified CBH1 variants showed that, compared to Asn270, the thermal reactivity of CBH1 was significantly decreased by removal of either Asn45 or Asn384 glycosylation site during the catalyzed hydrolysis of soluble substrate. Combinatorial loss of these two N-linked glycans further exacerbated the temperature-dependent inactivation. In contrast, this thermal labile property was less severe when hydrolyzing insoluble cellulose. Analysis of the structural integrity of CBH1 variants revealed that removal of N-glycosylation at Asn384 had a more pronounced effect on the integrity of regular secondary structure compared to the loss of Asn45 or Asn270. These data implicate differential roles of N-glycosylation modifications in contributing to the stability of specific functional regions of CBH1 and highlight the potential of improving the thermostability of CBH1 by tuning proper interactions between glycans and functional residues.

  17. Structural Identification of a Non-Glycosylated Variant at Ser126 for O-Glycosylation Site from EPO BRP, Human Recombinant Erythropoietin by LC/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jaehee; Lim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Hyong-Ha; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2015-06-01

    A variant peak was detected in the analysis of RP-HPLC of rHu-EPO, which has about 7% relative content. Fractions of the main and the variant peaks were pooled separately and further analyzed to identify the molecular structure of the variant peak. Total mass analysis for each peak fraction using ESI-TOF MS shows differences in molecular mass. The fraction of the main peak tends to result in higher molecular masses than the fraction of the variant. The detected masses for the variant are about 600-1000 Da smaller than those for the main peak. Peptide mapping analysis for each peak fraction using Asp-N and Glu-C shows differences in O-glycopeptide profiles at Ser126. The O-glycopeptides were not detected in the fraction of the variant. It is concluded that the variant peak is non-O-glycosylated rHu-EPO and the main peak is fully O-glycosylated rHu-EPO at Ser126.

  18. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites.

    PubMed

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-12-04

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed.

  19. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed. PMID:26637601

  20. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  1. The N276 Glycosylation Site Is Required for HIV-1 Neutralization by the CD4 Binding Site Specific HJ16 Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Balla-Jhagjhoorsingh, Sunita S.; Corti, Davide; Heyndrickx, Leo; Willems, Elisabeth; Vereecken, Katleen; Davis, David; Vanham, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Immunogen design for HIV-1 vaccines could be based on epitope identification of naturally occurring neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. A tier 2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), HJ16 recognizes a new epitope in the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) region that only partially overlaps with the b12 epitope. We aimed to identify the critical binding site by resistance induction in a sensitive primary CRF02_AG strain. In four independent dose-escalation studies, the N276D mutation was consistently the only alteration found and it was confirmed to be responsible for resistance to HJ16 by site-directed mutagenesis in envelopes (envs) of the homologous CRF02_AG, as well as of a subtype A and a subtype C primary isolate. This mutation removes an N-linked glycosylation site. The effect of N276D was very selective, as it failed to confer resistance to a range of other entry inhibitors. Remarkably, sensitivity to the CD4bs VRC01 and VRC03 mAbs was increased in the N276D mutated viruses. These data indicate that binding of the CD4bs specific HJ16 mAb critically depends on the interaction with the N276-glycan, thus indicating that HJ16 is the first glycan dependent CD4bs-specific mAb. PMID:23874792

  2. Flagellin glycosylation in Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T

    PubMed Central

    Janesch, Bettina; Schirmeister, Falko; Maresch, Daniel; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Kolarich, Daniel; Schäffer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Flagellin glycosylation impacts, in several documented cases, the functionality of bacterial flagella. The basis of flagellin glycosylation has been studied for various Gram-negative bacteria, but less is known about flagellin glycans of Gram-positive bacteria including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of honeybee colonies diseased with European foulbrood. Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T swarms vigorously on solidified culture medium, with swarming relying on functional flagella as evidenced by abolished biofilm formation of a non-motile P. alvei mutant defective in the flagellin protein Hag. Here, the glycobiology of the polar P. alvei flagella was investigated. Analysis on purified flagellin demonstrated that the 30-kDa Hag protein (PAV_2c01710) is modified with an O-linked trisaccharide comprised of one hexose and two N-acetyl-hexosamine residues, at three sites of glycosylation. Downstream of the hag gene on the bacterial chromosome, two open reading frames (PAV_2c01630, PAV_2c01640) encoding putative glycosyltransferases were shown to constitute a flagellin glycosylation island. Mutants defective in these genes exhibited altered migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as loss of extracellular flagella production and bacterial motility. This study reveals that flagellin glycosylation in P. alvei is pivotal to flagella formation and bacterial motility in vivo, and simultaneously identifies flagella glycosylation as a second protein O-glycosylation system in this bacterium, in addition to the well-investigated S-layer tyrosine O-glycosylation pathway. PMID:26405108

  3. Flagellin glycosylation in Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T.

    PubMed

    Janesch, Bettina; Schirmeister, Falko; Maresch, Daniel; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Kolarich, Daniel; Schäffer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Flagellin glycosylation impacts, in several documented cases, the functionality of bacterial flagella. The basis of flagellin glycosylation has been studied for various Gram-negative bacteria, but less is known about flagellin glycans of Gram-positive bacteria including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of honeybee colonies diseased with European foulbrood. Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) swarms vigorously on solidified culture medium, with swarming relying on functional flagella as evidenced by abolished biofilm formation of a non-motile P. alvei mutant defective in the flagellin protein Hag. Here, the glycobiology of the polar P. alvei flagella was investigated. Analysis on purified flagellin demonstrated that the 30-kDa Hag protein (PAV_2c01710) is modified with an O-linked trisaccharide comprised of one hexose and two N-acetyl-hexosamine residues, at three sites of glycosylation. Downstream of the hag gene on the bacterial chromosome, two open reading frames (PAV_2c01630, PAV_2c01640) encoding putative glycosyltransferases were shown to constitute a flagellin glycosylation island. Mutants defective in these genes exhibited altered migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as loss of extracellular flagella production and bacterial motility. This study reveals that flagellin glycosylation in P. alvei is pivotal to flagella formation and bacterial motility in vivo, and simultaneously identifies flagella glycosylation as a second protein O-glycosylation system in this bacterium, in addition to the well-investigated S-layer tyrosine O-glycosylation pathway.

  4. Natively glycosylated HIV-1 Env structure reveals new mode for antibody recognition of the CD4-binding site

    PubMed Central

    West, Anthony P; Schamber, Michael; Gazumyan, Anna; Golijanin, Jovana; Seaman, Michael S; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 vaccine design is informed by structural studies elucidating mechanisms by which broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize and/or accommodate N-glycans on the trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env). Variability in high-mannose and complex-type Env glycoforms leads to heterogeneity that usually precludes visualization of the native glycan shield. We present 3.5-Å- and 3.9-Å-resolution crystal structures of the HIV-1 Env trimer with fully processed and native glycosylation, revealing a glycan shield of high-mannose and complex-type N-glycans, which we used to define complete epitopes of two bNAbs. Env trimer was complexed with 10-1074 (against the V3-loop) and IOMA, a new CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody. Although IOMA derives from VH1-2*02, the germline gene of CD4bs-targeting VRC01-class bNAbs, its light chain lacks the short CDRL3 that defines VRC01-class bNAbs. Thus IOMA resembles 8ANC131-class/VH1-46–derived CD4bs bNAbs, which have normal-length CDRL3s. The existence of bNAbs that combine features of VRC01-class and 8ANC131-class antibodies has implications for immunization strategies targeting VRC01-like bNAbs. PMID:27617431

  5. In-depth mapping of the mouse brain N-glycoproteome reveals widespread N-glycosylation of diverse brain proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pan; Wang, Xin-jian; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ming-qi; Zeng, Wen-feng; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xing; Yan, Guo-quan; Yao, Jun; Shen, Hua-li; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2016-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most prominent and abundant posttranslational modifications of proteins. It is estimated that over 50% of mammalian proteins undergo glycosylation. However, the analysis of N-glycoproteins has been limited by the available analytical technology. In this study, we comprehensively mapped the N-glycosylation sites in the mouse brain proteome by combining complementary methods, which included seven protease treatments, four enrichment techniques and two fractionation strategies. Altogether, 13492 N-glycopeptides containing 8386 N-glycosylation sites on 3982 proteins were identified. After evaluating the performance of the above methods, we proposed a simple and efficient workflow for large-scale N-glycosylation site mapping. The optimized workflow yielded 80% of the initially identified N-glycosylation sites with considerably less effort. Analysis of the identified N-glycoproteins revealed that many of the mouse brain proteins are N-glycosylated, including those proteins in critical pathways for nervous system development and neurological disease. Additionally, several important biomarkers of various diseases were found to be N-glycosylated. These data confirm that N-glycosylation is important in both physiological and pathological processes in the brain, and provide useful details about numerous N-glycosylation sites in brain proteins. PMID:27259237

  6. Large-Scale Measurement of Absolute Protein Glycosylation Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-07

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important protein modifications. Glycosylation site occupancy alteration has been implicated in human diseases and cancers. However, current glycoproteomic methods focus on the identification and quantification of glycosylated peptides and glycosylation sites but not glycosylation occupancy or glycoform stoichiometry. Here we describe a method for large-scale determination of the absolute glycosylation stoichiometry using three independent relative ratios. Using this method, we determined 117 absolute N-glycosylation occupancies in OVCAR-3 cells. Finally, we investigated the possible functions and the determinants for partial glycosylation.

  7. Site Preference of Ternary Alloying Additions to AuTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of several alloying additions, namely. Na, Mg, Al, Si. Sc, V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr. Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in B2 TiAu is reported. The 30 elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. Results of large scale simulations are also presented, distinguishing between additions that remain in solution from those that precipitate a second phase.

  8. 20. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. A(8-1), Military Construction, Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California; Additional Construction, Location Plan, Sheet No. 2, October 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Barley γ3-hordein: glycosylation at an atypical site, disulfide bridge analysis, and reactivity with IgE from patients allergic to wheat.

    PubMed

    Snégaroff, Jacques; Bouchez, Isabelle; Smaali, Mohamed El Amine; Pecquet, Catherine; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Jolivet, Pascale; Laurière, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Post translational modifications of a seed storage protein, barley γ3-hordein, were determined using immunochemical and mass spectrometry methods. IgE reactivity towards this protein was measured using sera from patients diagnosed with allergies to wheat. N-glycosylation was found at an atypical Asn-Leu-Cys site. The observed glycan contains xylose. This indicates that at least some γ3-hordein molecules trafficked through the Golgi apparatus. Disulfide bridges in native γ3-hordein were almost the same as those found in wheat γ46-gliadin, except the bridge involving the cysteine included in the glycosylation site. IgE reacted more strongly towards the recombinant than the natural γ3-hordein protein. IgE binding to γ3-hordein increased when the protein sample was reduced. Glycosylation and disulfide bridges therefore decrease epitope accessibility. Thus the IgE from patients sensitized to wheat cross-react with γ3-hordein due to sequence homology with wheat allergens rather than through shared carbohydrate determinants.

  10. 19. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. Muroc A(511), Military Construction, Third District Region, San Bernardino, California; Muroc Bombing Range, Muroc Lake, Calif; Additional Temporary Construction, Materiel Center Flight Test Base, Location Grading & Paving Plan, Sheet No. 1 of 21, March 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 18. Photographic copy of site plan for additions to North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. Muroc A(511), Military Construction, Third District Region, San Bernardino, California; Muroc Bombing Range, Muroc Lake, Calif; Additional Temporary Construction, Materiel Center Flight Test Base, Location Plan, February 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Mammalian glycosylation in immunity.

    PubMed

    Marth, Jamey D; Grewal, Prabhjit K

    2008-11-01

    Glycosylation produces a diverse and abundant repertoire of glycans, which are collectively known as the glycome. Glycans are one of the four fundamental macromolecular components of all cells, and are highly regulated in the immune system. Their diversity reflects their multiple biological functions that encompass ligands for proteinaceous receptors known as lectins. Since the discovery that selectins and their glycan ligands are important for the regulation of leukocyte trafficking, it has been shown that additional features of the vertebrate immune system are also controlled by endogenous cellular glycosylation. This Review focuses on the emerging immunological roles of the mammalian glycome.

  13. The C-terminal N-glycosylation sites of the human alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferase III, -V, and -VI (hFucTIII, -V, adn -VI) are necessary for the expression of full enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L L; Jensen, U B; Bross, P; Orntoft, T F

    2000-09-01

    The alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases are involved in the synthesis of fucosylated cell surface glycoconjugates. Human alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferase III, -V, and -VI (hFucTIII, -V, and -VI) contain two conserved C-terminal N-glycosylation sites (hFucTIII: Asn154 and Asn185; hFucTV: Asn167 and Asn198; and hFucTVI: Asn153 and Asn184). In the present study, we have analyzed the functional role of these potential N-glycosylation sites, laying the main emphasis on the sites in hFucTIII. Tunicamycin treatment completely abolished hFucTIII enzyme activity while castanospermine treatment diminished hFucTIII enzyme activity to approximately 40% of the activity of the native enzyme. To further analyze the role of the conserved N-glycosylation sites in hFucTIII, -V, and -VI, we made a series of mutant genomic DNAs in which the asparagine residues in the potential C-terminal N-glycosylation sites were replaced by glutamine. Subsequently, the hFucTIII, -V, and -VI wild type and the mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells. All the mutants exhibited lower enzyme activity than the wild type and elimination of individual sites had different effects on the activity. The mutations did not affect the protein level of the mutants in the cells, but reduced the molecular mass as predicted. Kinetic analysis of hFucTIII revealed that lack of glycosylation at Asn185 did not change the Km values for the oligosaccharide acceptor and the nucleotide sugar donor. The present study demonstrates that hFucTIII, -V, and -VI require N-glycosylation at the two conserved C-terminal N-glycosylation sites for expression of full enzyme activity.

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of Glycosylation of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mengmeng; Yu, Changming; Fang, Ting; Fu, Ling; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Ren, Jun; Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used system for heterologous protein expression. However, post-translational modifications, especially glycosylation, usually impede pharmaceutical application of recombinant proteins because of unexpected alterations in protein structure and function. The aim of this study was to identify glycosylation sites on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) secreted by P. pastoris, and investigate possible effects of O-linked glycans on PDGF-BB functional activity. PDGF-BB secreted by P. pastoris is very heterogeneous and contains multiple isoforms. We demonstrated that PDGF-BB was O-glycosylated during the secretion process and detected putative O-glycosylation sites using glycosylation staining and immunoblotting. By site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution LC/MS analysis, we, for the first time, identified two threonine residues at the C-terminus as the major O-glycosylation sites on rhPDGF-BB produced in P. pastoris. Although O-glycosylation resulted in heterogeneous protein expression, the removal of glycosylation sites did not affect rhPDGF-BB mitogenic activity. In addition, the unglycosylated PDGF-BBΔGly mutant exhibited the immunogenicity comparable to that of the wild-type form. Furthermore, antiserum against PDGF-BBΔGly also recognized glycosylated PDGF-BB, indicating that protein immunogenicity was unaltered by glycosylation. These findings elucidate the effect of glycosylation on PDGF-BB structure and biological activity, and can potentially contribute to the design and production of homogeneously expressed unglycosylated or human-type glycosylated PDGF-BB in P. pastoris for pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Insertion of N-linked glycosylation sites in the variable regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 surface glycoprotein through AAT triplet reiteration.

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, M L; Andeweg, A C; Schipper, R; Kenter, M

    1994-01-01

    Variable regions with sequence length variation in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope exhibit an unusual pattern of codon usage with AAT, ACT, and AGT together composing > 70% of all codons used. We postulate that this distribution is caused by insertion of AAT triplets followed by point mutations and selection. Accumulation of the encoded amino acids (asparagine, serine, and threonine) leads to the creation of new N-linked glycosylation sites, which helps the virus to escape from the immune pressure exerted by virus-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:7933144

  16. Site Occupancy of Ternary Additions to B2 Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Amador, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    In this broad-based survey study, the substitutional site preference of ternary alloying additions to B2 compounds (stable at room temperature and 50/50 composition) is determined using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. The method is applied to Ni, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, W, V and Ru additions to NiAl, FeAl, CoAl, CoFe, CoHf, CoTi, FeTi, RuAl, RuSi, RuHf, RuTi, and RuZr. The results are compared, when available, to experimental data and other theoretical results.

  17. N-Glycoprofiling Analysis for Carbohydrate Composition and Site-Occupancy Determination in a Poly-Glycosylated Protein: Human Thyrotropin of Different Origins

    PubMed Central

    Ribela, Maria Teresa C. P.; Damiani, Renata; Silva, Felipe D.; Lima, Eliana R.; Oliveira, João E.; Peroni, Cibele N.; Torjesen, Peter A.; Soares, Carlos R.; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Human thyrotropin (hTSH) is a glycoprotein with three potential glycosylation sites: two in the α-subunit and one in the β-subunit. These sites are not always occupied and occupancy is frequently neglected in glycoprotein characterization, even though it is related to folding, trafficking, initiation of inflammation and host defense, as well as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). For the first time N-glycoprofiling analysis was applied to the site-occupancy determination of two native pituitary hTSH, in comparison with three recombinant preparations of hTSH, a widely used biopharmaceutical. A single methodology provided the: (i) average N-glycan mass; (ii) mass fraction of each monosaccharide and of sulfate; and (iii) percent carbohydrate. The results indicate that the occupancy (65%–87%) and carbohydrate mass (12%–19%) can be up to 34%–57% higher in recombinant hormones. The average glycan mass is 24% lower in pituitary hTSH and contains ~3-fold fewer moles of galactose (p < 0.005) and sialic acid (p < 0.01). One of the two native preparations, which had the smallest glycan mass together with the lowest occupancy and GalNAc, sulfate, Gal and sialic acid contents, also presented the lowest in vivo bioactivity and circulatory half-life. The methodology described, comparing a recombinant biopharmaceutical to its native equivalent, can be applied to any physiologically or clinical relevant glycoprotein. PMID:28165356

  18. N-Glycoprofiling Analysis for Carbohydrate Composition and Site-Occupancy Determination in a Poly-Glycosylated Protein: Human Thyrotropin of Different Origins.

    PubMed

    Ribela, Maria Teresa C P; Damiani, Renata; Silva, Felipe D; Lima, Eliana R; Oliveira, João E; Peroni, Cibele N; Torjesen, Peter A; Soares, Carlos R; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-02-03

    Human thyrotropin (hTSH) is a glycoprotein with three potential glycosylation sites: two in the α-subunit and one in the β-subunit. These sites are not always occupied and occupancy is frequently neglected in glycoprotein characterization, even though it is related to folding, trafficking, initiation of inflammation and host defense, as well as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). For the first time N-glycoprofiling analysis was applied to the site-occupancy determination of two native pituitary hTSH, in comparison with three recombinant preparations of hTSH, a widely used biopharmaceutical. A single methodology provided the: (i) average N-glycan mass; (ii) mass fraction of each monosaccharide and of sulfate; and (iii) percent carbohydrate. The results indicate that the occupancy (65%-87%) and carbohydrate mass (12%-19%) can be up to 34%-57% higher in recombinant hormones. The average glycan mass is 24% lower in pituitary hTSH and contains ~3-fold fewer moles of galactose (p < 0.005) and sialic acid (p < 0.01). One of the two native preparations, which had the smallest glycan mass together with the lowest occupancy and GalNAc, sulfate, Gal and sialic acid contents, also presented the lowest in vivo bioactivity and circulatory half-life. The methodology described, comparing a recombinant biopharmaceutical to its native equivalent, can be applied to any physiologically or clinical relevant glycoprotein.

  19. Hemagglutinin glycosylation modulates the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Sujuan; Jiang, Yi; Huang, Kai; Huang, Jun; Yang, Da; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhu, Yinbiao; Shi, Shaohua; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-02-25

    The location and number of glycosylation in HA proteins exhibit large variations among H5 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To investigate the effect of glycosylation in the globular head of HA on the pathogenicity and antigenicity of H5N1 AIVs, seven rescued AIVs differing in their glycosylation patterns (144N, 158N and 169N) within the HA globular head of A/Mallard/Huadong/S/2005 were generated using site directed mutagenesis. Results showed that loss of glycosylation 158N was the prerequisite for H5 AIV binding to the α2,6-linked receptor. Only in conjunction with the removal of the 158N glycosylation, the H5 AIVs harboring both 144N and 169N glycosylations obtained an optimal binding preference to the α2,6-linked receptor. Compared with the wild-type virus, growth of viruses lacking glycosylation at either 158N or 169N was significantly reduced both in MDCK and A549 cells, while replication of viruses with additional glycosylation 144N was significantly promoted. Mutant viruses with loss of 158N or 169N glycosylation sites showed increased pathogenicity, systemic spread and pulmonary inflammation in mice compared to the wild-type H5N1 virus. In addition, chicken studies demonstrated that inactivated de-glycosylation 169N mutant induced cross-reaction HI and neutralization antibody against various clades of H5N1 AIVs. Moreover, this type of glycan pattern vaccine virus provided better cross-protection in chickens compared to wild-type vaccine virus. Thus, the glycosylation alteration of HA should be considered in the global surveillance and vaccine design of H5 subtype AIVs.

  20. Effect of VK framework-1 glycosylation on the binding affinity of lymphoma-specific murine and chimeric LL2 antibodies and its potential use as a novel conjugation site.

    PubMed

    Leung, S O; Dion, A S; Pellegrini, M C; Losman, M J; Grebenau, R C; Goldenberg, D M; Hansen, H J

    1995-02-08

    A potential asparagine (Asn)-linked glycosylation site was identified in the VK FRI sequence of an anti-B lymphoma monoclonal antibody (MAb), LL2.SDS-PAGE analysis and endo-F treatment of both murine and chimeric LL2 antibodies indicated that this site was glycosylated; however, no differences in the binding affinity to Raji cells were observed between the native murine LL2 and the endo-F-deglycosylated murine LL2 antibodies. Elimination of the glycosylation site from the chimeric LL2 antibody was accomplished by an Asn to Gln mutation in the tri-acceptor site found in the light chain. The resultant aglycosylated chimeric LL2 exhibited a similar Raji cell binding affinity to that of the glycosylated form. The results are in agreement with computer modeling studies which suggested the lack of interactions between the oligosaccharide moiety and the CDRs. The finding is interesting because it enables a wider choice of human framework sequences, which in most cases do not have a corresponding glycosylation site, for the humanization of the LL2 VK domain, as well as a greater latitude of host expression systems. Most importantly, the LL2 VK carbohydrate moiety might be used as a novel conjugation site for drugs and radionuclides without compromising the immunoreactivity of the antibody.

  1. O-glycans and O-glycosylation sites of recombinant human GM-CSF derived from suspension-cultured rice cells, and their structural role.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Park, Heajin; Park, Byung Tae; Hwang, Hye Seong; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2016-10-14

    Recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) from yeast has been clinically applied to immunosuppressed patients. The production of suspension-cultured rice-cell-derived rhGM-CSF (rrhGM-CSF), which has a longer blood clearance time and the same bioactivity as yeast-derived rhGM-CSF, and the analysis of its N-glycans have been reported recently. However, there are no previous reports of the O-glycosylation of rhGM-CSF from plant cells, and so this study investigated O-glycans, O-glycosylation sites, and their structural role in rrhGM-CSF. Monosaccharide analysis revealed the presence of O-glycans comprising arabinose and galactose. Eight O-glycans comprising four arabinose residues with zero to seven galactose residues along with their relative quantities were analyzed. Analysis of pronase-digested glycopeptides indicated that the O-glycans are partially attached to Ser 5, Ser 7, Ser 9, or Thr 10 residues, and glycan heterogeneity was confirmed at each site. Pro-to-hydroxyproline conversions occurred at Pro 2, Pro 6, and Pro 8 residues. The preparation of deglycosylated rrhGM-CSFs revealed that deglycosylation greatly affects their α-helix structures. These findings indicate that O-glycans of rrhGM-CSF are essential for maintaining its structural stability and result in an extended in vivo half-life, but without affecting its biological function. This is the first report on the O-glycosylation of rhGM-CSF derived from plant cells.

  2. Expression of murine and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in S. cerevisiae: mutagenesis of the potential glycosylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, A; Otsu, K; Schreurs, J; Bond, M W; Abrams, J S; Arai, K

    1986-01-01

    Murine (m) and human (h) granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) have been expressed in large quantities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a secretion vector containing the promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor. Functionally active mGM-CSF was identified by a proliferation assay with a factor-dependent cell line and by a granulocyte--macrophage colony formation assay using bone marrow cells. The activity of hGM-CSF was confirmed by stimulation of granulocyte--macrophage colony formation using human cord blood cells. Murine GM-CSF with various apparent mol. wts (13, 18, 24, 34 and 40 kd, as well as a smear of higher mol. wts) was detected in yeast culture medium by protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the mGM-CSF N-terminal region peptide. Protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the hGM-CSF N-terminal region demonstrated that a 15.6-kd and higher mol. wt heterogeneous species were secreted. Mutations introduced at each of the two potential N-linked glycosylation sites in mGM-CSF showed that the 13-kd protein is not glycosylated and the major 18-kd protein is mainly glycosylated at the more C-terminal site, whereas the heterogeneous higher mol. wt species were not affected by the mutations. The N-terminal amino acid of the 13-kd protein was shown to be Ser which was four amino acids in the C-terminal direction from the fusion point. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3525148

  3. Identification of the Mycobacterium marinum Apa antigen O-mannosylation sites reveals important glycosylation variability with the M. tuberculosis Apa homologue.

    PubMed

    Coddeville, Bernadette; Wu, Sz-Wei; Fabre, Emeline; Brassart, Colette; Rombouts, Yoann; Burguière, Adeline; Kremer, Laurent; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Guérardel, Yann

    2012-10-22

    The 45/47 kDa Apa, an immuno-dominant antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is O-mannosylated at multiple sites. Glycosylation of Apa plays a key role in colonization and invasion of the host cells by M. tuberculosis through interactions of Apa with the host immune system C-type lectins. Mycobacterium marinum (M.ma) a fish pathogen, phylogenetically close to M. tuberculosis, induces a granulomatous response with features similar to those described for M. tuberculosis in human. Although M.ma possesses an Apa homologue, its glycosylation status is unknown, and whether this represents a crucial element in the pathophysiology induced by M.ma remains to be addressed. To this aim, we have identified two concanavalin A-reactive 45/47 kDa proteins from M.ma, which have been further purified by a two-step anion exchange chromatography process. Advanced liquid chromatography-nanoESI mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of peptides, derived from either tryptic digestion alone or in combination with the Asp-N endoproteinase, established that M.ma Apa possesses up to seven distinct O-mannosylated sites with mainly single mannose substitutions, which can be further extended at the Ser/Thr/Pro rich region near the N-terminus. This opens the way to further studies focussing on the involvement and biological functions of Apa O-mannosylation using the M.ma/zebrafish model.

  4. Site-specific N-linked glycosylation of receptor guanylyl cyclase C regulates ligand binding, ligand-mediated activation and interaction with vesicular integral membrane protein 36, VIP36.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Najla; Ballal, Suhas; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2013-02-08

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a multidomain, membrane-associated receptor guanylyl cyclase. GC-C is primarily expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, where it mediates fluid-ion homeostasis, intestinal inflammation, and cell proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner, following activation by its ligands guanylin, uroguanylin, or the heat-stable enterotoxin peptide (ST). GC-C is also expressed in neurons, where it plays a role in satiation and attention deficiency/hyperactive behavior. GC-C is glycosylated in the extracellular domain, and differentially glycosylated forms that are resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (130 kDa) and the plasma membrane (145 kDa) bind the ST peptide with equal affinity. When glycosylation of human GC-C was prevented, either by pharmacological intervention or by mutation of all of the 10 predicted glycosylation sites, ST binding and surface localization was abolished. Systematic mutagenesis of each of the 10 sites of glycosylation in GC-C, either singly or in combination, identified two sites that were critical for ligand binding and two that regulated ST-mediated activation. We also show that GC-C is the first identified receptor client of the lectin chaperone vesicular integral membrane protein, VIP36. Interaction with VIP36 is dependent on glycosylation at the same sites that allow GC-C to fold and bind ligand. Because glycosylation of proteins is altered in many diseases and in a tissue-dependent manner, the activity and/or glycan-mediated interactions of GC-C may have a crucial role to play in its functions in different cell types.

  5. Enhancing activity of N-glycosylation for constitutive proteins secretions in non-polarized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Nobutake; Ohno, Yuji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Manome, Yosinobu; Saito, Saburo

    2009-04-17

    Several fusion proteins of mouse Interleukins (mILs) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were expressed in fibroblast and epithelial cells. Among these proteins, the mIL-31 derivative was the most efficiently secreted into the medium in a N-glycosylation-dependent manner. From the analysis of deletion mutants, the minimal structure for constitutive secretions consisted of a signal peptide and N-glycosylation. Introduction of the signal sequence from mIL-31 to human p53 protein failed to secrete the products, but further addition of the N-glycosylation site resulted in constitutive secretion of biologically active p53 protein into the medium in the N-glycosylated form. In this report, we showed the importance of N-glycosylation for constitutive protein secretions, especially using non-polarized cells.

  6. Glycosylation of Residue 141 of Subtype H7 Influenza A Hemagglutinin (HA) Affects HA-Pseudovirus Infectivity and Sensitivity to Site A Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P.; Weiss, Carol D.; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human infections with H7 subtype influenza virus have been reported, including an H7N7 outbreak in Netherlands in 2003 and H7N9 infections in China in 2013. Previously, we reported murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the antigenic site A of H7 hemagglutinin (HA). To better understand protective immunity of H7 vaccines and vaccine candidate selection, we used these mAbs to assess the antigenic relatedness among two H7 HA isolated from past human infections and determine residues that affect susceptibility to neutralization. We found that these mAbs neutralize pseudoviruses bearing HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), but not A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7). Glycosylation of the asparagine residue at position 141 (N141) (N133, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003 HA is responsible for this resistance, and it affects the infectivity of HA-pseudoviruses. The presence of threonine at position 143 (T135, H3 HA numbering) in the HA of A/Netherlands/219/2003, rather than an alanine found in the HA of A/Shanghai/02/2013(H7N9), accounts for these differences. These results demonstrate a key role for glycosylation of residue N141 in affecting H7 influenza HA-mediated entry and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, which have implications for candidate vaccine design. PMID:26862918

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  8. Site-specific characterization of threonine, serine, and tyrosine glycosylations of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β-peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Adnan; Brinkmalm, Gunnar; Rüetschi, Ulla; Westman-Brinkmalm, Ann; Portelius, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Larson, Göran; Nilsson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) into shorter aggregating amyloid β (Aβ)-peptides, e.g., Aβ1-42, is considered a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although APP is a well-known membrane glycoprotein carrying both N- and O-glycans, nothing is known about the occurrence of released APP/Aβ glycopeptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the 6E10 antibody and immunopurified Aβ peptides and glycopeptides from CSF samples and then liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry for structural analysis using collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation. In addition to 33 unglycosylated APP/Aβ peptides, we identified 37 APP/Aβ glycopeptides with sialylated core 1 like O-glycans attached to Thr(−39, −21, −20, and −13), in a series of APP/AβX-15 glycopeptides, where X was −63, −57, −52, and −45, in relation to Asp1 of the Aβ sequence. Unexpectedly, we also identified a series of 27 glycopeptides, the Aβ1-X series, where X was 20 (DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFF), 19, 18, 17, 16, and 15, which were all uniquely glycosylated on Tyr10. The Tyr10 linked O-glycans were (Neu5Ac)1-2Hex(Neu5Ac)HexNAc-O- structures with the disialylated terminals occasionally O-acetylated or lactonized, indicating a terminal Neu5Acα2,8Neu5Ac linkage. We could not detect any glycosylation of the Aβ1-38/40/42 isoforms. We observed an increase of up to 2.5 times of Tyr10 glycosylated Aβ peptides in CSF in six AD patients compared to seven non-AD patients. APP/Aβ sialylated O-glycans, including that of a Tyr residue, the first in a mammalian protein, may modulate APP processing, inhibiting the amyloidogenic pathway associated with AD. PMID:21712440

  9. HDL Glycoprotein Composition and Site-Specific Glycosylation Differentiates Between Clinical Groups and Affects IL-6 Secretion in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sridevi; Shimoda, Michiko; Sacchi, Romina; Kailemia, Muchena J.; Luxardi, Guillaume; Kaysen, George A.; Parikh, Atul N.; Ngassam, Viviane N.; Johansen, Kirsten; Chertow, Glenn M.; Grimes, Barbara; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Maverakis, Emanual; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether HDL glycoprotein composition affects HDL’s immunomodulatory function. HDL were purified from healthy controls (n = 13), subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 13), and diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 24). Concentrations of HDL-bound serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III), α-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), and α-2-HS-glycoprotein (A2HSG); and the site-specific glycovariations of ApoC-III, A1AT, and A2HSG were measured. Secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes was used as a prototypical assay of HDL’s immunomodulatory capacity. HDL from HD patients were enriched in SAA, LBP, ApoC-III, di-sialylated ApoC-III (ApoC-III2) and desialylated A2HSG. HDL that increased IL-6 secretion were enriched in ApoC-III, di-sialylated glycans at multiple A1AT glycosylation sites and desialylated A2HSG, and depleted in mono-sialylated ApoC-III (ApoC-III1). Subgroup analysis on HD patients who experienced an infectious hospitalization event within 60 days (HD+) (n = 12), vs. those with no event (HD−) (n = 12) showed that HDL from HD+ patients were enriched in SAA but had lower levels of sialylation across glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that HDL glycoprotein composition, including the site-specific glycosylation, differentiate between clinical groups, correlate with HDL’s immunomodulatory capacity, and may be predictive of HDL’s ability to protect from infection. PMID:28287093

  10. Effects of individually silenced N-glycosylation sites and non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the fusogenic function of human syncytin-2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lina; Wang, Huiying; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Yang, Xiaokui; Jia, Wen-Tong; Zhao, Yangyu; Wang, Yongqing; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The placental syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed by the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells, is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of normal pregnancy. The human endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoprotein syncytin-2 is the most important player in mediating trophoblast cell-cell fusion as a fusogen. We constructed expression plasmids of wild-type and 21 single-amino-acid substitution mutants of syncytin-2, including 10 N-glycosylation sites individually silenced by mutagenizing N to Q, 1 naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N118S that introduced an N-glycosylation site, and another 10 non-synonymous SNPs located within important functional domains. We observed that syncytin-2 was highly fusogenic and that the mutants had different capacities in merging 293T cells. Of the 21 mutants, N133Q, N312Q, N443Q, C46R (in the CXXC motif) and R417H (in the heptad repeat region and immunosuppressive domain) lost their fusogenicity, whereas N332Q, N118S, T367M (in the fusion peptide), V483I (in the transmembrane domain) and T522M (in the cytoplasmic domain) enhanced the fusogenic activity. We also proved that N133, N146, N177, N220, N241, N247, N312, N332 and N443 were all glycosylated in 293T cells. A co-immunoprecipitation assay showed compromised interaction between mutants N443Q, C46R, T367M, R417H and the receptor MFSD2A, whereas N118S was associated with more receptors. We also sequenced the coding sequence of syncytin-2 in 125 severe pre-eclamptic patients and 272 normal pregnant Chinese women. Surprisingly, only 1 non-synonymous SNP T522M was found and the frequencies of heterozygous carriers were not significantly different. Taken together, our results suggest that N-glycans at residues 133, 312, 332 and 443 of syncytin-2 are required for optimal fusion induction, and that SNPs C46R, N118S, T367M, R417H, V483I and T522M can alter the fusogenic function of syncytin-2. PMID:26853155

  11. Effects of individually silenced N-glycosylation sites and non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the fusogenic function of human syncytin-2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lina; Wang, Huiying; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Yang, Xiaokui; Jia, Wen-Tong; Zhao, Yangyu; Wang, Yongqing; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-03-03

    The placental syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed by the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells, is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of normal pregnancy. The human endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoprotein syncytin-2 is the most important player in mediating trophoblast cell-cell fusion as a fusogen. We constructed expression plasmids of wild-type and 21 single-amino-acid substitution mutants of syncytin-2, including 10 N-glycosylation sites individually silenced by mutagenizing N to Q, 1 naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N118S that introduced an N-glycosylation site, and another 10 non-synonymous SNPs located within important functional domains. We observed that syncytin-2 was highly fusogenic and that the mutants had different capacities in merging 293T cells. Of the 21 mutants, N133Q, N312Q, N443Q, C46R (in the CXXC motif) and R417H (in the heptad repeat region and immunosuppressive domain) lost their fusogenicity, whereas N332Q, N118S, T367M (in the fusion peptide), V483I (in the transmembrane domain) and T522M (in the cytoplasmic domain) enhanced the fusogenic activity. We also proved that N133, N146, N177, N220, N241, N247, N312, N332 and N443 were all glycosylated in 293T cells. A co-immunoprecipitation assay showed compromised interaction between mutants N443Q, C46R, T367M, R417H and the receptor MFSD2A, whereas N118S was associated with more receptors. We also sequenced the coding sequence of syncytin-2 in 125 severe pre-eclamptic patients and 272 normal pregnant Chinese women. Surprisingly, only 1 non-synonymous SNP T522M was found and the frequencies of heterozygous carriers were not significantly different. Taken together, our results suggest that N-glycans at residues 133, 312, 332 and 443 of syncytin-2 are required for optimal fusion induction, and that SNPs C46R, N118S, T367M, R417H, V483I and T522M can alter the fusogenic function of syncytin-2.

  12. Interactions between N-linked glycosylation and polymerisation of neuroserpin within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, Claudia; Ordoñez, Adriana; Lupo, Giuseppe; Gooptu, Bibek; Irving, James A; Noto, Rosina; Martorana, Vincenzo; Manno, Mauro; Timpano, Valentina; Guadagno, Noemi A; Dalton, Lucy; Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A; Miranda, Elena

    2015-12-01

    The neuronal serpin neuroserpin undergoes polymerisation as a consequence of point mutations that alter its conformational stability, leading to a neurodegenerative dementia called familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB). Neuroserpin is a glycoprotein with predicted glycosylation sites at asparagines 157, 321 and 401. We used site-directed mutagenesis, transient transfection, western blot, metabolic labelling and ELISA to probe the relationship between glycosylation, folding, polymerisation and degradation of neuroserpin in validated cell models of health and disease. Our data show that glycosylation at N157 and N321 plays an important role in maintaining the monomeric state of neuroserpin, and we propose this is the result of steric hindrance or effects on local conformational dynamics that can contribute to polymerisation. Asparagine residue 401 is not glycosylated in wild type neuroserpin and in several polymerogenic variants that cause FENIB, but partial glycosylation was observed in the G392E mutant of neuroserpin that causes severe, early-onset dementia. Our findings indicate that N401 glycosylation reports lability of the C-terminal end of neuroserpin in its native state. This C-terminal lability is not required for neuroserpin polymerisation in the endoplasmic reticulum, but the additional glycan facilitates degradation of the mutant protein during proteasomal impairment. In summary, our results indicate how normal and variant-specific N-linked glycosylation events relate to intracellular folding, misfolding, degradation and polymerisation of neuroserpin.

  13. Mutation of Glycosylation Sites in BST-2 Leads to Its Accumulation at Intracellular CD63-Positive Vesicles without Affecting Its Antiviral Activity against Multivesicular Body-Targeted HIV-1 and Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu; Lv, Mingyu; Shi, Ying; Yu, Jinghua; Niu, Junqi; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan

    2016-02-29

    BST-2/tetherin blocks the release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1 with a "physical tethering" model. The detailed contribution of N-linked glycosylation to this model is controversial. Here, we confirmed that mutation of glycosylation sites exerted an effect of post-translational mis-trafficking, leading to an accumulation of BST-2 at intracellular CD63-positive vesicles. BST-2 with this phenotype potently inhibited the release of multivesicular body-targeted HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus, without affecting the co-localization of BST-2 with EEA1 and LAMP1. These results suggest that N-linked glycosylation of human BST-2 is dispensable for intracellular virion retention and imply that this recently discovered intracellular tethering function may be evolutionarily distinguished from the canonical antiviral function of BST-2 by tethering nascent virions at the cell surface.

  14. An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Ronau, Judith A; Paul, Lake N; Fuchs, Julian E; Corn, Isaac R; Wagner, Kyle T; Liedl, Klaus R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Das, Chittaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH has a regulatory domain in which binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, the existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, for example some bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum, a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site 15.7 Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 μM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, ITC revealed no detectable binding for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of amino acid residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) led to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Although kinetic analysis revealed that the distal site mutants suffer discernible loss of their catalytic activity, X-ray crystallographic analysis of Y155A and F258A, the two mutants with the most noticeable decrease in activity, revealed no discernible change in the structure of their active sites, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may result from protein dynamics in solution.

  15. Mass spectrometric identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites of full-length rat selenoprotein P and determination of selenide-sulfide and disulfide linkages in the shortest isoform.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuguang; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F; Caprioli, Richard M

    2003-08-19

    Rat selenoprotein P is an extracellular glycoprotein of 366 amino acid residues that is rich in cysteine and selenocysteine. Plasma contains four isoforms that differ principally by length at the C-terminal end. Mass spectrometry was used to identify sites of glycosylation on the full-length protein. Of the potential N-glycosylation sites, three located at residues 64, 155, and 169 were occupied, while the two at residues 351 and 356 were not occupied. Threonine 346 was variably O-glycosylated. Thus, full-length selenoprotein P is both N- and O-glycosylated. The shortest isoform of selenoprotein P, which terminates at residue 244, was analyzed for selenide-sulfide and disulfide linkages. In this isoform, a single selenocysteine and seven cysteines are present. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that a selenide-sulfide bond exists between Sec40 and Cys43. Two disulfides were also detected as Cys149-Cys167 and Cys153-Cys156. The finding of a selenide-sulfide bond in the shortest isoform is compatible with a redox function of this pair that might be analogous to the selenol-thiol pair near the C terminus of animal thioredoxin reductase. The disulfide formed by Cys153-Cys156 also has some characteristics of a redox active pair.

  16. Site-specific O-Glycosylation by Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GalNAc-transferase T2) Co-regulates β1-Adrenergic Receptor N-terminal Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Goth, Christoffer K; Tuhkanen, Hanna E; Khan, Hamayun; Lackman, Jarkko J; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Hansen, Lasse H; Overall, Christopher M; Clausen, Henrik; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla E

    2017-03-17

    The β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and the predominant adrenergic receptor subtype in the heart, where it mediates cardiac contractility and the force of contraction. Although it is the most important target for β-adrenergic antagonists, such as β-blockers, relatively little is yet known about its regulation. We have shown previously that β1AR undergoes constitutive and regulated N-terminal cleavage participating in receptor down-regulation and, moreover, that the receptor is modified by O-glycosylation. Here we demonstrate that the polypeptide GalNAc-transferase 2 (GalNAc-T2) specifically O-glycosylates β1AR at five residues in the extracellular N terminus, including the Ser-49 residue at the location of the common S49G single-nucleotide polymorphism. Using in vitro O-glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage assays, a cell line deficient in O-glycosylation, GalNAc-T-edited cell line model systems, and a GalNAc-T2 knock-out rat model, we show that GalNAc-T2 co-regulates the metalloproteinase-mediated limited proteolysis of β1AR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that impaired O-glycosylation and enhanced proteolysis lead to attenuated receptor signaling, because the maximal response elicited by the βAR agonist isoproterenol and its potency in a cAMP accumulation assay were decreased in HEK293 cells lacking GalNAc-T2. Our findings reveal, for the first time, a GPCR as a target for co-regulatory functions of site-specific O-glycosylation mediated by a unique GalNAc-T isoform. The results provide a new level of β1AR regulation that may open up possibilities for new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

  17. The Emerging Importance of IgG Fab Glycosylation in Immunity.

    PubMed

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Rispens, Theo; Rombouts, Yoann

    2016-02-15

    Human IgG is the most abundant glycoprotein in serum and is crucial for protective immunity. In addition to conserved IgG Fc glycans, ∼15-25% of serum IgG contains glycans within the variable domains. These so-called "Fab glycans" are primarily highly processed complex-type biantennary N-glycans linked to N-glycosylation sites that emerge during somatic hypermutation. Specific patterns of Fab glycosylation are concurrent with physiological and pathological conditions, such as pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. With respect to function, Fab glycosylation can significantly affect stability, half-life, and binding characteristics of Abs and BCRs. Moreover, Fab glycans are associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIgs. Consequently, IgG Fab glycosylation appears to be an important, yet poorly understood, process that modulates immunity.

  18. Loss of Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation Sites in Variable Region 5 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Is Associated with Resistance to CD4 Antibody Ibalizumab ▿

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Jonathan; Weinheimer, Steven P.; Stawiski, Eric; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.; Lewis, Stanley T.; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Huang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Multiple clinical trials with HIV-infected patients have demonstrated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of ibalizumab treatment. A 9-week phase Ib study adding ibalizumab monotherapy to failing drug regimens led to transient reductions in HIV viral loads and the evolution of HIV-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab. This report characterizes these variants by comparing the phenotypic susceptibilities and envelope (env) sequences of (i) paired baseline and on-treatment virus populations, (ii) individual env clones from selected paired samples, and (iii) env clones containing site-directed mutations. Viruses with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab were found to exhibit reduced susceptibility to the anti-CD4 antibody RPA-T4. Conversely, susceptibility to soluble CD4, which targets the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein, was enhanced. No changes in susceptibility to the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide or the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc were observed. Functionally, viruses with reduced ibalizumab susceptibility also displayed high levels of infectivity relative to those of paired baseline viruses. Individual env clones exhibiting reduced ibalizumab susceptibility contained multiple amino acid changes in different regions relative to the paired baseline clones. In particular, clones with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab contained fewer potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites (PNGSs) in variable region 5 (V5) than did paired ibalizumab-susceptible clones. The reduction in ibalizumab susceptibility due to the loss of V5 PNGSs was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Taken together, these findings provide important insights into resistance to this new class of antiretroviral drug. PMID:21289125

  19. Loss of asparagine-linked glycosylation sites in variable region 5 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope is associated with resistance to CD4 antibody ibalizumab.

    PubMed

    Toma, Jonathan; Weinheimer, Steven P; Stawiski, Eric; Whitcomb, Jeannette M; Lewis, Stanley T; Petropoulos, Christos J; Huang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Multiple clinical trials with HIV-infected patients have demonstrated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of ibalizumab treatment. A 9-week phase Ib study adding ibalizumab monotherapy to failing drug regimens led to transient reductions in HIV viral loads and the evolution of HIV-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab. This report characterizes these variants by comparing the phenotypic susceptibilities and envelope (env) sequences of (i) paired baseline and on-treatment virus populations, (ii) individual env clones from selected paired samples, and (iii) env clones containing site-directed mutations. Viruses with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab were found to exhibit reduced susceptibility to the anti-CD4 antibody RPA-T4. Conversely, susceptibility to soluble CD4, which targets the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein, was enhanced. No changes in susceptibility to the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide or the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc were observed. Functionally, viruses with reduced ibalizumab susceptibility also displayed high levels of infectivity relative to those of paired baseline viruses. Individual env clones exhibiting reduced ibalizumab susceptibility contained multiple amino acid changes in different regions relative to the paired baseline clones. In particular, clones with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab contained fewer potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites (PNGSs) in variable region 5 (V5) than did paired ibalizumab-susceptible clones. The reduction in ibalizumab susceptibility due to the loss of V5 PNGSs was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Taken together, these findings provide important insights into resistance to this new class of antiretroviral drug.

