Science.gov

Sample records for additional goals included

  1. The Application and Development of an Addition Goal Sketch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Brach, Catherine; Tai, Yu-chi

    2006-01-01

    A schema based view of addition development is compared with Siegler's latest strategy-choice model, which includes an addition goal sketch (a basic understanding of "the goals and causal relations" of addition; Siegler & Crowley, 1994, p. 196). This metacognitive component in the latter model is presumed to develop as a child practices a basic…

  2. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  3. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now.

  4. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  5. Linear QoS goals of additive and concave metrics in ad hoc cognitive packet routing.

    PubMed

    Lent, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    This paper addresses two scalability problems related to the cognitive map of packets in ad hoc cognitive packet networks and proposes a solution. Previous works have included latency as part of the routing goal of smart packets, which requires packets to collect their arrival time at each node in a path. Such a requirement resulted in a packet overhead proportional to the path length. The second problem is that the multiplicative form of path availability, which was employed to measure resources, loses accuracy in long paths. To solve these problems, new goals are proposed in this paper. These goals are linear functions of low-overhead metrics and can provide similar performance results with lower cost. One direct result shown in simulation is that smart packets driven by a linear function of path length and buffer occupancy can effectively balance the traffic of multiple flows without the large overhead that would be needed if round-trip delay was used. In addition, energy-aware routing is also studied under this scheme as well as link selection based on their expected level of security.

  6. Shuttle avionics and the goal language including the impact of error detection and redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship is examined between the space shuttle onboard avionics and the ground test computer language GOAL when used in the onboard computers. The study is aimed at providing system analysis support to the feasibility analysis of a GOAL to HAL translator, where HAL is the language used to program the onboard computers for flight. The subject is dealt with in three aspects. First, the system configuration at checkout, the general checkout and launch sequences, and the inventory of subsystems are described. Secondly, the hierarchic organization of onboard software and different ways of introducing GOAL-derived software onboard are described. Also the flow of commands and test data during checkout is diagrammed. Finally, possible impact of error detection and redundancy management on the GOAL language is discussed.

  7. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  8. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  12. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  13. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  14. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  15. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  16. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  17. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  18. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  19. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  2. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  3. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  4. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  5. Impact of integrated upper limb spasticity management including botulinum toxin A on patient-centred goal attainment: rationale and protocol for an international prospective, longitudinal cohort study (ULIS-III)

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Fheodoroff, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe the rationale and protocol for the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-III study, which aims to evaluate the impact of integrated spasticity management, involving multiple botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection cycles and concomitant therapies, on patient-centred goal attainment. Outline novel outcome assessment methods for ULIS-III and report initial evaluation data from goal setting in early stages of the study. Design Large international longitudinal cohort study of integrated upper limb spasticity management, including BoNT-A. Participants and setting ULIS-III is a 2-year study expected to enrol >1000 participants at 58 study centres across 14 countries. Interventions The study design is non-interventional and intended to reflect real-life clinical practice. It will describe injection practices and additional treatment strategies, and record clinical decision-making in a serial approach to long-term spasticity management. Outcome measures ULIS-III will use a goal-directed approach to selection of targeted standardised measures to capture the diversity of presentation, goals and outcomes. ULIS-III will implement the Upper Limb Spasticity Index, a battery of assessments including a structured approach to goal attainment scaling (Goal Attainment Scaling—Evaluation of Outcomes for Upper Limb Spasticity tool), alongside a limited set of standardised measures, chosen according to patients' selected goal areas. Concomitant therapy inputs, patient satisfaction with engagement in goal setting, health economic end points and health-related quality of life data will also be captured. Results of initial evaluation of goal quality Recruitment started in January 2015. By June 2015, 58 sites had been identified and initial data collected for 79 patients across 13 sites in 3 countries. Goal setting data were quality-checked and centres rated on the basis of function-related and Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timed (SMART

  6. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  7. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  8. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  9. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  10. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  11. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  12. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  13. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  14. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  15. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  16. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  17. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  19. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  1. State Goals Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation includes information on Best System of Emission Reduction (BSER), state flexibility and compliance options, examples of how to determine and calculate goals, on-the-way reductions, and a walk through of state goal derivation.

  2. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  5. Overall goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George; Heyman, Joseph S.; Madaras, Eric; Salkowski, Charles; Weston, Bert; Woodis, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion systems symposium is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: overall goals; main issues; materials characterization; reduction of manufacturing defects; standards and certification; advanced NDE techniques; designing for inspectability; candidate programs/milestones; and NDE technology potentials.