  20. Identification of glycosyl hydrolases from a metagenomic library of microflora in sugarcane bagasse collection site and their cooperative action on cellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Kanokratana, Pattanop; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Pootanakit, Kusol; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulose decomposition is a natural process involving the cooperative action of various glycosyl hydrolases (GH) on plant cell wall components. In this study, a metagenomic library was constructed to capture the genetic diversity of microbes inhabiting an industrial bagasse collection site. A variety of putative genes encoding GH families 2, 3, 5, 9, 11, and 16 were identified using activity-based screening, which showed low to moderate homology to various cellulases and hemicellulases. The recombinant GH9 endoglucanase (Cel9) and GH11 endo-xylanase (Xyn11) were thermophilic with optimal activity between 75°C and 80°C and the maximal activity at slightly acidic to neutral pH range. The enzymes exhibited cooperative activity with Trichoderma reesei cellulase on the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates. Mixture design showed positive interactions among the enzyme components. The optimal combination was determined to be 41.4% Celluclast, 18.0% Cel9, and 40.6% Xyn11 with the predicted relative reducing sugar of 658% when compared to Celluclast alone on hydrolysis of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. The work demonstrates the potential of lignocellulolytic enzymes from a novel uncultured microbial resource for enhancing efficiency of biomass-degrading enzyme systems for bio-industries.

  1. From planta to pharma with glycosylation in the toolbox.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Faye, Loïc; Gomord, Véronique

    2007-07-01

    Plant-specific glycosylation has long been a major limitation to the extensive use of plant-made pharmaceuticals in human therapy. Our goal here is to highlight the progress recently made towards humanization of N-glycosylation in plants and to illustrate that plant-typical N- and O-glycosylation progressively emerge as additional advantages for using this promising expression system.

  2. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  3. Species and Strain Glycosylation Patterns of PrPSc

    PubMed Central

    Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Bellworthy, Sue J.; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    Background A key event in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is the conversion of the soluble, protease-sensitive glycosylated prion protein (PrPC) to an abnormally structured, aggregated and partially protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc). Both PrP isoforms bear two potential glycosylation sites and thus in a typical western blot with an anti-PrP antibody three distinct bands appear, corresponding to the di-, mono- or unglycosylated forms of the protein. The relative intensity and electrophoretic mobility of the three bands are characteristic of each TSE strain and have been used to discriminate between them. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we used lectin-based western blotting to evaluate possible variations in composition within sugar chains carried by PrPSc purified from subjects affected with different TSEs. Our findings indicate that in addition to the already well-documented differences in electrophoretic mobility and amounts of the glycosylated PrPSc forms, TSE strains also vary in the abundance of specific N-linked sugars of the PrPSc protein. Conclusions/Significance These results imply that PrP glycosylation might fine-tune the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc and could play an accessory role in the appearance of some of the characteristic features of TSE strains. The differences in sugar composition could also be used as an additional tool for discrimination between the various TSEs. PMID:19461968

  4. High abundance of Serine/Threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-O-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background O-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. It consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to Ser or Thr residues in the protein backbone via O-glycosidic bonds. Secretory proteins in fungi frequently display Ser/Thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive O-glycosylation. We have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (Botrytis cinerea, Magnaporthe grisea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Ustilago maydis, Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma reesei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in search of Ser/Thr-rich regions as well as regions predicted to be highly O-glycosylated by NetOGlyc (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk). Results By comparison with experimental data, NetOGlyc was found to overestimate the number of O-glycosylation sites in fungi by a factor of 1.5, but to be quite reliable in the prediction of highly O-glycosylated regions. About half of secretory proteins have at least one Ser/Thr-rich region, with a Ser/Thr content of at least 40% over an average length of 40 amino acids. Most secretory proteins in filamentous fungi were predicted to be O-glycosylated, sometimes in dozens or even hundreds of sites. Residues predicted to be O-glycosylated have a tendency to be grouped together forming hyper-O-glycosylated regions of varying length. Conclusions About one fourth of secretory fungal proteins were predicted to have at least one hyper-O-glycosylated region, which consists of 45 amino acids on average and displays at least one O-glycosylated Ser or Thr every four residues. These putative highly O-glycosylated regions can be found anywhere along the proteins but have a slight tendency to be at either one of the two ends. PMID:22994653

  5. Integrated sample pretreatment system for N-linked glycosylation site profiling with combination of hydrophilic interaction chromatography and PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor via a strong cation exchange precolumn.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Xia, Simin; Yuan, Huiming; Wu, Qi; Li, Man; Zou, Lijuan; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-10-01

    An integrated sample pretreatment system, composed of a click maltose hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column, a strong cation exchange (SCX) precolumn, and a PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER), was established for the simultaneous glycopeptide enrichment, sample buffer exchange, and online deglycosylation, by which the sample pretreatment for glycoproteome could be performed online automatically, beneficial to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of the N-linked glycosylation site identification. With such a system, the deglycosylated glycopeptide from the digests of avidin with the coexistence of 50 times (mass ratio) BSA could be selectively detected, and the detection limit as low as 5 fmol was achieved. Moreover, the sample pretreatment time was significantly shortened to ~1 h. Such a system was further successfully applied for analyzing the digest of the soluble fraction extracted from rat brain. A total of 120 unique glycoprotein groups and 196 N-linked glycosylation sites were identified by nanoreversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoRPLC-ESI-MS/MS), with the injected digests amount as 6 μg. All these results demonstrate that the integrated system is of great promise for N-linked glycosylation site profiling and could be further online coupled with nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS to achieve high-throughput glycoproteome analysis.

  6. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  7. Processing, fusogenicity, virion incorporation and CXCR4-binding activity of a feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein lacking the two conserved N-glycosylation sites at the C-terminus of the V3 domain.

    PubMed

    González, Silvia A; Affranchino, José L

    2016-07-01

    The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) entry into its target cells is initiated by the association of the surface (SU) subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with the cellular receptors CD134 and CXCR4. This event is followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which is mediated by the transmembrane (TM) subunit of Env. We and others have previously demonstrated that the V3 domain of the SU subunit of Env is essential for CXCR4 binding. Of note, there are two contiguous and highly conserved potential N-glycosylation sites ((418)NST(420) and (422)NLT(424)) located at the C-terminal side of the V3 domain. We therefore decided to study the relevance for Env functions of these N-glycosylation motifs and found that disruption of both of them by introducing the N418Q/N422Q double amino acid substitution drastically impairs Env processing into the SU and TM subunits. Moreover, the simultaneous mutation of these N-glycosylation sites prevents Env incorporation into virions and Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Notably, a recombinant soluble version of the SU glycoprotein carrying the double amino acid replacement N418Q/N422Q at the V3 C-terminal side binds to CXCR4 with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type SU.

  8. Proteolytic Cleavage Driven by Glycosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Kötzler, Miriam P.; Withers, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of human host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) to its mature form was recently shown, unexpectedly, to occur in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent fashion within the transferase active site of O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) (Lazarus, M. B., Jiang, J., Kapuria, V., Bhuiyan, T., Janetzko, J., Zandberg, W. F., Vocadlo, D. J., Herr, W., and Walker, S. (2013) Science 342, 1235–1239). An interesting mechanism involving formation and then intramolecular rearrangement of a covalent glycosyl ester adduct of the HCF-1 polypeptide was proposed to account for this unprecedented proteolytic activity. However, the key intermediate remained hypothetical. Here, using a model enzyme system for which the formation of a glycosyl ester within the enzyme active site has been shown unequivocally, we show that ester formation can indeed lead to proteolysis of the adjacent peptide bond, thereby providing substantive support for the mechanism of HCF-1 processing proposed. PMID:26515062

  9. Protein-Specific Differential Glycosylation of Immunoglobulins in Serum of Ovarian Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Ruhaak, L Renee; Kim, Kyoungmi; Stroble, Carol; Taylor, Sandra L; Hong, Qiuting; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Leiserowitz, Gary

    2016-03-04

    Previous studies indicated that glycans in serum may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian cancer; however, it was unclear to which proteins these glycans belong. We hypothesize that protein-specific glycosylation profiles of the glycans may be more informative of ovarian cancer and can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying glycan aberration in serum of diseased individuals. Serum samples from women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, n = 84) and matched healthy controls (n = 84) were obtained from the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) concentrations and glycosylation profiles were quantified using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Differential and classification analyses were performed to identify aberrant protein-specific glycopeptides using a training set. All findings were validated in an independent test set. Multiple glycopeptides from immunoglubins IgA, IgG, and IgM were found to be differentially expressed in serum of EOC patients compared with controls. The protein-specific glycosylation profiles showed their potential in the diagnosis of EOC. In particular, IgG-specific glycosylation profiles are the most powerful in discriminating between EOC case and controls. Additional studies of protein- and site-specific glycosylation profiles of immunoglobulins and other proteins will allow further elaboration on the characteristics of biological functionality and causality of the differential glycosylation in ovarian cancer and thus ultimately lead to increased sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis.

  10. Glycosylated Metal Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Michael

    2015-11-10

    In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc) phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-; tetra-; and octa- glycosylated zinc phthalocyanines are reviewed; in which the sugar is attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle; either anomerically or via another one of its OH-groups.

  11. Mechanism of Glycosylation of Anomeric Sulfonium Ions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Gu, Yi; Huang, Wei; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2016-03-09

    Anomeric sulfonium ions are attractive glycosyl donors for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis glycosides. Although these donors are receiving increasing attention, their mechanism of glycosylation remains controversial. We have investigated the reaction mechanism of glycosylation of a donor modified at C-2 with a (1S)-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl chiral auxiliary. Preactivation of this donor results in the formation of a bicyclic β-sulfonium ion that after addition of an alcohol undergoes 1,2-cis-glycosylation. To probe the importance of the thiophenyl moiety, analogs were prepared in which this moiety was replaced by an anisoyl or benzyl moiety. Furthermore, the auxiliaries were installed as S- and R-stereoisomers. It was found that the nature of the heteroatom and chirality of the auxiliary greatly influenced the anomeric outcome and only the one containing a thiophenyl moiety and having S-configuration gave consistently α-anomeric products. The sulfonium ions are sufficiently stable at a temperature at which glycosylations proceed indicating that they are viable glycosylation agents. Time-course NMR experiments with the latter donor showed that the initial rates of glycosylations increase with increases in acceptor concentration and the rate curves could be fitted to a second order rate equation. Collectively, these observations support a mechanism by which a sulfonium ion intermediate is formed as a trans-decalin ring system that can undergo glycosylation through a bimolecular mechanism. DFT calculations have provided further insight into the reaction path of glycosylation and indicate that initially a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed between sulfonium ion and acceptor that undergoes SN2-like glycosylation to give an α-anomeric product.

  12. Removal of a N-linked Glycosylation Site on the Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia E(rns) Glycoprotein Affects Virulence in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) E(rns) glycoprotein is involved in several functions; including virus attachment and entry to target cells, production of antibodies, and virulence. Here, we describe the role of CSFV strain Brescia E(rns) glycosylation on virulence in swine. Amino acid residue N...

  13. Epigenetic regulation of protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Zoldoš, Vlatka; Grgurević, Srđana; Lauc, Gordan

    2010-10-01

    Protein N-glycosylation is an ancient metabolic pathway that still exists in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). The covalent addition of one or more complex oligosaccharides (glycans) to protein backbones greatly diversifies their structures and makes the glycoproteome several orders of magnitude more complex than the proteome itself. Contrary to polypeptides, which are defined by a sequence of nucleotides in the corresponding genes, the glycan part of glycoproteins are encoded in a complex dynamic network of hundreds of proteins, whereby activity is defined by both genetic sequence and the regulation of gene expression. Owing to the complex nature of their biosynthesis, glycans are particularly versatile and apparently a large part of human variation derives from differences in protein glycosylation. Composition of the individual glycome appears to be rather stable, and thus differences in the pattern of glycan synthesis between individuals could originate either from genetic polymorphisms or from stable epigenetic regulation of gene expression in different individuals. Studies of epigenetic modification of genes involved in protein glycosylation are still scarce, but their results indicate that this process might be very important for the regulation of protein glycosylation.

  14. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    AO-AI13 14𔃾 ERTEC WESTERN INC LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN ADDITI-ETC(U) JUN Al F04704-80-C-OGO6...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT :g 70A -- ~’ .9 ’I K ii I / "~1 - i~ / . . ..1’ ~ ~- .. ~ ~1 I E-TR-50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY...144 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 7/4 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY. SEVEN AOOITI-ETCIU) JUN 81 FON7O-80-C-0006

  15. Additional guidance on worst sites and NPL caliber sites to assist in sacm implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-26

    The document is intended to assist the Regions by giving clear guidance as to what constitutes NPL caliber sites and to assist in minimizing the potential for false positive NPL packages. It also sets forth the actions needed to support the efforts to implement SACM and encourage appropriate data gathering to support NPL listing and RI/FS decisions.

  16. Identification of AglE, a second glycosyltransferase involved in N glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Giordano, Assunta; Battaglia, Francesca; Trauner, Andrej; Hitchen, Paul G; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-05-01

    Archaea, like Eukarya and Bacteria, are able to N glycosylate select protein targets. However, in contrast to relatively advanced understanding of the eukaryal N glycosylation process and the information being amassed on the bacterial process, little is known of this posttranslational modification in Archaea. Toward remedying this situation, the present report continues ongoing efforts to identify components involved in the N glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein. By combining gene deletion together with mass spectrometry, AglE, originally identified as a homologue of murine Dpm1, was shown to play a role in the addition of the 190-Da sugar subunit of the novel pentasaccharide decorating the S-layer glycoprotein. Topological analysis of an AglE-based chimeric reporter assigns AglE as an integral membrane protein, with its N terminus and putative active site facing the cytoplasm. These finding, therefore, contribute to the developing picture of the N glycosylation pathway in Archaea.

  17. Site specific N-glycan profiling of NeuAc(α2-6)-Gal/GalNAc-binding bark Sambucus nigra agglutinin using LC-MS(n) revealed differential glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Gnanesh Kumar, B S; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2016-12-01

    The bark of Sambucus nigra contains a complex mixture of glycoproteins that are characterized as chimeric lectins known as type II ribosome inactivating proteins and holo lectins. These type II ribosome inactivating proteins possess RNA N-glycosidase activity in subunit A and lectin activity associated with subunit B exhibiting distinct sugar specificities to NeuAc(α2-6)-Gal/GalNAc and Gal/GalNAc. In the present study we have determined the N-glycosylation pattern of type II ribosome inactivating protein specific to NeuAc(α2-6)-Gal/GalNAc (Sambucus nigra agglutinin I) by subjecting it to digestion with multiple proteases. The resulting mixture of peptides and N-glycopeptides were analyzed on liquid chromatography coupled to electro spray ionization-iontrap mass spectrometry in MS(n) mode. MS(2) of precursor ions was carried out using CID which provided information on glycan sequence. In subsequent MS(3) of Y1/Y1α ions (peptide + HexNAc)(+n) of corresponding N-glycopeptides, resulted in the fragmentation of peptide backbone confirming the site of attachment. We observed microheterogeneity in each glycan occupied site with subunit A possessing four N-glycans out of six sites with complex and paucimannose types while subunit B comprises occupancy of two sites with a paucimannose and a high mannose type. The differential N-glycosylation of subunits in SNA is discussed in the context of other type II RIPs glycans.

  18. N-glycosylation of asparagine 8 regulates surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA) alleles dependent on threonine 24.

    PubMed

    Mellergaard, Maiken; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Schneider, Christine L; Lauridsen, Felicia; Andresen, Lars; Jensen, Helle; Skov, Søren

    2014-07-18

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on several types of human lymphocytes. NKG2D ligands can be induced upon cell stress and are frequently targeted post-translationally in infected or transformed cells to avoid immune recognition. Virus infection and inflammation alter protein N-glycosylation, and we have previously shown that changes in cellular N-glycosylation are involved in regulation of NKG2D ligand surface expression. The specific mode of regulation through N-glycosylation is, however, unknown. Here we investigated whether direct N-glycosylation of the NKG2D ligand MICA itself is critical for cell surface expression and sought to identify the essential residues. We found that a single N-glycosylation site (Asn(8)) was important for MICA018 surface expression. The frequently expressed MICA allele 008, with an altered transmembrane and intracellular domain, was not affected by mutation of this N-glycosylation site. Mutational analysis revealed that a single amino acid (Thr(24)) in the extracellular domain of MICA018 was essential for the N-glycosylation dependence, whereas the intracellular domain was not involved. The HHV7 immunoevasin, U21, was found to inhibit MICA018 surface expression by affecting N-glycosylation, and the retention was rescued by T24A substitution. Our study reveals N-glycosylation as an allele-specific regulatory mechanism important for regulation of surface expression of MICA018, and we pinpoint the residues essential for this N-glycosylation dependence. In addition, we show that this regulatory mechanism of MICA surface expression is likely targeted during different pathological conditions.

  19. Glycosylation Analysis for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueli; Raihan, Mohd A; Reynoso, Francis Jeshira; He, Miao

    2015-07-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of diseases with highly variable phenotypes and inconsistent clinical features. Since the first description of a CDG in 1980, approximately 100 disorders have been identified. Most of these are defects in protein glycosylation, although an increasing number are defects of glycolipid or proteoglycan biosynthesis. A group of biochemical markers has been used to characterize protein glycosylation abnormalities in CDG. This unit describes three protocols that can be used to measure plasma or serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) profile, N-glycan profile, and O-glycan profile by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) or liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The quantification of particular biomarkers, such as T antigens or sialylated T antigens, could also be achieved by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These techniques can be used to identify a majority of patients with defects in protein glycosylation, although different techniques, such as flow cytometry with immunostaining, are necessary to detect defects in glycolipid or proteoglycan biosynthesis which is not included in this unit.

  20. Glycosylation of Pilin and Nonpilin Protein Constructs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Qutyan, Mohammed; Henkel, Matthew; Horzempa, Joseph; Quinn, Michael; Castric, Peter

    2010-01-01

    PilO is an oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) that catalyzes the O-glycosylation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 pilin by adding a single O-antigen repeating unit to the β carbon of the C-terminal residue (a serine). While PilO has an absolute requirement for Ser/Thr at this position, it is unclear if this enzyme must recognize other pilin features. To test this, pilin constructs containing peptide extensions terminating with serine were tested for the ability to support glycosylation. It was found that a 15-residue peptide, which had been modeled on the C-proximal region of strain 1244 pilin, served as a PilO substrate when it was expressed on either group II or group III pilins. In addition, adding a 3-residue extension culminating in serine to the C terminus of a group III pilin supported PilO activity. A protein fusion composed of strain 1244 pilin linked at its C terminus with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (which, in turn, contained the above-mentioned 15 amino acids at its C terminus) was glycosylated by PilO. E. coli alkaline phosphatase lacking the pilin membrane anchor and containing the 15-residue peptide was also glycosylated by PilO. Addition of the 3-residue extension did not allow glycosylation of either of these constructs. Site-directed mutagenesis of strain 1244 pilin residues of the C-proximal region common to the group I proteins showed that this structure was not required for glycosylation. These experiments indicate that pilin common sequence is not required for glycosylation and show that nonpilin protein can be engineered to be a PilO substrate. PMID:20833803

  1. N-Glycosylation of the archaellum filament is not important for archaella assembly and motility, although N-Glycosylation is essential for motility in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin H; Birich, Anton; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2015-11-01

    N-Glycosylation is one of the predominant posttranslational modifications, which is found in all three domains of life. N-Glycosylation has been shown to influence many biological aspects of proteins, like protein folding, stability or activity. In this study we demonstrate that the archaellum filament subunit FlaB of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is N-glycosylated. Each of the six predicted N-Glycosylation sites within FlaB are modified with the attachment of an N-glycan. Although, it has been previously shown that N-Glycosylation is essential for motility in S. acidocaldarius, as defects in the N-Glycosylation process resulted in none or reduced motile cells, strains lacking one to all six N-Glycosylation sites within FlaB still remained motile. Deletion of the first five N-Glycosylation sites in FlaB did not significantly affect the motility, whereas removal of all six N-Glycosylation sites reduced motility by about 40%. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of non glycosylated and glycosylated archaellum filament revealed no structural change in length. Therefore N-Glycosylation does not appear to be important for the stability and assembly of the archaellum filament itself, but plays a role in other parts of the archaellum assembly.

  2. Harnessing glycosylation to improve cellulase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Dai, Ziyu; Mattews, James F.; Momany, Michelle; Payne, Christina M.; Adney, William S.; Baker, Scott E.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2012-06-11

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impacts enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  3. Harnessing Glycosylation to Improve Cellulase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, G. T.; Dai, Z.; Matthews, J. F.; Momany, M.; Payne, C. M.; Adney, W. S.; Baker, S. E.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impact enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  4. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  5. EPA to Conduct Additional Investigations in Grenada, Miss. to Guide Cleanup of Grenada Manufacturing, LLC Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Beginning Monday, April 11, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will conduct a site investigation at the former Grenada Manufacturing, LLC facility (now Grenada Stamping), followed by additional sampling in the adjacent Ea

  6. Glycosylation Disorders with Immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the use of glycosylation inhibitors to prevent and control viral infections. What's New: Latest News Releases NIAID Research Aids Discovery of Genetic Immune Disorder , December 23, 2016 Gene Therapy Restores ...

  7. Structural Analysis of a Highly Glycosylated and Unliganded gp120-Based Antigen Using Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    L Wang; Y Qin; S Ilchenko; J Bohon; W Shi; M Cho; K Takamoto; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Structural characterization of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is very important for providing an understanding of the protein's immunogenicity and its binding to cell receptors. So far, the crystallographic structure of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (in the absence of a CD4 coreceptor or antibody) has not been determined. The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 is immunodominant and contains glycosylation signatures that are essential for coreceptor binding and entry of the virus into T-cells. In this study, we characterized the structure of the outer domain of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (gp120-OD8) purified from Drosophila S2 cells utilizing mass spectrometry-based approaches. We mapped the glycosylation sites and calculated the glycosylation occupancy of gp120-OD8; 11 sites from 15 glycosylation motifs were determined as having high-mannose or hybrid glycosylation structures. The specific glycan moieties of nine glycosylation sites from eight unique glycopeptides were determined by a combination of ECD and CID MS approaches. Hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was employed to provide detailed information about protein structure of gp120-OD8 by directly identifying accessible and hydroxyl radical-reactive side chain residues. Comparison of gp120-OD8 experimental footprinting data with a homology model derived from the ligated CD4-gp120-OD8 crystal structure revealed a flexible V3 loop structure in which the V3 tip may provide contacts with the rest of the protein while residues in the V3 base remain solvent accessible. In addition, the data illustrate interactions between specific sugar moieties and amino acid side chains potentially important to the gp120-OD8 structure.

  8. Structural analysis of a highly glycosylated and unliganded gp120-based antigen using mass spectrometry†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liwen; Qin, Yali; Ilchenko, Serguei; Bohon, Jen; Shi, Wuxian; Cho, Michael W.; Takamoto, Keiji; Chance, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of the HIV envelope protein gp120 is very important to provide an understanding of the protein's immunogenicity and it's binding to cell receptors. So far, crystallographic structure determination of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (in the absence of CD4 co-receptor or antibody) has not been achieved. The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 is immunodominant and contains glycosylation signatures that are essential for co-receptor binding and viral entry to T-cells. In this study, we characterized the structure of the outer domain of gp120 with an intact V3 loop (gp120-OD8) purified from Drosophila S2 cells utilizing mass spectrometry-based approaches. We mapped the glycosylation sites and calculated glycosylation occupancy of gp120-OD8; eleven sites from fifteen glycosylation motifs were determined as having high mannose or hybrid glycosylation structures. The specific glycan moieties of nine glycosylation sites from eight unique glycopeptides were determined by a combination of ECD and CID MS approaches. Hydroxyl radical-mediated protein footprinting coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was employed to provide detailed information on protein structure of gp120-OD8 by directly identifying accessible and hydroxyl radical-reactive side chain residues. Comparison of gp120-OD8 experimental footprinting data with a homology model derived from the ligated CD4/ gp120-OD8 crystal structure revealed a flexible V3 loop structure where the V3 tip may provide contacts with the rest of the protein while residues in the V3 base remain solvent accessible. In addition, the data illustrate interactions between specific sugar moieties and amino acid side chains potentially important to the gp120-OD8 structure. PMID:20825246

  9. Diversity in prokaryotic glycosylation: an archaeal-derived N-linked glycan contains legionaminic acid.

    PubMed

    Kandiba, Lina; Aitio, Olli; Helin, Jari; Guan, Ziqiang; Permi, Perttu; Bamford, Dennis H; Eichler, Jerry; Roine, Elina

    2012-05-01

    VP4, the major structural protein of the haloarchaeal pleomorphic virus, HRPV-1, is glycosylated. To define the glycan structure attached to this protein, oligosaccharides released by β-elimination were analysed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Such analyses showed that the major VP4-derived glycan is a pentasaccharide comprising glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, sulphated glucuronic acid and a terminal 5-N-formyl-legionaminic acid residue. This is the first observation of legionaminic acid, a sialic acid-like sugar, in an archaeal-derived glycan structure. The importance of this residue for viral infection was demonstrated upon incubation with N-acetylneuraminic acid, a similar monosaccharide. Such treatment reduced progeny virus production by half 4 h post infection. LC-ESI/MS analysis confirmed the presence of pentasaccharide precursors on two different VP4-derived peptides bearing the N-glycosylation signal, NTT. The same sites modified by the native host, Halorubrum sp. strain PV6, were also recognized by the Haloferax volcanii N-glycosylation apparatus, as determined by LC-ESI/MS of heterologously expressed VP4. Here, however, the N-linked pentasaccharide was the same as shown to decorate the S-layer glycoprotein in this species. Hence, N-glycosylation of the haloarchaeal viral protein, VP4, is host-specific. These results thus present additional examples of archaeal N-glycosylation diversity and show the ability of Archaea to modify heterologously expressed proteins.

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. On the site preferences of ternary additions to triple defect B2 intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chen, S.L.; Chang, Y.A.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the site preference of ternary solute additions is essential to developing an understanding of how these solutes affect the properties of B2 intermetallic compounds. A quasichemical model will be presented which is able to predict the site preferences of dilute solute additions to triple defect B2 compounds. The only parameters required are enthalpies of formation at the stoichiometric composition. General equations are developed which can be used to determine site occupations and defect concentrations for dilute as well as non-dilute solute additions. These equations use atom pair bond enthalpies as the parameters. It is found that the site preferences of dilute additions are not always in agreement with predictions based on the solubility lobes in ternary Gibbs isotherms, Predictions for dilute additions to NiAl and FeAl are compared to experimental results found in the literature. Satisfactory correlation is found between the model and the experimental results. In addition, the predictions from the model on vacancy concentrations in Fe doped NiAl are compared to recent experimental results by the authors.

  12. Glycosylation Benchmark Profile for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Production Based on Eleven Env Trimers.

    PubMed

    Go, Eden P; Ding, Haitao; Zhang, Shijian; Ringe, Rajesh P; Nicely, Nathan; Hua, David; Steinbock, Robert T; Golabek, Michael; Alin, James; Alam, S Munir; Cupo, Albert; Haynes, Barton F; Kappes, John C; Moore, John P; Sodroski, Joseph G; Desaire, Heather

    2017-05-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) glycosylation is important because individual glycans are components of multiple broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes, while shielding other sites that might otherwise be immunogenic. The glycosylation on Env is influenced by a variety of factors, including the genotype of the protein, the cell line used for its expression, and the details of the construct design. Here, we used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach to map the complete glycosylation profile at every site in multiple HIV-1 Env trimers, accomplishing two goals. (i) We determined which glycosylation sites contain conserved glycan profiles across many trimeric Envs. (ii) We identified the variables that impact Env's glycosylation profile at sites with divergent glycosylation. Over half of the gp120 glycosylation sites on 11 different trimeric Envs have a conserved glycan profile, indicating that a native consensus glycosylation profile does indeed exist among trimers. We showed that some soluble gp120s and gp140s exhibit highly divergent glycosylation profiles compared to trimeric Env. We also assessed the impact of several variables on Env glycosylation: truncating the full-length Env; producing Env, instead of the more virologically relevant T lymphocytes, in CHO cells; and purifying Env with different chromatographic platforms, including nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA), 2G12, and PGT151 affinity. This report provides the first consensus glycosylation profile of Env trimers, which should serve as a useful benchmark for HIV-1 vaccine developers. This report also defines the sites where glycosylation may be impacted when Env trimers are truncated or produced in CHO cells.IMPORTANCE A protective HIV-1 vaccine will likely include a recombinant version of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Env is highly glycosylated, and yet vaccine developers have lacked guidance on how to assess whether their immunogens have optimal glycosylation. The following important

  13. Tissue-Specific Glycosylation at the Glycopeptide Level.

    PubMed

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Kaasik, Krista; Chalkley, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This manuscript describes the enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis of intact glycopeptides from mouse liver, which yielded site-specific N- and O-glycosylation data for ∼ 130 proteins. Incorporation of different sialic acid variants in both N- and O-linked glycans was observed, and the importance of using both collisional activation and electron transfer dissociation for glycopeptide analysis was illustrated. The N-glycan structures of predicted lysosomal, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), secreted and transmembrane proteins were compared. The data suggest that protein N-glycosylation differs depending on cellular location. The glycosylation patterns of several mouse liver and mouse brain glycopeptides were compared. Tissue-specific differences in glycosylation were observed between sites within the same protein: Some sites displayed a similar spectrum of glycan structures in both tissues, whereas for others no overlap was observed. We present comparative brain/liver glycosylation data on 50 N-glycosylation sites from 34 proteins and 13 O-glycosylation sites from seven proteins.

  14. Protein Glycosylation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Sean R.; Ju, Tongzhong; Cummings, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation results in a wide variety of cellular alterations that impact the growth, survival, and general behavior of affected tissue. Although genetic alterations underpin the development of neoplastic disease, epigenetic changes can exert an equally significant effect on neoplastic transformation. Among neoplasia-associated epigenetic alterations, changes in cellular glycosylation have recently received attention as a key component of neoplastic progression. Alterations in glycosylation appear to not only directly impact cell growth and survival but also facilitate tumor-induced immunomodulation and eventual metastasis. Many of these changes may support neoplastic progression, and unique alterations in tumor-associated glycosylation may also serve as a distinct feature of cancer cells and therefore provide novel diagnostic and even therapeutic targets. PMID:25621663

  15. Effects of branched O-glycosylation on a semiflexible peptide linker.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Raval, Sherin R; Dobbs, Jeremy S; Nellas, Ricky B; Shen, Tongye

    2014-02-27

    Glycosylation is an essential modification of proteins and lipids by the addition of carbohydrate residues. These attached carbohydrates range from single monomers to elaborate branched glycans. Here, we examine how the level of glycosylation affects the conformation of a semiflexible peptide linker using the example of the hinge peptide from immunoglobulin A. Three sets of atomistic models of this hinge peptide with varying degrees of glycosylation are constructed to probe how glycosylation affects the physical properties of the linker. We found that glycosylation greatly altered the predominant conformations of the peptide, causing it to become elongated in reference to the unglycosylated form. Furthermore, glycosylation restricts the conformational exploration of the peptide. At the residue level, glycans are found to introduce a bias for the formation of more extended secondary structural elements for glycosylated serines. Additionally, the flexibility of this semiflexible proline-rich peptide is significantly reduced by glycosylation.

  16. Detailed characterization of the O-linked glycosylation of the neuropilin-1 c/MAM-domain.

    PubMed

    Windwarder, Markus; Yelland, Tamas; Djordjevic, Snezana; Altmann, Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    Neuropilins are involved in angiogenesis and neuronal development. The membrane proximal domain of neuropilin-1, called c or MAM domain based on its sequence conservation, has been implicated in neuropilin oligomerization required for its function. The c/MAM domain of human neuropilin-1 has been recombinantly expressed to allow for investigation of its propensity to engage in molecular interactions with other protein or carbohydrate components on a cell surface. We found that the c/MAM domain was heavily O-glycosylated with up to 24 monosaccharide units in the form of disialylated core 1 and core 2 O-glycans. Attachment sites were identified on the chymotryptic c/MAM peptide ETGATEKPTVIDSTIQSEFPTY by electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (ETD-MS/MS). For highly glycosylated species consisting of carbohydrate to about 50 %, useful results could only be obtained upon partial desialylation. ETD-MS/MS revealed a hierarchical order of the initial O-GalNAc addition to the four different glycosylation sites. These findings enable future functional studies about the contribution of the described glycosylations in neuropilin-1 oligomerization and the binding to partner proteins as VEGF or galectin-1.As a spin-off result the sialidase from Clostridium perfringens turned out to discriminate between galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-linked sialic acid.

  17. Fluorescence Spectroscopic Studies on the Complexation of Antidiabetic Drugs with Glycosylated Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seedher, N.; Kanojia, M.

    2013-11-01

    Glycosylation decreases the association constant values and hence the binding affinity of human serum albumin (HSA) for the antidiabetic drugs under study. The percentage of HAS-bound drug at physiological temperature was only about 21-38 % as compared to 46-74 % for non-glycosylated HSA. Thus the percentage of free drug available for an antihyperglycemic effect was about double (62-79 %) compared to the values for non-glycosylated HSA. Much higher free drug concentrations available for pharmacological effect can lead to the risk of hypoglycemia. Hydrophobic interactions were predominantly involved in the binding. In the binding of gliclazide, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were involved. Site specificity for glycosylated HSA was the same as that for non-glycosylated HSA; gliclazide and repaglinide bind only at site II whereas glimepiride and glipizide bind at both sites I and II. Glycosylation, however, caused conformational changes in albumin, and the binding region within site II was different for glycosylated and non-glycosylated albumin. Stern-Volmer analysis also indicated the conformational changes in albumin as a result of glycosylation and showed that the dynamic quenching mechanism was valid for fluorescence of both glycosylated and non-glycosylated HSA.

  18. Aqueous Glycosylation of Unprotected Sucrose Employing Glycosyl Fluorides in the Presence of Calcium Ion and Trimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Zwicker, Aaron; Allen, C. Liana; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    We report a synthetic glycosylation reaction between sucrosyl acceptors and glycosyl fluoride donors to yield the derived trisaccharides. This reaction proceeds at room temperature in an aqueous solvent mixture. Calcium salts and a tertiary amine base promote the reaction with high site-selectivity for either the 3′-position or 1′-position of the fructofuranoside unit. Because non-enzymatic aqueous oligosaccharide syntheses are underdeveloped, mechanistic studies were carried out in order to identify the origin of the selectivity, which we hypothesized was related to the structure of hydroxyl group array in sucrose. The solution conformation of various mono-deoxysucrose analogs revealed the cooperative nature of the hydroxyl group in mediating both this aqueous glycosyl bond-forming reaction and the site-selectivity at the same time. PMID:26859619

  19. Cell transformation by kFGF requires secretion but not glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The Kfgf gene, which encodes a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, was originally discovered by assaying human tumor DNA for dominantly transforming oncogenes. The 22-kD kFGF product contains a single site for asparagine-linked glycosylation and an amino-terminal signal peptide for vectorial synthesis into the endoplasmic reticulum and eventual secretion. To determine whether these features are necessary for transformation, we have constructed mutants of kFGF that are impaired for glycosylation or secretion. All mutants retained the ability to induce DNA synthesis when added to quiescent cells, and the absence of glycosylation had no appreciable effect on the transformation efficiency on NIH3T3 cells. In contrast, mutants of kFGF that remain in the cytoplasm or are retained in the secretory pathway, through addition of a KDEL motif, score negative in standard transformation assays. Since transformation by either the glycosylated or unglycosylated form of kFGF can be reversed by addition of suramin, the data imply that secretion of kFGF, or surface localization of the ligand/receptor complex, is a prerequisite for transformation. PMID:1655808

  20. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C. B.; Talib, M. F.; McCabe, C.; Bu, L.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3-6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function.

  1. Gram-Negative Flagella Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. PMID:24557579

  2. Gram-negative flagella glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2014-02-19

    Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation.

  3. Novel ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites for Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyue; Ye, Weidong; Song, Xiaohua; Ma, Wenxin; Lao, Xuejun; Shen, Runpu

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  4. Site-Specific Tandem Knoevenagel Condensation-Michael Addition To Generate Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kudirka, Romas A; Barfield, Robyn M; McFarland, Jesse M; Drake, Penelope M; Carlson, Adam; Bañas, Stefanie; Zmolek, Wes; Garofalo, Albert W; Rabuka, David

    2016-11-10

    Expanded ligation techniques are sorely needed to generate unique linkages for the growing field of functionally enhanced proteins. To address this need, we present a unique chemical ligation that involves the double addition of a pyrazolone moiety with an aldehyde-labeled protein. This ligation occurs via a tandem Knoevenagel condensation-Michael addition. A pyrazolone reacts with an aldehyde to generate an enone, which undergoes subsequent attack by a second pyrazolone to generate a bis-pyrazolone species. This rapid and facile ligation technique is performed under mild conditions in the absence of catalyst to generate new architectures that were previously inaccessible via conventional ligation reactions. Using this unique ligation, we generated three site-specifically labeled antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with an average of four drugs to one antibody. The in vitro and in vivo efficacies along with pharmacokinetic data of the site-specific ADCs are reported.

  5. Dipeptide-derived nitriles containing additional electrophilic sites: potentially irreversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Löser, Reik; Gütschow, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Heterocyclic and open-chain dipeptide-derived nitriles have been synthesized, containing an additional electrophilic center enabling the subsequent covalent modification of the thioimidate nitrogen formed in situ at the active site of the enzyme. The inhibitory potential of these nitriles against the cysteine proteases papain and cathepsins L, S, and K was determined. The open-chain dipeptide nitriles 8 and 10 acted as moderate reversible inhibitors, but no evidence for an irreversible inhibition of these enzymes was discernable.

  6. Initiation binding repressor, a factor that binds to the transcription initiation site of the histone h5 gene, is a glycosylated member of a family of cell growth regulators [corrected

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cuadrado, A; Martín, M; Noël, M; Ruiz-Carrillo, A

    1995-01-01

    Initiation binding repressor [corrected] (IBR) is a chicken erythrocyte factor (apparent molecular mass, 70 to 73 kDa) that binds to the sequences spanning the transcription initiation site of the histone h5 gene, repressing its transcription. A variety of other cells, including transformed erythroid precursors, do not have IBR but a factor referred to as IBF (68 to 70 kDa) that recognizes the same IBR sites. We have cloned the IBR cDNA and studied the relationship of IBR and IBF. IBR is a 503-amino-acid-long acidic protein which is 99.0% identical to the recently reported human NRF-1/alpha-Pal factor and highly related to the invertebrate transcription factors P3A2 and erected wing gene product (EWG). We present evidence that IBR and IBF are most likely identical proteins, differing in their degree of glycosylation. We have analyzed several molecular aspects of IBR/F and shown that the factor associates as stable homodimers and that the dimer is the relevant DNA-binding species. The evolutionarily conserved N-terminal half of IBR/F harbors the DNA-binding/dimerization domain (outer limits, 127 to 283), one or several casein kinase II sites (37 to 67), and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (89 to 106) which appears to be necessary for nuclear targeting. Binding site selection revealed that the alternating RCGCRYGCGY consensus constitutes high-affinity IBR/F binding sites and that the direct-repeat palindrome TGCGCATGCGCA is the optimal site. A survey of genes potentially regulated by this family of factors primarily revealed genes involved in growth-related metabolism. PMID:8524232

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Glycosylation Profiles of Membrane-Anchored HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers and Soluble gp140

    PubMed Central

    Go, Eden P.; Herschhorn, Alon; Gu, Christopher; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Zhang, Shijian; Mao, Youdong; Chen, Haiyan; Ding, Haitao; Wakefield, John K.; Hua, David; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer, which consists of the gp120 and gp41 subunits, is the focus of multiple strategies for vaccine development. Extensive Env glycosylation provides HIV-1 with protection from the immune system, yet the glycans are also essential components of binding epitopes for numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies have shown that when Env is isolated from virions, its glycosylation profile differs significantly from that of soluble forms of Env (gp120 or gp140) predominantly used in vaccine discovery research. Here we show that exogenous membrane-anchored Envs, which can be produced in large quantities in mammalian cells, also display a virion-like glycan profile, where the glycoprotein is extensively decorated with high-mannose glycans. Additionally, because we characterized the glycosylation with a high-fidelity profiling method, glycopeptide analysis, an unprecedented level of molecular detail regarding membrane Env glycosylation and its heterogeneity is presented. Each glycosylation site was characterized individually, with about 500 glycoforms characterized per Env protein. While many of the sites contain exclusively high-mannose glycans, others retain complex glycans, resulting in a glycan profile that cannot currently be mimicked on soluble gp120 or gp140 preparations. These site-level studies are important for understanding antibody-glycan interactions on native Env trimers. Additionally, we report a newly observed O-linked glycosylation site, T606, and we show that the full O-linked glycosylation profile of membrane-associated Env is similar to that of soluble gp140. These findings provide new insight into Env glycosylation and clarify key molecular-level differences between membrane-anchored Env and soluble gp140. IMPORTANCE A vaccine that protects against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection should elicit antibodies that bind to the surface

  8. Plant protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  9. Ultrasensitive characterization of site-specific glycosylation of affinity-purified haptoglobin from lung cancer patient plasma using 10 μm i.d. porous layer open tubular liquid chromatography-linear ion trap collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Hincapie, Marina; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry L

    2011-03-15

    Site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation is important for biochemical and clinical research efforts. Glycopeptide analysis using liquid chromatography-collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (LC-CID/ETD-MS) allows simultaneous characterization of the glycan structure and attached peptide site. However, due to the low ionization efficiency of glycopeptides during electrospray ionization, 200-500 fmol of sample per injection is needed for a single LC-MS run, which makes it challenging for the analysis of limited amounts of glycoprotein purified from biological matrixes. To improve the sensitivity of LC-MS analysis for glycopeptides, an ultranarrow porous layer open tubular (PLOT) LC column (2.5 m × 10 μm i.d.) was coupled to a linear ion trap (LTQ) collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometer to provide sensitive analysis of N-linked protein glycosylation heterogeneity. The potential of the developed method is demonstrated by the characterization of site-specific glycosylation using haptoglobin (Hpt) as a model protein. To limit the amount of haptoglobin to low picomole amounts of protein, we affinity purified it from 1 μL of pooled lung cancer patient plasma. A total of 26 glycoforms/glycan compositions on three Hpt tryptic glycopeptides were identified and quantified from 10 LC-MS runs with a consumption of 100 fmol of Hpt digest (13 ng of protein, 10 fmol per injection). Included in this analysis was the determination of the glycan occupancy level. At this sample consumption level, the high sensitivity of the PLOT LC-LTQ-CID/ETD-MS system allowed glycopeptide identification and structure determination, along with relative quantitation of glycans presented on the same peptide backbone, even for low abundant glycopeptides at the ∼100 amol level. The PLOT LC-MS system is shown to have sufficient sensitivity to allow characterization of site-specific protein glycosylation from trace

  10. Glycosylation as a target for recognition of influenza viruses by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Reading, Patrick C; Tate, Michelle D; Pickett, Danielle L; Brooks, Andrew G

    2007-01-01

    Glycosylation clearly plays an important role in the life cycle of influenza viruses and certain glycosylation sites are required for the structural integrity and stability of the HA and NA glycoproteins during biosynthesis and formation of intact virions. Furthermore, glycosylation has been shown to modulate the functions of influenza glycoproteins, in particular the recognition of host cell receptors and in shielding antigenic epitopes on the viral HA. The addition of oligosaccharide moieties to the globular head of the HA does, however, correlate with an increased sensitivity to the antiviral activities of SP-D and to recognition and destruction of virus via the MMR on murine macrophages. Consequently, the degree of glycosylation appears to be an important factor in determining sensitivity to lectin-mediated defences, and therefore in determining the ability of a particular virus strain to replicate in the respiratory tract of mice following intranasal infection. The mouse-adapted PR8 strain which lacks mannose-containing glycans from the head of its HA molecule was largely resistant to the antiviral activities of SP-D and the MMR in vitro and induced severed clinical disease following intranasal infection of mice. The finding that mannan treatment of BJx109-infected mice facilitated an early and dramatic enhancement of disease severity is also consistent with a major role for mannose-specific lectins in limiting influenza virus growth and spread in the respiratory tract.

  11. EPA Proposes Additional Water Line Connections for Groundwater Contamination at Tinkham Garage Superfund Site in Londonderry, NH

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA in consultation with NHDES, is proposing additional connections to an existing water line for residents whose wells have been found to have contamination and whom live northeast section of the Tinkham Garage Superfund Site (Site).

  12. Tuning reactivity of glycosyl imidinium intermediate for 2-azido-2-deoxyglycosyl donors in α-glycosidic bond formation.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Arun B; Chao, Chin-Sheng; Hung, Wei-Cheng; Mong, Kwok-Kong Tony

    2013-10-18

    The chemical properties of nucleophile additives were investigated in a modulated glycosylation context. N-Formylmorpholine (NFM) was found to be an effective modulator for glycosylation with less reactive 2-azido-2-deoxythioglucosyl and thiogalactosyl donors.

  13. Identification of Glycosylation Sites Essential for Surface Expression of the CaVα2δ1 Subunit and Modulation of the Cardiac CaV1.2 Channel Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Marie-Philippe; Bourdin, Benoîte; Briot, Julie; Segura, Emilie; Lesage, Sylvie; Fiset, Céline; Parent, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in the L-type current density is one aspect of the electrical remodeling observed in patients suffering from cardiac arrhythmias. Changes in channel function could result from variations in the protein biogenesis, stability, post-translational modification, and/or trafficking in any of the regulatory subunits forming cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel complexes. CaVα2δ1 is potentially the most heavily N-glycosylated subunit in the cardiac L-type CaV1.2 channel complex. Here, we show that enzymatic removal of N-glycans produced a 50-kDa shift in the mobility of cardiac and recombinant CaVα2δ1 proteins. This change was also observed upon simultaneous mutation of the 16 Asn sites. Nonetheless, the mutation of only 6/16 sites was sufficient to significantly 1) reduce the steady-state cell surface fluorescence of CaVα2δ1 as characterized by two-color flow cytometry assays and confocal imaging; 2) decrease protein stability estimated from cycloheximide chase assays; and 3) prevent the CaVα2δ1-mediated increase in the peak current density and voltage-dependent gating of CaV1.2. Reversing the N348Q and N812Q mutations in the non-operational sextuplet Asn mutant protein partially restored CaVα2δ1 function. Single mutation N663Q and double mutations N348Q/N468Q, N348Q/N812Q, and N468Q/N812Q decreased protein stability/synthesis and nearly abolished steady-state cell surface density of CaVα2δ1 as well as the CaVα2δ1-induced up-regulation of L-type currents. These results demonstrate that Asn-663 and to a lesser extent Asn-348, Asn-468, and Asn-812 contribute to protein stability/synthesis of CaVα2δ1, and furthermore that N-glycosylation of CaVα2δ1 is essential to produce functional L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:26742847

  14. Hallmarks of glycosylation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Munkley, Jennifer; Elliott, David J

    2016-06-07

    Aberrant glycosylation plays a fundamental role in key pathological steps of tumour development and progression. Glycans have roles in cancer cell signalling, tumour cell dissociation and invasion, cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune modulation. Aberrant glycosylation is often cited as a 'hallmark of cancer' but is notably absent from both the original hallmarks of cancer and from the next generation of emerging hallmarks. This review discusses how glycosylation is clearly an enabling characteristic that is causally associated with the acquisition of all the hallmark capabilities. Rather than aberrant glycosylation being itself a hallmark of cancer, another perspective is that glycans play a role in every recognised cancer hallmark.

  15. Glycosylation modulates arenavirus glycoprotein expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Bonhomme, Cyrille J. Capul, Althea A. Lauron, Elvin J. Bederka, Lydia H. Knopp, Kristeene A. Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-20

    The glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) contains nine potential N-linked glycosylation sites. We investigated the function of these N-glycosylations by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. All the available sites were occupied on GP1 and two of three on GP2. N-linked glycan mutations at positions 87 and 97 on GP1 resulted in reduction of expression and absence of cleavage and were necessary for downstream functions, as confirmed by the loss of GP-mediated fusion activity with T87A and S97A mutants. In contrast, T234A and E379N/A381T mutants impaired GP-mediated cell fusion without altered expression or processing. Infectivity via virus-like particles required glycans and a cleaved glycoprotein. Glycosylation at the first site within GP2, not normally utilized by LCMV, exhibited increased VLP infectivity. We also confirmed the role of the N-linked glycan at position 173 in the masking of the neutralizing epitope GP-1D. Taken together, our results indicated a strong relationship between fusion and infectivity.

  16. Enzymatic Glycosylation by Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blixt, Ola; Razi, Nahid

    Glycosyltransferases are important biological catalysts in cellular systems generating complex cell surface glycans involved in adhesion and signaling processes. Recent advances in glycoscience have increased the demands to access significant amount of glycans representing the glycome. Glycosyltransferases are now playing a key role for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides and the bacterial genome are increasingly utilized for cloning and over expression of active transferases in glycosylation reactions. This chapter highlights the recent progress towards preparative synthesis of oligosaccharides representing terminal sequences of glycoproteins and glycolipids using recombinant transferases. Transferases are also being explored in the context of solid-phase synthesis, immobilized on resins and over expression in vivo by engineered bacteria.

  17. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Additional On-Site Data Collection for the... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... the PHA. The results of the site visits will be used to identify PHAs to participate in a...

  18. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  19. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  20. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  1. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  2. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  3. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  4. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-12-04

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser(89) is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S(89) was substituted with G(89) (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis.

  5. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser89 is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S89 was substituted with G89 (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis. PMID:26634432

  6. Prompt protein glycosylation during acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Henle, K J; Kaushal, G P; Nagle, W A; Nolen, G T

    1993-08-01

    Constitutive patterns of protein synthesis and protein glycosylation are severely disrupted by acute heat stress. Stressed cells respond by preferential synthesis of specific proteins, e.g., the well-known family of heat shock proteins. We observed another response that rapidly occurs during heating periods as short as 10 min at 45 degrees C. During that period, CHO cells began to glycosylate specific proteins, designated as "prompt" stress glycoproteins (P-SG), while constitutive protein glycosylation ceased. Labeling of P-SGs showed a dose response with time and with temperature and appeared regardless of the label used (D-[3H]mannose or D-[3H]glucose). On SDS-PAGE, the major P-SG was characterized by M(r) approximately 67 kDa (P-SG67) and pI = 5.1. Other less prominent P-SGs appeared at M(r) 160, 100, 64, 60, and 47 kDa; incorporated label showed little turnover during 24 h at 37 degrees C. Prompt glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, and label incorporated into P-SGs was sensitive to N-glycosidase F, but not to O-glycosidase. Analysis of enzymatically digested P-SG67 indicated that label had been incorporated into both high-mannose (Man9GlcNAc) and complex-type oligosaccharides. Brefeldin A did not eliminate P-SG67 labeling, but caused the further appearance of novel, Brefeldin-associated P-SGs. Labeling of P-SG67 oligosaccharides occurred without significant concomitant protein synthesis, suggesting that addition of labeled oligosaccharides largely occurred on mature, rather than nascent proteins. The functional significance of prompt glycosylation remains to be defined, but we propose that this novel phenomenon is an integral part of the cellular heat stress response.

  7. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: new defects and still counting

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kyle; Gadomski, Therese; Kozicz, Tamas; Morava, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Almost 50 inborn errors of metabolism have been described due to congenital defects in N-linked glycosylation. These phenotypically diverse disorders typically present as clinical syndromes, affecting multiple systems including the central nervous system, muscle function, transport, regulation, immunity, endocrine system, and coagulation. An increasing number of disorders have been discovered using novel techniques that combine glycobiology with next-generation sequencing or use tandem mass spectrometry in combination with molecular gene-hunting techniques. The number of “classic” congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) due to N-linked glycosylation defects is still rising. Eight novel CDGs affecting N-linked glycans were discovered in 2013 alone. Newly discovered genes teach us about the significance of glycosylation in cell–cell interaction, signaling, organ development, cell survival, and mosaicism, in addition to the consequences of abnormal glycosylation for muscle function. We have learned how important glycosylation is in posttranslational modification and how glycosylation defects can imitate recognizable, previously described phenotypes. In many CDG subtypes, patients unexpectedly presented with long-term survival, whereas some others presented with nonsyndromic intellectual disability. In this review, recently discovered N-linked CDGs are described, with a focus on clinical presentations and therapeutic ideas. A diagnostic approach in unsolved N-linked CDG cases with abnormal transferrin screening results is also suggested. PMID:24831587

  8. The Metacaspase (Mca1p) Restricts O-glycosylation During Farnesol-induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Camadro, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Protein glycolysation is an essential posttranslational modification in eukaryotic cells. In pathogenic yeasts, it is involved in a large number of biological processes, such as protein folding quality control, cell viability and host/pathogen relationships. A link between protein glycosylation and apoptosis was established by the analysis of the phenotypes of oligosaccharyltransferase mutants in budding yeast. However, little is known about the contribution of glycosylation modifications to the adaptive response to apoptosis inducers. The cysteine protease metacaspase Mca1p plays a key role in the apoptotic response in Candida albicans triggered by the quorum sensing molecule farnesol. We subjected wild-type and mca1-deletion strains to farnesol stress and then studied the early phase of apoptosis release in quantitative glycoproteomics and glycomics experiments on cell-free extracts essentially devoid of cell walls. We identified and characterized 62 new glycosylated peptides with their glycan composition: 17 N-glycosylated, 45 O-glycosylated, and 81 additional sites of N-glycosylation. They were found to be involved in the control of protein folding, cell wall integrity and cell cycle regulation. We showed a general increase in the O-glycosylation of proteins in the mca1 deletion strain after farnesol challenge. We identified 44 new putative protein substrates of the metacaspase in the glycoprotein fraction enriched on concanavalin A. Most of these substrates are involved in protein folding or protein resolubilization and in mitochondrial functions. We show here that key Mca1p substrates, such as Cdc48p or Ssb1p, involved in degrading misfolded glycoproteins and in the protein quality control system, are themselves differentially glycosylated. We found putative substrates, such as Bgl2p (validated by immunoblot), Srb1p or Ugp1p, that are involved in the biogenesis of glycans. Our findings highlight a new role of the metacaspase in amplifying cell death processes

  9. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  10. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide.

  11. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Pyeloplasty Using Additional 2 mm Instruments: A Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Jun Ho; Baek, Min Ki; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite a recent surge in the performance of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS), concerns remain about performing LESS pyeloplasty (LESS-P) because of the technical difficulty in suturing. We report our techniques and initial experiences with LESS-P using additional needlescopic instruments and compare the results with conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CL-P). Materials and Methods Nine patients undergoing LESS-P were matched 2:1 with regard to age and side of surgery to a previous cohort of 18 patients who underwent CL-P. In both groups, the operating procedures were performed equally except for the number of access points. In the LESS-P group, we made a single 2 cm incision at the umbilicus and used a homemade port. We also used additional 2 mm needlescopic instruments at the subcostal area to facilitate suturing and the ureteral stenting. Results The preoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Postoperatively, no significant differences were noted between the LESS-P and CL-P cases in regard to length of stay, estimated blood loss, analgesics required, and complications. But, LESS-P was associated with a shorter operative time (252.2 vs. 309.7 minutes, p=0.044) and less pain on postoperative day one (numeric rating scale 3.7 vs. 5.6, p=0.024). The success rate was 94% with CL-P (median, 23 months) and 100% with LESS-P (median, 14 months). Conclusions Our initial experiences suggest that LESS-P is a feasible and safe procedure. The use of additional 2 mm instruments can help to overcome the difficulties associated with LESS surgery. PMID:22025957

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  13. Effects of N-Glycosylation of the human cation channel TRPA1 on agonist-sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Egan, Timothy James; Acuña, Mario A; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Urech, David

    2016-08-31

    Determining the functional significance of post-translational modifications advances our understanding of many broadly-expressed proteins, and particularly ion channels. The enzymes that catalyze these modifications are often expressed in a cell-type specific manner, resulting in considerable structural diversity among post-translationally modified proteins that are expressed across a variety of cell types. TRP channels exhibit notably variable behavior between cell types in vitro and in vivo , and they are frequently modified with N-glycans that contribute to protein function. TRPA1 possesses two putative N-linked glycosylation sites at N747 and N753 that have not yet been studied in detail. Here, we show that both of these sites can be modified with an N-glycan and that the glycan at position N747 modulates agonist-sensitivity of TRPA1 in vitro Additionally, we found that N-glycosylation also modulates cooperative effects of temperature and the agonist cinnamaldehyde on TRPA1 channel activation. Collectively, these findings suggest a dynamic role played by the N-glycosylation of human TRPA1. They also provide further evidence of the versatility of N-glycans and will assist in efforts to fully understand the complex regulation of TRPA1 activity.

  14. Effects of N-glycosylation of the human cation channel TRPA1 on agonist-sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Timothy J.; Acuña, Mario A.; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Urech, David

    2016-01-01

    Determining the functional significance of post-translational modifications advances our understanding of many broadly-expressed proteins, and particularly ion channels. The enzymes that catalyse these modifications are often expressed in a cell-type specific manner, resulting in considerable structural diversity among post-translationally modified proteins that are expressed across a variety of cell types. TRP channels exhibit notably variable behaviour between cell types in vitro and in vivo, and they are frequently modified with N-glycans that contribute to protein function. TRPA1 possesses two putative N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn747 and Asn753 that have not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, we show that both of these sites can be modified with an N-glycan and that the glycan at position Asn747 modulates agonist-sensitivity of TRPA1 in vitro. Additionally, we found that N-glycosylation also modulates cooperative effects of temperature and the agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA) on TRPA1 channel activation. Collectively, these findings suggest a dynamic role played by the N-glycosylation of human TRPA1. They also provide further evidence of the versatility of N-glycans and will assist in efforts to fully understand the complex regulation of TRPA1 activity. PMID:27582506

  15. Campylobacter--a tale of two protein glycosylation systems.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Christine M; Logan, Susan M; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2003-05-01

    Post-translational glycosylation is a universal modification of proteins in eukarya, archaea and bacteria. Two recent publications describe the first confirmed report of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In addition, an O-linked glycosylation pathway has been identified and characterized in C. jejuni and the related species Campylobacter coli. Both pathways have similarity to the respective N- and O-linked glycosylation processes in eukaryotes. In bacteria, homologues of the genes in both pathways are found in other organisms, the complex glycans linked to the glycoproteins share common biosynthetic precursors and these modifications could play similar biological roles. Thus, Campylobacter provides a unique model system for the elucidation and exploitation of glycoprotein biosynthesis.

  16. A theoretical estimate for nucleotide sugar demand towards Chinese Hamster Ovary cellular glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Polizzi, Karen M.; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation greatly influences the safety and efficacy of many of the highest-selling recombinant therapeutic proteins (rTPs). In order to define optimal cell culture feeding strategies that control rTP glycosylation, it is necessary to know how nucleotide sugars (NSs) are consumed towards host cell and rTP glycosylation. Here, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the reported glycoproteome of CHO cells, the number of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosylation sites on individual host cell proteins (HCPs), and the carbohydrate content of CHO glycosphingolipids to estimate the demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation. We have identified the most abundant N-linked and O-GalNAc CHO glycoproteins, obtained the weighted frequency of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosites across the CHO cell proteome, and have derived stoichiometric coefficients for NS consumption towards CHO cell glycosylation. By combining the obtained stoichiometric coefficients with previously reported data for specific growth and productivity of CHO cells, we observe that the demand of NSs towards glycosylation is significant and, thus, is required to better understand the burden of glycosylation on cellular metabolism. The estimated demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation can be used to rationally design feeding strategies that ensure optimal and consistent rTP glycosylation. PMID:27345611

  17. AglQ is a novel component of the Haloferax volcanii N-glycosylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Arbiv, Adi; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Guan, Ziqiang; Eichler, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    N-glycosylation is a post-translational modification performed by members of all three domains of life. Studies on the halophile Haloferax volcanii have offered insight into the archaeal version of this universal protein-processing event. In the present study, AglQ was identified as a novel component of the pathway responsible for the assembly and addition of a pentasaccharide to select Asn residues of Hfx. volcanii glycoproteins, such as the S-layer glycoprotein. In cells deleted of aglQ, both dolichol phosphate, the lipid carrier used in Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation, and modified S-layer glycoprotein Asn residues only presented the first three pentasaccharide subunits, pointing to a role for AglQ in either preparing the third sugar for attachment of the fourth pentasaccharide subunit or processing the fourth sugar prior to its addition to the lipid-linked trisaccharide. To better define the precise role of AglQ, shown to be a soluble protein, bioinformatics tools were recruited to identify sequence or structural homologs of known function. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments guided by these predictions identified residues important for AglQ function. The results obtained point to AglQ acting as an isomerase in Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation.

  18. The Calcium Goes Meow: Effects of Ions and Glycosylation on Fel d 1, the Major Cat Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Pol-Fachin, Laércio; Verli, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The major cat allergen, Fel d 1, is a structurally complex protein with two N-glycosylation sites that may be filled by different glycoforms. In addition, the protein contains three putative Ca2+ binding sites. Since the impact of these Fel d 1 structure modifications on the protein dynamics, physiology and pathology are not well established, the present work employed computational biology techniques to tackle these issues. While conformational effects brought upon by glycosylation were identified, potentially involved in cavity volume regulation, our results indicate that only the central Ca2+ ion remains coordinated to Fel d 1 in biological solutions, impairing its proposed role in modulating phospholipase A2 activity. As these results increase our understanding of Fel d 1 structural biology, they may offer new support for understanding its physiological role and impact into cat-promoted allergy. PMID:26134118

  19. Effects of glycosylation on antigenicity and immunogenicity of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) harbors three envelope glycoproteins (E(rns), E1 and E2). Previous studies have demonstrated that removal of specific glycosylation sites within these proteins yielded attenuated and immunogenic CSFV mutants. Here we analyzed the effects of lack of glycosylation of...

  20. Identification of a phosphorylation site in the hinge region of the human progesterone receptor and additional amino-terminal phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Knotts, T A; Orkiszewski, R S; Cook, R G; Edwards, D P; Weigel, N L

    2001-03-16

    We have previously reported the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites in the amino-terminal region of the human progesterone receptor (PR). From our previous in vivo studies, it was evident that several phosphopeptides remained unidentified. In particular, we wished to determine whether human PR contains a phosphorylation site in the hinge region, as do other steroid receptors including chicken PR, human androgen receptor, and mouse estrogen receptor. Previously, problematic trypsin cleavage sites hampered our ability to detect phosphorylation sites in large incomplete tryptic peptides. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and in vitro phosphorylation, we have identified six previously unidentified phosphorylation sites in human PR. Using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have identified two new in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser(20) and Ser(676), in baculovirus-expressed human PR. Ser(676) is analogous to the hinge site identified in other steroid receptors. Additionally, precursor ion scans identified another phosphopeptide that contains Ser(130)-Pro(131), a likely candidate for phosphorylation. In vitro phosphorylation of PR with Cdk2 has revealed five additional in vitro Cdk2 phosphorylation sites: Ser(25), Ser(213), Thr(430), Ser(554), and Ser(676). At least two of these, Ser(213) and Ser(676), are authentic in vivo sites. We confirmed the presence of the Cdk2-phosphorylated peptide containing Ser(213) in PR from in vivo labeled T47D cells, indicating that this is an in vivo site. Our combined studies indicate that most, if not all, of the Ser-Pro motifs in human PR are sites for phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that the phosphorylation of PR is highly complex, with at least 14 phosphorylation sites.

  1. Posttranslational N-glycosylation takes place during the normal processing of human coagulation factor VII.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Gert; Kristensen, Claus; Steenstrup, Thomas Dock

    2005-05-01

    N-glycosylation is normally a cotranslational process that occurs during translocation of the nascent protein to the endoplasmic reticulum. In the present study, however, we demonstrate posttranslational N-glycosylation of recombinant human coagulation factor VII (FVII) in CHO-K1 and 293A cells. Human FVII has two N-glycosylation sites (N145 and N322). Pulse-chase labeled intracellular FVII migrated as two bands corresponding to FVII with one and two N-glycans, respectively. N-glycosidase treatment converted both of these band into a single band, which comigrated with mutated FVII without N-glycans. Immediately after pulse, most labeled intracellular FVII had one N-glycan, but during a 1-h chase, the vast majority was processed into FVII with two N-glycans, demonstrating posttranslational N-glycosylation of FVII. Pulse-chase analysis of N-glycosylation site knockout mutants demonstrated cotranslational glycosylation of N145 but primarily or exclusively posttranslational glycosylation of N322. The posttranslational N-glycosylation appeared to take place in the same time frame as the folding of nascent FVII into a secretion-competent conformation, indicating a link between the two processes. We propose that the cotranslational conformation(s) of FVII are unfavorable for glycosylation at N332, whereas a more favorable conformation is obtained during the posttranslational folding. This is the first documentation of posttranslational N-glycosylation of a non-modified protein in mammalian cells with an intact N-glycosylation machinery. Thus, the present study demonstrates that posttranslational N-glycosylation can be a part of the normal processing of glycoproteins.

  2. OleD Loki as a Catalyst for Tertiary Amine and Hydroxamate Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ryan R; Shaaban, Khaled A; Zhang, Jianjun; Cao, Hongnan; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2017-02-16

    We describe the ability of an engineered glycosyltransferase (OleD Loki) to catalyze the N-glycosylation of tertiary-amine-containing drugs and trichostatin hydroxamate glycosyl ester formation. As such, this study highlights the first bacterial model catalyst for tertiary-amine N-glycosylation and further expands the substrate scope and synthetic potential of engineered OleDs. In addition, this work could open the door to the discovery of similar capabilities among other permissive bacterial glycosyltransferases.

  3. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  4. Controllability Analysis of Protein Glycosylation in Cho Cells

    PubMed Central

    St. Amand, Melissa M.; Tran, Kevin; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Robinson, Anne S.; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A.

    2014-01-01

    To function as intended in vivo, a majority of biopharmaceuticals require specific glycan distributions. However, achieving a precise glycan distribution during manufacturing can be challenging because glycosylation is a non-template driven cellular process, with the potential for significant uncontrolled variability in glycan distributions. As important as the glycan distribution is to the end-use performance of biopharmaceuticals, to date, no strategy exists for controlling glycosylation on-line. However, before expending the significant amount of effort and expense required to develop and implement on-line control strategies to address the problem of glycosylation heterogeneity, it is imperative to assess first the extent to which the very complex process of glycosylation is controllable, thereby establishing what is theoretically achievable prior to any experimental attempts. In this work, we present a novel methodology for assessing the output controllability of glycosylation, a prototypical example of an extremely high-dimensional and very non-linear system. We first discuss a method for obtaining the process gain matrix for glycosylation that involves performing model simulations and data analysis systematically and judiciously according to a statistical design of experiments (DOE) scheme and then employing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the elements of process gain matrix from the resulting simulation data. We then discuss how to use the resulting high-dimensional gain matrix to assess controllability. The utility of this method is demonstrated with a practical example where we assess the controllability of various classes of glycans and of specific glycoforms that are typically found in recombinant biologics produced with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. In addition to providing useful insight into the extent to which on-line glycosylation control is achievable in actual manufacturing processes, the results also have important implications for

  5. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  6. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  7. A novel mass spectrometric strategy "BEMAP" reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G; Larsen, Martin R; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-08-26

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen.

  8. A novel mass spectrometric strategy “BEMAP” reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G.; Larsen, Martin R.; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  9. Glycosynthase Mutants of Endoglycosidase S2 Show Potent Transglycosylation Activity and Remarkably Relaxed Substrate Specificity for Antibody Glycosylation Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiezheng; Tong, Xin; Yang, Qiang; Giddens, John P; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2016-08-05

    Glycosylation can exert a profound impact on the structures and biological functions of antibodies. Glycosylation remodeling using the endoglycosidase-catalyzed deglycosylation and transglycosylation approach is emerging as a promising platform to produce homogeneous glycoforms of antibodies, but the broad application of this method will require the availability of highly efficient glycosynthase mutants. We describe in this paper a systematic site-directed mutagenesis of an endoglycosidase from Streptococcus pyogenes of serotype M49 (Endo-S2) and the evaluation of the resulting mutants for their hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities. We found that mutations at the Asp-184 residue gave mutants that demonstrated significantly different properties, some possessed potent transglycosylation activity with diminished hydrolysis activity but others did not, which would be otherwise difficult to predict without the comparative study. In contrast to the previously reported Endo-S mutants that are limited to action on complex type N-glycans, the Endo-S2 glycosynthases described here, including D184M and D184Q, were found to have remarkably relaxed substrate specificity and were capable of transferring three major types (complex, high-mannose, and hybrid type) of N-glycans for antibody glycosylation remodeling. In addition, the Endo-S2 glycosynthase mutants were found to be much more active in general than the Endo-S mutants for transglycosylation. The usefulness of these Endo-S2 glycosynthase mutants was exemplified by an efficient glycosylation remodeling of two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and trastuzumab (Herceptin).

  10. Mutation of N-linked glycosylation at Asn548 in CD133 decreases its ability to promote hepatoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ren, Shifang; Xie, Liqi; Cui, Chunhong; Xing, Yang; Liu, Chanjuan; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Li, Yinan; Chen, Xiaoning; Wei, Yuanyan; Lu, Haojie; Jiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-21

    The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an interaction between its phosphorylated Y828 residue and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, and the interaction with β-catenin. Although CD133 glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its functions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the exact site(s) of N-glycosylation in CD133 by mass spectrometry and found that all eight potential N-glycosylation sites of CD133 could be indeed occupied by N-glycans. Loss of individual N-glycosylation sites had no effect on the level of expression or membrane localization of CD133. However, mutation at glycosylation site Asn548 significantly decreased the ability of CD133 to promote hepatoma cell growth. Furthermore, mutation of Asn548 reduced the interaction between CD133 and β-catenin and inhibited the activation of β-catenin signaling by CD133 overexpression. Our results identified the characteristics and function of CD133 glycosylation sites. These data could potentially shed light on molecular regulation of CD133 by glycosylation and enhance our understanding of the utility of glycosylated CD133 as a target for cancer therapies.

  11. Mutation of N-linked glycosylation at Asn548 in CD133 decreases its ability to promote hepatoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqi; Cui, Chunhong; Xing, Yang; Liu, Chanjuan; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Li, Yinan; Chen, Xiaoning; Wei, Yuanyan; Lu, Haojie; Jiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an interaction between its phosphorylated Y828 residue and the PI3K regulatory subunit p85, and the interaction with β-catenin. Although CD133 glycosylation is supposed to be associated with its function, the contribution of N-glycosylation to its functions remains unclear. Here we analyzed the exact site(s) of N-glycosylation in CD133 by mass spectrometry and found that all eight potential N-glycosylation sites of CD133 could be indeed occupied by N-glycans. Loss of individual N-glycosylation sites had no effect on the level of expression or membrane localization of CD133. However, mutation at glycosylation site Asn548 significantly decreased the ability of CD133 to promote hepatoma cell growth. Furthermore, mutation of Asn548 reduced the interaction between CD133 and β-catenin and inhibited the activation of β-catenin signaling by CD133 overexpression. Our results identified the characteristics and function of CD133 glycosylation sites. These data could potentially shed light on molecular regulation of CD133 by glycosylation and enhance our understanding of the utility of glycosylated CD133 as a target for cancer therapies. PMID:26029999

  12. Site-specific glycoproteomics confirms that protein structure dictates formation of N-glycan type, core fucosylation and branching.

    PubMed

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H

    2012-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the individualized and highly reproducible N-glycan repertoires on each protein glycosylation site modulate function. Relationships between protein structures and the resulting N-glycoforms have previously been observed, but remain to be quantitatively confirmed and examined in detail to define the responsible mechanisms in the conserved mammalian glycosylation machinery. Here, we investigate this relationship by manually extracting and analyzing quantitative and qualitative site-specific glycoprofiling data from 117 research papers. Specifically, N-glycan structural motifs were correlated with the structure of the protein carriers, focusing on the solvent accessibility of the individual glycosylation sites and the physicochemical properties of the surrounding polypeptide chains. In total, 474 glycosylation sites from 169 mammalian N-glycoproteins originating from different tissues/body fluids were investigated. It was confirmed statistically that the N-glycan type, degree of core fucosylation and branching are strongly influenced by the glycosylation site accessibility. For these three N-glycan features, glycosylation sites carrying highly processed glycans were significantly more solvent-accessible than those carrying less processed counterparts. The glycosylation site accessibilities could be linked to molecular signatures at the primary and secondary protein levels, most notably to the glycoprotein size and the proportion of glycosylation sites located in accessible β-turns. In addition, the subcellular location of the glycoproteins influenced the formation of the N-glycan structures. These data confirm that protein structures dictate site-specific formation of several features of N-glycan structures by affecting the biosynthetic pathway. Mammals have, as such, evolved mechanisms enabling proteins to influence the N-glycans they present to the extracellular environment.

  13. EPA Adds Five Hazardous Waste Sites to Superfunds National Priorities List and Proposes an Additional Seven

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is adding five hazardous waste sites that pose risks to human health and the environment to the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL). A separate action includes a proposal to ad

  14. EPA announces additional groundwater investigation at Delaware City PVC Superfund site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Oct. 15, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a new investigation to determine the nature and extent of groundwater contamination at the Delaware City PVC Superfund site in New Castle County.

  15. Expanding the glycoengineering toolbox: the rise of bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jenny L; Çelik, Eda; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2013-05-01

    Glycosylation is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, occurring in all domains of life. Ever since the discovery of asparagine-linked (N-linked) protein glycosylation pathways in bacteria, major efforts have been made to harness these systems for the creation of novel therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics. Recent advances such as the ability to produce designer glycans in bacteria, some containing unnatural sugars, and techniques for evolving glycosylation enzymes have spawned an entirely new discipline known as bacterial glycoengineering. In addition to their biotechnological and therapeutic potential, bacteria equipped with recombinant N-linked glycosylation pathways are improving our understanding of the N-glycosylation process. This review discusses the key role played by microorganisms in glycosciences, particularly in the context of N-linked glycosylation.

  16. The glycosylation-dependent interaction of perlecan core protein with LDL: implications for atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ashline, David; Liu, Li; Tassa, Carlos; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Ravid, Katya; Layne, Matthew D.; Reinhold, Vernon; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2015-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan in the arterial wall. Previous studies have linked it to atherosclerosis. Perlecan contains a core protein and three HS side chains. Its core protein has five domains (DI–DV) with disparate structures and DII is highly homologous to the ligand-binding portion of LDL receptor (LDLR). The functional significance of this domain has been unknown. Here, we show that perlecan DII interacts with LDL. Importantly, the interaction largely relies on O-linked glycans that are only present in the secreted DII. Among the five repeat units of DII, most of the glycosylation sites are from the second unit, which is highly divergent and rich in serine and threonine, but has no cysteine residues. Interestingly, most of the glycans are capped by the negatively charged sialic acids, which are critical for LDL binding. We further demonstrate an additive effect of HS and DII on LDL binding. Unlike LDLR, which directs LDL uptake through endocytosis, this study uncovers a novel feature of the perlecan LDLR-like DII in receptor-mediated lipoprotein retention, which depends on its glycosylation. Thus, perlecan glycosylation may play a role in the early LDL retention during the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25528754

  17. Boric acid gel enrichment of glycosylated proteins in human wound fluids.

    PubMed

    Krisp, Christoph; Kubutat, Caroline; Kyas, Andreas; Steinsträsser, Lars; Jacobsen, Frank; Wolters, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    The enrichment of glycosylated proteins by glycocapturing materials plays a pivotal role for the investigation of polysaccharide containing proteins in disease pathogenesis. Hence, we investigated a boric acid gel as a binding material for glycoprotein enrichment. The bovine proteins alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein (A1AG) and alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (fetuin A) were spiked in human chronic wound fluids and were subsequently enriched by a boric acid gel affinity chromatography (BAGAC). The enrichment efficiency was evaluated by western blot analysis and mass spectrometry. Additionally, glycoproteins of human wound fluids from diabetes mellitus patients with chronic foot ulcers were analyzed after BAGAC enrichments. In total 104 glycoproteins were identified, with reported glycosylation sites. 60 proteins were detected in at least 2 out of 3 biological replicates and were used for quantitative analysis between the bound and unbound fractions. Almost 80% of these glycoproteins were more prominent in the bound fraction. Only 2 glycoproteins revealed higher spectral counts in the flow through fraction compared to the bound fraction. These findings demonstrate the capability of the BAGAC material to enrich glycosylated proteins from complex human wound fluids.

  18. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  19. Engineering the Pattern of Protein Glycosylation Modulates the Thermostability of a GH11 Xylanase*

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel; Vieira, Davi Serradella; Alponti, Juliana Sanchez; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Ward, Richard John

    2013-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a common post-translational modification, the effect of which on protein conformational and stability is incompletely understood. Here we have investigated the effects of glycosylation on the thermostability of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A (XynA) expressed in Pichia pastoris. Intact mass analysis of the heterologous wild-type XynA revealed two, three, or four Hex8–16GlcNAc2 modifications involving asparagine residues at positions 20, 25, 141, and 181. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the XynA modified with various combinations of branched Hex9GlcNAc2 at these positions indicated a significant contribution from protein-glycan interactions to the overall energy of the glycoproteins. The effect of glycan content and glycosylation position on protein stability was evaluated by combinatorial mutagenesis of all six potential N-glycosylation sites. The majority of glycosylated enzymes expressed in P. pastoris presented increased thermostability in comparison with their unglycosylated counterparts expressed in Escherichia coli. Steric effects of multiple glycosylation events were apparent, and glycosylation position rather than the number of glycosylation events determined increases in thermostability. The MD simulations also indicated that clustered glycan chains tended to favor less stabilizing glycan-glycan interactions, whereas more dispersed glycosylation patterns favored stabilizing protein-glycan interactions. PMID:23846692

  20. Understanding protein glycosylation pathways in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Liao, Tingting; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Marshall, Barry J; Stubbs, Keith A; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Through advances in analytical methods to detect glycoproteins and to determine glycan structures, there have been increasing reports of protein glycosylation in bacteria. In this review, we summarize the known pathways for bacterial protein glycosylation: lipid carrier-mediated 'en bloc' glycosylation; and cytoplasmic stepwise protein glycosylation. The exploitation of bacterial protein glycosylation systems, especially the 'mix and match' of three independent but similar pathways (oligosaccharyltransferase-mediated protein glycosylation, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan biosynthesis) in Gram-negative bacteria for glycoengineering recombinant glycoproteins is also discussed.

  1. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data. PMID:16014175

  2. Effect of a-site cation deficiency and YSZ additions on sintering and properties of doped lanthanum manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-06-01

    The sintering behavior of Ca- and Sr-doped lanthanum manganite (the preferred SOFC cathode material) is highly dependent on the relative proportion of A and B site cations in the material. In general, A-site cation deficiency increases sintered density. The effect of additions of YSZ to lanthanum manganite (to expand the reactive region at the cathode/electrolyte interface and improve thermal expansion and sintering shrinkage matches) on sintering and other properties will also be reported.

  3. A two-step enzymatic glycosylation of polypeptides with complex N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Lomino, Joseph V.; Naegeli, Andreas; Orwenyo, Jared; Amin, Mohammed N.; Aebi, Markus; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenyzmatic method for direct glycosylation of polypeptides is described. The method consists of two site-specific enzymatic glycosylation steps: introduction of a glucose moiety at the consensus N-glycosylation sequence (NXS/T) in a polypeptide by an N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) and attachment of a complex N-glycan to the glucose primer by an endoglycosidase (ENGase)-catalyzed transglycosylation. Our experiments demonstrated that a relatively small excess of the UDP-Glc (the donor substrate) was sufficient for an effective glucosylation of polypeptides by the NGT, and different high-mannose and complex type N-glycans could be readily transferred to the glucose moiety by ENGases to provide full-size glycopeptides. The usefulness of the chemoenzymatic method was exemplified by an efficient synthesis of a complex glycoform of polypeptide C34, a potent HIV inhibitor derived from HIV-1 gp41. A comparative study indicated that the Glc-peptide was equally efficient as the natural GlcNAc-peptide to serve as an acceptor in the transglycosylation with sugar oxazoline as the donor substrate. Interestingly, the Glc–Asn linked glycopeptide was completely resistant to PNGase F digestion, in contrast to the GlcNAc–Asn linked natural glycopeptide that is an excellent substrate for hydrolysis. In addition, the Glc–Asn linked glycopeptide showed at least 10-fold lower hydrolytic activity toward Endo-M than the natural GlcNAc–Asn linked glycopeptide. The chemoenzymatic glycosylation method described here provides an efficient way to introducing complex N-glycans into polypeptides, for gain of novel properties that could be valuable for drug discovery. PMID:23477942

  4. The S-Layer Protein of the Anammox Bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis Is Heavily O-Glycosylated

    PubMed Central

    van Teeseling, Muriel C. F.; Maresch, Daniel; Rath, Cornelia B.; Figl, Rudolf; Altmann, Friedrich; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina; van Niftrik, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are a distinct group of Planctomycetes that are characterized by their unique ability to perform anammox with nitrite to dinitrogen gas in a specialized organelle. The cell of anammox bacteria comprises three membrane-bound compartments and is surrounded by a two-dimensional crystalline S-layer representing the direct interaction zone of anammox bacteria with the environment. Previous results from studies with the model anammox organism Kuenenia stuttgartiensis suggested that the protein monomers building the S-layer lattice are glycosylated. In the present study, we focussed on the characterization of the S-layer protein glycosylation in order to increase our knowledge on the cell surface characteristics of anammox bacteria. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed an O-glycan attached to 13 sites distributed over the entire 1591-amino acid S-layer protein. This glycan is composed of six monosaccharide residues, of which five are N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) residues. Four of these HexNAc residues have been identified as GalNAc. The sixth monosaccharide in the glycan is a putative dimethylated deoxyhexose. Two of the HexNAc residues were also found to contain a methyl group, thereby leading to an extensive degree of methylation of the glycan. This study presents the first characterization of a glycoprotein in a planctomycete and shows that the S-layer protein Kustd1514 of K. stuttgartiensis is heavily glycosylated with an O-linked oligosaccharide which is additionally modified by methylation. S-layer glycosylation clearly contributes to the diversification of the K. stuttgartiensis cell surface and can be expected to influence the interaction of the bacterium with other cells or abiotic surfaces. PMID:27847504

  5. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  6. Comparative thermal inactivation analysis of Aspergillus oryzae and Thiellavia terrestris cutinase: Role of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Su, An; Jones, J Andrew; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Gross, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Cutinase thermostability is important so that the enzymes can function above the glass transition of what are often rigid polymer substrates. A detailed thermal inactivation analysis was performed for two well-characterized cutinases, Aspergillus oryzae Cutinase (AoC) and Thiellavia terrestris Cutinase (TtC). Both AoC and TtC are prone to thermal aggregation upon unfolding at high temperature, which was found to be a major reason for irreversible loss of enzyme activity. Our study demonstrates that glycosylation stabilizes TtC expressed in Pichia pastoris by inhibiting its thermal aggregation. Based on the comparative thermal inactivation analyses of non-glycosylated AoC, glycosylated (TtC-G), and non-glycosylated TtC (TtC-NG), a unified model for thermal inactivation is proposed that accounts for thermal aggregation and may be applicable to other cutinase homologues. Inspired by glycosylated TtC, we successfully employed glycosylation site engineering to inhibit AoC thermal aggregation. Indeed, the inhibition of thermal aggregation by AoC glycosylation was greater than that achieved by conventional use of trehalose under a typical condition. Collectively, this study demonstrates the excellent potential of implementing glycosylation site engineering for thermal aggregation inhibition, which is one of the most common reasons for the irreversible thermal inactivation of cutinases and many proteins. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 63-73. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Assessing an unknown evolutionary process: effect of increasing site-specific knowledge through taxon addition.

    PubMed

    Pollock, D D; Bruno, W J

    2000-12-01

    Assessment of the evolutionary process is crucial for understanding the effect of protein structure and function on sequence evolution and for many other analyses in molecular evolution. Here, we used simulations to study how taxon sampling affects accuracy of parameter estimation and topological inference in the absence of branch length asymmetry. With maximum-likelihood analysis, we find that adding taxa dramatically improves both support for the evolutionary model and accurate assessment of its parameters when compared with increasing the sequence length. Using a method we call "doppelgänger trees," we distinguish the contributions of two sources of improved topological inference: greater knowledge about internal nodes and greater knowledge of site-specific rate parameters. Surprisingly, highly significant support for the correct general model does not lead directly to improved topological inference. Instead, substantial improvement occurs only with accurate assessment of the evolutionary process at individual sites. Although these results are based on a simplified model of the evolutionary process, they indicate that in general, assuming processes are not independent and identically distributed among sites, more extensive sampling of taxonomic biodiversity will greatly improve analytical results in many current sequence data sets with moderate sequence lengths.

  8. Proteoform Profile Mapping of the Human Serum Complement Component C9 Revealing Unexpected New Features of N-, O-, and C-Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The human complement C9 protein (∼65 kDa) is a member of the complement pathway. It plays an essential role in the membrane attack complex (MAC), which forms a lethal pore on the cellular surface of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we charted in detail the structural microheterogeneity of C9 purified from human blood serum, using an integrative workflow combining high-resolution native mass spectrometry and (glyco)peptide-centric proteomics. The proteoform profile of C9 was acquired by high-resolution native mass spectrometry, which revealed the co-occurrence of ∼50 distinct mass spectrometry (MS) signals. Subsequent peptide-centric analysis, through proteolytic digestion of C9 and liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of the resulting peptide mixtures, provided site-specific quantitative profiles of three different types of C9 glycosylation and validation of the native MS data. Our study provides a detailed specification, validation, and quantification of 15 co-occurring C9 proteoforms and the first direct experimental evidence of O-linked glycans in the N-terminal region. Additionally, next to the two known glycosylation sites, a third novel, albeit low abundant, N-glycosylation site on C9 is identified, which surprisingly does not possess the canonical N-glycosylation sequence N-X-S/T. Our data also reveal a binding of up to two Ca2+ ions to C9. Mapping all detected and validated sites of modifications on a structural model of C9, as present in the MAC, hints at their putative roles in pore formation or receptor interactions. The applied methods herein represent a powerful tool for the unbiased in-depth analysis of plasma proteins and may advance biomarker discovery, as aberrant glycosylation profiles may be indicative of the pathophysiological state of the patients. PMID:28221766

  9. N- and O-glycosylation in the murine synaptosome.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Jonathan C; Schoepfer, Ralf; Burlingame, Alma L; Medzihradszky, Katalin F

    2013-12-01

    We present the first large scale study characterizing both N- and O-linked glycosylation in a site-specific manner on hundreds of proteins. We demonstrate that a lectin-affinity fractionation step using wheat germ agglutinin enriches not only peptides carrying intracellular O-GlcNAc, but also those bearing ER/Golgi-derived N- and O-linked carbohydrate structures. Liquid chromatography-MS (LC/MS) analysis with high accuracy precursor mass measurements and high sensitivity ion trap electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) were utilized for structural characterization of glycopeptides. Our results reveal both the identity of the precise sites of glycosylation and information on the oligosaccharide structures possible on these proteins. We report a novel iterative approach that allowed us to interpret the ETD data set directly without making prior assumptions about the nature and distribution of oligosaccharides present in our glycopeptide mixture. Over 2500 unique N- and O-linked glycopeptides were identified on 453 proteins. The extent of microheterogeneity varied extensively, and up to 19 different oligosaccharides were attached at a given site. We describe the presence of the well-known mucin-type structures for O-glycosylation, an EGF-domain-specific fucosylation and a rare O-mannosylation on the transmembrane phosphatase Ptprz1. Finally, we identified three examples of O-glycosylation on tyrosine residues.

  10. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and major changes to the final management plan, including state laws or regulations promulgated specifically for the... management plan change. Changes in the boundary of a Reserve involving the acquisition of properties...

  11. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and major changes to the final management plan, including state laws or regulations promulgated specifically for the... management plan change. Changes in the boundary of a Reserve involving the acquisition of properties...

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S.

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  13. N-linked glycosylation is required for plasma membrane localization of D5, but not D1, dopamine receptors in transfected mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Karpa, K D; Lidow, M S; Pickering, M T; Levenson, R; Bergson, C

    1999-11-01

    We have analyzed the role of N-linked glycosylation in functional cell surface expression of the D1 and D5 dopamine receptor subtypes. Treatment of transfected HEK 293 cells with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked oligosaccharide addition, was found to prevent localization of D5 receptors in the plasma membrane. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment had no effect on the plasma membrane localization of the D1 receptor. Polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis was used to generate a panel of D5 receptors containing mutations in the three predicted sites of N-linked glycosylation. Expression of mutant receptors indicated that glycosylation of residue N7 was the major determinant of D5 receptor plasma membrane localization. Mutation of a comparable site in the D1 receptor at position N5 had no effect on the delivery of the D1 receptor to the cell surface. Tunicamycin treatment during receptor biosynthesis, but not N-glycosidase F digestion of mature receptors, abrogated binding of the D5 receptor antagonist [(3)H]SCH23390, suggesting that while oligosaccharide moieties play a key role in the cell surface expression of D5 receptors, they do not appear to contribute to the receptor's ligand binding properties. Together, our data indicate a differential requirement for N-linked glycosylation in functional cell surface expression of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors.

  14. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lynne A.; Krasnewich, Donna

    2013-01-01

    The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing group of inborn errors of metabolism that result from defects in the synthesis of glycans. Glycosylation is a major post-translational protein modification and an estimated 2% of the human genome encodes proteins for glycosylation. The molecular bases for the current 60…

  15. Analysis and Function of Prototype Foamy Virus Envelope N Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Daniel; Picard-Maureau, Marcus; Stanke, Nicole; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The prototype foamy virus (PFV) glycoprotein, which is essential for PFV particle release, displays a highly unusual biosynthesis, resulting in posttranslational cleavage of the precursor protein into three particle-associated subunits, i.e., leader peptide (LP), surface (SU), and transmembrane (TM). Glycosidase digestion of metabolically labeled PFV particles revealed the presence of N-linked carbohydrates on all subunits. The differential sensitivity to specific glycosidases indicated that all oligosaccharides on LP and TM are of the high-mannose or hybrid type, whereas most of those attached to SU, which contribute to about 50% of its molecular weight, are of the complex type. Individual inactivation of all 15 potential N-glycosylation sites in PFV Env demonstrated that 14 are used, i.e., 1 out of 2 in LP, 10 in SU, and 3 in TM. Analysis of the individual altered glycoproteins revealed defects in intracellular processing, support of particle release, and infectivity for three mutants, having the evolutionarily conserved glycosylation sites N8 in SU or N13 and N15 in the cysteine-rich central “sheets-and-loops” region of TM inactivated. Examination of alternative mutants with mutations affecting glycosylation or surrounding sequences at these sites indicated that inhibition of glycosylation at N8 and N13 most likely is responsible for the observed replication defects, whereas for N15 surrounding sequences seem to contribute to a temperature-sensitive phenotype. Taken together these data demonstrate that PFV Env and in particular the SU subunit are heavily N glycosylated and suggest that although most carbohydrates are dispensable individually, some evolutionarily conserved sites are important for normal Env function of FV isolates from different species. PMID:15919919

  16. N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii: adjusting the sweetness.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Jerry; Arbiv, Adi; Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Kaminski, Lina; Kandiba, Lina; Konrad, Zvia

    2013-12-24

    Long believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target protein asparagine residues. Still, it is only in the last decade that pathways of N-glycosylation in Archaea have been delineated. In the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation) proteins is responsible for the addition of an N-linked pentasaccharide to modified proteins, including the surface (S)-layer glycoprotein, the sole component of the surface layer surrounding the cell. The S-layer glycoprotein N-linked glycosylation profile changes, however, as a function of surrounding salinity. Upon growth at different salt concentrations, the S-layer glycoprotein is either decorated by the N-linked pentasaccharide introduced above or by both this pentasaccharide as well as a tetrasaccharide of distinct composition. Recent efforts have identified Agl5-Agl15 as components of a second Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation pathway responsible for generating the tetrasaccharide attached to S-layer glycoprotein when growth occurs in 1.75 M but not 3.4 M NaCl-containing medium.