  6. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  7. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  8. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  9. Workshop Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The goals are: 1. Report and document recent progress on radiation belt model and plasma model development. Metrics for past and current programs. 2. Complete a roadmap for the development of new standard radiation belt and space plasma models for spacecraft engineering: input to agencies for future investments, interagency cooperation.

  10. Attainable Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinedinst, Robert C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Master planning identifies long-term ways to improve and expand a campus. The end product typically is a beautifully rendered campus site plan showing enhancements to green spaces, improvements to vehicular and pedestrian circulation paths and parking, additions to existing buildings, and new buildings. These plans imagine what a campus could…

  11. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  12. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  13. HEDS Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pline, A.; Ahlf, P.

    1999-01-01

    In November of 1996, NASA made the decision to fully integrate several areas of robotic and human Mars exploration study and planning. As a result of this decision, requirements for unmanned robotic missions to support human Mars exploration were identified and a plan to meet these requirements was developed. Concrete progress in the implementation of this plan has been made. Three experiments have been selected and are in development for the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions which will provide critical data for the planning of human missions to Mars. An Announcement of Opportunity for the Mars Surveyor Program 2003 Lander mission has recently been released which solicited proposals related to planning for a human mission. In order to define HEDS objectives for Mars robotic missions, it is important to understand what information is required as a foundation for mounting a program of exploration of this magnitude. We identify areas of research on robotic missions that will enable future human missions. These areas include Site Selection for Human Missions, Hazards to Human Explorers, Living off the Land, and Testing Critical Technologies in the Mars Environment.

  14. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El Sawy, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schulte, J F; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Gallo, E; Garcia, J Garay; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Roland, B; Sahin, M Ö; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Trippkewitz, K D; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Draeger, A R; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Gonzalez, D; Görner, M; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Höing, R S; Junkes, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Nowatschin, D; Ott, J; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Pietsch, N; Poehlsen, J; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schwandt, J; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Fink, S; 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Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  15. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  16. Progress Toward N+1 Noise Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    A review of the progress made towards achieving the Subsonic Fixed Wing project's noise goal for the next generation single aisle aircraft is presented. The review includes the technology path selected for achieving the goal as well as highlights from several in-house and partnership test programs that have contributed to this effort. In addition, a detailed, self-consistent, analysis of the aircraft system noise for a conceptual next generation single aisle aircraft is also presented. The results indicate that with the current suite of noise reduction technologies incorporated into the conceptual aircraft a cumulative noise reduction margin of 26 EPNdB could be expected. This falls 6 dB short of the N+1 goal, which is 32 EPNdB below Stage 4 noise standard. Potential additional noise reduction technologies to help achieve the goal are briefly discussed.

  17. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  2. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  4. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, N.

    2005-12-01

    The primary objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission are simultaneous chemical, mineralogical and topographic mapping of the lunar surface at high spatial resolution. These data should enable us to understand compositional variation of major elements, which in turn, should lead to a better understanding of the stratigraphic relationships between various litho units occurring on the lunar surface. The major element distribution will be determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (LEX), sensitive in the energy range of 1-10 keV where Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe give their Kα lines. A solar X-ray monitor (SXM) to measure the energy spectrum of solar X-rays, which are responsible for the fluorescent X-rays, is included. Radioactive elements like Th will be measured by its 238.6 keV line using a low energy gamma-ray spectrometer (HEX) operating in the 20-250 keV region. The mineral composition will be determined by a hyper-spectral imaging spectrometer (HySI) sensitive in the 400-920 nm range. The wavelength range is further extended to 2600 nm where some spectral features of the abundant lunar minerals and water occur, by using a near-infrared spectrometer (SIR-2), similar to that used on the Smart-1 mission, in collaboration with ESA. A terrain mapping camera (TMC) in the panchromatic band will provide a three-dimensional map of the lunar surface with a spatial resolution of about 5 m. Aided by a laser altimeter (LLRI) to determine the altitude of the lunar craft, to correct for spatial coverage by various instruments, TMC should enable us to prepare an elevation map with an accuracy of about 10 m. Four additional instruments under international collaboration are being considered. These are: a Miniature Imaging Radar Instrument (mini-SAR), Sub Atomic Reflecting Analyser (SARA), the Moon Mineral Mapper (M3) and a Radiation Monitor (RADOM). Apart from these scientific payloads, certain technology experiments have been proposed, which may include an impactor which will

  5. Vicarious goal satiation.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Kathleen C; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-05-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience "post-completion goal satiation" as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed.