  17. Mutational and functional analysis of N-linked glycosylation of envelope fusion protein F of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu; Wang, Manli; Li, Xin; Li, Shufen; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Braakman, Ineke; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin

    2016-04-01

    The envelope fusion (F) protein of baculoviruses is a heavily N-glycosylated protein that plays a significant role in the virus infection cycle. N-Linked glycosylation of virus envelope glycoprotein is important for virus envelope glycoprotein folding and its function in general. There are six predicted N-glycosylation sites in the F (HaF) protein of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). The N-glycosylation site located in the F(2) subunit (N104) of HaF has been identified and functionally characterized previously (Long et al., 2007). In this study, the other five potential N-glycosylation sites located in the HaF1 subunit, namely, N293, N361, N526, N571 and N595, were analysed extensively to examine their N-glycosylation and relative importance to the function of HaF. The results showed that four of these five potential glycosylation sites in the F(1) subunit, N293, N361, N526 and N571, were N-glycosylated in F proteins of mature HearNPV budded viruses (BVs) but that N595 was not. In general, the conserved site N526 was critical to the functioning of HaF, as absence of N-glycosylation of N526 reduced the efficiency of HaF folding and trafficking, consequently decreased fusogenicity and modified the subcellular localization of HaF proteins, and thus impaired virus production and infectivity. The absence of N-glycosylation at other individual sites was found to have different effects on the fusogenicity and subcelluar distribution of HaF proteins in HzAM1 cells. In summary, N-glycosylation plays comprehensive roles in HaF function and virus infectivity, which is further discussed.

  18. Cotranslational and Posttranslational N-Glycosylation of Polypeptides by Distinct Mammalian OST Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Canada, Catalina; Kelleher, Daniel J.; Gilmore, Reid

    2010-01-01

    Summary Asparagine-linked glycosylation of polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by the hetero-oligomeric oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). OST isoforms with different catalytic subunits (STT3A versus STT3B) and distinct enzymatic properties are coexpressed in mammalian cells. Using siRNA to achieve isoform-specific knockdowns, we show that the OST isoforms cooperate and act sequentially to mediate protein N-glycosylation. The STT3A OST isoform is primarily responsible for cotranslational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The STT3B isoform is required for efficient cotranslational glycosylation of an acceptor site adjacent to the N-terminal signal sequence of a secreted protein. Unlike STT3A, STT3B efficiently mediates posttranslational glycosylation of a carboxyl-terminal glycosylation site in an unfolded protein. These distinct and complementary roles for the OST isoforms allow sequential scanning of polypeptides for acceptor sites to insure the maximal efficiency of N-glycosylation. PMID:19167329

  19. Virus glycosylation: role in virulence and immune interactions.

    PubMed

    Vigerust, David J; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2007-05-01

    The study of N-linked glycosylation as it relates to virus biology has become an area of intense interest in recent years due to its ability to impart various advantages to virus survival and virulence. HIV and influenza, two clear threats to human health, have been shown to rely on expression of specific oligosaccharides to evade detection by the host immune system. Additionally, other viruses such as Hendra, SARS-CoV, influenza, hepatitis and West Nile rely on N-linked glycosylation for crucial functions such as entry into host cells, proteolytic processing and protein trafficking. This review focuses on recent findings on the importance of glycosylation to viral virulence and immune evasion for several prominent human pathogens.

  20. A Novel Strategy for Thermostability Improvement of Trypsin Based on N-Glycosylation within the Ω-Loop Region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Liu, Ye; Yu, Haoran; Du, Kun; Gan, Yiru; Huang, He

    2016-07-28

    The Ω-loop is a nonregular and flexible structure that plays an important role in molecular recognition, protein folding, and thermostability. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to assess the molecular stability and flexibility profile of the porcine trypsin structures. Two Ω-Loops (fragment 57-67 and fragment 78-91) were confirmed to represent the flexible region. Subsequently, glycosylation site-directed mutations (A73S, N84S, and R104S) were introduced within the Ω-loop region and its wing chain based on its potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr consensus sequences) and structure information to improve the thermostability of trypsin. The result demonstrated that the halflife of the N84S mutant at 50°C increased by 177.89 min when compared with that of the wildtype enzyme. Furthermore, the significant increase in the thermal stability of the N84S mutant has also been proven by an increase in the Tm values determined by circular dichroism. Additionally, the optimum temperatures of the wild-type enzyme and the N84S mutant were 75°C and 80°C, respectively. In conclusion, we obtained the thermostability-improved enzyme N84S mutant, and the strategy used to design this mutant based on its structural information and N-linked glycosylation modification could be applied to engineer other enzymes to meet the needs of the biotechnological industry.

  1. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Kelly M; Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Twine, Susan M; Tomás, Juan M; Merino, Susana

    2015-11-27

    Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11) were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues) were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production) between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-"like" receptor 5 (TLR5).

  2. Protein glycosylation in bacteria: sweeter than ever.

    PubMed

    Nothaft, Harald; Szymanski, Christine M

    2010-11-01

    Investigations into bacterial protein glycosylation continue to progress rapidly. It is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways that display many commonalities with their eukaryotic and archaeal counterparts as well as some unexpected variations. In bacteria, protein glycosylation is not restricted to pathogens but also exists in commensal organisms such as certain Bacteroides species, and both the N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins. Improving our understanding of the intricacies of bacterial protein glycosylation systems should lead to new opportunities to manipulate these pathways in order to engineer glycoproteins with potential value as novel vaccines.

  3. Ethanol Addition for Enhancing Denitrification at the Uranium Mill Tailing Site in Monument Valley, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, A. K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; McMillan, Andrew; Akyol, N. H.; Berkompas, J.; Miao, Z.; Jordan, F.; Tick, Geoff; Waugh, W. J.; Glenn, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing near Monument Valley, Arizona resulted in the formation of a large nitrate plume in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The results of prior field characterization studies indicate that the nitrate plume is undergoing a slow rate of attenuation via denitrification, and the results of bench-scale studies suggest that denitrification rates can potentially be increased by an order of magnitude with the addition of ethanol as a carbon substrate. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of ethanol amendment for enhancing the natural denitrification occurring in the alluvial aquifer. Pilot tests were conducted using the single well, push-pull method and a natural-gradient test. The results showed that the concentration of nitrate decreased, while the concentration of nitrous oxide (a product of denitrification) increased. In addition, changes in aqueous concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese indicate the ethanol amendment effected a change in prevailing redox conditions. The results of compound-specific stable isotope analysis for nitrogen indicated that the nitrate concentration reductions were biologically mediated. Continued monitoring after completion of the pilot tests has shown that nitrate concentrations in the injection zone have remained at levels three orders of magnitude lower than the initial values, indicating that the impacts of the pilot tests have been sustained for several months.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    MedlinePlus

    ... type 1G congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ig Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Metabolic Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (2 links) ALG12-CDG (CDG-Ig) ...

  5. Golgi Glycosylation and Human Inherited Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Ng, Bobby G.

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi factory receives custom glycosylates and dispatches its cargo to the correct cellular locations. The process requires importing donor substrates, moving the cargo, and recycling machinery. Correctly glycosylated cargo reflects the Golgi's quality and efficiency. Genetic disorders in the specific equipment (enzymes), donors (nucleotide sugar transporters), or equipment recycling/reorganization components (COG, SEC, golgins) can all affect glycosylation. Dozens of human glycosylation disorders fit these categories. Many other genes, with or without familiar names, well-annotated pedigrees, or likely homologies will join the ranks of glycosylation disorders. Their broad and unpredictable case-by-case phenotypes cross the traditional medical specialty boundaries. The gene functions in patients may be elusive, but their common feature may include altered glycosylation that provide clues to Golgi function. This article focuses on a group of human disorders that affect protein or lipid glycosylation. Readers may find it useful to generalize some of these patient-based, translational observations to their own research. PMID:21709180

  6. On the Role of Additional [4Fe-4S] Clusters with a Free Coordination Site in Radical-SAM Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mulliez, Etienne; Duarte, Victor; Arragain, Simon; Fontecave, Marc; Atta, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The canonical CysXXXCysXXCys motif is the hallmark of the Radical-SAM superfamily. This motif is responsible for the ligation of a [4Fe-4S] cluster containing a free coordination site available for SAM binding. The five enzymes MoaA, TYW1, MiaB, RimO and LipA contain in addition a second [4Fe-4S] cluster itself bound to three other cysteines and thus also displaying a potentially free coordination site. This review article summarizes recent important achievements obtained on these five enzymes with the main focus to delineate the role of this additional [4Fe-4S] cluster in catalysis. PMID:28361051

  7. Nontargeted Modification-Specific Metabolomics Investigation of Glycosylated Secondary Metabolites in Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Based on Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weidong; Tan, Junfeng; Lu, Meiling; Xie, Dongchao; Li, Pengliang; Lv, Haipeng; Zhu, Yin; Guo, Li; Zhang, Yue; Peng, Qunhua; Lin, Zhi

    2016-09-07

    Glycosylation on small molecular metabolites modulates a series of biological events in plants. However, a large number of glycosides have not been discovered and investigated using -omics approaches. Here, a general strategy named "nontargeted modification-specific metabolomics" was applied to map the glycosylation of metabolites. The key aspect of this method is to adopt in-source collision-induced dissociation to dissociate the glycosylated metabolite, causing a characteristic neutral loss pattern, which acts as an indicator for the glycosylation identification. In an exemplary application in green teas, 120 glucosylated/galactosylated, 38 rhamnosylated, 21 rutinosylated, and 23 primeverosylated metabolites were detected simultaneously. Among them, 61 glycosylated metabolites were putatively identified according to current tea metabolite databases. Thanks to the annotations of glycosyl moieties in advance, the method aids metabolite identifications. An additional 40 novel glycosylated metabolites were tentatively elucidated. This work provides a feasible strategy to discover and identify novel glycosylated metabolites in plants.

  8. Insight into multi-site mechanisms of glycosyl transfer in (1-->4)beta-D-glycans provided by the cereal mixed-linkage (1-->3),(1-->4)beta-D-glucan synthase.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, M S; Vergara, C E; Carpita, N C

    2001-08-01

    Synthases of cellulose, chitin, hyaluronan, and all other polymers containing (1-->4)beta-linked glucosyl, mannosyl and xylosyl units have overcome a substrate orientation problem in catalysis because the (1-->4)beta-linkage requires that each of these sugar units be inverted nearly 180 degrees with respect to its neighbors. We and others have proposed that this problem is solved by two modes of glycosyl transfer within a single catalytic subunit to generate disaccharide units, which, when linked processively, maintain the proper orientation without rotation or re-orientation of the synthetic machinery in 3-dimensional space. A variant of the strict (1-->4)beta-D-linkage structure is the mixed-linkage (1-->3),(1-->4)beta-D-glucan, a growth-specific cell wall polysaccharide found in grasses and cereals. beta-Glucan is composed primarily of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units linked by single (1-->3)beta-D-linkages. In reactions in vitro at high substrate concentration, a polymer composed of almost entirely cellotriosyl and cellopentosyl units is made. These results support a model in which three modes of glycosyl transfer occur within the synthase complex instead of just two. The generation of odd numbered units demands that they are connected by (1-->3)beta-linkages and not (1-->4)beta-. In this short review of beta-glucan synthesis in maize, we show how such a model not only provides simple mechanisms of synthesis for all (1-->4)beta-D-glycans but also explains how the synthesis of callose, or strictly (1-->3)beta-D-glucans, occurs upon loss of the multiple modes of glycosyl transfer to a single one.

  9. Cotranslational and posttranslocational N-glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Cherepanova, Natalia A.; Gilmore, Reid

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine linked glycosylation of proteins is an essential protein modification reaction in most eukaryotic organisms. N-linked oligosaccharides are important for protein folding and stability, biosynthetic quality control, intracellular traffic and the physiological function of many N-glycosylated proteins. In metazoan organisms, the oligosaccharyltransferase is composed of a catalytic subunit (STT3A or STT3B) and a set of accessory subunits. Duplication of the catalytic subunit gene allowed cells to evolve OST complexes that act sequentially to maximize the glycosylation efficiency of the large number of proteins that are glycosylated in metazoan organisms. We will summarize recent progress in understanding the mechanism of (a) cotranslational glycosylation by the translocation channel associated STT3A complex, (b) the role of the STT3B complex in mediating cotranslational or posttranslocational glycosylation of acceptor sites that have been skipped by the STT3A complex, and (c) the role of the oxidoreductase MagT1 in STT3B-dependent glycosylation of cysteine-proximal acceptor sites. PMID:25460543

  10. Cotranslational and posttranslocational N-glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Cherepanova, Natalia A; Gilmore, Reid

    2015-05-01

    Asparagine linked glycosylation of proteins is an essential protein modification reaction in most eukaryotic organisms. N-linked oligosaccharides are important for protein folding and stability, biosynthetic quality control, intracellular traffic and the physiological function of many N-glycosylated proteins. In metazoan organisms, the oligosaccharyltransferase is composed of a catalytic subunit (STT3A or STT3B) and a set of accessory subunits. Duplication of the catalytic subunit gene allowed cells to evolve OST complexes that act sequentially to maximize the glycosylation efficiency of the large number of proteins that are glycosylated in metazoan organisms. We will summarize recent progress in understanding the mechanism of (a) cotranslational glycosylation by the translocation channel associated STT3A complex, (b) the role of the STT3B complex in mediating cotranslational or posttranslocational glycosylation of acceptor sites that have been skipped by the STT3A complex, and (c) the role of the oxidoreductase MagT1 in STT3B-dependent glycosylation of cysteine-proximal acceptor sites.

  11. Characterization of N-glycosylation profiles from mammalian and insect cell derived chikungunya VLP.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Catherine; Pristatsky, Pavlo; Hoang, Van M; Casimiro, Danilo R; Schwartz, Richard M; Rustandi, Richard; Ha, Sha

    2016-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe arthralgia. The envelope of CHIKV is composed of 240 copies of two glycoproteins: E1 and E2. In this work, we have characterized the N-glycosylation patterns of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs), containing both E1 and E2 proteins, derived from mammalian and insect cells using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence (FL) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. While HEK293 derived CHIKV VLPs contain oligomannose, hybrid and complex glycans, VLPs derived from SfBasic predominantly contain oligomannose glycans. This strong host dependence of N-glycosylation pattern resembles other alphaviruses such as SINV. The VLPs from HEK293 and SfBasic, with significantly different N-glycosylation profiles, are valuable reagents enabling future in-depth correlation studies between immunogenicity and glycosylation. In addition, the characterization tools presented here allow one to monitor glycosylation during vaccine process development and ensure process consistency.

  12. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits.

  13. Taming the Reactivity of Glycosyl Iodides To Achieve Stereoselective Glycosidation.

    PubMed

    Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-19

    that even highly functionalized aglycon acceptors add. Following the coupling event, the TMS ethers are readily removed by methanolysis, and since all of the byproducts are volatile, multiple reactions can be performed in a single reaction vessel without isolation of intermediates. In this fashion, per-O-TMS monosaccharides can be converted to biologically relevant α-linked glycolipids in one pot. The stereochemical outcome of these reactions can also be switched to β-glycoside formation by addition of silver to chelate the iodide, thus favoring SN2 displacement of the α-iodide. While iodides derived from benzyl and silyl ether-protected oligosaccharides are susceptible to interglycosidic bond cleavage when treated with TMSI, the introduction of a single acetate protecting group prevents this unwanted side reaction. Partial acetylation of armed glycosyl iodides also attenuates HI elimination side reactions. Conversely, fully acetylated glycosyl iodides are deactivated and require metal catalysis in order for glycosidation to occur. Recent findings indicate that I2 activation of per-O-acetylated mono-, di-, and trisaccharides promotes glycosidation of cyclic ethers to give β-linked iodoalkyl glycoconjugates in one step. Products of these reactions have been converted into multivalent carbohydrate displays. With these synthetic pathways elucidated, chemical reactivity can be exquisitely controlled by the judicious selection of protecting groups to achieve high stereocontrol in step-economical processes.

  14. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    than those of plasma, even when expressed in molal units, and were practically nil in cafeteria-diet fed rats compared with controls; there was no effect of sex. Conclusions. RBC membrane glycosylation is a sensitive indicator of developing metabolic syndrome-related hyperglycemia, more sensitive than the general measurement of plasma or RBC protein glycosylation. The extensive glycosylation of blood proteins does not seem to be markedly affected by sex; and could be hardly justified from an assumedly sustained plasma hyperglycemia. The low levels of glucose found within RBC, especially in rats under the cafeteria diet, could hardly justify the extensive glycosylation of hemoglobin and the lack of differences with controls, which contained sizeable levels of intracellular glucose. Additional studies are needed to study the dynamics of glucose in vivo in the RBC to understand how such extensive protein glycosylation could take place.

  15. Proteome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide variations in the N-glycosylation sequon of human genes.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Raja; Morampudi, Krishna Sudeep; Motwani, Mona; Vasudevan, Sona; Goldman, Radoslav

    2012-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is one of the most frequent post-translational modifications of proteins with a profound impact on their biological function. Besides other functions, N-linked glycosylation assists in protein folding, determines protein orientation at the cell surface, or protects proteins from proteases. The N-linked glycans attach to asparagines in the sequence context Asn-X-Ser/Thr, where X is any amino acid except proline. Any variation (e.g. non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism or mutation) that abolishes the N-glycosylation sequence motif will lead to the loss of a glycosylation site. On the other hand, variations causing a substitution that creates a new N-glycosylation sequence motif can result in the gain of glycosylation. Although the general importance of glycosylation is well known and acknowledged, the effect of variation on the actual glycoproteome of an organism is still mostly unknown. In this study, we focus on a comprehensive analysis of non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNV) that lead to either loss or gain of the N-glycosylation motif. We find that 1091 proteins have modified N-glycosylation sequons due to nsSNVs in the genome. Based on analysis of proteins that have a solved 3D structure at the site of variation, we find that 48% of the variations that lead to changes in glycosylation sites occur at the loop and bend regions of the proteins. Pathway and function enrichment analysis show that a significant number of proteins that gained or lost the glycosylation motif are involved in kinase activity, immune response, and blood coagulation. A structure-function analysis of a blood coagulation protein, antithrombin III and a protease, cathepsin D, showcases how a comprehensive study followed by structural analysis can help better understand the functional impact of the nsSNVs.

  16. N-Linked Protein Glycosylation is Required for Full Competence in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plant cells. J. Bacteriol. 179:78– 89. 5. Benz, I., and M. A. Schmidt. 2001. Glycosylation with heptose residues mediated by...glycosylation sites present in the H. pylori and Agrobacterium tumefaciens homologs, respectively. The A. tu- mefaciens homolog of VirB10 has been previously...complementation analysis of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB operon: virB2 through virB11 are essen- tial virulence genes. J. Bacteriol. 176:3646

  17. Hot and sweet: protein glycosylation in Crenarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin H; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-02-01

    Every living cell is covered with a dense and complex array of covalently attached sugars or sugar chains. The majority of these glycans are linked to proteins via the so-called glycosylation process. Protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea. However, on the basis of the limit in analytic tools for glycobiology and genetics in Archaea, only in the last few years has research on archaeal glycosylation pathways started mainly in the Euryarchaeota Haloferax volcanii, Methanocaldococcus maripaludis and Methanococcus voltae. Recently, major steps of the crenarchaeal glycosylation process of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius have been described. The present review summarizes the proposed N-glycosylation pathway of S. acidocaldarius, describing the phenotypes of the mutants disrupted in N-glycan biosynthesis as well as giving insights into the archaeal O-linked and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor glycosylation process.

  18. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  19. Asymmetric Iridium-Catalyzed C-C Coupling of Chiral Diols via Site-Selective Redox-Triggered Carbonyl Addition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Inji; Krische, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cyclometalated π-allyliridium C,O-benzoate complexes modified by axially chiral chelating phosphine ligands display a pronounced kinetic preference for primary alcohol dehydrogenation, enabling highly site-selective redox-triggered carbonyl additions of chiral primary-secondary 1,3-diols with exceptional levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity. Unlike conventional methods for carbonyl allylation, the present redox-triggered alcohol C-H functionalizations bypass the use of protecting groups, premetalated reagents, and discrete alcohol-to-aldehyde redox reactions.

  20. Asymmetric Iridium Catalyzed C-C Coupling of Chiral Diols via Site-Selective Redox-Triggered Carbonyl Addition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Inji; Krische, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclometalated π-allyliridium C,O-benzoate complexes modified by axially chiral chelating phosphine ligands display a pronounced kinetic preference for primary alcohol dehydrogenation, enabling highly site-selective redox-triggered carbonyl additions of chiral primary-secondary 1,3-diols with exceptional levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity. Unlike conventional methods for carbonyl allylation, the present redox-triggered alcohol C-H functionalizations bypass the use of protecting groups, premetalated reagents, and discrete alcohol-to-aldehyde redox reactions. PMID:26187028

  1. Rapid assays for lectin toxicity and binding changes that reflect altered glycosylation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Pamela; Sundaram, Subha

    2014-06-03

    Glycosylation engineering is used to generate glycoproteins, glycolipids, or proteoglycans with a more defined complement of glycans on their glycoconjugates. For example, a mammalian cell glycosylation mutant lacking a specific glycosyltransferase generates glycoproteins, and/or glycolipids, and/or proteoglycans with truncated glycans missing the sugar transferred by that glycosyltransferase, as well as those sugars that would be added subsequently. In some cases, an alternative glycosyltransferase may then use the truncated glycans as acceptors, thereby generating a new or different glycan subset in the mutant cell. Another type of glycosylation mutant arises from gain-of-function mutations that, for example, activate a silent glycosyltransferase gene. In this case, glycoconjugates will have glycans with additional sugar(s) that are more elaborate than the glycans of wild type cells. Mutations in other genes that affect glycosylation, such as nucleotide sugar synthases or transporters, will alter the glycan complement in more general ways that usually affect several types of glycoconjugates. There are now many strategies for generating a precise mutation in a glycosylation gene in a mammalian cell. Large-volume cultures of mammalian cells may also generate spontaneous mutants in glycosylation pathways. This article will focus on how to rapidly characterize mammalian cells with an altered glycosylation activity. The key reagents for the protocols described are plant lectins that bind mammalian glycans with varying avidities, depending on the specific structure of those glycans. Cells with altered glycosylation generally become resistant or hypersensitive to lectin toxicity, and have reduced or increased lectin or antibody binding. Here we describe rapid assays to compare the cytotoxicity of lectins in a lectin resistance test, and the binding of lectins or antibodies by flow cytometry in a glycan-binding assay. Based on these tests, glycosylation changes expressed

  2. PROTEIN N-GLYCOSYLATION OF GASTROPODS

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Erika; Stepan, Herwig; Gutternigg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in several types of recognition processes associated with fertilisation and development, allergies, pathological events and cell death. Whereas the amino acid sequence of a protein is fixed by the DNA, the glycosylation abilities depend on enzymes and substrates currently present in the cell. During the last decades our knowledge on glycosylation – the structure of glycans as well as the corresponding biochemical pathways including the responsible enzymes - especially on glycans of mammalian origin increased enormously. The glycosylation capabilities of other species were under investigation only if their glycans were for any reason connected to human life (e.g. some recognition processes of pathogens or allergy on food or plant glycans) or if they were potent candidates for cell culture systems for the expression of therapeutic agents (some insect, yeast and plant cells). However, in the meantime there is an increasing interest also in invertebrate glycosylation. Snails in particular show a broad spectrum of glycosylation abilities within their N-glycosylation pattern. In one case this has been shown to be involved in an intermediate host – parasite recognition process. For other snail species, it was found that they share many structural elements of N-glycans with mammals, plants, insects or nematodes. Sometimes several of these elements are present within one single structure. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge of N-glycosylation of snails, the glycan structures and the corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthetic glycosylation pathway. PMID:21686044

  3. Molecular-Scale Features that Govern the Effects of O-Glycosylation on a Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    DOE PAGES

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Zeng, Chen; ...

    2015-09-21

    The protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in all kingdoms of life. Despite its importance in molecular and cellular biology, the molecular-level ramifications of O-glycosylation on biomolecular structure and function remain elusive. Here, we took a small model glycoprotein and changed the glycan structure and size, amino acid residues near the glycosylation site, and glycosidic linkage while monitoring any corresponding changes to physical stability and cellulose binding affinity. The results of this study reveal the collective importance of all the studied features in controlling the most pronounced effects of O-glycosylation in this system. This study suggests the possibility ofmore » designing proteins with multiple improved properties by simultaneously varying the structures of O-glycans and amino acids local to the glycosylation site.« less

  4. Molecular-Scale Features that Govern the Effects of O-Glycosylation on a Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Zeng, Chen; Greene, Eric R.; Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R.; Chen, Claire; Groobman, Ari; Resch, Michael G.; Himmel, Michael E.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Tan, Zhongping

    2015-09-21

    The protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in all kingdoms of life. Despite its importance in molecular and cellular biology, the molecular-level ramifications of O-glycosylation on biomolecular structure and function remain elusive. Here, we took a small model glycoprotein and changed the glycan structure and size, amino acid residues near the glycosylation site, and glycosidic linkage while monitoring any corresponding changes to physical stability and cellulose binding affinity. The results of this study reveal the collective importance of all the studied features in controlling the most pronounced effects of O-glycosylation in this system. This study suggests the possibility of designing proteins with multiple improved properties by simultaneously varying the structures of O-glycans and amino acids local to the glycosylation site.

  5. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy.

  6. The O-glycomap of lubricin, a novel mucin responsible for joint lubrication, identified by site-specific glycopeptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Liaqat; Flowers, Sarah A; Jin, Chunsheng; Bennet, Eric Paul; Ekwall, Anna-Karin H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2014-12-01

    The lubricative, heavily glycosylated mucin-like synovial glycoprotein lubricin has previously been observed to contain glycosylation changes related to rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Thus, a site-specific investigation of the glycosylation of lubricin was undertaken, in order to further understand the pathological mechanisms involved in these diseases. Lubricin contains an serine/threonine/proline (STP)-rich domain composed of imperfect tandem repeats (EPAPTTPK), the target for O-glycosylation. In this study, using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach, employing both collision-induced and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation methods, we identified 185 O-glycopeptides within the STP-rich domain of human synovial lubricin. This showed that adjacent threonine residues within the central STP-rich region could be simultaneously and/or individually glycosylated. In addition to core 1 structures responsible for biolubrication, core 2 O-glycopeptides were also identified, indicating that lubricin glycosylation may have other roles. Investigation of the expression of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase genes was carried out using cultured primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes, a cell type that expresses lubricin in vivo. This analysis showed high mRNA expression levels of the less understood polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 15 and 5 in addition to the ubiquitously expressed polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 and 2 genes. This suggests that there is a unique combination of transferase genes important for the O-glycosylation of lubricin. The site-specific glycopeptide analysis covered 82% of the protein sequence and showed that lubricin glycosylation displays both micro- and macroheterogeneity. The density of glycosylation was shown to be high: 168 sites of O-glycosylation, predominately sialylated, were identified. These glycosylation sites were focused in the central STP-rich region, giving the domain a

  7. Glycosylation and epitope mapping of the 5T4 glycoprotein oncofoetal antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, David M; Woods, Andrew M; Myers, Kevin A; Westwater, Caroline; Rahi-Saund, Veena; Davies, Michael J; Renouf, David V; Hounsell, Elizabeth F; Stern, Peter L

    2002-01-01

    The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is a focus for development of several antibody-directed therapies on the basis of the murine monoclonal antibody against 5T4 (mAb5T4), which recognizes a conformational epitope. 5T4 molecules are highly N-glycosylated transmembrane glycoproteins whose extracellular domain contains two regions of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and associated flanking regions, separated by an intervening hydrophilic sequence. Using a series of deletion and mutated cDNA constructs as well as chimaeras with the murine homologue, we have mapped the mAb5T4 epitope to the more membrane-proximal LRR2 or its flanking region. Analysis of the glycosylation of the seven consensus Asp-Xaa-Ser/Thr sites was consistent with all of the sites being glycosylated. A combination of two high-mannose chains (predominantly octasaccharide) and five mostly sialylated bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary complex chains with minor quantities of core fucose were detected. The two glycosylation sites, which are the most likely to have predominantly high-mannose chains, are in the only two regions that show significant differences between the human and the 81% identical mouse sequence. A site-directed mutation, which abolished glycosylation at one of these sites (position 192), did not alter antigenicity. The other, which is nearest to the N-terminus in the human, has an Asn-Leu-Thr to Asn-Leu-Leu conversion in the mouse, so cannot be glycosylated in the latter species. The large complex glycosylation at the other sites is likely to influence the antigenicity and tertiary structure generating the 5T4 epitope. PMID:11903056

  8. A high-yielding synthesis of allyl glycosides from peracetylated glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Khamsi, Jamal; Ashmus, Roger A; Schocker, Nathaniel S; Michael, Katja

    2012-08-01

    β-Configured peracetylated sugars are often used as easily accessible glycosyl donors that are typically activated with common Lewis acids such as boron trifluoride or trimethylsilyltrifluoromethane sulfonate. Often these glycosylations occur with unsatisfactory yields due to incomplete reactions or extensive byproduct formation, primarily as a result of loss of an additional acetyl group generating partially unprotected glycosides. Here we report a simple glycosylation-reacetylation protocol for the generation of predominantly β-configured peracetylated allyl glucoside, -galactoside, -lactoside, and -maltoside with substantially improved reaction yields.

  9. Role of N-glycosylation in renal betaine transport*

    PubMed Central

    Schweikhard, Eva S.; Burckhardt, Birgitta C.; Joos, Friedericke; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Forrest, Lucy R.; Kempson, Stephen A.; Ziegler, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The osmolyte and folding chaperone betaine is transported by the renal Na+-coupled GABA symporter BGT-1, a member of the SLC6 family. Under hypertonic conditions, the transcription, translation and plasma membrane insertion of BGT-1 in kidney cells are significantly increased, resulting in elevated betaine and GABA transport. Re-establishing isotonicity involves plasma membrane depletion of BGT-1. The molecular mechanism of the regulated plasma membrane insertion of BGT-1 during changes in osmotic stress is unknown. Here we reveal a link between regulated plasma membrane insertion and N-glycosylation. Based on homology modelling we identified two sites (N171 and N183) in the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of BGT-1, which were investigated with respect to trafficking, insertion, and transport by immunogold-labelling, electron microscopy, mutagenesis, and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and uptake of radiolabelled substrate into MDCK and HEK cells. Trafficking and plasma membrane insertion of BGT-1 was clearly promoted by N-glycosylation in both oocytes and MDCK cells. Moreover, association with N-glycans at N171 and N183 contributed equally to protein activity and substrate affinity. Substitution of N171 and N183 by aspartate individually caused no loss of BGT-1 activity, while the double mutant was inactive, suggesting that N-glycosylation of at least one of the sites is required for function. Substitution by alanine or valine at either site caused a dramatic loss in transport activity. Furthermore, in MDCK cells plasma membrane insertion of N183D was no longer regulated by osmotic stress, highlighting the impact of N-glycosylation in regulation of this SLC6 transporter. PMID:26348906

  10. Long-term Effects of Ethanol Addition on Denitrification At The Uranium Mill Tailing Site In Monument Valley, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. L.; Borden, A. K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, K. C.; Akyol, N. H.; Berkompas, J. L.; Miao, Z.; Jordan, F.; Tick, G. R.; Waugh, J.; Glenn, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to mining and processing of uranium at a site near Monument Valley, AZ, an extensive nitrate plume was produced in a shallow alluvial aquifer. Two pilot tests were conducted to evaluate the addition of ethanol as a carbon substrate to enhance natural denitrification. Aqueous geochemistry was characterized based upon groundwater samples collected before and after the addition of ethanol. Compound specific stable isotope analysis was also conducted. The results of the field tests showed that the concentration of nitrate decreased, while the concentration of nitrous oxide (a product of denitrification) increased. In addition, changes in aqueous concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese indicated that the ethanol amendment caused a change in prevailing redox conditions. The results of compound-specific stable isotope analysis for nitrate-nitrogen indicated that the nitrate concentration reductions were biologically mediated. Denitrification rate coefficients estimated for the pilot tests were approximately 50 times larger than resident-condition (non-enhanced) values obtained from prior characterization studies conducted at the site. Using the time at which nitrate concentrations began to decline for downgradient monitoring wells, and the associated inter-well distances, rough estimates of approximately 0.1-0.17 m/day were obtained for the effective reactive-front velocity. These values are within the range of mean pore-water velocities expected for the measured hydraulic conductivities and gradient. The nitrate concentrations in the injection zone have remained at levels three orders of magnitude below the initial values for many months, indicating that the ethanol amendments had a long-term impact on the local subsurface environment.

  11. Synthesis of β-Glycosyl Amides from N-Glycosyl Dinitrobenzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, Vishwanath; Sucheck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    The N-glycosyl-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamides were accessed via benzoyl-protected β-glycosyl azides. The azides were reduced with Adams' catalyst to the corresponding amines. The glycosylamines were sulfonated with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride to form N-glycosyl-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamides in moderate yields. β-Glycosyl amides were then prepared in 67 - 81 % yields by treatment of the sulfonamides with thioacetic acid and cesium carbonate. The conversion of the glycosylsulfonamide to the glycosyl amide proceeded with high stereoselectivity.

  12. Synthesis of β-Glycosyl Amides from N-Glycosyl Dinitrobenzenesulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Gaitonde, Vishwanath; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The N-glycosyl-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamides were accessed via benzoyl-protected β-glycosyl azides. The azides were reduced with Adams’ catalyst to the corresponding amines. The glycosylamines were sulfonated with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride to form N-glycosyl-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamides in moderate yields. β-Glycosyl amides were then prepared in 67 – 81 % yields by treatment of the sulfonamides with thioacetic acid and cesium carbonate. The conversion of the glycosylsulfonamide to the glycosyl amide proceeded with high stereoselectivity. PMID:23349564

  13. Enzymatic glycosylation of multivalent scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bojarová, Pavla; Rosencrantz, Ruben R; Elling, Lothar; Křen, Vladimír

    2013-06-07

    The design of glycoclusters, glycodendrimers, glycopolymers and other complex glycostructures that mimic the multivalent carbohydrate display on the cell surface is of immense interest for diagnosis and therapy. This review presents a detailed insight into the exciting possibilities of multiple glycosylation using enzymes, particularly glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4). A representative choice of available scaffolds for the enzyme action is practically infinite and comprises synthetic polymers, carbosilane dendrimers, multiantennary glycans or hyperbranched conjugates. The introduced glyco-patterns range from common sialyl Lewis(x) and sialyl lacto-chains to chemically functionalized carbohydrate units for detection purposes. The possibilities of in vitro enzymatic production of N- and O-glycans and other natural polymers are also discussed. In harmony with their natural tasks, glycosyltransferases may in vitro complete the imperfect glycosylation pattern of proteins, recombinantly produced in pro- and eukaryotic hosts. What is more, the required enzymatic battery may be directly co-expressed with the protein, in order to elegantly accomplish the production of eukaryotic glycans. Ingenious metabolic labeling enables facile imaging of glycostructures. The boom of glycoarray technology opens vast possibilities in high-throughput screening for novel enzymes and substrate specificities as well as in the synthesis. Though there is still a long way until the Nature's ideal of multivalent glycans is achievable in the laboratory, the sketched pathways to multivalent glycostructures open tremendous possibilities for the future glycobiological research.

  14. N-Glycosylation is essential for the secretion of extracellular superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Ota, Fumi; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Adachi, Tetsuo; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD or SOD3) protects against various oxidative stress-related diseases by scavenging reactive superoxides in the extracellular space. It is the only SOD isozyme that is secreted and glycosylated (at asparagine 89). However, the physiological roles of its glycosylation are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the glycosylation site on EC-SOD is well conserved and that a glycosylation-deficient EC-SOD mutant retains its enzymatic activity, but is not secreted. This impairment in secretion may, in part, be due to the ability of the mutants to form unusual higher order oligomers. Our findings reveal that the glycan modification is a key regulator of EC-SOD secretion and contributes to the understanding of the roles of glycans in EC-SOD-related diseases.

  15. Glycosylation of KSHV Encoded vGPCR Functions in Its Signaling and Tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Liu, Liqun; Xiao, Jun; Chi, Mengdie; Qu, Yixiao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a tumor virus and the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS). KSHV G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is an oncogene that is implicated in malignancies associated with KHSV infection. In this study, we show that vGPCR undergoes extensive N-linked glycosylation within the extracellular domains, specifically asparagines 18, 22, 31 and 202. An immunofluorescence assay demonstrates that N-linked glycosylation are necessary for vGPCR trafficking to the cellular membrane. Employing vGPCR mutants whose glycosylation sites were ablated, we show that these vGPCR mutants failed to activate downstream signaling in cultured cells and were severely impaired to induce tumor formation in the xenograph nude mouse model. These findings support the conclusion that glycosylation is critical for vGPCR tumorigenesis and imply that chemokine regulation at the plasma membrane is crucial for vGPCR mediated signaling. PMID:25835533

  16. N-glycosylation proteomic characterization and cross-species comparison of milk fat globule membrane proteins from mammals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-11-01

    Glycosylation of proteins has been implicated in various biological functions and has received much attention; however, glycoprotein components and inter-species complexity have not yet been elucidated fully in milk proteins. N-linked glycosylation sites and glycoproteins in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fractions were investigated by combining N-glycosylated peptides enrichment and high-accuracy Q Exactive identification, to map the N-glycoproteome profiles in Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, goats, camels, horses, and humans. A total of 399 N-glycoproteins with 677 glycosylation sites were identified in the MFGM fractions of the studied mammals. Most glycosylation sites in humans were classified as known and those in the other studied mammals as unknown, according to Swiss-Prot annotations. Functionally, most of the identified glycoproteins were associated with the 'response to stimulus' GO category. N-glycosylated protein components of MFGM fractions from Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats were more similar to each other compared with those of camels, horses and human. The findings increased the number of known N-glycosylation sites in the milk from dairy animal species, revealed the complexity of the MFGM glycoproteome, and provided useful information to further explore the mechanism of MFGM glycoproteins biosynthesis among the studied mammals.

  17. Glycosylation enables aesculin to activate Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyun Ha; Park, Hyunsu; Park, Hee Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Sadikot, Ruxana T.; Cha, Jaeho; Joo, Myungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Since aesculin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-6-O-β-glucopyranoside, suppresses inflammation, we asked whether its anti-inflammatory activity is associated with the activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key anti-inflammatory factor. Our results, however, show that aesculin marginally activated Nrf2. Since glycosylation can enhance the function of a compound, we then asked whether adding a glucose makes aesculin activate Nrf2. Our results show that the glycosylated aesculin, 3-O-β-d-glycosyl aesculin, robustly activated Nrf2, inducing the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in macrophages. Mechanistically, 3-O-β-d-glycosyl aesculin suppressed ubiquitination of Nrf2, retarding degradation of Nrf2. Unlike aesculin, 3-O-β-d-glycosyl aesculin significantly suppressed neutrophilic lung inflammation, a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI), in mice, which was not recapitulated in Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory function of the compound largely acts through Nrf2. In a mouse model of sepsis, a major cause of ALI, 3-O-β-d-glycosyl aesculin significantly enhanced the survival of mice, compared with aesculin. Together, these results show that glycosylation could confer the ability to activate Nrf2 on aesculin, enhancing the anti-inflammatory function of aesculin. These results suggest that glycosylation can be a way to improve or alter the function of aesculin. PMID:27417293

  18. Glycosylation-dependent activation of epithelial sodium channel by solnatide.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Waheed; Tzotzos, Susan; Bedak, Minela; Aufy, Mohammad; Willam, Anita; Kraihammer, Martin; Holzner, Alexander; Czikora, Istvan; Scherbaum-Hazemi, Parastoo; Fischer, Hendrik; Pietschmann, Helmut; Fischer, Bernhard; Lucas, Rudolf; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    Dysfunction of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which regulates salt and water homeostasis in epithelia, causes several human pathological conditions, including pulmonary oedema. This is a potentially lethal complication of acute lung injury at least partially caused by dysfunctional alveolar liquid clearance, which in turn impairs alveolar gas exchange. Solnatide (named TIP-peptide, AP301), a 17 residue peptide mimicking the lectin-like domain of TNF has been shown to activate ENaC in several experimental animal models of acute lung injury and is being evaluated as a potential therapy for pulmonary oedema. The peptide has recently completed phase 1 and 2a clinical trials. In this study, we identify a glycosylation-dependent mechanism that preserves ENaC function and expression. Since our previous data suggested that the pore-forming subunits of ENaC are essential for maximal current activation by solnatide, we performed single- and multi-N-glycosylation site mutations in αN232,293,312,397,511Q- and δN166,211,384Q-subunits, in order to identify crucial residues for interaction with solnatide within the extracellular loop of the channel. Additionally, we generated αL576X and αN232,293,312,397,511Q,L576X deletion mutants of ENaC-α, since we have previously demonstrated that the carboxy terminal domain of this subunit is also involved in its interaction with solnatide. In cells expressing αN232,293,312,397,511Q,L576Xβγ-hENaC or δN166,311,384Q,D552Xβγ-hENaC activation by solnatide, as measured in whole cell patch clamp mode, was completely abolished, whereas it was attenuated in αL576Xβγ-hENaC- and δD552Xβγ-hENaC-expressing cells. Taken together, our findings delineate an N-glycan dependent interaction between the TIP-peptide and ENaC leading to normalization of both sodium and fluid absorption in oedematous alveoli to non-oedematous levels.

  19. Prions in control of cell glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hounsell, Elizabeth F

    2004-06-01

    Prion proteins that are normal cellular components or involved in pathology can vary little or not at all in primary amino acid sequence, but their glycosylation is different, e.g. in scrapie versus normal forms; in mouse strain-specific isolates; and in BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and variant CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) versus classical CJD. The results of Nielsen et al. published in this issue of the Biochemical Journal show that changes in glycosylation are not restricted to the prion. The paper comprehensively characterizes a decrease in the glycosylation of the insulin receptor in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells, but no change in glycosylation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Thus the scrapie prion can influence glycosylation, not only of itself, but also of other selected cell glycoproteins.

  20. Impact of Cystinosin Glycosylation on Protein Stability by Differential Dynamic Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC).

    PubMed

    Nevo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Chhuon, Cerina; Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Lipecka, Joanna; Guillonneau, François; Bailleux, Anne; Edelman, Aleksander; Antignac, Corinne; Guerrera, Ida Chiara

    2017-03-01

    Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of cystine. The causative gene for cystinosis is CTNS, which encodes the protein cystinosin, a lysosomal proton-driven cystine transporter. Over 100 mutations have been reported, leading to varying disease severity, often in correlation with residual cystinosin activity as a transporter and with maintenance of its protein-protein interactions. In this study, we focus on the ΔITILELP mutation, the only mutation reported that sometimes leads to severe forms, inconsistent with its residual transported activity. ΔITILELP is a deletion that eliminates a consensus site on N66, one of the protein's seven glycosylation sites. Our hypothesis was that the ΔITILELP mutant is less stable and undergoes faster degradation. Our dynamic stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) study clearly showed that wild-type cystinosin is very stable, whereas ΔITILELP is degraded three times more rapidly. Additional lysosome inhibition experiments confirmed ΔITILELP instability and showed that the degradation was mainly lysosomal. We observed that in the lysosome, ΔITILELP is still capable of interacting with the V-ATPase complex and some members of the mTOR pathway, similar to the wild-type protein. Intriguingly, our interactomic and immunofluorescence studies showed that ΔITILELP is partially retained at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We proposed that the ΔITILELP mutation causes protein misfolding, ER retention and inability to be processed in the Golgi apparatus, and we demonstrated that ΔITILELP carries high-mannose glycans on all six of its remaining glycosylation sites. We found that the high turnover of ΔITILELP, because of its immature glycosylation state in combination with low transport activity, might be responsible for the phenotype observed in some patients.

  1. Glycosylation Helps Cellulase Enzymes Bind to Plant Cell Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    Computer simulations suggest a new strategy to design enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. Large-scale computer simulations predict that the addition of glycosylation on carbohydrate-binding modules can dramatically improve the binding affinity of these protein domains over amino acid mutations alone. These simulations suggest that glycosylation can be used as a protein engineering tool to enhance the activity of cellulase enzymes, which are a key component in the conversion of cellulose to soluble sugars in the production of biofuels. Glycosylation is the covalent attachment of carbohydrate molecules to protein side chains, and is present in many proteins across all kingdoms of life. Moreover, glycosylation is known to serve a wide variety of functions in biological recognition, cell signaling, and metabolism. Cellulase enzymes, which are responsible for deconstructing cellulose found in plant cell walls to glucose, contain glycosylation that when modified can affect enzymatic activity-often in an unpredictable manner. To gain insight into the role of glycosylation on cellulase activity, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used computer simulation to predict that adding glycosylation on the carbohydrate-binding module of a cellulase enzyme dramatically boosts the binding affinity to cellulose-more than standard protein engineering approaches in which amino acids are mutated. Because it is known that higher binding affinity in cellulases leads to higher activity, this work suggests a new route to designing enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. More generally, this work suggests that tuning glycosylation in cellulase enzymes is a key factor to consider when engineering biochemical conversion processes, and that more work is needed to understand how glycosylation affects cellulase activity at the molecular level.

  2. Engineering and Dissecting the Glycosylation Pathway of a Streptococcal Serine-rich Repeat Adhesin*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fan; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Tiandi; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins (SRRPs) are conserved in Gram-positive bacteria. They are crucial for modulating biofilm formation and bacterial-host interactions. Glycosylation of SRRPs plays a pivotal role in the process; thus understanding the glycosyltransferases involved is key to identifying new therapeutic drug targets. The glycosylation of Fap1, an SRRP of Streptococcus parasanguinis, is mediated by a gene cluster consisting of six genes: gtf1, gtf2, gly, gtf3, dGT1, and galT2. Mature Fap1 glycan possesses the sequence of Rha1–3Glc1-(Glc1–3GlcNAc1)-2,6-Glc1–6GlcNAc. Gtf12, Gtf3, and dGT1 are responsible for the first four steps of the Fap1 glycosylation, catalyzing the transfer of GlcNAc, Glc, Glc, and GlcNAc residues to the protein backbone sequentially. The role of GalT2 and Gly in the Fap1 glycosylation is unknown. In the present study, we synthesized the fully modified Fap1 glycan in Escherichia coli by incorporating all six genes from the cluster. This study represents the first reconstitution of an exogenous stepwise O-glycosylation synthetic pathway in E. coli. In addition, we have determined that GalT2 mediates the fifth step of the Fap1 glycosylation by adding a rhamnose residue, and Gly mediates the final glycosylation step by transferring glucosyl residues. Furthermore, inactivation of each glycosyltransferase gene resulted in differentially impaired biofilms of S. parasanguinis, demonstrating the importance of Fap1 glycosylation in the biofilm formation. The Fap1 glycosylation system offers an excellent model to engineer glycans using different permutations of glycosyltransferases and to investigate biosynthetic pathways of SRRPs because SRRP genetic loci are highly conserved. PMID:28039332

  3. N-glycosylation of Haloferax volcanii flagellins requires known Agl proteins and is essential for biosynthesis of stable flagella.