  6. Vicarious goal satiation

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M.; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience “post-completion goal satiation” as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed. PMID:23606756

  7. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  8. Goals are not selfish.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  9. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  10. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  11. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  12. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary. PMID:26838564

  13. Student Goals: Psychological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent; Little, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The paper will discuss research insights into student academic goals. Cognitive psychologists have found that effective goal setting procedures involves establishing specific and challenging learning objectives. Students who set difficult goals must be persistent while facing the risk of potential failure that could diminish their intrinsic…

  14. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  15. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  16. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  17. Goals of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The reading teacher needs to choose students' reading goals carefully. This paper considers some of these possible goals, and states that, in the reading curriculum, the teacher needs to guide pupils to move upward on the cognitive level of objectives. The paper also states that pupils need to achieve well in the affective dimension of objectives,…

  18. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  20. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  1. Publishing an Article: The Goal for a Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the effectiveness of a graduate course for physics students, with a course goal to write a publishable article on a modern research topic (graphene). I analyze the tools used to this end, which included Web 2.0 methods, in-class discussions and presentations, as well as extensive peer-review. In addition to producing a…

  2. Goals and Objectives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The five goals related to the Border 2020 program: reducing air pollution, access to clean and safe water, promoting clean waste management, emergency preparedness and response, compliance assurance.and environmental stewardship

  3. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  4. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  5. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  6. Motivating Adolescents: Goals for Australian Students in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2010-01-01

    Student motivation during adolescence has become an increasingly important issue for educators and researchers. Using a goal theory perspective, researchers have investigated a range of goals (including achievement goals, social goals and future goals) that influence students' desire to achieve at school. The present study examines the range of…

  7. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2011-04-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations.

  8. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations. PMID:23766569

  9. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    PubMed

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  10. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership Goal Setting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides tools and recognition for companies setting aggressive GHG reduction goals, which can galvanize reduction efforts at a company and often leads to the identification of many additional reduction opportunities.

  11. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  12. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  13. Impact of Goal Setting and Goal Attainment Methods on Asthma Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Micah; Nelson, Belinda W; Kaltsas, Elena; Brown, Randall W; Thomas, Lara J; Patel, Minal R

    2017-02-01

    Optimal use of goal-setting strategies in self-management efforts with high-risk individuals with asthma is not well understood. This study aimed to describe factors associated with goal attainment in an asthma self-management intervention for African American women with asthma and determine whether goal attainment methods proved beneficial to goal achievement and improved asthma outcomes. Data came from 212 African American women in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial evaluating a telephone-based asthma self-management program. Telephone interview data were collected to assess goals and goal attainment methods identified, asthma symptoms, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the long-term impact of goal setting and goal attainment methods on outcomes. The average age of the sample was 42.1 years ( SD = 14.8). Factors associated with goal attainment included higher education ( p < .01) and fewer depressive symptoms ( p < .01). Using a goal attainment method also resulted in more goals being achieved over the course of the intervention (Estimate [ SE] = 1.25 [0.18]; p < .001) when adjusted for clinical and demographic factors. Use of and types of goal attainment methods and goals were not found to significantly affect asthma control, quality of life, or frequency of nighttime asthma symptoms at follow-up. Using a method to achieve goals led to greater goal attainment. Goal attainment alone did not translate into improved asthma outcomes in our study sample. Further studies are warranted to assess the challenges of self-management in chronic disease patients with complex health needs and how goal setting and goal attainment methods can be strategically integrated into self-management efforts to improve health endpoints.

  14. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  15. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  16. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  17. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  18. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  19. Using Multidimensional Scaling for Curricular Goal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitzman, David F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports research that utilized multidimensional scaling and related analytic procedures to validate the curricular goals of a graduate therapeutic recreation program. Data analysis includes the use of the two-dimensional KYST and PREFMAP spaces. (Author/JD)

  20. Goals for Sex Equitable Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of issues related to sex equity in sexuality education. Goals which might represent sex equitable sexuality education include eliminating double standards, and redefining sexuality education. (IAH)

  1. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  2. 2 CFR 200.76 - Performance goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... achievement can be compared, including a goal expressed as a quantitative standard, value, or rate. In some instances (e.g., discretionary research awards), this may be limited to the requirement to submit...