    PubMed

    Tripepi, Manuela; You, Jason; Temel, Sevcan; Önder, Özlem; Brisson, Dustin; Pohlschröder, Mechthild

    2012-09-01

    N-glycosylation, a posttranslational modification required for the accurate folding and stability of many proteins, has been observed in organisms of all domains of life. Although the haloarchaeal S-layer glycoprotein was the first prokaryotic glycoprotein identified, little is known about the glycosylation of other haloarchaeal proteins. We demonstrate here that the glycosylation of Haloferax volcanii flagellins requires archaeal glycosylation (Agl) components involved in S-layer glycosylation and that the deletion of any Hfx. volcanii agl gene impairs its swimming motility to various extents. A comparison of proteins in CsCl density gradient centrifugation fractions from supernatants of wild-type Hfx. volcanii and deletion mutants lacking the oligosaccharyltransferase AglB suggests that when the Agl glycosylation pathway is disrupted, cells lack stable flagella, which purification studies indicate consist of a major flagellin, FlgA1, and a minor flagellin, FlgA2. Mass spectrometric analyses of FlgA1 confirm that its three predicted N-glycosylation sites are modified with covalently linked pentasaccharides having the same mass as that modifying its S-layer glycoprotein. Finally, the replacement of any of three predicted N-glycosylated asparagines of FlgA1 renders cells nonmotile, providing direct evidence for the first time that the N-glycosylation of archaeal flagellins is critical for motility. These results provide insight into the role that glycosylation plays in the assembly and function of Hfx. volcanii flagella and demonstrate that Hfx. volcanii flagellins are excellent reporter proteins for the study of haloarchaeal glycosylation processes.

  4. Logic minimization and rule extraction for identification of functional sites in molecular sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    , the rules produced were also interpretable and the most popular rules generated appeared to correlate well with recently reported hydrophilic/hydrophobic enhancement values of amino acids around possible O-glycosylation sites. Experiments with Self-Organizing Neural Networks corroborate the practical worth of the logic minimization method for these case studies. Conclusions The proposed logic minimization algorithm provides sets of rules that can be used to predict TFBS and O-glycosylation sites with sensitivity and positive predictive value comparable to those from ANN and SVM. Moreover, the logic minimization method has the additional capability of generating interpretable rules that allow biological scientists to correlate the predictions with other experimental results and to form new hypotheses for further investigation. Additional experiments with alternative rule-extraction techniques demonstrate that the logic minimization method is able to produce accurate rules from datasets with large numbers of variables and limited numbers of positive examples. PMID:22897894

  5. N-Glycosylation Regulates ADAM8 Processing and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srimathi; Romagnoli, Mathilde; Bohm, Andrew; Sonenshein, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane ADAM8 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8) protein is abundantly expressed in human breast tumors and derived metastases compared with normal breast tissue, and plays critical roles in aggressive Triple-Negative breast cancers (TNBCs). During ADAM8 maturation, the inactive proform dimerizes or multimerizes and autocatalytically removes the prodomain leading to the formation of the active, processed form. ADAM8 is a glycoprotein; however, little was known about the structure or functional role of these sugar moieties. Here, we report that in estrogen receptor (ER)α-negative, but not -positive, breast cancer cells ADAM8 contains N-glycosylation, which is required for its correct processing and activation. Consistently ADAM8 dimers were detected on the surface of ERα-negative breast cancer cells but not on ERα-positive ones. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed four N-glycosylazhytion sites (Asn-67, Asn-91, Asn-436, and Asn-612) in human ADAM8. The Asn-67 and Asn-91 prodomain sites contained high mannose, whereas complex type N-glycosylation was observed on Asn-436 and Asn-612 in the active and remnant forms. The Asn-91 and Asn-612 sites were essential for its correct processing and cell surface localization, in particular its exit from the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The N436Q mutation led to decreased ADAM8 stability due to enhanced lysosomal degradation. In contrast, mutation of the Asn-67 site had only modest effects on enzyme stability and processing. Thus, N-glycosylation is essential for processing, localization, stability, and activity of ADAM8. PMID:25336660

  6. N-Linked Glycosylation of Protease-activated Receptor-1 Second Extracellular Loop

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Antonio G.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) contains five N-linked glycosylation consensus sites as follows: three residing in the N terminus and two localized on the surface of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). To study the effect of N-linked glycosylation in the regulation of PAR1 signaling and trafficking, we generated mutants in which the critical asparagines of the consensus sites were mutated. Here, we report that both the PAR1 N terminus and ECL2 serve as sites for N-linked glycosylation but have different functions in the regulation of receptor signaling and trafficking. N-Linked glycosylation of the PAR1 N terminus is important for transport to the cell surface, whereas the PAR1 mutant lacking glycosylation at ECL2 (NA ECL2) trafficked to the cell surface like the wild-type receptor. However, activated PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant internalization was impaired compared with wild-type receptor, whereas constitutive internalization of unactivated receptor remained intact. Remarkably, thrombin-activated PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant displayed an enhanced maximal signaling response compared with wild-type receptor. The increased PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant signaling was not due to defects in the ability of thrombin to cleave the receptor or signal termination mechanisms. Rather, the PAR1 NA ECL2 mutant displayed a greater efficacy in thrombin-stimulated G protein signaling. Thus, N-linked glycosylation of the PAR1 extracellular surface likely influences ligand docking interactions and the stability of the active receptor conformation. Together, these studies strongly suggest that N-linked glycosylation of PAR1 at the N terminus versus the surface of ECL2 serves distinct functions critical for proper regulation of receptor trafficking and the fidelity of thrombin signaling. PMID:20368337

  7. Glycosylation of Fluorophenols by Plant Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Kondo, Yoko; Sato, Daisuke; Hamada, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroaromatic compounds are used as agrochemicals and released into environment as pollutants. Glycosylation of 2-, 3-, and 4-fluorophenols using plant cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum was investigated to elucidate their potential to metabolize these compounds. Cultured N. tabacum cells converted 2-fluorophenol into its β-glucoside (60%) and β-gentiobioside (10%). 4-Fluorophenol was also glycosylated to its β-glucoside (32%) and β-gentiobioside (6%) by N. tabacum cells. On the other hand, N. tabacum glycosylated 3-fluorophenol to β-glucoside (17%). PMID:19564930

  8. TARP γ-8 glycosylation regulates the surface expression of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chan-Ying; Chang, Kai; Suh, Young Ho; Roche, Katherine W

    2015-02-01

    TARP [transmembrane AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor regulatory protein] γ-8 is an auxiliary subunit of AMPA receptors that is widely distributed in the hippocampus. It has been shown that TARP γ-8 promotes surface expression of AMPA receptors; however, how TARP γ-8 regulates the expression of AMPA receptors remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of TARP glycosylation on AMPA receptor trafficking. We first showed that TARP γ-8 is an N-glycosylated protein, which contains two glycosylation sites, Asn53 and Asn56, and compared this with the glycosylation of TARP γ-2 and the AMPA receptor auxiliary protein CNIH-2 (cornichon homologue 2). We next examine the effect of TARP glycosylation on TARP trafficking and also on AMPA receptor surface expression. We find that TARP γ-8 glycosylation is critical for surface expression of both TARP γ-8 and GluA1 in heterologous cells and neurons. Specifically, knockdown of TARP γ-8 causes a decrease in both total and surface AMPA receptors. We find that the expression of unglycosylated TARP γ-8 in cultured neurons is unable to restore GluA1 expression fully. Furthermore, when the maturation of TARP γ-8 is impaired, a large pool of immature GluA1 is retained intracellularly. Taken together, our data reveal an important role for the maturation of TARP γ-8 in the trafficking and function of the AMPA receptor complex.

  9. Characterization of an Additional Splice Acceptor Site Introduced into CYP4B1 in Hominoidae during Evolution.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eva M; Wiek, Constanze; Parkinson, Oliver T; Roellecke, Katharina; Freund, Marcel; Gombert, Michael; Lottmann, Nadine; Steward, Charles A; Kramm, Christof M; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Rettie, Allan E; Hanenberg, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    CYP4B1 belongs to the cytochrome P450 family 4, one of the oldest P450 families whose members have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The CYP4 monooxygenases typically oxidize fatty acids to both inactive and active lipid mediators, although the endogenous ligand(s) is largely unknown. During evolution, at the transition of great apes to humanoids, the CYP4B1 protein acquired a serine instead of a proline at the canonical position 427 in the meander region. Although this alteration impairs P450 function related to the processing of naturally occurring lung toxins, a study in transgenic mice suggested that an additional serine insertion at position 207 in human CYP4B1 can rescue the enzyme stability and activity. Here, we report that the genomic insertion of a CAG triplet at the intron 5-exon 6 boundary in human CYP4B1 introduced an additional splice acceptor site in frame. During evolution, this change occurred presumably at the stage of Hominoidae and leads to two major isoforms of the CYP4B1 enzymes of humans and great apes, either with or without a serine 207 insertion (insSer207). We further demonstrated that the CYP4B1 enzyme with insSer207 is the dominant isoform (76%) in humans. Importantly, this amino acid insertion did not affect the 4-ipomeanol metabolizing activities or stabilities of the native rabbit or human CYP4B1 enzymes, when introduced as transgenes in human primary cells and cell lines. In our 3D modeling, this functional neutrality of insSer207 is compatible with its predicted location on the exterior surface of CYP4B1 in a flexible side chain. Therefore, the Ser207 insertion does not rescue the P450 functional activity of human CYP4B1 that has been lost during evolution.

  10. Oligosaccharyltransferase Subunits Bind Polypeptide Substrate to Locally Enhance N-glycosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, M. Fairuz B.; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Schulz, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferase is a multiprotein complex that catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of diverse proteins. Using yeast genetics and glycoproteomics, we found that transient interactions between nascent polypeptide and Ost3p/Ost6p, homologous subunits of oligosaccharyltransferase, were able to modulate glycosylation efficiency in a site-specific manner in vivo. These interactions were driven by hydrophobic and electrostatic complementarity between amino acids in the peptide-binding groove of Ost3p/Ost6p and the sequestered stretch of substrate polypeptide. Based on this dependence, we used in vivo scanning mutagenesis and in vitro biochemistry to map the precise interactions that affect site-specific glycosylation efficiency. We conclude that transient binding of substrate polypeptide by Ost3p/Ost6p increases glycosylation efficiency at asparagines proximal and C-terminal to sequestered sequences. We detail a novel mode of interaction between translocating nascent polypeptide and oligosaccharyltransferase in which binding to Ost3p/Ost6p segregates a short flexible loop of glycosylation-competent polypeptide substrate that is delivered to the oligosaccharyltransferase active site for efficient modification. PMID:25118247

  11. N-Glycosylation is required for Na{sup +}-dependent vitamin C transporter functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Veedamali S. Marchant, Jonathan S.; Reidling, Jack C.; Said, Hamid M.

    2008-09-12

    The human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (hSVCT1 and hSVCT2) mediate cellular uptake of ascorbic acid. Both these transporters contain potential sites for N-glycosylation in their extracellular domains (Asn-138, Asn-144 [hSVCT1]; Asn-188, Asn-196 [hSVCT2]), however the role of N-glycosylation in transporter function is unexplored. On the basis of the result that tunicamycin decreased {sup 14}C-ascorbic acid uptake in HepG2 cells, we systematically ablated all consensus N-glycosylation sites in hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 to resolve any effects on ascorbic acid uptake, transporter expression and targeting. We show that removal of individual N-glycosylation sites significantly impairs protein expression and consequently ascorbic acid uptake for hSVCT1 mutants (N138Q is retained intracellularly) and for hSVCT2 mutants (all of which reach the cell surface). N-Glycosylation is therefore essential for vitamin C transporter functionality.

  12. Control of thyrotropin glycosylation in normal rat pituitary cells in culture: effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Ponsin, G.; Mornex, R.

    1983-08-01

    Regulation of glycosylation of TSH was studied in primary cultures of normal rat pituitary cells. (3H)Glucosamine or (3H)proline incorporation into immunoprecipitable TSH and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable proteins was measured after incubation periods ranging from 4-72 h. TSH release was assessed by RIA of TSH in the medium. TRH (30 nM) specifically increased the glycosylation of TSH despite the fact that it did not stimulate (3H)proline incorporation into the hormone even after 72 h of continuous labeling. The TRH-stimulated (3H)glucosamine-labeled TSH was completely recovered in the incubation medium. Effective concentrations of TRH were in the same range as those necessary for stimulation of TSH release (10(-10) - 10(-6) M). Somatostatin (50 nM) and T3 (10 microM) antagonized TRH effects on both TSH release and glycosylation. Stages of TSH glycosylation were discriminated by the addition to the culture medium of tunicamycin (10 micrograms/ml) or monensin (25 microM), which are known to inhibit core and terminal glycosylation of proteins, respectively. Medium (3H)glucosamine-labeled TSH was fully glycosylated, whereas a large part of the intracellular hormone was only core glycosylated. This suggests that terminal glycosylation of TSH could be related to hormone secretion. TRH stimulated essentially only terminal glycosylation of TSH. No alteration of core glycosylation of the hormone was observed after TRH treatment. The stimulating effect of TRH on terminal glycosylation of TSH is probably related to its ability to stimulate hormone release.

  13. N-glycosylations of human α1,3-fucosyltransferase IX are required for full enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Seelhorst, Katrin; Stacke, Christina; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; Hahn, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Human α1,3-fucosyltransferase IX catalyzes the transfer of l-fucose from guanosine diphosphate-β-L-fucose to N-acetyllactosamine, generating a Lewis X epitope, and is thereby involved in the synthesis of fucosylated cell surface glycoconjugates. It contains three putative N-glycosylation sites (Asn62, Asn101 and Asn153). The current study considers the functional role of these potential N-glycosylations within the enzyme. We produced truncated variants of human fucosyltransferase IX containing the soluble extracellular catalytic domain. To analyze the relevance of each N-glycosylation site, several genomic mutant DNAs encoding a glutamine (Gln/Q) instead of the asparagine residue were created prosperously using site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells applying a baculovirus expression system. After production and purification of these variants of human FucT IX, the wild-type (wt) enzyme and the variants were characterized regarding their activity and kinetic properties. The variants showed lower activity than the wt FucT, whereas the individual N-glycosylation sites had different effects on the enzyme activity and kinetic parameters. While the single variant N62Q still showed ∼60% of wt activity and N101Q retained ∼30% activity, replacement of Asn153 by glutamine led to an almost complete loss of enzymatic activity. The same could be observed for variants missing two or more putative N-glycosylation sites, which indicated the importance of N-glycosylation for enzyme stability and activity.

  14. N-Linked Glycosylation Status of Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia E2 Glycoprotein Influences Virulence in Swine▿

    PubMed Central

    Risatti, G. R.; Holinka, L. G.; Fernandez Sainz, I.; Carrillo, C.; Lu, Z.; Borca, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    E2 is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previous studies indicate that E2 is involved in several functions, including virus attachment and entry to target cells, production of antibodies, induction of protective immune response in swine, and virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of E2 glycosylation of the highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia in infection of the natural host. Seven putative glycosylation sites in E2 were modified by site-directed mutagenesis of a CSFV Brescia infectious clone (BICv). A panel of virus mutants was obtained and used to investigate whether the removal of putative glycosylation sites in the E2 glycoprotein would affect viral virulence/pathogenesis in swine. We observed that rescue of viable virus was completely impaired by removal of all putative glycosylation sites in E2 but restored when mutation N185A reverted to wild-type asparagine produced viable virus that was attenuated in swine. Single mutations of each of the E2 glycosylation sites showed that amino acid N116 (N1v virus) was responsible for BICv attenuation. N1v efficiently protected swine from challenge with virulent BICv at 3 and 28 days postinfection, suggesting that glycosylation of E2 could be modified for development of classical swine fever live attenuated vaccines. PMID:17108025

  15. The Expanding Horizons of Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Angelyn; Imperiali, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation involves the sequential assembly of an oligosaccharide onto a polyisoprenyl donor, followed by the en bloc transfer of the glycan to particular asparagine residues within acceptor proteins. These N-linked glycans play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, such as protein folding, cellular targeting and motility, and the immune response. In the last decade, research in the field of N-linked glycosylation has achieved major advances, including the discovery of new carbohydrate modifications, the biochemical characterization of the enzymes involved in glycan assembly, and the biological impact of these glycans on target proteins. It is now firmly established that this enzyme-catalyzed modification occurs in all three domains of life. However, despite similarities in the overall logic of N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis amongst the three kingdoms, the structures of the appended glycans are markedly different and thus influence the functions of elaborated proteins in various ways. Though nearly all eukaryotes produce the same nascent tetradecasaccharide (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), heterogeneity is introduced into this glycan structure after transfer to protein through a complex series of glycosyl trimming and addition steps. In contrast, bacteria and archaea display diversity within their N-linked glycan structures through the use of unique monosaccharide building blocks during the assembly process. In this review, recent progress toward gaining a deeper biochemical understanding of this modification across all three kingdoms will be summarized. In addition, a brief overview of the role of N-linked glycosylation in viruses will also be presented. PMID:21506607

  16. Different glycosyltransferases are involved in lipid glycosylation and protein N-glycosylation in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Naparstek, Shai; Vinagradov, Evguenii; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-07-01

    Both the lipid and the protein components of biological membranes can be modified by the covalent addition of polysaccharides. Whereas eukaryal and bacterial pathways of lipid and protein glycosylation are relatively well defined, considerably less is known of the parallel processes in Archaea. Recent efforts have identified glycosyltransferases involved in N-glycosylation of the surface-layer glycoprotein of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. In the present study, the involvement of these same glycosyltransferases in the biosynthesis of Hfx. volcanii glycolipids was considered by performing nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the glycolipid fraction of Hfx. volcanii cells deleted of genes encoding those glycosyltransferases, as well as the oligosaccharyltransferase, AglB. The results reveal that different glycosyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of N-linked glycoproteins and glycolipids in Archaea.

  17. N-glycosylation converts non-glycoproteins into mannose receptor ligands and reveals antigen-specific T cell responses in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kreer, Christoph; Kuepper, Janina M; Zehner, Matthias; Quast, Thomas; Kolanus, Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    N-glycosylation is generally accepted to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens because of two main reasons. First, the attachment of glycans enables recognition by endocytic receptors like the mannose receptor (MR) and hence increased uptake by dendritic cells (DCs). Second, foreign glycans are postulated to be immunostimulatory and their recognition could induce DC activation. However, a direct comparison between the immunogenicity of N-glycosylated vs. de-glycosylated proteins in vivo and a direct effect of N-glycosylated antigens on the intrinsic capacity of DCs to activate T cells have not been assessed so far. To analyze whether enforced N-glycosylation is a suited strategy to enhance the immunogenicity of non-glycosylated antigens for vaccination studies, we targeted non-glycoproteins towards the MR by introduction of artificial N-glycosylation using the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (previously termed Pichia pastoris). We could demonstrate that the introduction of a single N-X-S/T motif was sufficient for efficient MR-binding and internalization. However, addition of N-glycosylated proteins neither influenced DC maturation nor their general capacity to activate T cells, pointing out that enforced N-glycosylation does not increase the immunogenicity of the antigen per se. Additionally, increased antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo after injection of N-glycosylated compared to de-glycosylated proteins were observed but this effect strongly depended on the epitope tested. A beneficial effect of N-glycosylation on antibody production could not be detected, which might be due to MR-cross-linking on DCs and to concomitant differences in IL-6 production by CD4+ T cells. These observations point out that the effect of N-glycosylation on antigen immunogenicity can vary between different antigens and therefore might have important implications for the development of vaccines using K. phaffii. PMID:28036287

  18. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing & transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  19. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Rajkumar S. Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  20. Alteration of the N-linked Glycosylation Condition of E1 Glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia Alters Virulence in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E1, along with Erns and E2 is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). Previously we showed that glycosylation status of virulent CSFV strain Brescia E2 or Erns affects virus virulence. Here, the three putative glycosylation sites of E1 were serially removed by ...

  1. Role of Glycosylation of Notch in Development

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Haltiwanger, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    The Notch pathway is one of the major signaling pathways required for proper development in metazoans. Notch activity is regulated at numerous levels, and increasing evidence reveals the importance of “protein glycosylation” (modification of Notch receptors with sugars) for its regulation. In this review we summarize the significance of the Notch pathway in development and the players responsible for its glycosylation, and then discuss the molecular mechanisms by which protein glycosylation may regulate Notch function. PMID:20226260

  2. Glycosylation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Regulates Its Membrane Translocation and Radioiodine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taemoon; Youn, Hyewon; Yeom, Chan Joo; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) protein is a membrane glycoprotein that transports iodide ions into thyroid cells. The function of this membrane protein is closely regulated by post-translational glycosylation. In this study, we measured glycosylation-mediated changes in subcellular location of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake. Methods HeLa cells were stably transfected with hNIS/tdTomato fusion gene in order to monitor the expression of hNIS. Cellular localization of hNIS was visualized by confocal microscopy of the red fluorescence of tdTomato. The expression of hNIS was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Functional activity of hNIS was estimated by radioiodine uptake. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and tunicamycin were used to stimulate and inhibit glycosylation, respectively. In vivo images were obtained using a Maestro fluorescence imaging system. Results cAMP-mediated Glycosylation of NIS resulted in increased expression of hNIS, stimulating membrane translocation, and enhanced radioiodine uptake. In contrast, inhibition of glycosylation by treatment with tunicamycin dramatically reduced membrane translocation of intracellular hNIS, resulting in reduced radioiodine uptake. In addition, our hNIS/tdTomato fusion reporter successfully visualized cAMP-induced hNIS expression in xenografted tumors from mouse model. Conclusions These findings clearly reveal that the membrane localization of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake are glycosylation-dependent, as our results highlight enhancement of NIS expression and glycosylation with subsequent membrane localization after cAMP treatment. Therefore, enhancing functional NIS by the increasing level of glycosylation may be suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients who show refractory response to conventional radioiodine treatment. PMID:26599396

  3. A framework for real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Wu, Chao-Hsiang; Callahan, Susan; T Goudar, Chetan

    2015-06-01

    Glycosylation is a critical characteristic of biotherapeutics because of its central role in in vivo efficacy. Multiple factors including medium composition and process conditions impact protein glycosylation and characterizing cellular response to these changes is essential to understand the underlying relationships. Current practice typically involves glycosylation characterization at the end of a fed-batch culture, which in addition to being an aggregate of the process, reflects a bias towards the end of the culture where a majority of the product is made. In an attempt to rigorously characterize the entire time-course of a fed-batch culture, a real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) framework was developed. It involves using the micro sequential injection (μSI) system as a sample preparation platform coupled with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system for real-time monitoring of the antibody glycan profile. Automated sampling and sample preparations were performed using the μSI system and this framework was used to study manganese (Mn)-induced glycosylation changes over the course of a fed-batch culture. As expected, Mn-supplemented cultures exhibited higher galactosylation levels compared to control while the fucosylation and mannosylation were consistent for both supplemented and control cultures. Overall, the approach presented in the study allows real time monitoring of glycosylation changes and this information can be rapidly translated into process control and/or process optimization decisions to accelerate process development.

  4. Global analysis of the glycoproteome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals new roles for protein glycosylation in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Li A; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Qian, Jiang; Smith, Michael G; Snyder, Michael; Zhu, Heng

    2009-01-01

    To further understand the roles of protein glycosylation in eukaryotes, we globally identified glycan-containing proteins in yeast. A fluorescent lectin binding assay was developed and used to screen protein microarrays containing over 5000 proteins purified from yeast. A total of 534 yeast proteins were identified that bound either Concanavalin A (ConA) or Wheat-Germ Agglutinin (WGA); 406 of them were novel. Among the novel glycoproteins, 45 were validated by mobility shift upon treatment with EndoH and PNGase F, thereby extending the number of validated yeast glycoproteins to 350. In addition to many components of the secretory pathway, we identified other types of proteins, such as transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins. To further explore the role of glycosylation in mitochondrial function, the localization of four mitochondrial proteins was examined in the presence and absence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked protein glycosylation. For two proteins, localization to the mitochondria is diminished upon tunicamycin treatment, indicating that protein glycosylation is important for protein function. Overall, our studies greatly extend our understanding of protein glycosylation in eukaryotes through the cataloguing of glycoproteins, and describe a novel role for protein glycosylation in mitochondrial protein function and localization. PMID:19756047

  5. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification is a common phenomenon in nature. Many carbohydrate modifications such as some epimerization, O-acetylation, O-sulfation, O-methylation, N-deacetylation, and N-sulfation, take place after the formation of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide backbones. These modifications can be categorized as carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs). Carbohydrate PGMs further extend the complexity of the structures and the synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They also increase the capacity of the biological information that can be controlled by finely tuning the structures of carbohydrates. Developing efficient methods to obtain structurally defined naturally occurring oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates with carbohydrate PGMs is essential for understanding the biological significance of carbohydrate PGMs. Combine with high-throughput screening methods, synthetic carbohydrates with PGMs are invaluable probes in structure-activity relationship studies. We illustrate here several classes of carbohydrates with PGMs and their applications. Recent progress in chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic syntheses of these carbohydrates and their derivatives are also presented. PMID:17340000

  6. The Association Between Glycosylation of Immunoglobulin G and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youxin; Klarić, Lucija; Yu, Xinwei; Thaqi, Kujtim; Dong, Jing; Novokmet, Mislav; Wilson, Jim; Polasek, Ozren; Liu, Youqin; Krištić, Jasminka; Ge, Siqi; Pučić-Baković, Maja; Wu, Lijuan; Zhou, Yong; Ugrina, Ivo; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Xiuhua; Zeng, Qiang; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Aulchenko, Yurii; Lauc, Gordan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than half of all known proteins, and almost all membrane and extra-cellular proteins have oligosaccharide structures or glycans attached to them. Defects in glycosylation pathways are directly involved in at least 30 severe human diseases. A multiple center cross-sectional study (China, Croatia, and Scotland) was carried out to investigate the possible association between hypertension and IgG glycosylation. A hydrophilic interaction chromatography of fluorescently labeled glycans was used to analyze N-glycans attached to IgG in plasma samples from a total of 4757 individuals of Chinese Han, Croatian, and Scottish ethnicity. Five glycans (IgG with digalactosylated glycans) significantly differed in participants with prehypertension or hypertension compared to those with normal blood pressure, while additional 17 glycan traits were only significantly differed in participants with hypertension compared to those of normal blood pressure. These glycans were also significant correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The present study demonstrated for the 1st time an association between hypertension and IgG glycome composition. These findings suggest that the individual variation in N-glycosylation of IgG contributes to pathogenesis of hypertension, presumably via its effect on pro- and/or anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:27124023

  7. Effect of the glycosylation of flavonoids on interaction with protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui; Wu, Donghui; Wang, Hongxian; Xu, Ming

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, two flavonoid aglycones (baicalein, quercetin) and their glycosides (baicalin, quercitrin) were studied for their ability to bind protein by quenching the protein intrinsic fluorescence. From the spectra obtained, the bimolecular quenching constants, the apparent static binding constants, and binding sites values were calculated. The glycosylation of flavonoids decreases the binding affinity with protein. For quercetin and quercitrin, the binding constants for BSA were 3.65 × 10 7 and 6.47 × 10 3 L mol -1, respectively. For baicalein and baicalin, the binding constants were 4.54 × 10 8 and 1.63 × 10 6 L mol -1, respectively.

  8. Identification of N-glycosylated proteins from the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Koles, Kate; Lim, Jae-Min; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; Panin, Vlad

    2007-12-01

    Although the function of many glycoproteins in the nervous system of fruit flies is well understood, information about the glycosylation profile and glycan attachment sites for such proteins is scarce. In order to fill this gap and to facilitate the analysis of N-linked glycosylation in the nervous system, we have performed an extensive survey of membrane-associated glycoproteins and their N-glycosylation sites isolated from the adult Drosophila brain. Following subcellular fractionation and trypsin digestion, we used different lectin affinity chromatography steps to isolate N-glycosylated glycopeptides. We identified a total of 205 glycoproteins carrying N-linked glycans and revealed their 307 N-glycan attachment sites. The size of the resulting dataset furthermore allowed the statistical characterization of amino acid distribution around the N-linked glycosylation sites. Glycan profiles were analyzed separately for glycopeptides that were strongly and weakly bound to Concanavalin A (Con A), or that failed to bind Concanavalin A, but did bind to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). High- or paucimannosidic glycans dominated each of the profiles, although the wheat germ agglutinin-bound glycan population was enriched in more extensively processed structures. A sialylated glycan structure was unambiguously detected in the wheat germ agglutinin-bound fraction. Despite the large amount of starting material, insufficient amount of glycopeptides was retained by the Wisteria floribunda (WFA) and Sambucus nigra columns to allow glycan or glycoprotein identification, providing further evidence that the vast majority of glycoproteins in the adult Drosophila brain carry primarily high-mannose, paucimannose, and hybrid glycans. The obtained results should facilitate future genetic and molecular approaches addressing the role of N-glycosylation in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila.

  9. Structural and functional analysis of the two haemoglobins of the antarctic seabird Catharacta maccormicki characterization of an additional phosphate binding site by molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, M; Riccio, A; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    2000-10-01

    The amino-acid sequence and the oxygen-binding properties of the two haemoglobins of the Antarctic seabird south polar skua have been investigated. The two haemoglobins showed peculiar functional features, which were probably acquired to meet special needs in relation to the extreme environmental conditions. Both haemoglobins showed a weak alkaline Bohr effect which, during prolonged flight, may protect against sudden and uncontrolled stripping of oxygen in response to acidosis. We suggest that a weak Bohr effect in birds may reflect adaptation to extreme life conditions. The values of heat of oxygenation suggest different functional roles of the two haemoglobins. The experimental evidence suggests that both haemoglobins may bind phosphate at two distinct binding sites. In fact, analysis of the molecular models revealed that an additional phosphate binding site, formed by residues NA1alpha, G6alpha and HC3alpha, is located between the two alpha chains. This additional site may act as an entry/leaving site, thus increasing the probability of capturing phosphate and transferring it to the main binding site located between the two beta chains by means of a site-site migratory mechanism, thereby favouring the release of oxygen. It is suggested that most haemoglobins possess an additional phosphate binding site, having such a role in oxygen transport.

  10. The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D; Fenn, Mark E

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate plant and herbivore responses to nitrogen we conducted a fertilization study at a low and high pollution site in the mixed conifer forests surrounding Los Angeles, California. Contrary to expectations, discriminant function analysis of oak herbivore communities showed significant response to N fertilization when atmospheric deposition was high, but not when atmospheric deposition was low. We hypothesize that longer-term fertilization treatments are needed at the low pollution site before foliar N nutrition increases sufficiently to affect herbivore communities. At the high pollution site, fertilization was also associated with increased catkin production and higher densities of a byturid beetle that feeds on the catkins of oak. Leaf nitrogen and nitrate were significantly higher at the high pollution site compared to the low pollution site. Foliar nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with abundance of sucking insects, leafrollers and plutellids in all three years of the study.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact Sites with UKIRT: CO Emission from the L Site and Additional 5-μm Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, T. Y.; Orton, G. S.; Crisp, D.; Friedson, A. J.; Bjoraker, G. L.

    1996-06-01

    CO emission lines in the 4.7-μm fundamental vibrational band were detected from Jupiter at the Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragment L impact site on July 20, 1994 UT, 4 to 5 hr after impact. For an atmospheric model with a single temperature for the emitting CO, which is assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the CO temperature is estimated to beT(CO) = 280 ± 10 K. For this case, the CO column density isN(CO) = 1.2 × 1017cm-2and the estimated mass of CO in the L site is 1.6 × 1013g, with uncertainties of a factor five. The oxygen in this mass of CO can be plausibly explained as coming from material originally in the impactor. Larger amounts of cool CO below the emitting CO could have been present, however. The possible departure of the CO vibrational level populations from LTE and the effect on abundance estimates are discussed qualitatively. Spectra of other impact sites taken at times on the order of days after impact show no detectable changes in the CO absorption lines of impact sites vs nonimpact sites.

  12. Elucidation of differences in N-glycosylation between different molecular weight forms of recombinant CLEC-2 by LC MALDI tandem MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Qian, Yifan; Zhang, Xingwang; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Ren, Shifang; Gu, Jianxin

    2015-01-30

    C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is a newly identified receptor expressed on the platelet surface. It has been reported that CLEC-2 exists as a higher molecular weight (HMW) and a lower molecular weight (LMW) form, which share the same protein core but differ in glycans. The two forms appear to have different ligand-binding abilities, indicating that the differential glycosylation of CLEC-2 possibly produces functionally distinct glycoforms. This study aimed to explore an easy method to directly elucidate the N-glycosylation difference by employing a glycoproteomics approach. The off-line coupling of nano-LC with a MALDI-QIT-TOF mass spectrometer was demonstrated to be capable of sensitive and direct elucidation of the glycosylation difference between HMW and LMW CLEC-2, simultaneously providing information about their oligosaccharide structures and the glycosylation sites. The results reveal that a specific glycosylation site, Asn 134, is differently glycosylated in the two forms, with complex types of bi-antennary, tri-antennary and tetra-antennary, N-linked, fucosylated glycans identified at this site in the HMW form but not in the LMW form. The observed difference in glycosylation might provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of biological functions of CLEC-2. Because of its simplicity and sensitivity, the method explored in this work suggests that it holds promise as a method of elucidating differences in direct N-glycosylation of target glycoprotein, even in small amount of samples.

  13. Nd substitution in y/ba sites in melt processed YBa2Cu3O7- δ through Nd2O3 additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Chakrapani; Mc Ginn, Paul J.; Blackstead, Howard A.; Pulling, David B.

    1995-12-01

    YBa2Cu3O7- δ (Y123) samples with excess Nd2O3 and Y2O3 additions in the same molar ratios were melt textured in air. In the Nd-doped samples, in addition to Y ion site substitution, partial substitution into the Ba2+ sites is anticipated because of the similar ionic sizes of Nd3+ and Ba2+. The microstructure, Tc, and magnetic properties of Nd-doped samples were analyzed and compared with undoped Y123 and samples with excess Y2O3. The Nd2O3 additions lead to significant magnetization improvements, likely due to both rare earth- and Ba-site substitution by the doped Nd3+ ions, and to increases in Tc. Y2O3 additions resulted in no marked property enhancement.

  14. Making Home Sweet and Sturdy: Toxoplasma gondii ppGalNAc-Ts Glycosylate in Hierarchical Order and Confer Cyst Wall Rigidity

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Yakubu, Rama; Tu, Vincent; Ma, Yanfen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii forms latent cysts in the central nervous system (CNS) and persists for the lifetime of the host. This cyst is cloaked with a glycosylated structure called the cyst wall. Previously, we demonstrated that a mucin-like glycoprotein, CST1, localizes to the cyst wall and confers structural rigidity on brain cysts in a mucin-like domain-dependent manner. The mucin-like domain of CST1 is composed of 20 units of threonine-rich tandem repeats that are O-GalNAc glycosylated. A family of enzymes termed polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) initiates O-GalNAc glycosylation. To identify which isoforms of ppGalNAc-Ts are responsible for the glycosylation of the CST1 mucin-like domain and to evaluate the function of each ppGalNAc-T in the overall glycosylation of the cyst wall, all five ppGalNAc-T isoforms were deleted individually from the T. gondii genome. The ppGalNAc-T2 and -T3 deletion mutants produced various glycosylation defects on the cyst wall, implying that many cyst wall glycoproteins are glycosylated by T2 and T3. Both T2 and T3 glycosylate the CST1 mucin-like domain, and this glycosylation is necessary for CST1 to confer structural rigidity on the cyst wall. We established that T2 is required for the initial glycosylation of the mucin-like domain and that T3 is responsible for the sequential glycosylation on neighboring acceptor sites, demonstrating hierarchical glycosylation by two distinct initiating and filling-in ppGalNAc-Ts in an intact organism. PMID:28074022

  15. N-/O-glycosylation analysis of human FVIIa produced in the milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chevreux, Guillaume; Faid, Valegh; Scohyers, Jean-Marc; Bihoreau, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Human coagulation factor VIIa is a glycoprotein that promotes haemostasis through activation of the coagulation cascade extrinsic pathway. Most haemophilia A/B patients with inhibitors are treated by injection of plasma-derived or recombinant FVIIa. The use of recombinant products raises questions about the ability of the host cell to produce efficiently post-translationally modified proteins. Glycosylation is especially critical considering that it can modulate protein safety and efficacy. The present paper reports the N-/O-glycosylation pattern of a new recombinant human factor VIIa expressed in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. Glycosylation was investigated by chromatography and advanced mass spectrometry techniques for glycan identification and quantitation. Mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analyses were performed to confirm the glycan structures as well as the position and branching of specific monosaccharides or substituents. The two N-glycosylation sites were found to be fully occupied mostly by mono- and bi-sialylated biantennary complex-type structures, the major form being A(2)G(2)S(1). Some oligomannose/hybrid structures were retrieved in lower abundance, the major ones being GlcNAcα1,O-phosphorylated at the C6-position of a Man residue (Man-6-(GlcNAcα1,O-)phosphate motif) as commonly observed on lysosomal proteins. No immunogenic glycotopes such as Galili (Galα1,3Gal) and HD antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc)) were detected. Concerning O-glycosylation, the product exhibited O-fucose and O-glucose-(xylose)(0, 1, 2) motifs as expected. The N-glycosylation consistency was also investigated by varying production parameters such as the period of lactation, the number of consecutive lactations and rabbit generations. Results show that the transgenesis technology is suitable for the long-term production of rhFVIIa with a reproducible glycosylation pattern.

  16. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: a concise chart of glycocalyx dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hennet, Thierry; Cabalzar, Jürg

    2015-07-01

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous modification of lipids and proteins. Despite the essential contribution of glycoconjugates to the viability of all living organisms, diseases of glycosylation in humans have only been identified over the past few decades. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques has accelerated the pace of discovery of novel glycosylation defects. The description of multiple mutations across glycosylation pathways not only revealed tremendous diversity in functional impairments, but also pointed to phenotypic similarities, emphasizing the interconnected flow of substrates underlying glycan assembly. The current list of 100 known glycosylation disorders provides an overview of the significance of glycosylation in human development and physiology.

  17. Cloning and analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNN9 and MNN1 genes required for complex glycosylation of secreted proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Yip, C L; Welch, S K; Klebl, F; Gilbert, T; Seidel, P; Grant, F J; O'Hara, P J; MacKay, V L

    1994-01-01

    Proteins secreted by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are usually modified by the addition at asparagine-linked glycosylation sites of large heterogeneous mannan units that are highly immunogenic. Secreted proteins from mnn1 mnn9 mutant strains, in contrast, have homogeneous Man10GlcNAc2 oligosaccharides that lack the immunogenic alpha 1,3-mannose linkages. We have cloned and sequenced the MNN9 and MNN1 genes, both of which encode proteins with the characteristics of type II membrane proteins. Mnn9p is a membrane-associated protein with unknown function that is required for the addition of the long alpha 1,6-mannose backbone of the complex mannan, whereas Mnn1p is most likely the alpha 1,3-mannosyltransferase located in the Golgi apparatus. Images PMID:8146181

  18. Novel Protein Substrates of the Phospho-Form Modification System in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Their Connection to O-Linked Protein Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Anonsen, Jan Haug; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Aas, Finn Erik; Børud, Bente; Koomey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The zwitterionic phospho-form moieties phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC) are important components of bacterial membranes and cell surfaces. The major type IV pilus subunit protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, PilE, undergoes posttranslational modifications with these moieties via the activity of the pilin phospho-form transferase PptA. A number of observations relating to colocalization of phospho-form and O-linked glycan attachment sites in PilE suggested that these modifications might be either functionally or mechanistically linked or interact directly or indirectly. Moreover, it was unknown whether the phenomenon of phospho-form modification was solely dedicated to PilE or if other neisserial protein targets might exist. In light of these concerns, we screened for evidence of phospho-form modification on other membrane glycoproteins targeted by the broad-spectrum O-linked glycosylation system. In this way, two periplasmic lipoproteins, NGO1043 and NGO1237, were identified as substrates for PE addition. As seen previously for PilE, sites of PE modifications were clustered with those of glycan attachment. In the case of NGO1043, evidence for at least six serine phospho-form attachment sites was found, and further analyses revealed that at least two of these serines were also attachment sites for glycan. Finally, mutations altering glycosylation status led to the presence of pptA-dependent PC modifications on both proteins. Together, these results reinforce the associations established in PilE and provide evidence for dynamic interplay between phospho-form modification and O-linked glycosylation. The observations also suggest that phospho-form modifications likely contribute biologically at both intracellular and extracellular levels. PMID:22083701

  19. Recruitment of glycosyl hydrolase proteins in a cone snail venomous arsenal: further insights into biomolecular features of Conus venoms.

    PubMed

    Violette, Aude; Leonardi, Adrijana; Piquemal, David; Terrat, Yves; Biass, Daniel; Dutertre, Sébastien; Noguier, Florian; Ducancel, Frédéric; Stöcklin, Reto; Križaj, Igor; Favreau, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Cone snail venoms are considered an untapped reservoir of extremely diverse peptides, named conopeptides, displaying a wide array of pharmacological activities. We report here for the first time, the presence of high molecular weight compounds that participate in the envenomation cocktail used by these marine snails. Using a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified glycosyl hydrolase proteins, of the hyaluronidase type (Hyal), from the dissected and injectable venoms ("injectable venom" stands for the venom variety obtained by milking of the snails. This is in contrast to the "dissected venom", which was obtained from dissected snails by extraction of the venom glands) of a fish-hunting cone snail, Conus consors (Pionoconus clade). The major Hyal isoform, Conohyal-Cn1, is expressed as a mixture of numerous glycosylated proteins in the 50 kDa molecular mass range, as observed in 2D gel and mass spectrometry analyses. Further proteomic analysis and venom duct mRNA sequencing allowed full sequence determination. Additionally, unambiguous segment location of at least three glycosylation sites could be determined, with glycans corresponding to multiple hexose (Hex) and N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) moieties. With respect to other known Hyals, Conohyal-Cn1 clearly belongs to the hydrolase-type of Hyals, with strictly conserved consensus catalytic donor and positioning residues. Potent biological activity of the native Conohyals could be confirmed in degrading hyaluronic acid. A similar Hyal sequence was also found in the venom duct transcriptome of C. adamsonii (Textilia clade), implying a possible widespread recruitment of this enzyme family in fish-hunting cone snail venoms. These results provide the first detailed Hyal sequence characterized from a cone snail venom, and to a larger extent in the Mollusca phylum, thus extending our knowledge on this protein family and its evolutionary selection in marine snail venoms.

  20. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  1. Unconventional N-Linked Glycosylation Promotes Trimeric Autotransporter Function in Kingella kingae and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Katherine A.; Spruce, Lynn A.; Porsch, Eric A.; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycosylation is a widespread mechanism employed by both eukaryotes and bacteria to increase the functional diversity of their proteomes. The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae glycosyltransferase HMW1C mediates unconventional N-linked glycosylation of the adhesive protein HMW1, which is encoded in a two-partner secretion system gene cluster that also encodes HMW1C. In this system, HMW1 is modified in the cytoplasm by sequential transfer of hexose residues. In the present study, we examined Kingella kingae and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus homologues of HMW1C that are not encoded near a gene encoding an obvious acceptor protein. We found both homologues to be functional glycosyltransferases and identified their substrates as the K. kingae Knh and the A. aphrophilus EmaA trimeric autotransporter proteins. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed multiple sites of N-linked glycosylation on Knh and EmaA. Without glycosylation, Knh and EmaA failed to facilitate wild-type levels of bacterial autoaggregation or adherence to human epithelial cells, establishing that glycosylation is essential for proper protein function. PMID:26307167

  2. 76 FR 64366 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HCV programs. The proposed data collection will take place through site visits to up to 30 PHAs and... study of administrative fees in the HCV program. The national study of administrative fees will include... administrative fee allocation formula for the HCV program. OMB Approval Number: Pending. Agency form...

  3. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Reserve, may be made only after written approval by NOAA. NOAA may require public notice, including notice... statement may be required. NOAA will place a notice in the Federal Register of any proposed changes in... made. NOAA will publish notice of the proposed new site including an invitation for comments from...

  4. Characterization and regulation of an additional actin-filament-binding site in large isoforms of the stereocilia actin-bundling protein espin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lili; Beeler, Dina M; Bartles, James R

    2014-03-15

    The espin actin-bundling proteins, which are produced as isoforms of different sizes from a single gene, are required for the growth of hair cell stereocilia. We have characterized an additional actin-filament-binding site present in the extended amino-termini of large espin isoforms. Constitutively active in espin 2, the site increased the size of actin bundles formed in vitro and inhibited actin fluorescence recovery in microvilli. In espin 1, which has an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain, the site was autoinhibited by binding between the ankyrin repeat domain and a peptide near the actin-binding site. Deletion of this peptide from espin 1 activated its actin-binding site. The peptide resembled tail homology domain I of myosin III, a ligand of the ankyrin repeat domain localized with espin 1 at the tip of stereocilia. A myosin III tail homology domain I peptide, but not scrambled control peptides, inhibited internal binding of the ankyrin repeat domain and released the espin 1 actin-binding site from autoinhibition. Thus, this regulation could result in local activation of the additional actin-binding site of espin 1 by myosin III in stereocilia.

  5. Putative sperm fusion protein IZUMO and the role of N-glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naokazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru

    2008-12-19

    IZUMO is the mouse sperm protein proven to be essential for fusion with eggs. It contains one immunoglobulin-like domain with a conserved glycosylation site within. In the present paper, we produced transgenic mouse lines expressing unglycosylated IZUMO (N204Q-IZUMO) in Izumo1 -/- background. The expression of N204Q-IZUMO rescued the infertile phenotype of IZUMO disrupted mice, indicating glycosylation is not essential for fusion-facilitating activity of IZUMO. The N204Q-IZUMO was produced in testis in comparable amounts to wild-type IZUMO, but the amount of N204Q-IZUMO on sperm was significantly decreased by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. These data suggest that glycosylation is not essential for the function of IZUMO, but has a role in protecting it from fragmentation in cauda epididymis.

  6. Large-Scale Organization of Glycosylation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jun; Lee, Dong-Yup; Jeong, Hawoong

    2009-03-01

    Glycosylation is a highly complex process to produce a diverse repertoire of cellular glycans that are frequently attached to proteins and lipids. Glycans participate in fundamental biological processes including molecular trafficking and clearance, cell proliferation and apoptosis, developmental biology, immune response, and pathogenesis. N-linked glycans found on proteins are formed by sequential attachments of monosaccharides with the help of a relatively small number of enzymes. Many of these enzymes can accept multiple N-linked glycans as substrates, thus generating a large number of glycan intermediates and their intermingled pathways. Motivated by the quantitative methods developed in complex network research, we investigate the large-scale organization of such N-glycosylation pathways in a mammalian cell. The uncovered results give the experimentally-testable predictions for glycosylation process, and can be applied to the engineering of therapeutic glycoproteins.

  7. Chemical O‐Glycosylations: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of glycobiology relies on the sources of particular oligosaccharides in their purest forms. As the isolation of the oligosaccharide structures from natural sources is not a reliable option for providing samples with homogeneity, chemical means become pertinent. The growing demand for diverse oligosaccharide structures has prompted the advancement of chemical strategies to stitch sugar molecules with precise stereo‐ and regioselectivity through the formation of glycosidic bonds. This Review will focus on the key developments towards chemical O‐glycosylations in the current century. Synthesis of novel glycosyl donors and acceptors and their unique activation for successful glycosylation are discussed. This Review concludes with a summary of recent developments and comments on future prospects. PMID:27777833

  8. Preventing E-cadherin aberrant N-glycosylation at Asn-554 improves its critical function in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Catarino, TA; Dias, AM; Kato, M; Almeida, A; Hessling, B; Figueiredo, J; Gärtner, F; Sanches, JM; Ruppert, T; Miyoshi, E; Pierce, M; Carneiro, F; Kolarich, D; Seruca, R; Yamaguchi, Y; Taniguchi, N; Reis, CA; Pinho, SS

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin is a central molecule in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its posttranslational modifications by N-glycosylation have been described to induce a deleterious effect on cell adhesion associated with tumor cell invasion. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of E-cadherin has in its defective function in gastric cancer cells needs to be determined. Using transgenic mice models and human clinical samples, we demonstrated that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V)-mediated glycosylation causes an abnormal pattern of E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa. In vitro models further indicated that, among the four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin, Asn-554 is the key site that is selectively modified with β1,6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans catalyzed by GnT-V. This aberrant glycan modification on this specific asparagine site of E-cadherin was demonstrated to affect its critical functions in gastric cancer cells by affecting E-cadherin cellular localization, cis-dimer formation, molecular assembly and stability of the adherens junctions and cell–cell aggregation, which was further observed in human gastric carcinomas. Interestingly, manipulating this site-specific glycosylation, by preventing Asn-554 from receiving the deleterious branched structures, either by a mutation or by silencing GnT-V, resulted in a protective effect on E-cadherin, precluding its functional dysregulation and contributing to tumor suppression. PMID:26189796

  9. Extreme sweetness: protein glycosylation in archaea.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Although N-glycosylation was first reported in archaea almost 40 years ago, detailed insights into this process have become possible only recently, with the availability of complete genome sequences for almost 200 archaeal species and the development of appropriate molecular tools. As a result of these advances, recent efforts have not only succeeded in delineating the pathways involved in archaeal N-glycosylation, but also begun to reveal how such post-translational protein modification helps archaea to survive in some of the harshest environments on the planet.

  10. Resveratrol triggers ER stress-mediated apoptosis by disrupting N-linked glycosylation of proteins in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gwak, HyeRan; Kim, Soochi; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-28

    Malignant tumors have a high glucose demand and alter cellular metabolism to survive. Herein, focusing on the utility of glucose metabolism as a therapeutic target, we found that resveratrol induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis by interrupting protein glycosylation in a cancer-specific manner. Our results indicated that resveratrol suppressed the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and interrupted protein glycosylation through GSK3β activation. Application of either biochemical intermediates of the hexosamine pathway or small molecular inhibitors of GSK3β reversed the effects of resveratrol on the disruption of protein glycosylation. Additionally, an ER UDPase, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5), modulated protein glycosylation by Akt attenuation in response to resveratrol. By inhibition or overexpression of Akt functions, we confirmed that the glycosylation activities were dependent on ENTPD5 expression and regulated by the action of Akt in ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol-mediated disruption of protein glycosylation induced cellular apoptosis as indicated by the up-regulation of GADD153, followed by the activation of ER-stress sensors (PERK and ATF6α). Thus, our results provide novel insight into cancer cell metabolism and protein glycosylation as a therapeutic target for cancers.

  11. Role of N-glycosylation in cell surface expression and protection against proteolysis of the intestinal anion exchanger SLC26A3.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Yukari

    2012-03-01

    SLC26A3 is a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger that plays a major role in Cl(-) absorption from the intestine. Its mutation causes congenital chloride-losing diarrhea. It has been shown that SLC26A3 are glycosylated, with the attached carbohydrate being extracellular and perhaps modulating function. However, the role of glycosylation has yet to be clearly determined. We used the approaches of biochemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis to prevent glycosylation. Deglycosylation experiments with glycosidases indicated that the mature glycosylated form of SLC26A3 exists at the plasma membrane, and a putative large second extracellular loop contains all of the N-linked carbohydrates. Deglycosylation of SLC26A3 causes depression of transport activity compared with wild-type, although robust intracellular pH changes were still observed, suggesting that N-glycosylation is not absolutely necessary for transport activity. To localize glycosylation sites, we mutated the five consensus sites by replacing asparagine (N) with glutamine. Immnoblotting suggests that SLC26A3 is glycosylated at N153, N161, and N165. Deglycosylation of SLC26A3 causes a defect in cell surface processing with decreased cell surface expression. We also assessed whether SLC26A3 is protected from tryptic digestion. While the mature glycosylated SLC26A3 showed little breakdown after treatment with trypsin, deglycosylated SLC26A3 exhibited increased susceptibility to trypsin, suggesting that the oligosaccharides protect SLC26A3 from tryptic digestion. In conclusion, our data indicate that N-glycosylation of SLC26A3 is important for cell surface expression and for protection from proteolytic degradation that may contribute to the understanding of pathogenesis of congenital disorders of glycosylation.

  12. Involvement of O-glycosylation defining oncofetal fibronectin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process

    PubMed Central

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Gelfenbeyn, Kirill; Ding, Yao; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik; Handa, Kazuko; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2011-01-01

    The process termed “epithelial–mesenchymal transition” (EMT) was originally discovered in ontogenic development, and has been shown to be one of the key steps in tumor cell progression and metastasis. Recently, we showed that the expression of some glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is down-regulated during EMT in human and mouse cell lines. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of GalNAc-type (or mucin-type) O-glycosylation in EMT process, induced with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in human prostate epithelial cell lines. We found that: (i) TGF-β treatment caused up-regulation of oncofetal fibronectin (onfFN), which is defined by mAb FDC6, and expressed in cancer or fetal cells/tissues, but not in normal adult cells/tissues. The reactivity of mAb FDC6 requires the addition of an O-glycan at a specific threonine, inside the type III homology connective segment (IIICS) domain of FN. (ii) This change is associated with typical EMT characteristics; i.e., change from epithelial to fibroblastic morphology, enhanced cell motility, decreased expression of a typical epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers. (iii) TGF-β treatment up-regulated mRNA level of FN containing the IIICS domain and GalNAc-T activity for the IIICS domain peptide substrate containing the FDC6 onfFN epitope. (iv) Knockdown of GalNAc-T6 and T3 inhibited TGF-β–induced up-regulation of onfFN and EMT process. (v) Involvement of GSLs was not detectable with the EMT process in these cell lines. These findings indicate the important functional role of expression of onfFN, defined by site-specific O-glycosylation at IIICS domain, in the EMT process. PMID:22006308

  13. Hypomorphic Glycosyltransferase Alleles and Recoding at Contingency Loci Influence Glycan Microheterogeneity in the Protein Glycosylation System of Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Camilla; Koomey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As more bacterial protein glycosylation systems are identified and characterized, a central question that arises is, what governs the prevalence of particular glycans associated with them? In addition, accumulating evidence shows that bacterial protein glycans can be subject to the phenomenon of microheterogeneity, in which variant glycan structures are found at specific attachment sites of a given glycoprotein. Although factors underlying microheterogeneity in reconstituted expression systems have been identified and modeled, those impacting natural systems largely remain enigmatic. On the basis of a sensitive and specific glycan serotyping system, microheterogeneity has been reported for the broad-spectrum, O-linked protein glycosylation system in species within the genus Neisseria. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, a genetic approach was used to identify a hypomorphic allele of pglA (encoding the PglA galactosyltransferase) as a significant contributor to simultaneous expression of multiple glycoforms. Moreover, this phenotype was mapped to a single amino acid polymorphism in PglA. Further analyses revealed that many pglA phase-off variants (containing out-of-frame configurations in simple nucleotide repeats within the open reading frame) were associated with disproportionally high levels of the N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine–Gal disaccharide glycoform generated by PglA. This phenotype is emblematic of nonstandard decoding involving programmed ribosomal frameshifting and/or programmed transcriptional realignment. Together, these findings provide new information regarding the mechanisms of neisserial protein glycan microheterogeneity and the anticipatory nature of contingency loci. PMID:22797763

  14. The glycosylation stoichiometry of EWS species in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kamemura, Kazuo; Abe, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    Although Ewing sarcoma protein (EWS) is known to be glycosylated by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), the dynamics and stoichiometry of its glycosylation remain obscure. Here, we report a dynamic change in the glycosylation stoichiometry of EWS species during neuronal differentiation of embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. Our findings suggest that O-GlcNAc glycosylation participates in the regulation of EWS functions in neuronal cells.

  15. Specificity of O-glycosylation in enhancing the stability and cellulose binding affinity of Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R; Resch, Michael G; Greene, Eric R; Himmel, Michael E; Chaffey, Patrick K; Beckham, Gregg T; Tan, Zhongping

    2014-05-27

    The majority of biological turnover of lignocellulosic biomass in nature is conducted by fungi, which commonly use Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for targeting enzymes to cellulose. Family 1 CBMs are glycosylated, but the effects of glycosylation on CBM function remain unknown. Here, the effects of O-mannosylation are examined on the Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase at three glycosylation sites. To enable this work, a procedure to synthesize glycosylated Family 1 CBMs was developed. Subsequently, a library of 20 CBMs was synthesized with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides at each site for comparison of binding affinity, proteolytic stability, and thermostability. The results show that, although CBM mannosylation does not induce major conformational changes, it can increase the thermolysin cleavage resistance up to 50-fold depending on the number of mannose units on the CBM and the attachment site. O-Mannosylation also increases the thermostability of CBM glycoforms up to 16 °C, and a mannose disaccharide at Ser3 seems to have the largest themostabilizing effect. Interestingly, the glycoforms with small glycans at each site displayed higher binding affinities for crystalline cellulose, and the glycoform with a single mannose at each of three positions conferred the highest affinity enhancement of 7.4-fold. Overall, by combining chemical glycoprotein synthesis and functional studies, we show that specific glycosylation events confer multiple beneficial properties on Family 1 CBMs.

  16. Specificity of O-glycosylation in enhancing the stability and cellulose binding affinity of Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liqun; Drake, Matthew R.; Resch, Michael G.; Greene, Eric R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Chaffey, Patrick K.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Tan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biological turnover of lignocellulosic biomass in nature is conducted by fungi, which commonly use Family 1 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for targeting enzymes to cellulose. Family 1 CBMs are glycosylated, but the effects of glycosylation on CBM function remain unknown. Here, the effects of O-mannosylation are examined on the Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase at three glycosylation sites. To enable this work, a procedure to synthesize glycosylated Family 1 CBMs was developed. Subsequently, a library of 20 CBMs was synthesized with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides at each site for comparison of binding affinity, proteolytic stability, and thermostability. The results show that, although CBM mannosylation does not induce major conformational changes, it can increase the thermolysin cleavage resistance up to 50-fold depending on the number of mannose units on the CBM and the attachment site. O-Mannosylation also increases the thermostability of CBM glycoforms up to 16 °C, and a mannose disaccharide at Ser3 seems to have the largest themostabilizing effect. Interestingly, the glycoforms with small glycans at each site displayed higher binding affinities for crystalline cellulose, and the glycoform with a single mannose at each of three positions conferred the highest affinity enhancement of 7.4-fold. Overall, by combining chemical glycoprotein synthesis and functional studies, we show that specific glycosylation events confer multiple beneficial properties on Family 1 CBMs. PMID:24821760

  17. Attenuation of N-glycosylation causes polarity and adhesion defects in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Julia; Spang, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Caenorhabditiselegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of attenuation of N-glycosylation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the size difference between the two cells formed in first cell division (AB and P1) was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated embryos. In addition, among other deficiencies, we observed spindle orientation defects in two-cell embryos. Moreover, cell-cell adhesion was specifically lost at the two-cell stage when N-glycosylation was reduced. This loss-of-adhesion phenotype was rescued by interfering with polarity establishment, indicating that polarity establishment enforces plasma membrane compartmentalization. Consistent with this idea, the decreased plasma membrane levels of the adhesion proteins E-cadherin and MAGI-1 in ribo-1(RNAi) embryos were restored in the absence of functional PAR-2. Our data suggest a general role for N-glycosylation in plasma membrane compartmentalization and cell polarity.

  18. A phosphatidylinositol-linkage-deficient T-cell mutant contains insulin-sensitive glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, M A; Clemente, R; Varela-Nieto, I

    1992-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol molecules, acting as both signal transduction elements and membrane protein anchors, have been proposed to play a role during T-cell activation. The MVB2 cell line is a mutant, derived from the wild-type T-T hybrid YH.16.33, which has a defect in the biosynthesis of PtdIns-protein linkages. As a consequence, MVB2 mutants are defective in activation through the T-cell receptor. Despite the lack of glycosyl-PtdIns anchors in the mutant MVB2 cells, a comparison of the levels and structural features of the insulin-sensitive glycosyl-PtdIns between the MVB2 and YH.16.33 lineages indicates that both cell lines are identical in this respect. The time course for insulin-responsiveness coincides in both cell lines, with maximal hydrolysis 30 s after insulin addition. The ultimate localization of insulin-regulated glycosyl-PtdIns at the outer surface of the cell membrane is also similar. These data indicate that the glycosyl-PtdIns whose hydrolysis is regulated by insulin is not anchoring proteins at the cell surface of T-lymphocytes. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1532490

  19. The Autonomous Glycosylation of Large DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; Gaglianone, Matteo; Laugieri, Maria Elena; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of surface molecules is a key feature of several eukaryotic viruses, which use the host endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to add carbohydrates to their nascent glycoproteins. In recent years, a newly discovered group of eukaryotic viruses, belonging to the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) group, was shown to have several features that are typical of cellular organisms, including the presence of components of the glycosylation machinery. Starting from initial observations with the chlorovirus PBCV-1, enzymes for glycan biosynthesis have been later identified in other viruses; in particular in members of the Mimiviridae family. They include both the glycosyltransferases and other carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and the pathways for the biosynthesis of the rare monosaccharides that are found in the viral glycan structures. These findings, together with genome analysis of the newly-identified giant DNA viruses, indicate that the presence of glycogenes is widespread in several NCLDV families. The identification of autonomous viral glycosylation machinery leads to many questions about the origin of these pathways, the mechanisms of glycan production, and eventually their function in the viral replication cycle. The scope of this review is to highlight some of the recent results that have been obtained on the glycosylation systems of the large DNA viruses, with a special focus on the enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production. PMID:26690138

  20. The Campylobacter jejuni/coli cjaA (cj0982c) gene encodes an N-glycosylated lipoprotein localized in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Zycka, Joanna; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K

    2008-09-01

    The Campylobacter coli 72Dz/92 cjaA gene (orthologue of cj0982c of C. jejuni NCTC 11168) product is a highly immunogenic, amino acid-binding protein. CjaA was palmitic acid-modified when processed in E. coli. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis of the Cys residue of the LAAC motif of its signal sequence confirmed that CjaA is a lipoprotein when processed in Campylobacter. Localization of the protein appeared to be host dependent. In Campylobacter, CjaA was recovered mainly as an inner-membrane protein, whereas in E. coli most of the protein was present in the periplasmic space. Interestingly, antiserum raised against Campylobacter glycine-extracted material also recognized CjaA produced by Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, indicating that at least part of the protein may be surface exposed. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Asn residues of two putative N-linked glycosylation sites (NIS and NFT) showed that CjaA is glycosylated and that only the first N-X-S/T sequeon serves as a glycan acceptor.

  1. A comparative study of glycosylated haemoglobin level in the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) during different seasons.

    PubMed

    al-Ali, A K; Rehaimi, A; Saba, R; Power, D M

    1990-01-01

    1. The extent of haemoglobin glycosylation from 60 camels has been determined (4.39%) in blood samples drawn during winter. 2. Phosphate (9.45 mg/dl), DPG (2.9 mumol/ml) and glucose (138 mg/dl) levels were also recorded. 3. In addition the P50 at pH 7.4 was measured (22.8 Torrs). 4. The data obtained compared with human blood levels and with levels reported for camels during summer sampling. 5. Despite the fact that camels have higher blood glucose levels than humans, the extent of glycosylation is much less in camel blood than in human blood.

  2. Biotechnological advances in UDP-sugar based glycosylation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Frederik; Maertens, Jo; Beauprez, Joeri; Soetaert, Wim; De Mey, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of small molecules like specialized (secondary) metabolites has a profound impact on their solubility, stability or bioactivity, making glycosides attractive compounds as food additives, therapeutics or nutraceuticals. The subsequently growing market demand has fuelled the development of various biotechnological processes, which can be divided in the in vitro (using enzymes) or in vivo (using whole cells) production of glycosides. In this context, uridine glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have emerged as promising catalysts for the regio- and stereoselective glycosylation of various small molecules, hereby using uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars as activated glycosyldonors. This review gives an extensive overview of the recently developed in vivo production processes using UGTs and discusses the major routes towards UDP-sugar formation. Furthermore, the use of interconverting enzymes and glycorandomization is highlighted for the production of unusual or new-to-nature glycosides. Finally, the technological challenges and future trends in UDP-sugar based glycosylation are critically evaluated and summarized.

  3. A Novel Functional Role of Collagen Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Madsen, Daniel H.; Ingvarsen, Signe; Melander, Maria C.; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Patthy, Laszlo; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Collagens make up the most abundant component of interstitial extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Collagen remodeling is a crucial process in many normal physiological events and in several pathological conditions. Some collagen subtypes contain specific carbohydrate side chains, the function of which is poorly known. The endocytic collagen receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 plays an important role in matrix remodeling through its ability to internalize collagen for lysosomal degradation. uPARAP/Endo180 is a member of the mannose receptor protein family. These proteins all include a fibronectin type II domain and a series of C-type lectin-like domains, of which only a minor part possess carbohydrate recognition activity. At least two of the family members, uPARAP/Endo180 and the mannose receptor, interact with collagens. The molecular basis for this interaction is known to involve the fibronectin type II domain but nothing is known about the function of the lectin domains in this respect. In this study, we have investigated a possible role of the single active lectin domain of uPARAP/Endo180 in the interaction with collagens. By expressing truncated recombinant uPARAP/Endo180 proteins and analyzing their interaction with collagens with high and low levels of glycosylation we demonstrated that this lectin domain interacts directly with glycosylated collagens. This interaction is functionally important because it was found to modulate the endocytic efficiency of the receptor toward highly glycosylated collagens such as basement membrane collagen IV. Surprisingly, this property was not shared by the mannose receptor, which internalized glycosylated collagens independently of its lectin function. This role of modulating its uptake efficiency by a specific receptor is a previously unrecognized function of collagen glycosylation. PMID:21768090

  4. Altered prion protein glycosylation in the aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Goh, Angeline Xi-Hua; Li, Chaoyang; Sy, Man-Sun; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2007-02-01

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein with two highly conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites. All prion diseases, whether inherited, infectious or sporadic, are believed to share the same pathogenic mechanism that is based on the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to the pathogenic scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)). However, the clinical and histopathological presentations of prion diseases are heterogeneous, depending not only on the strains of PrP(Sc) but also on the mechanism of diseases, such as age-related sporadic vs. infectious prion diseases. Accumulated evidence suggests that N-linked glycans on PrP(C) are important in disease phenotype. A better understanding of the nature of the N-linked glycans on PrP(C) during the normal aging process may provide new insights into the roles that N-linked glycans play in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. By using a panel of 19 lectins in an antibody-lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we found that the lectin binding profiles of PrP(C) alter significantly during aging. There is an increasing prevalence of complex oligosaccharides on the aging PrP(C), which are features of PrP(Sc). Taken together, this study suggests a link between the glycosylation patterns on PrP(C) during aging and PrP(Sc).

  5. Glycosylation of therapeutic proteins: an effective strategy to optimize efficacy.

    PubMed

    Solá, Ricardo J; Griebenow, Kai

    2010-02-01

    During their development and administration, protein-based drugs routinely display suboptimal therapeutic efficacies due to their poor physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These innate liabilities have driven the development of molecular strategies to improve the therapeutic behavior of protein drugs. Among the currently developed approaches, glycoengineering is one of the most promising, because it has been shown to simultaneously afford improvements in most of the parameters necessary for optimization of in vivo efficacy while allowing for targeting to the desired site of action. These include increased in vitro and in vivo molecular stability (due to reduced oxidation, cross-linking, pH-, chemical-, heating-, and freezing-induced unfolding/denaturation, precipitation, kinetic inactivation, and aggregation), as well as modulated pharmacodynamic responses (due to altered potencies from diminished in vitro enzymatic activities and altered receptor binding affinities) and improved pharmacokinetic profiles (due to altered absorption and distribution behaviors, longer circulation lifetimes, and decreased clearance rates). This article provides an account of the effects that glycosylation has on the therapeutic efficacy of protein drugs and describes the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation leads to such effects.

  6. N-glycosylation influences the catalytic activity of mosquito α-glucosidases associated with susceptibility or refractoriness to Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nathaly Alexandre do; Ferreira, Lígia Maria; Romão, Tatiany Patrícia; Correia, Darleide Maria da Conceição; Vasconcelos, Crhisllane Rafaele Dos Santos; Rezende, Antônio Mauro; Costa, Samara Graciane; Genta, Fernando Ariel; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Cqm1 and Aam1 are α-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20) expressed in Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae midgut, respectively. These orthologs share high sequence similarity but while Cqm1 acts as a receptor for the Binary (Bin) insecticidal toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Aam1 does not bind the toxin, rendering Ae. aegypti refractory to this bacterium. Aam1 is heavily glycosylated, contrasting to Cqm1, but little is known regarding how glycosylation impacts on its function. This study aimed to compare the N-glycosylation patterns and the catalytic activities of Aam1 and Cqm1. Mutant proteins were generated where predicted Aam1 N-glycosylation sites (N-PGS) were either inserted into Cqm1 or abrogated in Aam1. The mutants validated four N-PGS which were found to localize externally on the Aam1 structure. These Aam1 and Cqm1 mutants maintained their Bin binding properties, confirming that glycosylation has no role in this interaction. The α-glucosidase activity of both proteins was next investigated, with Aam1 having a remarkably higher catalytic efficiency, influenced by changes in glycosylation. Molecular dynamics showed that glycosylated and nonglycosylated Aam1 models displayed distinct patterns that could influence their catalytic activity. Differential N-glycosylation may then be associated with higher catalytic efficiency in Aam1, enhancing the functional diversity of related orthologs.

  7. Cell type-specific glycosylation of Orai1 modulates store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Kathrin; Kilch, Tatiana; Kappel, Sven; Alansary, Dalia; Schwär, Gertrud; Niemeyer, Barbara A; Peinelt, Christine

    2016-03-08

    N-glycosylation of cell surface proteins affects protein function, stability, and interaction with other proteins. Orai channels, which mediate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), are composed of N-glycosylated subunits. Upon activation by Ca(2+) sensor proteins (stromal interaction molecules STIM1 or STIM2) in the endoplasmic reticulum, Orai Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane mediate Ca(2+) influx. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, and Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-binding lectins with immunoglobulin-like repeats. Using Western blot analysis and lectin-binding assays from various primary human cells and cancer cell lines, we found that glycosylation of Orai1 is cell type-specific. Ca(2+) imaging experiments and patch-clamp experiments revealed that mutation of the only glycosylation site of Orai1 (Orai1N223A) enhanced SOCE in Jurkat T cells. Knockdown of the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1 reduced α-2,6-linked sialic acids in the glycan structure of Orai1 and was associated with increased Ca(2+) entry in Jurkat T cells. In human mast cells, inhibition of sialyl sulfation altered the N-glycan of Orai1 (and other proteins) and increased SOCE. These data suggest that cell type-specific glycosylation influences the interaction of Orai1 with specific lectins, such as Siglecs, which then attenuates SOCE. In summary, the glycosylation state of Orai1 influences SOCE-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and, thus, may contribute to pathophysiological Ca(2+) signaling observed in immune disease and cancer.

  8. RCRA special study on waste definitions: Sites that require additional consideration prior to NPL proposal under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-10

    The purposes of this memo are to discuss Sections 105(g) and 125 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and, to the extent now possible, to outline the scope of these provisions by providing appropriate definitions. Both of these sections require that, until the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is revised, the Agency evaluate additional data for sites at which 'special wastes,' as defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), are present in significant quantities before these sites are proposed for the NPL.

  9. Cell surface expression of glycosylated, nonglycosylated, and truncated forms of a cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, S W; Lamb, R A

    1988-09-01

    The soluble cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase (PK) has been expressed at the cell surface in a membrane-anchored form (APK). The hybrid protein contains the NH2-terminal signal/anchor domain of a class II integral membrane protein (hemagglutinin/neuraminidase, of the paramyxovirus SV5) fused to the PK NH2 terminus. APK contains a cryptic site that is used for N-linked glycosylation but elimination of this site by site-specific mutagenesis does not prevent cell surface localization. Truncated forms of the APK molecule, with up to 80% of the PK region of APK removed, can also be expressed at the cell surface. These data suggest that neither the complete PK molecule nor its glycosylation are necessary for intracellular transport of PK to the cell surface, and it is possible that specific signals may not be needed in the ectodomain of this hybrid protein to specify cell surface localization.

  10. Comprehensive Characterization of Glycosylation and Hydroxylation of Basement Membrane Collagen IV by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Basak, Trayambak; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Tabb, David L; Hudson, Billy G; Vanacore, Roberto M

    2016-01-04

    Collagen IV is the main structural protein that provides a scaffold for assembly of basement membrane proteins. Posttranslational modifications such as hydroxylation of proline and lysine and glycosylation of lysine are essential for the functioning of collagen IV triple-helical molecules. These modifications are highly abundant posing a difficult challenge for in-depth characterization of collagen IV using conventional proteomics approaches. Herein, we implemented an integrated pipeline combining high-resolution mass spectrometry with different fragmentation techniques and an optimized bioinformatics workflow to study posttranslational modifications in mouse collagen IV. We achieved 82% sequence coverage for the α1 chain, mapping 39 glycosylated hydroxylysine, 148 4-hydroxyproline, and seven 3-hydroxyproline residues. Further, we employed our pipeline to map the modifications on human collagen IV and achieved 85% sequence coverage for the α1 chain, mapping 35 glycosylated hydroxylysine, 163 4-hydroxyproline, and 14 3-hydroxyproline residues. Although lysine glycosylation heterogeneity was observed in both mouse and human, 21 conserved sites were identified. Likewise, five 3-hydroxyproline residues were conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that these modification sites are important for collagen IV function. Collectively, these are the first comprehensive maps of hydroxylation and glycosylation sites in collagen IV, which lay the foundation for dissecting the key role of these modifications in health and disease.

  11. β1- and β3- voltage-gated sodium channel subunits modulate cell surface expression and glycosylation of Nav1.7 in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Cédric J; Syam, Ninda; Pertin, Marie; Decosterd, Isabelle; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are glycoproteins composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits that regulate Nav α-subunit plasma membrane density and biophysical properties. Glycosylation of the Nav α-subunit also directly affects Navs gating. β-subunits and glycosylation thus comodulate Nav α-subunit gating. We hypothesized that β-subunits could directly influence α-subunit glycosylation. Whole-cell patch clamp of HEK293 cells revealed that both β1- and β3-subunits coexpression shifted V ½ of steady-state activation and inactivation and increased Nav1.7-mediated I Na density. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins, combined with the use of deglycosydases, confirmed that Nav1.7 α-subunits exist in multiple glycosylated states. The α-subunit intracellular fraction was found in a core-glycosylated state, migrating at ~250 kDa. At the plasma membrane, in addition to the core-glycosylated form, a fully glycosylated form of Nav1.7 (~280 kDa) was observed. This higher band shifted to an intermediate band (~260 kDa) when β1-subunits were coexpressed, suggesting that the β1-subunit promotes an alternative glycosylated form of Nav1.7. Furthermore, the β1-subunit increased the expression of this alternative glycosylated form and the β3-subunit increased the expression of the core-glycosylated form of Nav1.7. This study describes a novel role for β1- and β3-subunits in the modulation of Nav1.7 α-subunit glycosylation and cell surface expression.

  12. N-glycosylation patterns in two α-l-arabinofuranosidases from Penicillium canescens belonging to the glycoside hydrolase families 51 and 54.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Alexander V; Sinitsyna, Olga A; Rozhkova, Alexandra M; Sinitsyn, Arkady P

    2013-12-15

    Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) peptide fingerprinting procedure followed by the analysis of MS data with the GlycoMod tool from the ExPASy proteomic site, N-glycosylation of two GH51 and GH54 family α-l-arabinofuranosidases (Abf51A and Abf54A) from Penicillium canescens was studied. Variable N-linked glycans were identified at five out of eight potential N-glycosylation sites in the Abf51A and one out of three potential N-glycosylation sites in the Abf54A. The discriminated glycans represented high-mannose oligosaccharides (Man)x(GlcNAc)2 with a number of Man residues up to 7 or the products of sequential enzymatic trimming of a high-mannose glycan with α-mannosidases and β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. The Abf54A peptide, containing the Asn254 glycosylation site, and one peptide from the Abf51A, containing the Asn163 glycosylation site, were found to exist not only in glycosylated, but also in a native non-modified form.

  13. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Lora R; Wilkins, Michael J; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  14. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.

  15. Identification of Bacteria Synthesizing Ribosomal RNA in Response to Uranium Addition During Biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Site

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this study, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two active bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites. PMID:26382047

  16. Identification of bacteria synthesizing ribosomal RNA in response to uranium addition during biostimulation at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research site

    DOE PAGES

    McGuinness, Lora R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Williams, Kenneth H.; ...

    2015-09-18

    Understanding which organisms are capable of reducing uranium at historically contaminated sites provides crucial information needed to evaluate treatment options and outcomes. One approach is determination of the bacteria which directly respond to uranium addition. In this research, uranium amendments were made to groundwater samples from a site of ongoing biostimulation with acetate. The active microbes in the planktonic phase were deduced by monitoring ribosomes production via RT-PCR. The results indicated several microorganisms were synthesizing ribosomes in proportion with uranium amendment up to 2 μM. Concentrations of U (VI) >2 μM were generally found to inhibit ribosome synthesis. Two activemore » bacteria responding to uranium addition in the field were close relatives of Desulfobacter postgateii and Geobacter bemidjiensis. Since RNA content often increases with growth rate, our findings suggest it is possible to rapidly elucidate active bacteria responding to the addition of uranium in field samples and provides a more targeted approach to stimulate specific populations to enhance radionuclide reduction in contaminated sites.« less

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in prostatitis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vermassen, Tijl; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Decaestecker, Karel; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although prostatitis is a common male urinary tract infection, clinical diagnosis of prostatitis is difficult. The developmental mechanism of prostatitis is not yet unraveled which led to the elaboration of various biomarkers. As changes in asparagine-linked-(N-)-glycosylation were observed between healthy volunteers (HV), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients, a difference could exist in biochemical parameters and urinary N-glycosylation between HV and prostatitis patients. We therefore investigated if prostatic protein glycosylation could improve the diagnosis of prostatitis. Materials and methods Differences in serum and urine biochemical markers and in total urine N-glycosylation profile of prostatic proteins were determined between HV (N = 66) and prostatitis patients (N = 36). Additionally, diagnostic accuracy of significant biochemical markers and changes in N-glycosylation was assessed. Results Urinary white blood cell (WBC) count enabled discrimination of HV from prostatitis patients (P < 0.001). Urinary bacteria count allowed for discriminating prostatitis patients from HV (P < 0.001). Total amount of biantennary structures (urinary 2A/MA marker) was significantly lower in prostatitis patients compared to HV (P < 0.001). Combining the urinary 2A/MA marker and urinary WBC count resulted in an AUC of 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.70–0.89) which was significantly better than urinary WBC count (AUC = 0.70, 95% CI = [0.59–0.82], P = 0.042) as isolated test. Conclusions We have demonstrated the diagnostic value of urinary N-glycosylation profiling, which shows great potential as biomarker for prostatitis. Further research is required to unravel the developmental course of prostatic inflammation. PMID:26526330

  18. Mammalian protein glycosylation--structure versus function.

    PubMed

    Defaus, S; Gupta, P; Andreu, D; Gutiérrez-Gallego, R

    2014-06-21

    Carbohydrates fulfil many common as well as extremely important functions in nature. They show a variety of molecular displays--e.g., free mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides, glycolipids, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, etc.--with particular roles and localizations in living organisms. Structure-specific peculiarities are so many and diverse that it becomes virtually impossible to cover them all from an analytical perspective. Hence this manuscript, focused on mammalian glycosylation, rather than a complete list of analytical descriptors or recognized functions for carbohydrate structures, comprehensively reviews three central issues in current glycoscience, namely (i) structural analysis of glycoprotein glycans, covering both classical and novel approaches for teasing out the structural puzzle as well as potential pitfalls of these processes; (ii) an overview of functions attributed to carbohydrates, covering from monosaccharide to complex, well-defined epitopes and full glycans, including post-glycosylational modifications, and (iii) recent technical advances allowing structural identification of glycoprotein glycans with simultaneous assignation of biological functions.

  19. Advanced glycosylation end products in adrenal lipofuscin.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, I; Higami, Y; Horiuchi, S; Iwasaki, M; Ikeda, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the presence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) in lipofuscin present in the brain and adrenal gland of aging rats by immunohistochemistry using antibodies raised against AGEs. Lipofuscin identified as yellow to brown granules emitting bright yellow to orange autofluorescence with ultraviolet light were detected in cortical neurons, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and adrenal cells in the inner part of the zona reticularis. However, none of the antibodies visualized lipofuscin in these areas. The outer part of the zona reticularis contained yellow granules emitting a faint orange autofluorescence. These granules were immunostained by an antibody that reacted with AGEs structures unrelated to the carboxymethyllysine moiety. Newly formed adrenal cortical cells are thought to migrate from the outer layer to the inner layer of the zona reticularis. Therefore, our results suggest that glycosylation-related processes are involved in lipofuscinogenesis, at least in its early stage, in the adrenal zona reticularis.

  20. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Eiji; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer. PMID:20652009

  1. A new synthetic access to 2-N-(glycosyl)thiosemicarbazides from 3-N-(glycosyl)oxadiazolinethiones and the regioselectivity of the glycosylation of their oxadiazolinethione precursors

    PubMed Central

    El Tamany, El Sayed H; Fattah, Mohy El Din Abdel; Aly, Mohamed R E; Boraei, Ahmed T A; Duerkop, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glycosylations of 5-(1H-indol-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2(3H)-thione delivered various degrees of S- and/or N-glycosides depending on the reaction conditions. S-Glycosides were obtained regiospecifically by grinding oxadiazolinethiones with acylated α-D-glycosyl halides in basic alumina, whereas 3-N-(glycosyl)oxadiazolinethiones were selectively obtained by reaction with HgCl2 followed by heating the resultant chloromercuric salt with α-D-glycosyl halides in toluene under reflux. On using Et3N or K2CO3 as a base, mixtures of S- (major degree) and N-glycosides (minor degree) were obtained. Pure 3-N-(glycosyl)oxadiazolinethiones can also be selectively obtained from glycosylsulfanyloxadiazoles by the thermal S→N migration of the glycosyl moiety, which is proposed to occur by a tight-ion-pair mechanism. Thermal S→N migration of the glycosyl moiety can be used for purification of mixtures of S- or N-glycosides to obtain the pure N-glycosides. The aminolysis of the respective S- or N-glycosides with ammonia in aqueous methanol served as further confirmation of their structures. While in S-glycosides the glycosyl moiety was cleaved off again, 3-N-(glycosyl)oxadiazolinethiones showed a ring opening of the oxadiazoline ring (without affecting the glycosyl moiety) to give N-(glycosyl)thiosemicarbazides. Herewith, a new synthetic access to one of the four classes of glycosylthiosemicarbazides was found. The ultimate confirmation of new structures was achieved by X-ray crystallography. Finally, action of ammonia on benzylated 3-N-(galactosyl)oxadiazolinethione unexpectedly yielded 3-N-(galactosyl)triazolinethione. This represents a new path to the conversion of glycosyloxadiazolinethiones to new glycosyltriazolinethione nucleosides, which was until now unknown. PMID:23400104

  2. N-Glycosylation of Human R-Spondin 1 Is Required for Efficient Secretion and Stability but Not for Its Heparin Binding Ability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Fang; Hsu, Li-Sung; Weng, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Chih-Kai; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chou, Yi-Hwa; Liu, Yan-Yu; Yuan, Zi-Xiu; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Ho; Chen, Yau-Hung; Tsai, Jen-Ning

    2016-06-14

    R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) plays an essential role in stem cell biology by potentiating Wnt signaling activity. Despite the fact that Rspo1 holds therapeutic potential for a number of diseases, its biogenesis is not fully elucidated. All Rspo proteins feature two amino-terminal furin-like repeats, which are responsible for Wnt signal potentiation, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TSR1) domain that can provide affinity towards heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Using chemical inhibitors, deglycosylase and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that human Rspo1 and Rspo3 are both N-glycosylated at N137, a site near the C-terminus of the furin repeat 2 domain, and Rspo2 is N-glycosylated at N160, a position near the N-terminus of TSR1 domain. Elimination of N-glycosylation at these sites affects their accumulation in media but have no effect on the ability towards heparin. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site to Rspo2 mutant at the position homologous to N137 in Rspo1 restored full glycosylation and rescued the accumulation defect of nonglycosylated Rspo2 mutant in media. Similar effect can be observed in the N137 Rspo1 or Rspo3 mutant engineered with Rspo2 N-glycosylation site. The results highlight the importance of N-glycosylation at these two positions in efficient folding and secretion of Rspo family. Finally, we further showed that human Rspo1 is subjected to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control in N-glycan-dependent manner. While N-glycan of Rspo1 plays a role in its intracellular stability, it had little effect on secreted Rspo1. Our findings provide evidence for the critical role of N-glycosylation in the biogenesis of Rspo1.

  3. Functional Roles of N-Linked Glycosylation of Human Matrix Metalloproteinase 9.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Tyler; Burnett, John; Yang, Jay

    2015-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a secreted endoproteinase with a critical role in the regulation of the extracellular matrix and proteolytic activation of signaling molecules. Human (h)MMP-9 has two well-defined N-glycosylation sites at residues N38 and N120; however, their role has remained mostly unexplored partly because expression of the N-glycosylation-deficient N38S has been difficult due to a recently discovered single nucleotide polymorphism-dependent miRNA-mediated inhibitory mechanism. hMMP-9 cDNA encoding amino acid substitutions at residues 38 (modified-S38, mS38) or 120 (N120S) were created in the background of a miRNA-binding site disrupted template and expressed by transient transfection. hMMP-9 harboring a single mS38 replacement secreted well, whereas N120S, or a double mS38/N120S hMMP-9 demonstrated much reduced secretion. Imaging indicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of the non-secreted variants and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed an enhanced strong interaction between the non-secreted hMMP-9 and the ER-resident protein calreticulin (CALR). Removal of N-glycosylation at residue 38 revealed an amino acid-dependent strong interaction with CALR likely preventing unloading of the misfolded protein from the ER chaperone down the normal secretory pathway. As with other glycoproteins, N-glycosylation strongly regulates hMMP-9 secretion. This is mediated, however, through a novel mechanism of cloaking an N-glycosylation-independent strong interaction with the ER-resident CALR.

  4. Modulation of CD147-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity: role of CD147 N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan; Luo, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Cui, Hong-Yong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2013-01-15

    Degradation of the basement membrane by MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) is one of the most critical steps in tumour progression. CD147 is a tumour-associated antigen that plays a key regulatory role for MMP activities. In the present study, mass spectrum analysis demonstrated that the purified native CD147 from human lung cancer tissue was N-glycosylated and contained a series of high-mannose and complex-type N-linked glycan structures. Moreover, native glycosylated CD147 existed exclusively as oligomers in solution and directly stimulated MMP production more efficiently than non-glycosylated prokaryotic CD147. The glycosylation site mutation results indicated that, among three N-glycan attachment sites, the N152Q mutants were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and unfolded protein response signalling was activated. This improper intracellular accumulation impaired its MMP-inducing activity. Increased β1,6-branching of N-glycans as a result of overexpression of GnT-V (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V) plays an important role in tumour metastasis. In the present study, we identified CD147 as a target protein of GnT-V and found that overexpression of GnT-V resulted in an elevated level of CD147 at the plasma membrane and in cell-conditioned medium, thereby increasing the induction of MMPs. The present study reveals the important role of N-glycosylation of CD147 in its biological function and implied that targeting aberrant β1,6-branching of N-glycans on CD147 would be valuable for the development of novel therapeutic modalities against carcinoma.

  5. Swift residue-screening identifies key N-glycosylated asparagines sufficient for surface expression of neuroglycoprotein Lingo-1.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaotian; Pocas, Jennifer; Liu, Yan; Wu, Paul W; Mosyak, Lidia; Somers, Will; Kriz, Ron

    2009-03-18

    Advances in genomics and proteomics have generated the needs for the efficient identification of key residues for structure and function of target proteins. Here we report the utilization of a new residue-screening approach, which combines a mammalian high-throughput transient expression system with a PCR-based expression cassette, for the study of the post-translational modification. Applying this approach results in a quick identification of essential N-glycosylation sites of a heavily glycosylated neuroglycoprotein Lingo-1, which are sufficient for the support of its surface expression. These key N-glycosylated sites uniquely locate on the concave surface of the elongated arc-shape structure of the leucine-rich repeat domain. The swift residue-screening approach may provide a new strategy for structural and functional analysis.

  6. Ceramide glycosylation potentiates cellular multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Y; Han, T Y; Giuliano, A E; Cabot, M C

    2001-03-01

    Ceramide glycosylation, through glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), allows cellular escape from ceramide-induced programmed cell death. This glycosylation event confers cancer cell resistance to cytotoxic anticancer agents [Liu, Y. Y., Han, T. Y., Giuliano, A. E., and M. C. Cabot. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1140-1146]. We previously found that glucosylceramide, the glycosylated form of ceramide, accumulates in adriamycin-resistant breast carcinoma cells, in vinblastine-resistant epithelioid carcinoma cells, and in tumor specimens from patients showing poor response to chemotherapy. Here we show that multidrug resistance can be increased over baseline and then totally reversed in human breast cancer cells by GCS gene targeting. In adriamycin-resistant MCF-7-AdrR cells, transfection of GCS upgraded multidrug resistance, whereas transfection of GCS antisense markedly restored cellular sensitivity to anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and other anticancer drugs. Sensitivity to the various drugs by GCS antisense transfection increased 7- to 240-fold and was consistent with the resumption of ceramide-caspase-apoptotic signaling. GCS targeting had little influence on cellular sensitivity to either 5-FU or cisplatin, nor did it modify P-glycoprotein expression or rhodamine-123 efflux. GCS antisense transfection did enhance rhodamine-123 uptake compared with parent MCF-7-AdrR cells. This study reveals that GCS is a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance and positions GCS antisense as an innovative force to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Protein glycosylation in Archaea: sweet and extreme.

    PubMed

    Calo, Doron; Kaminski, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-09-01

    While each of the three domains of life on Earth possesses unique traits and relies on characteristic biological strategies, some processes are common to Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea. Once believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now clear that Bacteria and Archaea are also capable of performing N-glycosylation. However, in contrast to Bacteria, where this posttranslational modification is still considered a rare event, numerous species of Archaea, isolated from a wide range of environments, have been reported to contain proteins bearing Asn-linked glycan moieties. Analysis of the chemical composition of the Asn-linked polysaccharides decorating archaeal proteins has, moreover, revealed the use of a wider variety of sugar subunits than seen in either eukaryal or bacterial glycoproteins. Still, although first reported some 30 years ago, little had been known of the steps or components involved in the archaeal version of this universal posttranslational modification. Now, with the availability of sufficient numbers of genome sequences and the development of appropriate experimental tools, molecular analysis of archaeal N-glycosylation pathways has become possible. Accordingly using halophilic, methanogenic and thermophilic model species, insight into the biosynthesis and attachment of N-linked glycans decorating archaeal glycoproteins is starting to amass. In this review, current understanding of N-glycosylation in Archaea is described.

  8. A method for high-throughput, sensitive analysis of IgG Fc and Fab glycosylation by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Dionne, Kendall; Baruah, Kavitha; Cheng, Hao D; De Jager, Philip L; Barouch, Dan H; Suscovich, Todd; Ackerman, Margaret; Crispin, Max; Alter, Galit

    2015-02-01

    The N-glycan of the IgG constant region (Fc) plays a central role in tuning and directing multiple antibody functions in vivo, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and the regulation of inflammation, among others. However, traditional methods of N-glycan analysis, including HPLC and mass spectrometry, are technically challenging and ill suited to handle the large numbers of low concentration samples analyzed in clinical or animal studies of the N-glycosylation of polyclonal IgG. Here we describe a capillary electrophoresis-based technique to analyze plasma-derived polyclonal IgG-glycosylation quickly and accurately in a cost-effective, sensitive manner that is well suited for high-throughput analyses. Additionally, because a significant fraction of polyclonal IgG is glycosylated on both Fc and Fab domains, we developed an approach to separate and analyze domain-specific glycosylation in polyclonal human, rhesus and mouse IgGs. Overall, this protocol allows for the rapid, accurate, and sensitive analysis of Fc-specific IgG glycosylation, which is critical for population-level studies of how antibody glycosylation may vary in response to vaccination or infection, and across disease states ranging from autoimmunity to cancer in both clinical and animal studies.

  9. Broad spectrum O-linked protein glycosylation in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Åshild; Aas, Finn Erik; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Bilsborough, Shaun; Schneider, Andrea; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Koomey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important element of biologic systems because of its significant effects on protein properties and functions. Although prominent within all domains of life, O-linked glycosylation systems modifying serine and threonine residues within bacteria and eukaryotes differ substantially in target protein selectivity. In particular, well-characterized bacterial systems have been invariably dedicated to modification of individual proteins or related subsets thereof. Here we characterize a general O-linked glycosylation system that targets structurally and functionally diverse groups of membrane-associated proteins in the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the etiologic agent of the human disease gonorrhea. The 11 glycoproteins identified here are implicated in activities as varied as protein folding, disulfide bond formation, and solute uptake, as well as both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Along with their common trafficking within the periplasmic compartment, the protein substrates share quasi-related domains bearing signatures of low complexity that were demonstrated to encompass sites of glycan occupancy. Thus, as in eukaryotes, the broad scope of this system is dictated by the relaxed specificity of the glycan transferase as well as the bulk properties and context of the protein-targeting signal rather than by a strict amino acid consensus sequence. Together, these findings reveal previously unrecognized commonalities linking O-linked protein glycosylation in distantly related life forms. PMID:19251655

  10. Glycosylated enfuvirtide: a long-lasting glycopeptide with potent anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuihong; Chang, Xuesong; Wang, Yan; Gao, George F; Shao, Yiming; Ma, Liying; Li, Xuebing

    2015-02-12

    Many peptide-based therapeutics have short circulatory half-lives. We report here that the pharmacokinetics of an anti-HIV peptide drug enfuvirtide (ENF) can be dramatically improved by a chemical glycosylation approach. A set of glycosylated ENFs with varying glycosylation sites and glycan structures were synthesized. Among these, a sialic acid-introduced peptide (SL-ENF) demonstrated a 15-fold extended half-life in rats relative to ENF (T1/2: 23.1 vs 1.5 h), and its antiviral potency was comparable to that of ENF (EC50: 2 vs 3 nM). SL-ENF bound to a functional fragment of the HIV fusogenic protein gp41 and formed complexes with high affinity and α-helicity, revealing the mechanism behind its potent antiviral activity. Because it is widely accepted in biology that glycosylation protects proteins from denaturation and proteases, our approach may be useful for the development of novel protein and peptide drugs with enhanced pharmaceutical properties.