  3. Do other goals influence physical activity? A systematic review examining the relationship between other goals and physical activity behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Quinlan, Alison; Mistry, Chetan D

    2016-10-01

    Promoting regular physical activity (PA) is essential to population health, yet intervention success has been modest. Most approaches have focused heavily on PA motivation but give limited attention to other facilitating and conflicting goals in daily life. The purpose of this review was to unite the literature examining other life goals and appraise their relationship with PA. Ten electronic databases were searched from February to December 2015 through EBSCO with the keywords: goal, facilitation, conflict, interference, intergoal, time displacement, behavioral resolve, cross-behavior, PA and exercise. Combined with manual bibliography and citation searches, 292 potentially relevant abstracts were screened, 40 of which full-text articles were retrieved. A total of 20 articles with 22 independent data-sets met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Despite relatively heterogeneous measurement and a large proportion of cross sectional designs with student samples, the results indicated that PA is related to other life goals both in terms of facilitation (positive association) and conflict (negative association). Both facilitation and conflict goals had more consistent significant associations with PA when they were measured in terms of behavioral (e.g., study behavior, TV viewing) rather than higher-level objectives (e.g., getting healthy, being social). These goals explained additional variance in PA beyond PA intentions, plans, and perceived behavioral control and helped translate positive intentions into behavior. The results suggest that PA interventions should consider PA motivation with the integration of other facilitating and conflicting goals in one's daily life; however, better measurement of goals, with more diverse samples in experimental designs are needed.

  4. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo

    2008-10-01

    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  5. Basic Considerations on Defining Safety Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Hakata, Tadakuni

    2003-06-15

    A study on considerations and strategies for developing safety goals applicable to all nuclear facilities is presented. A scheme of basic safety goals and subsidiary safety goals is assumed, and quantitative basic safety goals for radiation protection of individuals in the vicinity of nuclear facilities are discussed. The risk limit rules are based on comparative risk factors for various health effects, including annual dose, health detriments, acute fatality, latent cancers, and severe hereditary effects. The comparative factor of 1% is used for nonfatal health detriments and 0.1% for fatal effects. A risk limit profile is generated from the risk factors, biological effects, and statistics of injury and mortality rates from general causes. The approaches have potential for developing integrated and comprehensive safety goals.

  6. A test for children's goal-directed behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Juhani E

    2004-02-01

    A test for children's goal-directed behavior was developed, based on neuropsychological executive function research of Vilkki and Holst and on the framework of Lewin's level-of-aspiration research. 46 12-yr.-old children were participants. Fluid Intelligence was expected to be linked to goal-directed behavior and a commonly used executive function task, the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. A child was asked to set personal goals in a short-term memory task without prior knowledge about performance. Four different task versions were developed employing both verbal (memorizing series of words) and visuospatial (memorizing block sequences) material. The child set an individual goal for each memory trial. Goal-setting after successful and failed trials was investigated. Usually, the children lowered their goals after failures and set their goals higher or did not change them after successful trials. Compared to goal on a previous trial, Inadequate Responses included setting a goal higher after a failed trial and setting it lower after success. Fluid Intelligence was related to goal-directed behavior, viz., Inadequate Responses. It also correlated with scores on the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. The results are in concordance with previous research. In addition to experimental executive function research, the novel test might be useful in research concerning children's motivation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning.

  7. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  8. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  9. Use of Goal Setting Procedures in Increasing Task Assembly Rate of Severely Retarded Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Flexer, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    The effects on production rates of three variations of a goal setting procedure were compared using 14 severely retarded young adults. Variations included long-range goal, long-range goal plus session goals and contingent praise for session goals, and long-range goal and contingent bonus for session goals. (Author/CL)

  10. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  11. Setting goals for cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I H

    1999-12-01

    Evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of the brain, including cell regeneration, means that rehabilitation can aim at reinstituting impaired cognitive function, as well as at training compensatory strategies for the lost function. New theoretical frameworks make predictions regarding the circumstances under which these two approaches should each be attempted. There has been progress over the past 6 years in designing effective rehabilitation strategies, with more of these having a strong theoretical basis in cognitive neuroscience. Basic cognitive science has generated counter-intuitive, but effective cognitive rehabilitation methods, showing that the goal of rehabilitation need not always be the most obvious one dictated by real life performance. Limb Activation Training for unilateral neglect is an example of a theoretically derived cognitive rehabilitation procedure that has now been clinically evaluated in clinical trials.