  11. Surface-exposed glycoproteins of hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 show a common N-glycosylation profile.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Rossi, Mosè; Fiume, Immacolata; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella

    2013-06-07

    Cell surface proteins of hyperthermophilic Archaea actively participate in intercellular communication, cellular uptake, and energy conversion to sustain survival strategies in extreme habitats. Surface (S)-layer glycoproteins, the major component of the S-layers in many archaeal species and the best-characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins, were shown to have a large structural diversity in their glycan compositions. In spite of this, knowledge on glycosylation of proteins other than S-layer proteins in Archaea is quite limited. Here, the N-glycosylation pattern of cell-surface-exposed proteins of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 were analyzed by lectin affinity purification, HPAEC-PAD, and multiple mass spectrometry-based techniques. Detailed analysis of SSO1273, one of the most abundant ABC transporters present in the cell surface fraction of S. solfataricus, revealed a novel glycan structure composed of a branched sulfated heptasaccharide, Hex4(GlcNAc)2 plus sulfoquinovose where Hex is d-mannose and d-glucose. Having one monosaccharide unit more than the glycan of the S-layer glycoprotein of S. acidocaldarius, this is the most complex archaeal glycan structure known today. SSO1273 protein is heavily glycosylated and all 20 theoretical N-X-S/T (where X is any amino acid except proline) consensus sequence sites were confirmed. Remarkably, we show that several other proteins in the surface fraction of S. solfataricus are N-glycosylated by the same sulfated oligosaccharide and we identified 56 N-glycosylation sites in this subproteome.

  12. Effect of glycosylation on an immunodominant region in the V1V2 variable domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jianhui; Lopez, Cesar Augusto; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Jones, Morris S.; Pinter, Abraham; Korber, Bette Tina Marie; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Rein, Alan

    2016-10-07

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. Furthermore, these studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to focus

  13. Effect of Glycosylation on an Immunodominant Region in the V1V2 Variable Domain of the HIV-1 Envelope gp120 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Jones, Morris S.; Pinter, Abraham; Korber, Bette; Gnanakaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. These studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to focus the immune

  14. Effect of glycosylation on an immunodominant region in the V1V2 variable domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp120 protein

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Jianhui; Lopez, Cesar Augusto; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120. We used replica exchangemore » molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate how glycosylation influences its conformation and stability. Simulations were performed with and without N-linked glycosylation at two sites that are highly conserved across HIV-1 isolates (N156 and N160); both are contacts for recognition by V1V2-targeted broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Glycosylation stabilized the pre-existing conformations of this peptide construct, reduced its propensity to adopt other secondary structures, and provided resistance against thermal unfolding. Simulations performed in the context of the Env trimer also indicated that glycosylation reduces flexibility of the V1V2 region, and provided insight into glycan-glycan interactions in this region. These stabilizing effects were influenced by a combination of factors, including the presence of a disulfide bond between the Cysteines at 131 and 157, which increased the formation of beta-strands. Together, these results provide a mechanism for conservation of disulfide linkage proximal glycosylation adjacent to the variable domains of gp120 and begin to explain how this could be exploited to enhance the immunogenicity of those regions. Furthermore, these studies suggest that glycopeptide immunogens can be designed to stabilize the most relevant Env conformations to

  15. The human colonic thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (hTPPT) is a glycoprotein and N-linked glycosylation is important for its function.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

    2016-04-01

    The recently identified human thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (hTPPT; product of the SLC44A4 gene) is responsible for absorption of the microbiota-generated TPP in the large intestine. The hTPPT is highly expressed in the colon, but not in other regions of the intestinal tract and is localized exclusively at the apical membrane domain of epithelia. The hTPPT protein is predicted to have multiple TM domains with a number of putative N-glycosylation sites, but it is not known if the protein is actually glycosylated, and if so at which site, and their role in the functionality of the transporter. Using several approaches including inhibiting de novo N-glycosylation in human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells with tunicamycin as well as enzymatic de-glycosylation, we show that the hTPPT protein is, indeed, a glycoprotein. Glycosylation of hTPPT was shown, by mean of site-directed mutagenesis, to occur at Asn(69), Asn(155), Asn(197), Asn(393), and Asn(416). However, only N-glycosylation at Asn(69), Asn(155), and Asn(393) appeared to be important for transporter functionality possibly through an effect on protein conformation and/or interaction with its ligand (but not through changes in expression at the cell membrane as determined by live cell confocal imaging). Results of this study showed, for the first time, that the hTPPT is glycosylated and that N-linked glycosylation occurs at multiple sites with some of them being important for function. The results also provide an indirect support for a membrane topology for hTPPT with 10 transmembrane domains as predicted by the TMHMM transmembrane helixes prediction program.

  16. N-Glycosylation of integrin α5 acts as a switch for EGFR-mediated complex formation of integrin α5β1 to α6β4

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Qinglei; Isaji, Tomoya; Hou, Sicong; Zhou, Ying; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Gu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    N-Glycosylation of integrin α5β1 is involved in multiple cell behaviors. We previously reported that the N-glycosylations of the calf domain on integrin α5 (S3–5,10–14) are essential for its inhibitory effect on EGFR signaling in regulating cell proliferation. However, the importance of the individual N-glycosylation and the underlying mechanisms of inhibition remain unclear. Here, we characterize the S3–5,10–14 mutants in detail and found that the N-glycosylation of site-11 (Asn712) is key for cell growth. The restoration of site-11, unlike the other individual sites, significantly suppressed cell growth and EGFR signaling in a manner that was similar to that of wild-type (WT). Mechanistically, this N-glycosylation inhibited the response abilities upon EGF stimulation and EGFR dimerization. Interestingly, we found this N-glycosylation controlled the EGFR complex formation with integrin α5β1 or α6β4; i.e., the loss of site-11 switched EGFR-α5β1 to EGFR-α6β4, which is well known to promote cellular signaling for cell growth. Moreover, the site-11 N-glycan exhibited a more branching structure compared with other sites, which may be required for EGFR-α5β1 formation. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the site-11 N-glycosylation on α5 is most important for its inhibitory effect on EGFR signaling, which may provide a novel regulatory mechanism for crosstalks between integrins and EGFR. PMID:27641064

  17. A dynamic mathematical model for monoclonal antibody N-linked glycosylation and nucleotide sugar donor transport within a maturing Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez del Val, Ioscani; Nagy, Judit M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are one of the most important products of the biopharmaceutical industry. Their therapeutic efficacy depends on the post-translational process of glycosylation, which is influenced by manufacturing process conditions. Herein, we present a dynamic mathematical model for mAb glycosylation that considers cisternal maturation by approximating the Golgi apparatus to a plug flow reactor and by including recycling of Golgi-resident proteins (glycosylation enzymes and transport proteins [TPs]). The glycosylation reaction rate expressions were derived based on the reported kinetic mechanisms for each enzyme, and transport of nucleotide sugar donors [NSDs] from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen was modeled to serve as a link between glycosylation and cellular metabolism. Optimization-based methodologies were developed for estimating unknown enzyme and TP concentration profile parameters. The resulting model is capable of reproducing glycosylation profiles of commercial mAbs. It can further reproduce the effect gene silencing of the FucT glycosylation enzyme and cytosolic NSD depletion have on the mAb oligosaccharide profile. All novel elements of our model are based on biological evidence and generate more accurate results than previous reports. We therefore believe that the improvements contribute to a more detailed representation of the N-linked glycosylation process. The overall results show the potential of our model toward evaluating cell engineering strategies that yield desired glycosylation profiles. Additionally, when coupled to cellular metabolism, this model could be used to assess the effect of process conditions on glycosylation and aid in the design, control, and optimization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

  18. Role of N-linked glycosylation in the enzymatic properties of a thermophilic GH 10 xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus expressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Bo; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Yao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    N-Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification commonly occurred in fungi and plays roles in a variety of enzyme functions. In this study, a xylanase (Af-XYNA) of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 from Aspergillus fumigatus harboring three potential N-glycosylation sites (N87, N124 and N335) was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris. The N-glycosylated Af-XYNA (WT) exhibited favorable temperature and pH optima (75°C and pH 5.0) and good thermostability (maintaining stable at 60°C). To reveal the role of N-glycosylation on Af-XYNA, the enzyme was deglycosylated by endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (DE) or modified by site-directed mutagenesis at N124 (N124T). The deglycosylated DE and mutant N124T showed narrower pH adaptation range, lower specific activity, and worse pH and thermal stability. Further thermodynamic analysis revealed that the enzyme with higher N-glycosylation degree was more thermostable. This study demonstrated that the effects of glycosylation at different degrees and sites were diverse, in which the glycan linked to N124 played a key role in pH and thermal stability of Af-XYNA. PMID:28187141

  19. Effects of nutrient and lime additions in mine site rehabilitation strategies on the accumulation of antimony and arsenic by native Australian plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan C; Leech, Calvin D; Butler, Leo; Lisle, Leanne; Ashley, Paul M; Lockwood, Peter V

    2013-10-15

    The effects of nutrient and lime additions on antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) accumulation by native Australian and naturalised plants growing in two contaminated mine site soils (2,735 mg kg(-1) and 4,517 mg kg(-1) Sb; 826 mg kg(-1) and 1606 As mgkg(-1)) was investigated using a glasshouse pot experiment. The results indicated an increase in soil solution concentrations with nutrient addition in both soils and also with nutrient+lime addition for Sb in one soil. Metalloid concentrations in plant roots were significantly greater than concentrations in above ground plant parts. The metalloid transfer to above ground plant parts from the roots and from the soil was, however, low (ratio of leaf concentration/soil concentration≪1) for all species studied. Eucalyptus michaeliana was the most successful at colonisation with lowest metalloid transfer to above ground plant parts. Addition of nutrients and nutrients+lime to soils, in general, increased plant metalloid accumulation. Relative As accumulation was greater than that of Sb. All the plant species studied were suitable for consideration in the mine soil phytostabilisation strategies but lime additions should be limited and longer term trials also recommended.

  20. Analytical detection and characterization of biopharmaceutical glycosylation by MS.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myung Jin; Hua, Serenus; Kim, Unyong; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Jua; Kim, Jae-Han; An, Hyun Joo

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in ensuring the proper structure and function of most biotherapeutic proteins. Even small changes in glycan composition, structure, or location can have a drastic impact on drug safety and efficacy. Recently, glycosylation has become the subject of increased focus as biopharmaceutical companies rush to create not only biosimilars, but also biobetters based on existing biotherapeutic proteins. Against this backdrop of ongoing biopharmaceutical innovation, updated methods for accurate and detailed analysis of protein glycosylation are critical for biopharmaceutical companies and government regulatory agencies alike. This review summarizes current methods of characterizing biopharmaceutical glycosylation, including compositional mass profiling, isomer-specific profiling and structural elucidation by MS and hyphenated techniques.

  1. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diabetes and to determine the proper insulin dosage for a patient. Elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin indicate uncontrolled diabetes in a patient. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  2. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diabetes and to determine the proper insulin dosage for a patient. Elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin indicate uncontrolled diabetes in a patient. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  3. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diabetes and to determine the proper insulin dosage for a patient. Elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin indicate uncontrolled diabetes in a patient. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  4. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diabetes and to determine the proper insulin dosage for a patient. Elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin indicate uncontrolled diabetes in a patient. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  5. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diabetes and to determine the proper insulin dosage for a patient. Elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin indicate uncontrolled diabetes in a patient. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  6. Regulation of GIP and GLP1 receptor cell surface expression by N-glycosylation and receptor heteromerization.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Gina M; Lynn, Francis C; McIntosh, Christopher H S; Accili, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    In response to a meal, Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released from gut endocrine cells into the circulation and interact with their cognate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Receptor activation results in tissue-selective pleiotropic responses that include augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. N-glycosylation and receptor oligomerization are co-translational processes that are thought to regulate the exit of functional GPCRs from the ER and their maintenance at the plasma membrane. Despite the importance of these regulatory processes, their impact on functional expression of GIP and GLP-1 receptors has not been well studied. Like many family B GPCRs, both the GIP and GLP-1 receptors possess a large extracellular N-terminus with multiple consensus sites for Asn-linked (N)-glycosylation. Here, we show that each of these Asn residues is glycosylated when either human receptor is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. N-glycosylation enhances cell surface expression and function in parallel but exerts stronger control over the GIP receptor than the GLP-1 receptor. N-glycosylation mainly lengthens receptor half-life by reducing degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. N-glycosylation is also required for expression of the GIP receptor at the plasma membrane and efficient GIP potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion from the INS-1 pancreatic beta cell line. Functional expression of a GIP receptor mutant lacking N-glycosylation is rescued by co-expressed wild type GLP1 receptor, which, together with data obtained using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, suggests formation of a GIP-GLP1 receptor heteromer.

  7. Glycosylation of Skp1 affects its conformation and promotes binding to a model f-box protein.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M Osman; Schafer, Christopher M; Powell, John T; Rodgers, Karla K; Mooers, Blaine H M; West, Christopher M

    2014-03-18

    In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, Skp1 is hydroxylated on proline 143 and further modified by three cytosolic glycosyltransferases to yield an O-linked pentasaccharide that contributes to O2 regulation of development. Skp1 is an adapter in the Skp1/cullin1/F-box protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that targets specific proteins for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. To investigate the biochemical consequences of glycosylation, untagged full-length Skp1 and several of its posttranslationally modified isoforms were expressed and purified to near homogeneity using recombinant and in vitro strategies. Interaction studies with the soluble mammalian F-box protein Fbs1/Fbg1/OCP1 revealed preferential binding to the glycosylated isoforms of Skp1. This difference correlated with the increased α-helical and decreased β-sheet content of glycosylated Skp1s based on circular dichroism and increased folding order based on small-angle X-ray scattering. A comparison of the molecular envelopes of fully glycosylated Skp1 and the apoprotein indicated that both isoforms exist as an antiparallel dimer that is more compact and extended in the glycosylated state. Analytical gel filtration and chemical cross-linking studies showed a growing tendency of less modified isoforms to dimerize. Considering that regions of free Skp1 are intrinsically disordered and Skp1 can adopt distinct folds when bound to F-box proteins, we propose that glycosylation, which occurs adjacent to the F-box binding site, influences the spectrum of energetically similar conformations that vary inversely in their propensity to dock with Fbs1 or another Skp1. Glycosylation may thus influence Skp1 function by modulating F-box protein binding in cells.

  8. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H. Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  9. Proteolytic Origin of the Soluble Human IL-6R In Vivo and a Decisive Role of N-Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Johanna C.; Hung, Chien-Wen; Flynn, Charlotte M.; Lokau, Juliane; Agthe, Maria; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Zhu, Yijue; Grötzinger, Joachim; Lorenzen, Inken; Koudelka, Tomas; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Pickhinke, Ute; Wichert, Rielana; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Rädisch, Marisa; Albrecht, Alexander; Hessefort, Markus; Stahnke, Dominik; Unverzagt, Carlo; Rose-John, Stefan; Tholey, Andreas; Garbers, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Signaling of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) via its soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) is responsible for the proinflammatory properties of IL-6 and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target, but how the sIL-6R is generated in vivo remains largely unclear. Here, we use liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify an sIL-6R form in human serum that originates from proteolytic cleavage, map its cleavage site between Pro-355 and Val-356, and determine the occupancy of all O- and N-glycosylation sites of the human sIL-6R. The metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) uses this cleavage site in vitro, and mutation of Val-356 is sufficient to completely abrogate IL-6R proteolysis. N- and O-glycosylation were dispensable for signaling of the IL-6R, but proteolysis was orchestrated by an N- and O-glycosylated sequon near the cleavage site and an N-glycan exosite in domain D1. Proteolysis of an IL-6R completely devoid of glycans is significantly impaired. Thus, glycosylation is an important regulator for sIL-6R generation. PMID:28060820

  10. A Propos of Glycosyl Cations and the Mechanism of Chemical Glycosylation; the Current State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Bohé, Luis

    2014-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in glycosylation with particular emphasis on mechanism is presented. The mounting evidence for both the existence of glycosyl oxocarbenium ions as fleeting intermediates in some reactions, and the crucial role of the associated in counter ion in others is discussed. The extremes of the SN1 and SN2 manifolds for the glycosylation reaction are bridged by a continuum of mechanisms in which it appears likely that most examples are located. PMID:25108484

  11. A propos of glycosyl cations and the mechanism of chemical glycosylation; the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Bohé, Luis; Crich, David

    2015-02-11

    An overview of recent advances in glycosylation with particular emphasis on mechanism is presented. The mounting evidence for both the existence of glycosyl oxocarbenium ions as fleeting intermediates in some reactions, and the crucial role of the associated counterion in others is discussed. The extremes of the SN1 and SN2 manifolds for the glycosylation reaction are bridged by a continuum of mechanisms in which it appears likely that most examples are located.

  12. Claudin-1 required for HCV virus entry has high potential for phosphorylation and O-glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junction's proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-receptor CD81. The claudin-1 assembly with tight junctions is regulated by post translational modifications. During claudins assembly and disassembly with tight junctions, phosphorylation is required at C-terminal tail. In cellular proteins, interplay between phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification is believed to be functional switch, but it is very difficult to monitor these functional and vibrant changes in vivo. Netphos 2.0 and Disphos 1.3 programs were used for potential phosphorylation; NetPhosK 1.0 and KinasePhos for kinase prediction; and YinOYang 1.2 and OGPET to predict possible O-glycosylation sites. We also identified Yin Yang sites that may have potential for O-β-GlcNAc and phosphorylation interplay at same Ser/Thr residues. We for the first time proposed that alternate phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification on Ser 192, Ser 205, Ser 206; and Thr 191 may provide an on/off switch to regulate assembly of claudin-1 at tight junctions. In addition these phosphorylation sites may be targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents to prevent phosphorylation lead by HCV viral entry complex. PMID:21569618

  13. Claudin-1 required for HCV virus entry has high potential for phosphorylation and O-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqar; Shabbiri, Khadija; Ijaz, Bushra; Asad, Sultan; Sarwar, Muhammad T; Gull, Sana; Kausar, Humera; Fouzia, Kiran; Shahid, Imran; Hassan, Sajida

    2011-05-15

    HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junction's proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-receptor CD81. The claudin-1 assembly with tight junctions is regulated by post translational modifications. During claudins assembly and disassembly with tight junctions, phosphorylation is required at C-terminal tail. In cellular proteins, interplay between phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification is believed to be functional switch, but it is very difficult to monitor these functional and vibrant changes in vivo. Netphos 2.0 and Disphos 1.3 programs were used for potential phosphorylation; NetPhosK 1.0 and KinasePhos for kinase prediction; and YinOYang 1.2 and OGPET to predict possible O-glycosylation sites. We also identified Yin Yang sites that may have potential for O-β-GlcNAc and phosphorylation interplay at same Ser/Thr residues. We for the first time proposed that alternate phosphorylation and O-β-GlcNAc modification on Ser 192, Ser 205, Ser 206; and Thr 191 may provide an on/off switch to regulate assembly of claudin-1 at tight junctions. In addition these phosphorylation sites may be targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents to prevent phosphorylation lead by HCV viral entry complex.

  14. Glycosylated carriers for cell-selective and nuclear delivery of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Kawakami, Shigeru; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2011-06-01

    Targeted gene delivery via selective cellular receptors has been realized as a crucial strategy for successful gene therapy by maximizing therapeutic efficiency in target cells and minimizing systemic toxicity. The membrane carbohydrate-binding proteins (membrane lectins) with different carbohydrate specificities are differentially expressed on the cellular and intracellular membranes of a number of cells. Their multiplicity, high affinity, and effective endocytosis after receptor binding as well as the biocompatibility of carbohydrate ligands endow them as potential ligands for glycosylated carriers in cell-selective delivery of nucleic acids. To achieve the in vivo application, glycosylated carriers/nucleic acid complexes have to fulfill certain conditions, including having a suitable size, minimal nonspecific interactions, low immunogenicity, and high uptake in target cells. Accordingly, the effective nuclear delivery of nucleic acids is the paramount important step for efficient gene transfer. This review summarizes the recent progress regarding application of glycosylated carriers for cell-selective and nuclear delivery of nucleic acids and their critical factors for efficient gene transfer. In addition, the development of new materials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanospheres, and gold nanoparticles, as innovative carriers will be discussed with regards to glycosylation-mediated delivery of nucleic acids.

  15. Loss of LARGE2 disrupts functional glycosylation of α-dystroglycan in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Esser, Alison K; Miller, Michael R; Huang, Qin; Meier, Melissa M; Beltran-Valero de Bernabé, Daniel; Stipp, Christopher S; Campbell, Kevin P; Lynch, Charles F; Smith, Brian J; Cohen, Michael B; Henry, Michael D

    2013-01-25

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix proteins and is involved in cell polarity, matrix organization, and mechanical stability of tissues. Previous studies documented loss of DG protein expression and glycosylation in a variety of cancer types, but the underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences with respect to cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we show that the level of expression of the βDG subunit as well as the glycosylation status of the αDG subunit inversely correlate with the Gleason scores of prostate cancers; furthermore, we show that the functional glycosylation of αDG is substantially reduced in prostate cancer metastases. Additionally, we demonstrate that LARGE2 (GYLTL1B), a gene not previously implicated in cancer, regulates functional αDG glycosylation in prostate cancer cell lines; knockdown of LARGE2 resulted in hypoglycosylation of αDG and loss of its ability to bind laminin-111 while overexpression restored ligand binding and diminished growth and migration of an aggressive prostate cancer cell line. Finally, our analysis of LARGE2 expression in human cancer specimens reveals that LARGE2 is significantly down-regulated in the context of prostate cancer, and that its reduction correlates with disease progression. Our results describe a novel molecular mechanism to account for the commonly observed hypoglycosylation of αDG in prostate cancer.

  16. Glycosylation inhibition reduces cholesterol accumulation in NPC1 protein-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Deffieu, Maika S; Lee, Peter L; Saha, Piyali; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomes are lined with a glycocalyx that protects the limiting membrane from the action of degradative enzymes. We tested the hypothesis that Niemann-Pick type C 1 (NPC1) protein aids the transfer of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol across this glycocalyx. A prediction of this model is that cells will be less dependent upon NPC1 if their glycocalyx is decreased in density. Lysosome cholesterol content was significantly lower after treatment of NPC1-deficient human fibroblasts with benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside, an inhibitor of O-linked glycosylation. Direct biochemical measurement of cholesterol showed that lysosomes purified from NPC1-deficient fibroblasts contained at least 30% less cholesterol when O-linked glycosylation was blocked. As an independent means to modify protein glycosylation, we used Chinese hamster ovary ldl-D cells defective in UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase in which N- and O-linked glycosylation can be controlled. CRISPR generated, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells supplemented with galactose accumulated more cholesterol than those in which sugar addition was blocked. In the absence of galactose supplementation, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells also transported more cholesterol from lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum, as monitored by an increase in cholesteryl [(14)C]-oleate levels. These experiments support a model in which NPC1 protein functions to transfer cholesterol past a lysosomal glycocalyx.

  17. Glycation and transglutaminase mediated glycosylation of fish gelatin peptides with glucosamine enhance bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pui Khoon; Gottardi, Davide; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Betti, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of novel glycopeptides from glycosylation between cold water fish skin gelatin hydrolysates and glucosamine (GlcN) via transglutaminase (TGase), as well as glycation between fish gelatin hydrolysate and GlcN were identified by their pattern of molecular distribution using MALDI-TOF-MS. Glycated/glycosylated hydrolysates showed superior bioactivity to their original hydrolysates. Alcalase-derived fish skin gelatin hydrolysate glycosylated with GlcN in the presence of TGase at 25°C (FAT25) possessed antioxidant activity when tested in a linoleic acid oxidation system, when measured according to its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and when tested at the cellular level with human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells as target cells. In addition, Alcalase-derived glycosylated hydrolysates showed specificity toward the inhibition of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The Flavourzyme-derived glycopeptides prepared at 37°C (FFC37 and FFT37) showed better DPPH scavenging activity than their native hydrolysates. The glycated Flavourzyme-derived hydrolysates were found to act as potential antimicrobial agents when incubated with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Loss of LARGE2 Disrupts Functional Glycosylation of α-Dystroglycan in Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Alison K.; Miller, Michael R.; Huang, Qin; Meier, Melissa M.; Beltran-Valero de Bernabé, Daniel; Stipp, Christopher S.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Lynch, Charles F.; Smith, Brian J.; Cohen, Michael B.; Henry, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix proteins and is involved in cell polarity, matrix organization, and mechanical stability of tissues. Previous studies documented loss of DG protein expression and glycosylation in a variety of cancer types, but the underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences with respect to cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we show that the level of expression of the βDG subunit as well as the glycosylation status of the αDG subunit inversely correlate with the Gleason scores of prostate cancers; furthermore, we show that the functional glycosylation of αDG is substantially reduced in prostate cancer metastases. Additionally, we demonstrate that LARGE2 (GYLTL1B), a gene not previously implicated in cancer, regulates functional αDG glycosylation in prostate cancer cell lines; knockdown of LARGE2 resulted in hypoglycosylation of αDG and loss of its ability to bind laminin-111 while overexpression restored ligand binding and diminished growth and migration of an aggressive prostate cancer cell line. Finally, our analysis of LARGE2 expression in human cancer specimens reveals that LARGE2 is significantly down-regulated in the context of prostate cancer, and that its reduction correlates with disease progression. Our results describe a novel molecular mechanism to account for the commonly observed hypoglycosylation of αDG in prostate cancer. PMID:23223448

  19. N-Linked Glycosylation Is Required for Vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) a4 Subunit Stability, Assembly, and Cell Surface Expression.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Sally; Yao, Yeqi; Kartner, Norbert; Li, Jing; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F; Manolson, Morris F

    2016-12-01

    The a subunit is the largest of 14 different subunits that make up the V-ATPase complex. In mammalian species this membrane protein has four paralogous isoforms, a1-a4. Clinically, a subunit isoforms are implicated in diverse diseases; however, little is known about their structure and function. The subunit has conserved, predicted N-glycosylation sites, and the a3 isoform has been directly shown to be N-glycosylated. Here we ask if human a4 (ATP6V0A4) is N-glycosylated at the predicted site, Asn489. We transfected HEK 293 cells, using the pCDNA3.1 expression-vector system, to express cDNA constructs of epitope-tagged human a4 subunit, with or without mutations to eliminate the putative glycosylation site. Glycosylation was characterized also by treatment with endoglycosidases; expression and localization were assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Endoglycosidase-treated wild type (WT) a4 showed increased relative mobility on immunoblots, compared with untreated WT a4. This relative mobility was identical to that of unglycosylated mutant a4(N489D) , demonstrating that the a4 subunit is glycosylated. Cycloheximide pulse-chase experiments showed that the unglycosylated subunit degraded at a higher rate than the N-glycosylated form. Unglycosylated a4 was degraded mostly in the proteasomal pathway, but also, in part, through the lysosomal pathway. Immunofluorescence colocalization data showed that unglycosylated a4 was mostly retained in the ER, and that plasma membrane trafficking was defective. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggested that a4(N489D) does not assemble with the V-ATPase V1 domain. Taken together, these data show that N-glycosylation plays a crucial role in a4 stability, and in V-ATPase assembly and trafficking to the plasma membrane. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2757-2768, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Glycoprotein hormone assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum: I. The glycosylated end of human alpha-subunit loop 2 is threaded through a beta-subunit hole.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yongna; Myers, Rebecca V; Cao, Donghui; Lin, Win; Jiang, Mei; Bernard, Michael P; Moyle, William R

    2004-08-20

    Glycoprotein hormone heterodimers are stabilized by their unusual structures in which a glycosylated loop of the alpha-subunit straddles a hole in the beta-subunit. This hole is formed when a cysteine at the end of a beta-subunit strand known as the "seatbelt" becomes "latched" by a disulfide to a cysteine in the beta-subunit core. The heterodimer is stabilized in part by the difficulty of threading the glycosylated end of the alpha-subunit loop 2 through this hole, a phenomenon required for subunit dissociation. Subunit combination in vitro, which occurs by the reverse process, can be accelerated by removing the alpha-subunit oligosaccharide. In cells, heterodimer assembly was thought to occur primarily by a mechanism in which the seatbelt is wrapped around the alpha-subunit after the subunits dock. Here we show that this "wraparound" process can be used to assemble disulfide cross-linked human choriogonadotropin analogs that contain an additional alpha-subunit cysteine, but only if the normal beta-subunit latch site has been removed. Normally, the seatbelt is latched before the subunits dock and assembly is completed when the glycosylated end of alpha-subunit loop 2 is threaded beneath the seatbelt. The unexpected finding that most assembly of human choriogonadotropin, human follitropin, and human thyrotropin heterodimers occurs in this fashion, indicates that threading may be an important phenomenon during protein folding and macromolecule assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. We suggest that the unusual structures of the glycoprotein hormones makes them useful for identifying factors that influence this process in living cells.

  1. A general protease digestion procedure for optimal protein sequence coverage and PTM analysis of recombinant glycoproteins: Application to the characterization of hLOXL2 glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Rebecchi, Kathryn R.; Go, Eden P.; Xu, Li; Woodin, Carrie L.; Mure, Minae; Desaire, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology for expression of protein therapeutics is a maturing field of pharmaceutical research and development. As recombinant proteins are increasingly utilized as biotherapeutics, improved methodologies ensuring the characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) are needed. Typically, proteins prepared for PTM analysis are proteolytically digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. To assure full coverage of the PTMs on a given protein, one must obtain complete sequence coverage of the protein, which is often quite challenging. The objective of the research described here is to design a protocol that maximizes protein sequence coverage and enables detection of post-translational modifications, specifically N-linked glycosylation. To achieve this objective, a highly efficient proteolytic digest protocol using trypsin was designed by comparing the relative merits of denaturing agents (urea and Rapigest™ SF), reducing agents (dithiothreitol, DTT, and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phophine, TCEP), and various concentrations of alkylating agent (iodoacetamide, IAM). After analysis of human apo-transferrin using various protease digestion protocols, ideal conditions were determined to contain 6 M urea for denaturation, 5 mM TCEP for reduction, 10 mM IAM for alkylation, and 10 mM DTT, to quench excess IAM before the addition of trypsin. This method was successfully applied to a novel recombinant protein, human lysyl oxidase-like 2 (hLOXL2). Furthermore, the glycosylation PTMs were readily detected at two glycosylation sites in the protein. These digestion conditions were specifically designed for PTM analysis of recombinant proteins and biotherapeutics, and the work described herein fills an unmet need in the growing field of biopharmaceutical analysis. PMID:21954900

  2. Identification of drug-binding sites on human serum albumin using affinity capillary electrophoresis and chemically modified proteins as buffer additives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Austin, John; Hage, David S

    2002-03-01

    A technique based on affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) and chemically modified proteins was used to screen the binding sites of various drugs on human serum albumin (HSA). This involved using HSA as a buffer additive, following the site-selective modification of this protein at two residues (tryptophan 214 or tyrosine 411) located in its major binding regions. The migration times of four compounds (warfarin, ibuprofen, suprofen and flurbiprofen) were measured in the presence of normal or modified HSA. These times were then compared and the mobility shifts observed with the modified proteins were used to identify the binding regions of each injected solute on HSA. Items considered in optimizing this assay included the concentration of protein placed into the running buffer, the reagents used to modify HSA, and the use of dextran as a secondary additive to adjust protein mobility. The results of this method showed good agreement with those of previous reports. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are examined, as well as its possible extension to other solutes.

  3. Selective control of oligosaccharide transfer efficiency for the N-glycosylation sequon by a point mutation in oligosaccharyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Igura, Mayumi; Kohda, Daisuke

    2011-04-15

    Asn-linked glycosylation is the most ubiquitous posttranslational protein modification in eukaryotes and archaea, and in some eubacteria. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. Inefficient oligosaccharide transfer results in glycoprotein heterogeneity, which is particularly bothersome in pharmaceutical glycoprotein production. Amino acid variation at the X position of the Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon is known to modulate the glycosylation efficiency. The best amino acid at X is valine, for an archaeal Pyrococcus furiosus OST. We performed a systematic alanine mutagenesis study of the archaeal OST to identify the essential and dispensable amino acid residues in the three catalytic motifs. We then investigated the effects of the dispensable mutations on the amino acid preference in the N-glycosylation sequon. One residue position was found to selectively affect the amino acid preference at the X position. This residue is located within the recently identified DXXKXXX(M/I) motif, suggesting the involvement of this motif in N-glycosylation sequon recognition. In applications, mutations at this position may facilitate the design of OST variants adapted to particular N-glycosylation sites to reduce the heterogeneity of glycan occupancy. In fact, a mutation at this position led to 9-fold higher activity relative to the wild-type enzyme, toward a peptide containing arginine at X in place of valine. This mutational approach is potentially applicable to eukaryotic and eubacterial OSTs for the production of homogenous glycoproteins in engineered mammalian and Escherichia coli cells.

  4. Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Deborah M; Edmund, Aaron B; Otto, Neil M; Chaffee, Thomas S; Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2016-05-20

    C-type natriuretic peptide activation of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), also known as natriuretic peptide receptor B or NPR2, stimulates long bone growth, and missense mutations in GC-B cause dwarfism. Four such mutants (L658F, Y708C, R776W, and G959A) bound (125)I-C-type natriuretic peptide on the surface of cells but failed to synthesize cGMP in membrane GC assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy also indicated that the mutant receptors were on the cell surface. All mutant proteins were dephosphorylated and incompletely glycosylated, but dephosphorylation did not explain the inactivation because the mutations inactivated a "constitutively phosphorylated" enzyme. Tunicamycin inhibition of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum or mutation of the Asn-24 glycosylation site decreased GC activity, but neither inhibition of glycosylation in the Golgi by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene inactivation nor PNGase F deglycosylation of fully processed GC-B reduced GC activity. We conclude that endoplasmic reticulum-mediated glycosylation is required for the formation of an active catalytic, but not ligand-binding domain, and that mutations that inhibit this process cause dwarfism.

  5. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Daubenspeck, James M.; Jordan, David S.; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions. PMID:26599081

  6. Comprehensive mapping of O-glycosylation in flagellin from Campylobacter jejuni 11168: A multienzyme differential ion mobility mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed

    Ulasi, Gloria N; Creese, Andrew J; Hui, Sam Xin; Penn, Charles W; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-08-01

    Glycosylation of flagellin is essential for the virulence of Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we demonstrate comprehensive mapping of the O-glycosylation of flagellin from Campylobacter jejuni 11168 by use of a bottom-up proteomics approach that incorporates differential ion mobility spectrometry (also known as high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry or FAIMS) together with proteolysis with proteinase K. Proteinase K provides complementary sequence coverage to that achieved following trypsin proteolysis. The use of FAIMS increased the number of glycopeptides identified. Novel glycans for this strain were identified (pseudaminic acid and either acetamidino pseudaminic acid or legionaminic acid), as were novel glycosylation sites: Thr208, Ser343, Ser348, Ser349, Ser395, Ser398, Ser423, Ser433, Ser436, Ser445, Ser448, Ser451, Ser452, Ser454, Ser457 and Thr465. Multiply glycosylated peptides were observed, as well as variation at individual residues in the nature of the glycan and its presence or absence. Such extreme heterogeneity in the pattern of glycosylation has not been reported previously, and suggests a novel dimension in molecular variation within a bacterial population that may be significant in persistence of the organism in its natural environment. These results demonstrate the usefulness of differential ion mobility in proteomics investigations of PTMs.

  7. Comprehensive mapping of O‐glycosylation in flagellin from Campylobacter jejuni 11168: A multienzyme differential ion mobility mass spectrometry approach

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Gloria N.; Creese, Andrew J.; Hui, Sam Xin; Penn, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of flagellin is essential for the virulence of Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we demonstrate comprehensive mapping of the O‐glycosylation of flagellin from Campylobacter jejuni 11168 by use of a bottom‐up proteomics approach that incorporates differential ion mobility spectrometry (also known as high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry or FAIMS) together with proteolysis with proteinase K. Proteinase K provides complementary sequence coverage to that achieved following trypsin proteolysis. The use of FAIMS increased the number of glycopeptides identified. Novel glycans for this strain were identified (pseudaminic acid and either acetamidino pseudaminic acid or legionaminic acid), as were novel glycosylation sites: Thr208, Ser343, Ser348, Ser349, Ser395, Ser398, Ser423, Ser433, Ser436, Ser445, Ser448, Ser451, Ser452, Ser454, Ser457 and Thr465. Multiply glycosylated peptides were observed, as well as variation at individual residues in the nature of the glycan and its presence or absence. Such extreme heterogeneity in the pattern of glycosylation has not been reported previously, and suggests a novel dimension in molecular variation within a bacterial population that may be significant in persistence of the organism in its natural environment. These results demonstrate the usefulness of differential ion mobility in proteomics investigations of PTMs. PMID:25884275

  8. Functional Consequences of Differential O-glycosylation of MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 (Downstream Effects on Signaling)

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ryan L.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications that occur within the cell. Under normal physiological conditions, O-linked glycosylation of extracellular proteins is critical for both structure and function. During the progression of cancer, however, the expression of aberrant and truncated glycans is commonly observed. Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that contain numerous sites of O-glycosylation within their extracellular domains. Transmembrane mucins also play a functional role in monitoring the surrounding microenvironment and transducing these signals into the cell. In cancer, these mucins often take on an oncogenic role and promote a number of pro-tumorigenic effects, including pro-survival, migratory, and invasive behaviors. Within this review, we highlight both the processes involved in the expression of aberrant glycan structures on mucins, as well as the potential downstream impacts on cellular signaling. PMID:27483328

  9. Involvement of oligomerization, N-glycosylation and sialylation in the clearance of cholinesterases from the circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Kronman, C; Velan, B; Marcus, D; Ordentlich, A; Reuveny, S; Shafferman, A

    1995-01-01

    The possible role of post-translational modifications such as subunit oligomerization, protein glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing on the circulatory life-time of proteins was studied using recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rHuAChE). Different preparations of rHuAChE containing various amounts of tetramers, dimers and monomers are cleared at similar rates from the circulation, suggesting that oligomerization does not play an important role in determining the rate of clearance. An engineered rHuAChE mutant containing only one N-glycosylation site was cleared from the circulation more rapidly than the wild-type triglycosylated enzyme. On the other hand, hyperglycosylated mutants containing either four or five occupied N-glycosylation sites, analagous to those present on the slowly cleared fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBS-AChE), were also cleared more rapidly from the bloodstream than the wild-type species. Furthermore, the two different tetraglycosylated mutants were cleared at different rates while the pentaglycosylated mutant exhibited the most rapid clearance profile. These results imply that though the number of N-glycosylation sites plays a role in the circulatory life-time of the enzyme, the number of N-glycan units in itself does not determine the rate of clearance. When saturating amounts of asialofetuin were administered together with rHuAChE, the circulatory half-life of the enzyme was dramatically increased (from 80 min to 19 h) and was found to be similar to that displayed by plasma-derived cholinesterases while desialylation of these enzymes caused a sharp decrease in the circulatory half-life to approximately 3-5 min. Determination of the average number of sialic acid residues per enzyme subunit of the five different N-glycosylation species generated, revealed that the rate of clearance is not a function of the absolute number of appended sialic acid moieties but rather of the number of unoccupied sialic acid attachment sites

  10. Glycosylation profiles of therapeutic antibody pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Christoph; Berger, Christoph N; Girard, Philippe; Meier, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant antibodies specific for human targets are often used as therapeutics and represent a major class of drug products. Their therapeutic efficacy depends on the formation of antibody complexes resulting in the elimination of a target molecule or the modulation of specific signalling pathways. The physiological effects of antibody therapeutics are known to depend on the structural characteristics of the antibody molecule, specifically on the glycosylation which is the result of posttranslational modifications. Hence, production of therapeutic antibodies with a defined and consistent glycoform profile is needed which still remains a considerable challenge to the biopharmaceutical industry. To provide an insight into the industries capability to control their manufacturing process and to provide antibodies of highest quality, we conducted a market surveillance study and compared major oligosaccharide profiles of a number of monoclonal antibody pharmaceuticals sampled on the Swiss market. Product lot-to-lot variability was found to be generally low, suggesting that a majority of manufacturers have implemented high quality standards in their production processes. However, proportions of G0, G1 and G2 core-fucosylated chains derived from different products varied considerably and showed a bias towards the immature agalactosidated G0 form. Interestingly, differences in glycosylation caused by the production cell type seem to be of less importance compared with process related parameters such as cell growth.

  11. Glycosylation of plant produced human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Steinkellner, Herta

    2015-12-23

    Human immunoglobulins circulate as highly heterogeneously glycosylated mixture of otherwise homogeneous protein backbones. A series of studies, mainly on IgG, have unequivocally proven that antibodies modulate their effector function through sugars present in the Fc domain. However, our limited technology in producing complex proteins such as antibodies, with defined glycan structures hamper in depths studies. This review introduces a plant based expression platform enabling engineering of antibody glycans. The procedure is based on the simultaneous delivery of appropriate constructs, carrying cDNAs of target proteins (e.g. heavy and light chain of antibodies) in combination with human glycosylation enzymes into plant leaves. Harvesting of recombinant proteins one week post construct delivery allows high speed and flexibility. Major achievements include the production of functional active slialylated pentameric IgMs in tobacco leaves. The system provides a viable approach to the generation of antibodies with defined glycoforms on demand, contributing to studies on antibody glycans and the development of novel antibody based drugs.

  12. Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

  13. Interplay between disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation defines SLC4 Na+-coupled transporter extracellular topography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

    2015-02-27

    The extracellular loop 3 (EL-3) of SLC4 Na(+)-coupled transporters contains 4 highly conserved cysteines and multiple N-glycosylation consensus sites. In the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCe1-A, EL-3 is the largest extracellular loop and is predicted to consist of 82 amino acids. To determine the structural-functional importance of the conserved cysteines and the N-glycosylation sites in NBCe1-A EL-3, we analyzed the potential interplay between EL-3 disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation and their roles in EL-3 topological folding. Our results demonstrate that the 4 highly conserved cysteines form two intramolecular disulfide bonds, Cys(583)-Cys(585) and Cys(617)-Cys(642), respectively, that constrain EL-3 in a folded conformation. The formation of the second disulfide bond is spontaneous and unaffected by the N-glycosylation state of EL-3 or the first disulfide bond, whereas formation of the first disulfide bond relies on the presence of the second disulfide bond and is affected by N-glycosylation. Importantly, EL-3 from each monomer is adjacently located at the NBCe1-A dimeric interface. When the two disulfide bonds are missing, EL-3 adopts an extended conformation highly accessible to protease digestion. This unique adjacent parallel location of two symmetrically folded EL-3 loops from each monomer resembles a domain-like structure that is potentially important for NBCe1-A function in vivo. Moreover, the formation of this unique structure is critically dependent on the finely tuned interplay between disulfide bonding and N-glycosylation in the membrane processed NBCe1-A dimer.

  14. Glycosylation of Cellulases: Engineering Better Enzymes for Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Greene, Eric R; Himmel, Michael E; Beckham, Gregg T; Tan, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose in plant cell walls is the largest reservoir of renewable carbon on Earth. The saccharification of cellulose from plant biomass into soluble sugars can be achieved using fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, and further converted into fuels and chemicals. Most fungal cellulases are both N- and O-glycosylated in their native form, yet the consequences of glycosylation on activity and structure are not fully understood. Studying protein glycosylation is challenging as glycans are extremely heterogeneous, stereochemically complex, and glycosylation is not under direct genetic control. Despite these limitations, many studies have begun to unveil the role of cellulase glycosylation, especially in the industrially relevant cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma reesei, Cel7A. Glycosylation confers many beneficial properties to cellulases including enhanced activity, thermal and proteolytic stability, and structural stabilization. However, glycosylation must be controlled carefully as such positive effects can be dampened or reversed. Encouragingly, methods for the manipulation of glycan structures have been recently reported that employ genetic tuning of glycan-active enzymes expressed from homogeneous and heterologous fungal hosts. Taken together, these studies have enabled new strategies for the exploitation of protein glycosylation for the production of enhanced cellulases for biofuel production.

  15. Interaction of FAM5C with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1): Implication of N-glycosylation in FAM5C secretion.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yuya; Fujita, Hidenobu; Horibe, Sayo; Sato, Junya; Minami, Satomi; Kobayashi, Miwako; Matsuoka, Ichiro; Sasaki, Naoto; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-27

    N-glycosylation of proteins is important for protein folding and function. We have recently reported that FAM5C/BRINP3 contributes to the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). However, regulatory mechanism of the FAM5C biosynthesis is poorly understood. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed the interaction of FAM5C with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a glycoprotein folding-sensor enzyme. FAM5C ectopically expressed in HEK293 cells was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and co-localized with endogenously expressed UGGT1. Molecular size of FAM5C was reduced by treatment with N-glycosidase F and in FAM5C-expressing cells cultured in the presence of the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. FAM5C was secreted by the cells and the secretion of FAM5C was blocked by tunicamycin. Among six potential N-glycosylation sites, the potential site at Asn(168) was not N-glycosylated, and Asn(337), Asn(456), Asn(562), Asn(609), and Asn(641) mutants were poorly secreted by the cells. These results demonstrated that FAM5C is an N-glycosylated protein and N-glycosylation is necessary for the secretion of FAM5C.

  16. Insect Cell Glycosylation and Its Impact on the Functionality of a Recombinant Intracrystalline Nacre Protein, AP24.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Perovic, Iva; Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2016-02-23

    The impacts of glycosylation on biomineralization protein function are largely unknown. This is certainly true for the mollusk shell, where glycosylated intracrystalline proteins such as AP24 (Haliotis rufescens) exist but their functions and the role of glycosylation remain elusive. To assess the effect of glycosylation on protein function, we expressed two recombinant variants of AP24: an unglycosylated bacteria-expressed version (rAP24N) and a glycosylated insect cell-expressed version (rAP24G). Our findings indicate that rAP24G is expressed as a single polypeptide containing variations in glycosylation that create microheterogeneity in rAP24G molecular masses. These post-translational modifications incorporate O- and N-glycans and anionic monosialylated and bisialylated, and monosulfated and bisulfated monosaccharides on the protein molecules. AFM and DLS experiments confirm that both rAP24N and rAP24G aggregate to form protein phases, with rAP24N exhibiting a higher degree of aggregation, compared to rAP24G. With regard to functionality, we observe that both recombinant proteins exhibit similar behavior within in vitro calcium carbonate mineralization assays and potentiometric titrations. However, rAP24G modifies crystal growth directions and is a stronger nucleation inhibitor, whereas rAP24N exhibits higher mineral phase stabilization and nanoparticle containment. We believe that the post-translational addition of anionic groups (via sialylation and sulfation), along with modifications to the protein surface topology, may explain the changes in glycosylated rAP24G aggregation and mineralization behavior, relative to rAP24N.

  17. Changes in glycosylation of human blood plasma chitotriosidase in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Żurawska-Płaksej, Ewa; Kratz, Ewa Maria; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława; Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Human blood plasma chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a glycoprotein with chitinolytic activity with not fully elucidated biological function. Its increased level is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with development of diabetic complications. The CHIT1 glycosylation profile and degree is still poorly studied and never investigated in T2DM. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the association between glycosylation profile and degree and diabetes with accompanying nephropathy. In blood plasma of 28 patients with T2DM and 11 healthy subjects the CHIT1 concentration and specific activity were examined. The profile and degree of CHIT1 glycosylation were determined by lectin-ELISA using lectins specific to O-glycans (Jacalin, MPL, VVL) and sialo-specific SNA and MAA. We revealed that both concentration and specific activity of CHIT1 significantly increased in T2DM, especially in nephropathy with elevated albuminuria. The relative reactivities with lectins, except Jacalin, decreased progressively with T2DM occurrence and albuminuria progression. The most significant differences were observed between control vs. albuminuric group (Micro and Macro). It is also possible that the observed differences in immunoblotting pattern in molecular masses of CHIT1 bands between T2DM patients and healthy subjects may be caused by the differences in degree of CHIT1 glycosylation. The analysis of CHIT1 glycosylation status and the determination of CHIT1 concentration together with its enzymatic activity in blood plasma might constitute additional valuable diagnosis tools for the evaluation the T2DM patients with accompanying nephropathy. Extension of the lectin panel specific to O-glycans occurs useful for the further research using microarray formats, which are expected to accelerate “lectin-based glycan profiling” of glycoproteins.

  18. Defining the topology of the N-glycosylation pathway in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Plavner, Noa; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-12-01

    In Eukarya, N glycosylation involves the actions of enzymes working on both faces of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The steps of bacterial N glycosylation, in contrast, transpire essentially on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, with only transfer of the assembled glycan to the target protein occurring on the external surface of the cell. For Archaea, virtually nothing is known about the topology of enzymes involved in assembling those glycans that are subsequently N linked to target proteins on the external surface of the cell. To remedy this situation, subcellular localization and topology predictive algorithms, protease accessibility, and immunoblotting, together with cysteine modification following site-directed mutagenesis, were enlisted to define the topology of Haloferax volcanii proteins experimentally proven to participate in the N-glycosylation process. AglJ and AglD, involved in the earliest and latest stages, respectively, of assembly of the pentasaccharide decorating the H. volcanii S-layer glycoprotein, were shown to present their soluble N-terminal domain, likely containing the putative catalytic site of each enzyme, to the cytosol. The same holds true for Alg5-B, Dpm1-A, and Mpg1-D, proteins putatively involved in this posttranslational event. The results thus point to the assembly of the pentasaccharide linked to certain Asn residues of the H. volcanii S-layer glycoprotein as occurring within the cell.

  19. Disruption of the OCH1 and MNN1 genes decrease N-glycosylation on glycoprotein expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Gong, Xin; Chang, Shaohong; Yang, Yili; Song, Miao; Duan, Demin; Wang, Lina; Ma, Qingjun; Wu, Jun

    2009-08-20

    Glycoproteins secreted by the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis are usually modified by the addition at asparagines-linked glycosylation sites of heterogeneous mannan residues. The secreted glycoproteins in K. lactis that become hypermannosylated will bear a non-human glycosylation pattern and can adversely affect the half-life, tissue distribution and immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein. Here, we describe engineering a K. lactis strain to produce non-hypermannosylated glycoprotein, decreasing the outer-chain mannose residues of N-linked oligosaccharides. We investigated and developed the method of two-step homologous recombination to knockout the OCH1 gene, encoding alpha1,6-mannosyltransferase and MNN1 gene, which is homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNN1, encoding a putative alpha1,3-mannosyltransferase. We found the Kloch1 mutant strain has a defect in hyperglycosylation, inability in adding mannose to the core oligosaccharide. The N-linked oligosaccharides assembled on a secretory glycoprotein, HSA/GM-CSF in Kloch1 mutant, contained oligosaccharide Man(13-14)GlcNAc(2), and in Kloch1 mnn1 mutant, contained oligosaccharide Man(9-11)GlcNAc(2), whereas those in the wild-type strain, consisted of oligosaccharides with heterogeneous sizes, Man(>30)GlcNAc(2). Taken together, these results indicated that KlOch1p plays a key role in the outer-chain mannosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides in K. lactis. The KlMnn1p, was proved to be certain contribution to the outer hypermannosylation, most possibly encodes alpha1,3-mannosyltransferase. Therefore, the Kloch1 and Kloch1 mnn1 mutants can be used as a foundational host to produce glycoproteins lacking the outer-chain hypermannoses and further maybe applicable to be a promising system for yeast therapeutic protein production.

  20. Quantum-Chemical Study of the Discrimination against dNTP in the Nucleotide Addition Reaction in the Active Site of RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sven; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-11

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II catalyzes the transcription of DNA into mRNA very efficiently and with an extremely low error rate with regard to matching base and sugar moiety. Despite its importance, little is known about how it discriminates against 2'-deoxy NTPs during the chemical reaction. To investigate the differences in the addition reactions of ATP and dATP, we used FF-MD and QM/MM calculations within a nudged elastic band approach, which allowed us to find the energetically accessible reaction coordinates. By converging the QM size, we found that 800 QM atoms are necessary to properly describe the active site. We show how the absence of a single hydrogen bond between the enzyme and the NTP 2'-OH group leads to an increase of the reaction barrier by 16 kcal/mol and therefore conclude that Arg446 is the key residue in the discrimination process.

  1. Protein N-glycosylation in Archaea: defining Haloferax volcanii genes involved in S-layer glycoprotein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2006-07-01

    In this study, characterization of the N-glycosylation process in the haloarchaea Haloferax volcanii was undertaken. Initially, putative Hfx. volcanii homologues of genes involved in eukaryal or bacterial N-glycosylation were identified by bioinformatics. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the proposed N-glycosylation genes are transcribed, indicative of true proteins being encoded. Where families of related gene sequences were detected, differential transcription of family members under a variety of physiological and environmental conditions was shown. Gene deletions point to certain genes, like alg11, as being essential yet revealed that others, such as the two versions of alg5, are not. Deletion of alg5-A did, however, lead to slower growth and interfered with surface (S)-layer glycoprotein glycosylation, as detected by modified migration on SDS-PAGE and glycostaining approaches. As deletion of stt3, the only component of the oligosaccharide transferase complex detected in Archaea, did not affect cell viability, it appears that N-glycosylation is not essential in Hfx. volcanii. Deletion of stt3 did, nonetheless, hinder both cell growth and S-layer glycoprotein glycosylation. Thus, with genes putatively involved in Hfx. volcanii protein glycosylation identified and the ability to address the roles played by the encoded polypeptides in modifying a reporter glycoprotein, the steps of the archaeal N-glycosylation pathway can be defined.

  2. Preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives from glycosyl azides using sulfamic acid and sodium iodide in one-pot.

    PubMed

    Gucchait, Arin; Jana, Manas; Jana, Kuladip; Misra, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-03

    Novel one-pot reaction conditions have been developed for the preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives directly from glycosyl azides mediated by a combination of sulfamic acid and sodium iodide. The reaction conditions were clean, non-toxic and the products were isolated in good to excellent yield.

  3. Additive Promotion of Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation by Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 and an Enterovirus 71-Induced Cleavage Product

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chuan-Tien; Kung, Yu-An; Li, Mei-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Liu, Shih-Tung; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is indispensable for viral protein translation. Due to the limited coding capacity of their RNA genomes, EV71 and other picornaviruses typically recruit host factors, known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), to mediate IRES-dependent translation. Here, we show that EV71 viral proteinase 2A is capable of cleaving far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FBP1), a positive ITAF that directly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region to promote viral IRES-driven translation. The cleavage occurs at the Gly-371 residue of FBP1 during the EV71 infection process, and this generates a functional cleavage product, FBP11-371. Interestingly, the cleavage product acts to promote viral IRES activity. Footprinting analysis and gel mobility shift assay results showed that FBP11-371 similarly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region, but at a different site from full-length FBP1; moreover, FBP1 and FBP11-371 were found to act additively to promote IRES-mediated translation and virus yield. Our findings expand the current understanding of virus-host interactions with regard to viral recruitment and modulation of ITAFs, and provide new insights into translational control during viral infection. PMID:27780225

  4. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  5. N-glycosylation is required for matriptase-2 autoactivation and ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Jianfeng; Feng, Ping; Zuo, Bin; Dong, Ningzheng; Wu, Qingyu; He, Yang

    2014-07-11

    Matriptase-2 is a hepatic membrane serine protease that regulates iron homeostasis. Defects in matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency anemia. In cells, matriptase-2 is synthesized as a zymogen. To date, how matriptase-2 expression and activation are regulated remains poorly understood. Here we expressed human matriptase-2 in HEK293 and hepatic BEL-7402, SMMC-7721, and QGY-7703 cells. By labeling cell surface proteins and Western analysis, we examined matriptase-2 cell surface expression, zymogen activation, and ectodomain shedding. Our results show that matriptase-2 was activated on the cell surface but not intracellularly. Activated matriptase-2 underwent ectodomain shedding, producing soluble fragments in the conditioned medium. By testing inactive mutants, R576A and S762A, we found that matriptase-2 activation and shedding were mediated by its own catalytic activity and that the one-chain form of matriptase-2 had little activity in ectodomain shedding. We made additional matriptase-2 mutants, N136Q, N184Q, N216Q, N338Q, N433Q, N453Q, and N518Q, in which each of the predicted N-glycosylation sites was mutated. All of these mutants were expressed on the cell surface. However, mutants N216Q, N453Q, and N518Q, but not the other mutants, had impaired zymogen activation and ectodomain shedding. Our results indicate that N-glycans at specific sites are critical for matriptase-2 activation. Together, these data provide new insights into the cell surface expression, zymogen activation, and ectodomain shedding of matriptase-2.

  6. Identification of a protein glycosylation operon from Campylobacter jejuni JCM 2013 and its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human enteropathogenic bacterium possessing an N-glycosylation system. In this work, a protein glycosylation (pgl) operon conferring prokaryotic N-glycosylation in C. jejuni JCM 2013 was cloned and identified. Fourteen open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the pgl operon. The operon organization was similar to that of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, with 98% and 99% identities in overall nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively. The pgl operon was heterologously co-expressed with model protein CmeA in the Escherichia coli BL21 ΔwaaL mutant. The immuno- and lectin-blotting analysis indicated the protein glycosylation on the recombinant CmeA. In addition, to analyze the glycan composition, the recombinant CmeA was purified and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of the N-acetylhexosamine residue at the reducing end but not the predicted di-N-acetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) residue. Further glycan structural study using the conventional fluorophore-labeling method revealed the GalNAcα-GalNAcα-(Hex-)HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc structure. Transcriptional analysis showed that UDP-diNAcBac synthases and diNAcBac transferase are transcribed but might not function in the constructed system. In conclusion, a pgl operon from C. jejuni JCM 2013 successfully functioned in E. coli, resulting in the observed prokaryotic glycosylation.

  7. N-glycosylation in Archaea: on the coordinated actions of Haloferax volcanii AglF and AglM.

    PubMed

    Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Magidovich, Hilla; Ventura, Valeria V; Hitchen, Paul G; Dell, Anne; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-02-01

    Like Eukarya and Bacteria, Archaea are also capable of performing N-glycosylation. In the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii, N-glycosylation is mediated by the products of the agl gene cluster. In the present report, this gene cluster was expanded to include an additional sequence, aglM, shown to participate in the biosynthesis of hexuronic acids contained within a pentasaccharide decorating the S-layer glycoprotein, a reporter H. volcanii glycoprotein. In response to different growth conditions, changes in the transcription profile of aglM mirrored changes in the transcription profiles of aglF, aglG and aglI, genes encoding confirmed participants in the H. volcanii N-glycosylation pathway, thus offering support to the hypothesis that in H. volcanii, N-glycosylation serves an adaptive role. Following purification, biochemical analysis revealed AglM to function as a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. In a scoupled reaction with AglF, a previously identified glucose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, UDP-glucuronic acid was generated from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP in a NAD(+)-dependent manner. These experiments thus represent the first step towards in vitro reconstitution of the archaeal N-glycosylation process.

  8. Glycosylation on Hemagglutinin Affects the Virulence and Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza A Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongtao; Bradley, Konrad C.; Cao, Jiyue; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    The two glycosylation sites (Asn142 and Asn177) were observed in the HA of most human seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, while none in pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A (pH1N1) viruses. We investigated the effect of the two glycosylation sites on viral virulence and pathogenicity in mice using recombinant pH1N1. The H1N1/144 and H1N1/177 mutants which gained potential glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177 on HA respectively were generated from A/Mexico/4486/2009(H1N1) by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics, the same as the H1N1/144+177 gained both glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177. The biological characteristics and antigenicity of the mutants were compared with wild-type pH1N1. The virulence and pathogenicity of recombinants were also detected in mice. Our results showed that HA antigenicity and viral affinity for receptor may change with introduction of the glycosylation sites. Compared with wild-type pH1N1, the mutant H1N1/177 displayed an equivalent virus titer in chicken embryos and mice, and increased virulence and pathogenicity in mice. The H1N1/144 displayed the highest virus titer in mice lung. However, the H1N1/144+177 displayed the most serious alveolar inflammation and pathogenicity in infected mice. The introduction of the glycosylation sites Asn144 and Asn177 resulted in the enhancement on virulence and pathogenicity of pH1N1 in mice, and was also associated with the change of HA antigenicity and the viral affinity for receptor. PMID:23637827

  9. A non-glycosylated and functionally deficient mutant (N215H) of the sphingolipid activator protein B (SAP-B) in a novel case of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD).

    PubMed

    Wrobe, D; Henseler, M; Huettler, S; Pascual Pascual, S I; Chabas, A; Sandhoff, K

    2000-02-01

    The lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains depends on small glycosylated non-enzymatic sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs, saposins). Four of the five known SAPs, SAP-A, -B, -C and -D, are derived by proteolytic processing from a common precursor protein (SAP-precursor) that is encoded by a gene on chromosome 10 consisting of 15 exons and 14 introns. SAP-B is a non-specific glycolipid binding protein that stimulates in vitro the hydrolysis of about 20 glycolipids by different enzymes. In vivo SAP-B stimulates in particular the degradation of sulphatides by arylsulphatase A. So far, four different point mutations have been identified on the SAP-B domain of the SAP-precursor gene. The mutations result in a loss of mature SAP-B, causing the lysosomal accumulation of sulphatides and other sphingolipids, resulting in variant forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Here we report on a patient with SAP-B deficiency that is caused by a new homoallelic point mutation that has been identified by mRNA and DNA analysis. A 643A > C transversion results in the exchange of asparagine 215 to histidine and eliminates the single glycosylation site of SAP-B. Metabolic labelling experiments showed that the mutation had no effect on the intracellular transport of the encoded precursor to the acidic compartments and its maturation in the patient's cells. All four SAPs (SAP-A to SAP-D) were detectable by immunochemical methods. SAP-B in the patient's cells was found to be slightly less stable than the protein in normal cells and corresponded in size to the deglycosylated form of the wild-type SAP-B. Feeding studies with non-glycosylated SAP-precursor, generating non-glycosylated SAP-B, showed that the loss of the carbohydrate chain reduced the intracellular activity of the protein significantly. The additional structural change of the patient's SAP-B, caused by the change of amino acid 215 from asparagine to histidine, presumably resulted in an

  10. Communication: Folding of glycosylated proteins under confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shental-Bechor, Dalit; Levy, Yaakov

    2011-10-01

    Conjugating flexible polymers (such as oligosaccharides) to proteins or confining a protein in a restricted volume often increases protein thermal stability. In this communication, we investigate the interplay between conjugation and confinement which is not trivial as the magnitude and the mechanism of stabilization are different in each instance. Using coarse-grained computational approach the folding biophysics is studied when the protein is placed in a sphere of variable radius and is conjugated to 0-6 mono- or penta-saccharides. We observe a synergistic effect on thermal stability when short oligosaccharides are attached and the modified protein is confined in a small cage. However, when large oligosaccharides are added, a conflict between confinement and glycosylation arises as the stabilizing effect of the cage is dramatically reduced and it is almost impossible to further stabilize the protein beyond the mild stabilization induced by the sugars.

  11. Glycosylation, Hypogammaglobulinemia, and Resistance to Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Tae-Wook; Lusso, Paolo; Kaplan, Gerardo; Wolfe, Lynne; Memoli, Matthew J.; He, Miao; Vega, Hugo; Kim, Leo J.Y.; Huang, Yan; Hussein, Nadia; Nievas, Elma; Mitchell, Raquel; Garofalo, Mary; Louie, Aaron; Ireland, Derek C.; Grunes, Claire; Cimbro, Raffaello; Patel, Vyomesh; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Salahuddin, Daniel; Bristol, Tyler; Adams, David; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Yuxing; Calvo, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jennifer; Justement, J. Shawn; Jacques, Jerome; Priel, Debra A. Long; Murray, Danielle; Sun, Peter; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Chiorini, John A.; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Verthelyi, Daniela; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetic defects in MOGS, the gene encoding mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase (the first enzyme in the processing pathway of N-linked oligosaccharide), cause the rare congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIb (CDG-IIb), also known as MOGS-CDG. MOGS is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the trimming of N-glycans. We evaluated two siblings with CDG-IIb who presented with multiple neurologic complications and a paradoxical immunologic phenotype characterized by severe hypogammaglobulinemia but limited clinical evidence of an infectious diathesis. A shortened immunoglobulin half-life was determined to be the mechanism underlying the hypogammaglobulinemia. Impaired viral replication and cellular entry may explain a decreased susceptibility to infections. PMID:24716661

  12. ECM Proteins Glycosylation and Relation to Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernodet, Nadine; Bloomberg, Ayla; Sood, Vandana; Slutsky, Lenny; Ge, Shouren; Clark, Richard; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2004-03-01

    The chemical modification and crosslinking of proteins by sugar glycosylation contribute to the aging of tissue proteins, and acceleration of this reaction during hyperglycemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, such as disorder of the wound healing. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation and protein crosslinking are irreversible processes that alter the structural and functional properties of proteins, lipid components and nucleic acids. And the mechanism, by which it happens, is not clear. Fibrinogen and fibronectin are plasma proteins, which play a major role in human wound healing. Fibrinogen converts to an insoluble fibrin "gel" following a cut, which eventually forms a clot to prevent blood loss, to direct cell adhesion and migration for forming scars. Fibronectin is a critical protein for cell adhesion and migration in wound healing. The effects of glucose on the binding of these plasma proteins from the extra cellular matrix (ECM) were followed at different concentrations by atomic force microscopy and lateral force modulation to measure the mechanical response of the samples. Glucose solutions (1, 2, and 3mg/mL) were incubated with the protein (100 mg/ml) and silicon (Si) substrates spun with sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) 28% for five days. Data showed that not only the organization of the protein on the surface was affected but also its mechanical properties. At 3 mg/mL glucose, Fn fibers were observed to be harder than those of the control, in good agreement with our hypothesis that glycosylation hardens tissues by crosslinking of proteins in the ECM and might cause fibers to break more easily.

  13. Sweet to the extreme: protein glycosylation in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Chaban, Bonnie; VanDyke, David J; Jarrell, Ken F; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-06-01

    Post-translational modifications account for much of the biological diversity generated at the proteome level. Of these, glycosylation is the most prevalent. Long thought to be unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea are also capable of N-glycosylation, namely the covalent linkage of oligosaccharides to select target asparagine residues. However, while the eukaryal and bacterial N-glycosylation pathways are relatively well defined, little is known of the parallel process in Archaea. Of late, however, major advances have been made in describing the process of archaeal N-glycosylation. Such efforts have shown, as is often the case in archaeal biology, that protein N-glycosylation in Archaea combines particular aspects of the eukaryal and bacterial pathways along with traits unique to this life form. For instance, while the oligosaccharides of archaeal glycoproteins include nucleotide-activated sugars formed by bacterial pathways, the lipid carrier on which such oligosaccharides are assembled is the same as used in eukaryal N-glycosylation. By contrast, transfer of assembled oligosaccharides to their protein targets shows Archaea-specific properties. Finally, addressing N-glycosylation from an archaeal perspective is providing new general insight into this event, as exemplified by the solution of the first crystal structure of an oligosaccharide transferase from an archaeal source.

  14. Digestibility and IgE-Binding of Glycosylated Codfish Parvalbumin

    PubMed Central

    de Jongh, Harmen H. J.; Robles, Carlos López; Nordlee, Julie A.; Lee, Poi-Wah; Baumert, Joseph L.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Taylor, Steve L.; Koppelman, Stef J.

    2013-01-01

    Food-processing conditions may alter the allergenicity of food proteins by different means. In this study, the effect of the glycosylation as a result of thermal treatment on the digestibility and IgE-binding of codfish parvalbumin is investigated. Native and glycosylated parvalbumins were digested with pepsin at various conditions relevant for the gastrointestinal tract. Intact proteins and peptides were analysed for apparent molecular weight and IgE-binding. Glycosylation did not substantially affect the digestion. Although the peptides resulting from digestion were relatively large (3 and 4 kDa), the IgE-binding was strongly diminished. However, the glycosylated parvalbumin had a strong propensity to form dimers and tetramers, and these multimers bound IgE intensely, suggesting stronger IgE-binding than monomeric parvalbumin. We conclude that glycosylation of codfish parvalbumin does not affect the digestibility of parvalbumin and that the peptides resulting from this digestion show low IgE-binding, regardless of glycosylation. Glycosylation of parvalbumin leads to the formation of higher order structures that are more potent IgE binders than native, monomeric parvalbumin. Therefore, food-processing conditions applied to fish allergen can potentially lead to increased allergenicity, even while the protein's digestibility is not affected by such processing. PMID:23878817

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila flagella glycosylation: involvement of a lipid carrier.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Fulton, Kelly M; Twine, Susan M; Wilhelms, Markus; Molero, Raquel; Tomás, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous glycan. Mutants unable to produce WecP or Gne enzymes showed altered motility, and the study of their polar flagellin glycosylation showed that the patterns of glycosylation differed from that observed with wild type polar flagellin. This suggested the involvement of a lipid carrier in glycosylation. A gene coding for an enzyme linking sugar to a lipid carrier was identified in strain AH-3 (WecX) and subsequent mutation abolished completely motility, flagella production by EM, and flagellin glycosylation. This is the first report of a lipid carrier involved in flagella O-glycosylation. A molecular model has been proposed. The results obtained suggested that the N-acetylhexosamines are N-acetylgalactosamines and that the heptasaccharide is completely independent of the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, by comparing the mutants with differing degrees of polar flagellin glycosylation, we established their importance in A. hydrophila flagella formation and motility.

  16. Characterization of a Unique Tetrasaccharide and Distinct Glycoproteome in the O-Linked Protein Glycosylation System of Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica

    PubMed Central

    Anonsen, Jan Haug; Vik, Åshild; Børud, Bente; Viburiene, Raimonda; Aas, Finn Erik; Kidd, Shani W. A.; Aspholm, Marina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broad-spectrum O-linked protein glycosylation is well characterized in the major Neisseria species of importance to human health and disease. Within strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, and N. lactamica, protein glycosylation (pgl) gene content and the corresponding oligosaccharide structure are fairly well conserved, although intra- and interstrain variability occurs. The status of such systems in distantly related commensal species, however, remains largely unexplored. Using a strain of deeply branching Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica, a heretofore unrecognized tetrasaccharide glycoform consisting of di-N-acetylbacillosamine-glucose-di-N-acetyl hexuronic acid-N-acetylhexosamine (diNAcBac-Glc-diNAcHexA-HexNAc) was identified. Directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometric analysis, and glycan serotyping confirmed that the oligosaccharide is an extended version of the diNAcBac-Glc-based structure seen in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis generated by the successive actions of PglB, PglC, and PglD and glucosyltransferase PglH orthologues. In addition, a null mutation in the orthologue of the broadly conserved but enigmatic pglG gene precluded expression of the extended glycoform, providing the first evidence that its product is a functional glycosyltransferase. Despite clear evidence for a substantial number of glycoprotein substrates, the major pilin subunit of the endogenous type IV pilus was not glycosylated. The latter finding raises obvious questions as to the relative distribution of pilin glycosylation within the genus, how protein glycosylation substrates are selected, and the overall structure-function relationships of broad-spectrum protein glycosylation. Together, the results of this study provide a foundation upon which to assess neisserial O-linked protein glycosylation diversity at the genus level. IMPORTANCE Broad-spectrum protein glycosylation systems are well characterized in the pathogenic Neisseria species N. gonorrhoeae

  17. Structural-functional characterization of the cathodic haemoglobin of the conger eel Conger conger: molecular modelling study of an additional phosphate-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Giardina, Bruno; Verde, Cinzia; Carratore, Vito; Olianas, Alessandra; Sollai, Luigi; Sanna, Maria T; Castagnola, Massimo; di Prisco, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The protein sequence data for the alpha- and beta-chains have been deposited in the SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL protein knowledgebase under the accession numbers P83479 and P83478 respectively. The Conger conger (conger eel) haemoglobin (Hb) system is made of three components, one of which, the so-called cathodic Hb, representing approx. 20% of the total pigment, has been purified and characterized from both a structural and functional point of view. Stripped Hb showed a reverse Bohr effect, high oxygen affinity and slightly low cooperativity in the absence of any effector. Addition of saturating GTP strongly influences the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity, since the reverse Bohr effect, observed under stripped conditions, is converted into a small normal Bohr effect. A further investigation of the GTP effect on oxygen affinity, carried out by fitting its titration curve, demonstrated the presence of two independent binding sites. Therefore, on the basis of the amino acid sequence of the alpha- and beta-chains, which have been determined, a computer modelling study has been performed. The data suggest that C. conger cathodic Hb may bind organic phosphates at two distinct binding sites located along the central cavity of the tetramer by hydrogen bonds and/or electrostatic interactions with amino acid residues of both chains, which have been identified. Among these residues, the two Lys-alpha(G6) (where the letter refers to the haemoglobin helix and the number to the amino acid position in the helix) appear to have a key role in the GTP movement from the external binding region to the internal central cavity of the tetrameric molecule. PMID:12646043

  18. N-linked glycosylation at Asn152 on CD147 affects protein folding and stability: promoting tumour metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang-Hua; Huang, Wan; Lin, Peng; Wu, Bo; Fu, Zhi-Guang; Shen, Hao-Miao; Jing, Lin; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Yang; Meng, Yao; Xu, Bao-Qing; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates oncogenic processes partly through N-glycosylation modifications. N-glycosylation has been demonstrated to be instrumental for the regulation of CD147 function during malignant transformation. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of CD147 plays in its defective function in hepatocellular carcinomacells needs to be determined. Here, we demonstrate that the modification of N-glycosylation at Asn152 on CD147 strongly promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasion and migration. After the removal of N-glycans at Asn152, CD147 was more susceptible to degradation by ER-localized ubiquitin ligase-mediated endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Furthermore, N-linked glycans at Asn152 were required for CD147 to acquire and maintain proper folding in the ER. Moreover, N-linked glycans at Asn152 functioned as a recognition motif that was directly mediated by the CNX quality control system. Two phases in the retention-based ER chaperones system drove ER-localized CD147 trafficking to degradation. Deletion of N-linked glycosylation at Asn152 on CD147 significantly suppressed in situ tumour metastasis. These data could potentially shed light on the molecular regulation of CD147 through glycosylation and provide a valuable means of developing drugs that target N-glycans at Asn152 on CD147. PMID:27869218

  19. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D.; Huang, Amy S.; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J.; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins. PMID:26950937

  20. Comparison of the Structure and Activity of Glycosylated and Aglycosylated Human Carboxylesterase 1

    PubMed Central

    Arena de Souza, Victoria; Scott, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Rahman, Nahid; Charlton, Michael H.; Walsh, Martin A.; Owens, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1) is the key liver microsomal enzyme responsible for detoxification and metabolism of a variety of clinical drugs. To analyse the role of the single N-linked glycan on the structure and activity of the enzyme, authentically glycosylated and aglycosylated hCES1, generated by mutating asparagine 79 to glutamine, were produced in human embryonic kidney cells. Purified enzymes were shown to be predominantly trimeric in solution by analytical ultracentrifugation. The purified aglycosylated enzyme was found to be more active than glycosylated hCES1 and analysis of enzyme kinetics revealed that both enzymes exhibit positive cooperativity. Crystal structures of hCES1 a catalytically inactive mutant (S221A) and the aglycosylated enzyme were determined in the absence of any ligand or substrate to high resolutions (1.86 Å, 1.48 Å and 2.01 Å, respectively). Superposition of all three structures showed only minor conformational differences with a root mean square deviations of around 0.5 Å over all Cα positions. Comparison of the active sites of these un-liganded enzymes with the structures of hCES1-ligand complexes showed that side-chains of the catalytic triad were pre-disposed for substrate binding. Overall the results indicate that preventing N-glycosylation of hCES1 does not significantly affect the structure or activity of the enzyme. PMID:26657071

  1. Structure of glycosylated Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase from Kluyveromyces yeast NBIMCC 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Moshtanska, Vesela; Kujumdzieva, Anna; Atanasov, Boris; Petrova, Vencislava; Voelter, Wolfgang; Beeumen, Jozef Van

    2010-09-01

    The primary structure of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase from Kluyveromyces marxianus NBIMCC 1984 was elucidated by N-terminal sequence analysis of the intact protein and by determination of the amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides by MALDI-TOF-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The molecular mass of one subunit of the homodimer SOD, containing 152 amino acid residues, was calculated to be 15858.3 Da while a value of 17096.63 Da was obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. This difference is explained by the presence of N-glycosylation of one linkage site, -Asn-Ile/Leu-Thr-, and a glycan chain with the structure Hex 5 GlcNAc 2. Glycosylation of K.marxianus superoxide dismutase is a post-translational modification. Recent developments in mass spectrometry have enabled detailed structural analyses of covalent modifications of proteins. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a covalent modification of Cu/Zn-SOD from K. marxianus NBIMCC 1984, by analysis of the enzymatic liberated N-glycan from the enzyme using MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Trap mass spectrometer. This is the first report of the structure of the oligosaccharide of a naturally-glycosylated superoxide dismutase, determined by mass spectrometry.

  2. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  3. Regulation of the protein glycosylation pathway in yeast: structural control of N-linked oligosaccharide elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, P.K.; Ballou, C.E.

    1987-12-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180 strain with the mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 mutations, all of which affect mannoprotein glycosylation, synthesizes N-linked oligosaccharides. Membrane fractions from the mnn1 mnn2 and mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 mutants are equally effective in catalyzing transfer from GDP-(/sup 3/H)mannose to add mannose in both ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 2 and ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 6 linkages to an oligosaccharide. Neither membrane preparation can utilize the homologous mnn1 mnn2 mnn9 oligosaccharide as an acceptor. Thus, addition of the ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 2-linked mannose side chain to the terminal ..cap alpha..1 ..-->.. 6-linked mannose in oligosaccharides of the mnn9 mutant inhibits the elongation reaction and may serve as an important structural control of mannoprotein glycosylation. The mnn9 mutation also increases the transit time for invertase secretion, meaning that this mutation could affect the processing machinery in the Golgi apparatus.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum targeting and glycosylation of hybrid proteins in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Iturriaga, G; Jefferson, R A; Bevan, M W

    1989-01-01

    The correct compartmentation of proteins to the endomembrane system, mitochondria, or chloroplasts requires an amino-terminal signal peptide. The major tuber protein of potato, patatin, has a signal peptide in common with many other plant storage proteins. When the putative signal peptide of patatin was fused to the bacterial reporter protein beta-glucuronidase, the fusion proteins were translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum in planta and in vitro. In addition, translocated beta-glucuronidase was modified by glycosylation, and the signal peptide was correctly processed. In the presence of an inhibitor of glycosylation, tunicamycin, the enzymatically active form of beta-glucuronidase was assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first report of targeting a cytoplasmic protein to the endoplasmic reticulum of plants using a signal peptide. PMID:2535509

  5. Aiming at the sweet side of cancer: aberrant glycosylation as possible target for personalized-medicine.

    PubMed

    Padler-Karavani, Vered

    2014-09-28

    One of the frontiers in cancer personalized-medicine aims at glycosylation. Cells are covered with a dense sugar coat of glycolipids, glycoproteins and free glycans. In cancer, the characteristic cell surface glycosylation is frequently transformed due to altered expression of glycan-modifying enzymes. This often leads to aberrant expression of sialic acids (Sia) that cap glycan-chains. Additionally, dietary intake of the non-human Sia N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) leads to natural metabolic-glycoengineering of human carcinomas that accumulate and express Neu5Gc. This Sia provokes a polyclonal anti-Neu5Gc xeno-autoantibodies response that can exacerbate cancer. This review highlights cancer-associated changes in Sia expression and their potential for personalized-theranostics.

  6. Two additional carbohydrate-binding sites of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides are involved in hydrolysis and raw starch-binding.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhengmao; Miyake, Hideo; Tatsumi, Maki; Nishimura, Shigenori; Nitta, Yasunori

    2004-03-01

    In the previous X-ray crystallographic study, it was found that beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides has three carbohydrate-binding sites aside from the active site: two (Site2 and Site3) in domain B and one (Site1) in domain C. To investigate the roles of these sites in the catalytic reaction and raw starch-binding, Site1 and Site2 were mutated. From analyses of the raw starch-binding of wild-type and mutant enzymes, it was found that Site1 contributes to the binding affinity to raw-starch more than Site2, and that the binding capacity is maintained when either Site1 or Site2 exists. The raw starch-digesting ability of this enzyme was poor. From inhibition studies by maltitol, GGX and alpha-CD for hydrolyses of maltopentaose (G5) and amylose ( (n) = 16) catalyzed by wild-type and mutant enzymes, it was found that alpha-CD is a competitive inhibitor, while, maltitol behaves as a mixed-type or competitive inhibitor depending on the chain length of the substrate and the mutant enzyme. From the analysis of the inhibition mechanism, we conclude that the bindings of maltitol and GGX to Site2 in domain B form an abortive ESI complex when amylose ( (n) = 16) is used as a substrate.

  7. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  8. Osteopontin O-glycosylation contributes to its phosphorylation and cell-adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yoshinobu; Kanno, Mayumi; Matsumoto-Morita, Kana; Konno, Midori; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    OPN (osteopontin) is a multiphosphorylated extracellular glycoprotein, which has important roles in bone remodelling, inflammation and cancer metastasis. OPN regulates cell spreading and adhesion primarily through its association with several integrins such as αvβ3, and its phosphorylation affects these processes. However, the mechanism by which OPN O-glycosylation affects these processes is not completely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that OPN O-glycosylation self-regulates its biological activities and also affects its phosphorylation status. We prepared two recombinant OPNs, WT (wild-type)-OPN and mutant OPN (ΔO-OPN), which lacks five O-glycosylation sites at a threonine/proline-rich region. O-glycan defects in OPN increased its phosphorylation level, as observed by dephosphorylation assays. Moreover, compared with WT-OPN, ΔO-OPN exhibited enhanced cell spreading and adhesion activities and decreased associations with β1 integrins. This suggested that defects in O-glycans in OPN altered these activities, and that β1 integrins have a less important role in adhesion to ΔO-OPN. The cell-adhesion activity of dephosphorylated ΔO-OPN was higher than the cell-adhesion activities of ΔO-OPN and dephosphorylated WT-OPN. This suggested that some of the phosphorylation in ΔO-OPN caused by O-glycan defects and O-glycans of OPN suppressed the OPN cell-adhesion activity. Thus functional activities of OPN can be determined by the combined glycosylation and phosphorylation statuses and not by either status alone.

  9. Sweet and Sour: The Impact of Differential Glycosylation in Cancer Cells Undergoing Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation changes are a feature of disease states. One clear example is cancer cells, which commonly express glycans at atypical levels or with different structural attributes than those found in normal cells. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) was initially recognized as an important step for morphogenesis during embryonic development, and is now shown to be one of the key steps promoting tumor metastasis. Cancer cells undergoing EMT are characterized by significant changes in glycosylation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface glycoconjugates. Current scientific methodology enables all hallmarks of EMT to be monitored in vitro and this experimental model has been extensively used in oncology research during the last 10 years. Several studies have shown that cell-surface carbohydrates attached to proteins through the amino acids, serine, or threonine (O-glycans), are involved in tumor progression and metastasis, however, the impact of O-glycans on EMT is poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a known EMT inducer, has the ability to promote the up-regulation of a site-specific O-glycosylation in the IIICS domain of human oncofetal fibronectin, a major ECM component expressed by cancer cells and embryonic tissues. Armed with the knowledge that cell-surface glycoconjugates play a major role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis and that EMT is closely associated with glycosylation changes, we may benefit from understanding how unusual glycans can govern the molecular pathways associated with cancer progression. This review initially focuses on some well-known changes found in O-glycans expressed by cancer cells, and then discusses how these alterations may modulate the EMT process. PMID:24724053

  10. Chemical glycosylation of cytochrome c improves physical and chemical protein stability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    detrimental effects by some stresses (i.e., elevated temperature and humidity) and from proteolytic degradation. In addition, non-modified Cyt c was more susceptible to denaturation by a water-organic solvent interface than its glycoconjugates, important for the formulation in polymers. Conclusion The results demonstrate that chemical glycosylation is a potentially valuable method to increase Cyt c stability during formulation and storage and potentially during its application after administration. PMID:25095792

  11. Structure and Mutagenesis of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Domains Evidence for Flexibility in the Placement of Polysialic Acid Attachment Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Lavie, Arnon; Colley, Karen J.

    2010-11-09

    The addition of {alpha}2,8-polysialic acid to the N-glycans of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is critical for brain development and plays roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, neuronal regeneration, and the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. Our previous work indicates that the polysialylation of two N-glycans located on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of NCAM requires the presence of specific sequences in the adjacent fibronectin type III repeat (FN1). To understand the relationship of these two domains, we have solved the crystal structure of the NCAM Ig5-FN1 tandem. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the sites of Ig5 polysialylation are on the opposite face from the FN1 residues previously found to be critical for N-glycan polysialylation, suggesting that the Ig5-FN1 domain relationship may be flexible and/or that there is flexibility in the placement of Ig5 glycosylation sites for polysialylation. To test the latter possibility, new Ig5 glycosylation sites were engineered and their polysialylation tested. We observed some flexibility in glycosylation site location for polysialylation and demonstrate that the lack of polysialylation of a glycan attached to Asn-423 may be in part related to a lack of terminal processing. The data also suggest that, although the polysialyltransferases do not require the Ig5 domain for NCAM recognition, their ability to engage with this domain is necessary for polysialylation to occur on Ig5 N-glycans.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ALG6-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    MedlinePlus

    ... also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ic) is an inherited condition that affects many parts ... Condition ALG6-CDG carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type Ic carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type V CDG syndrome ...

  13. Add salt, add sugar: N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Lina; Naparstek, Shai; Kandiba, Lina; Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Arbiv, Adi; Konrad, Zvia; Eichler, Jerry

    2013-02-01

    Although performed by members of all three domains of life, the archaeal version of N-glycosylation remains the least understood. Studies on Haloferax volcanii have, however, begun to correct this situation. A combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, biochemical and mass spectrometry approaches have served to delineate the Agl pathway responsible for N-glycosylation of the S-layer glycoprotein, a reporter of this post-translational modification in Hfx. volcanii. More recently, differential N-glycosylation of the S-layer glycoprotein as a function of environmental salinity was demonstrated, showing that this post-translational modification serves an adaptive role in Hfx. volcanii. Furthermore, manipulation of the Agl pathway, together with the capability of Hfx. volcanii to N-glycosylate non-native proteins, forms the basis for establishing this species as a glyco-engineering platform. In the present review, these and other recent findings are addressed.

  14. Glycosylation of solute carriers: mechanisms and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Falsig

    2016-02-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC glycosylation are slowly emerging. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise overview of the aspects of glycobiology most relevant to SLCs, to discuss the roles of glycosylation in the regulation and function of SLCs, and to outline the major open questions in this field, which can now be addressed given major technical advances in this and related fields of study in recent years.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: COG5-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Golgi (COG) complex. This complex functions in the Golgi apparatus , which is a cellular structure in which newly ... are modified. One process that occurs in the Golgi apparatus is glycosylation, by which sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) are ...

  16. Preparation of 1-C-glycosyl aldehydes by reductive hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Szabolcs; Jablonkai, István

    2011-09-06

    Reductive hydrolysis of various protected glycosyl cyanides was carried out using DIBAL-H to form aldimine alane intermediates which were then hydrolyzed under mildly acidic condition to provide the corresponding aldehyde derivatives. While 1-C-formyl glycal and 2-deoxy glycosyl derivatives were stable during isolation and storage 1-C-glycosyl formaldehydes in the gluco, galacto and manno series were sensitive and decomposition occurred by 2-alkyloxy elimination. A one-pot method using N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine to trap these aldehydes in stable form was developed. Reductive hydrolysis of glycosyl cyanides offers valuable aldehyde building blocks in a convenient way which can be applied in the synthesis of complex C-glycosides.

  17. Impact of dynamic online fed-batch strategies on metabolism, productivity and N-glycosylation quality in CHO cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chee Furng Wong, Danny; Tin Kam Wong, Kathy; Tang Goh, Lin; Kiat Heng, Chew; Gek Sim Yap, Miranda

    2005-01-20

    As we pursue the means to improve yields to meet growing therapy demands, it is important to examine the impact of process control on glycosylation patterns to ensure product efficacy and consistency. In this study, we describe a dynamic on-line fed-batch strategy based on low glutamine/glucose concentrations and its impact on cellular metabolism and, more importantly, the productivity and N-glycosylation quality of a model recombinant glycoprotein, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). We found that low glutamine fed-batch strategy enabled up to 10-fold improvement in IFN-gamma yields, which can be attributed to reduced specific productivity of ammonia and lactate. Furthermore, the low glutamine concentration (0.3 mM) used in this fed-batch strategy could maintain both the N-glycosylation macro- and microheterogeneity of IFN-gamma. However, very low glutamine (<0.1 mM) or glucose (<0.70 mM) concentrations can lead to decreased sialylation and increased presence of minor glycan species consisting of hybrid and high-mannose types. This shows that glycan chain extension and sialylation can be affected by nutrient limitation. In addition to nutrient limitation, we also found that N-glycosylation quality can be detrimentally affected by low culture viability. IFN-gamma purified at low culture viability had both lower sialylation as well as glycans of lower molecular masses, which can be attributed to extensive degradation by intracellular glycosidases released by cytolysis. Therefore, in order to maintain good N-glycosylation quality, there is a need to consider both culture viability and nutrient control setpoint in a nutrient-limiting fed-batch culture strategy. A greater understanding of these major factors that affect N-glycosylation quality would surely facilitate future development of effective process controls.

  18. Influence of Glycosylation Inhibition on the Binding of KIR3DL1 to HLA-B*57:01.

    PubMed

    Salzberger, Wilhelm; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F; Dugan, Haley; Gubbala, Supreetha; Simoneau, Camille; Gressens, Simon B; Jost, Stephanie; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections can affect the glycosylation pattern of glycoproteins involved in antiviral immunity. Given the importance of protein glycosylation for immune function, we investigated the effect that modulation of the highly conserved HLA class I N-glycan has on KIR:HLA interactions and NK cell function. We focused on HLA-B*57:01 and its interaction with KIR3DL1, which has been shown to play a critical role in determining the progression of a number of human diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. 721.221 cells stably expressing HLA-B*57:01 were treated with a panel of glycosylation enzyme inhibitors, and HLA class I expression and KIR3DL1 binding was quantified. In addition, the functional outcomes of HLA-B*57:01 N-glycan disruption/modulation on KIR3DL1ζ+ Jurkat reporter cells and primary human KIR3DL1+ NK cells was assessed. Different glycosylation enzyme inhibitors had varying effects on HLA-B*57:01 expression and KIR3DL1-Fc binding. The most remarkable effect was that of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of the first step of N-glycosylation, which resulted in significantly reduced KIR3DL1-Fc binding despite sustained expression of HLA-B*57:01 on 721.221 cells. This effect was paralleled by decreased activation of KIR3DL1ζ+ Jurkat reporter cells, as well as increased degranulation of primary human KIR3DL1+ NK cell clones when encountering HLA-B*57:01-expressing 721.221 cells that were pre-treated with tunicamycin. Overall, these results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of HLA class I is important for KIR:HLA binding and has an impact on NK cell function.

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae O-linked pilin glycosylation: functional analyses define both the biosynthetic pathway and glycan structure

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Finn Erik; Vik, Åshild; Vedde, John; Koomey, Michael; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae expresses an O-linked protein glycosylation pathway that targets PilE, the major pilin subunit protein of the Type IV pilus colonization factor. Efforts to define glycan structure and thus the functions of pilin glycosylation (Pgl) components at the molecular level have been hindered by the lack of sensitive methodologies. Here, we utilized a ‘top-down’ mass spectrometric approach to characterize glycan status using intact pilin protein from isogenic mutants. These structural data enabled us to directly infer the function of six components required for pilin glycosylation and to define the glycan repertoire of strain N400. Additionally, we found that the N. gonorrhoeae pilin glycan is O-acetylated, and identified an enzyme essential for this unique modification. We also identified the N. gonorrhoeae pilin oligosaccharyltransferase using bioinformatics and confirmed its role in pilin glycosylation by directed mutagenesis. Finally, we examined the effects of expressing the PglA glycosyltransferase from the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycosylation system that adds N-acetylgalactosamine onto undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked bacillosamine. The results indicate that the C. jejuni and N. gonorrhoeae pathways can interact in the synthesis of O-linked di- and trisaccharides, and therefore provide the first experimental evidence that biosynthesis of the N. gonorrhoeae pilin glycan involves a lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor. Together, these findings underpin more detailed studies of pilin glycosylation biology in both N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, and demonstrate how components of bacterial O- and N-linked pathways can be combin