  12. Plans, goals, and language

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.F.; Litman, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    One of the most promising computational approaches to representing context in natural language systems has been based on work in general problem solving. In this approach, plans are used both to represent the domain of discourse as well as the communication process itself. Using a simplified framework for planning and action reasoning, we describe techniques that allow systems to handle many dialogues that are problematic for other systems, including the use of sentence fragments, indirect speech, helpful responses, the tracking of the topic of conversations both with and without interrupting subdialogues, and topic change.

  13. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  14. On Having a Goal: Goals as Representations or Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Törneke, Niklas

    The present article discusses the concepts of having a goal and of goal-directed behavior from a behavior-analytic perspective. In clinical psychology as well as in the study of human behavior at large, goals delineate an important area of investigation when it comes to health, well-being, and behavioral change. While concepts like goals and goal-directed behavior may be more frequently used outside the theoretical boundaries of behavior analysis, we argue that by incorporating recent behavior analytic research on verbal behavior, new and fruitful ways open up for approaching the phenomenon of having a goal. A behavior-analytic approach thereby may increase both precision in understanding and the potential for influencing essential aspects of human behavior. This analysis starts with the concept of rule-governed behavior and develops that analysis by using the concept of derived relational responding.

  15. A Taxonomy of Counseling Goals and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, David H.; Raming, Henry E.

    1979-01-01

    Taxonomies were generated from theorists in counseling and psychotherapy. Goal clusters included: Transfer of Therapy Learning to Outside Situations, Awareness and Acceptance of Self in Conflict, Specific Symptom Removal, and Awareness of Positive Inner Resources. Process clusters included: Client Acceptance, Active Critical Questioning, and…

  16. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  17. Regoaling: a conceptual model of how parents of children with serious illness change medical care goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents of seriously ill children participate in making difficult medical decisions for their child. In some cases, parents face situations where their initial goals, such as curing the condition, may have become exceedingly unlikely. While some parents continue to pursue these goals, others relinquish their initial goals and generate new goals such as maintaining the child’s quality of life. We call this process of transitioning from one set of goals to another regoaling. Discussion Regoaling involves factors that either promote or inhibit the regoaling process, including disengagement from goals, reengagement in new goals, positive and negative affect, and hopeful thinking. We examine these factors in the context of parental decision making for a seriously ill child, presenting a dynamic conceptual model of regoaling. This model highlights four research questions that will be empirically tested in an ongoing longitudinal study of medical decision making among parents of children with serious illness. Additionally, we consider potential clinical implications of regoaling for the practice of pediatric palliative care. Summary The psychosocial model of regoaling by parents of children with a serious illness predicts that parents who experience both positive and negative affect and hopeful patterns of thought will be more likely to relinquish one set of goals and pursue a new set of goals. A greater understanding of how parents undergo this transition may enable clinicians to better support them through this difficult process. PMID:24625345

  18. Goals and Plans of Incarcerated Men Postrelease.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth C; Roberts, Mary B; Parker, Donna R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Stein, L A R; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has not examined the self-identified goals and plans of incarcerated people as they approach release from prison. This study analyzed the goals and plans generated during a motivational interviewing counseling session of incarcerated men who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a smoking abstinence intervention in a tobacco-free prison in the northeastern United States. Using thematic analysis, 53 written goals and plans were independently coded by trained research assistants to identify major themes that included (1) staying smoke-free or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked postrelease, (2) engaging in physical activities to improve health and wellness, and (3) spending time with family and/or friends. Implications for working with inmates to identify their plans and goals to remain smoke-free after incarceration are discussed.

  19. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    present a goal lifecycle for BDI agents, provide operational semantics for their lifecycle, and demonstrate the lifecycle on a Mars rover scenario...208, 1–17. Harland, J., Morley, D., Thangarajah, J., & Yorke-Smith, N. (2014). An operational semantics for the goal life-cycle in BDI agents...executing, suspending, and aborting goals in BDI agent systems. In Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies VIII (pp. 1–21). Toronto, Canada: Springer

  20. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  1. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    There have been significant discussions over the past few years by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and others as to the adequacy of the NRC safety goals for use with the next generation of nuclear power reactors to be built in the United States. The NRC, in its safety goals policy statement, has provided general qualitative safety goals and basic quantitative health objectives (QHOs) for nuclear reactors in the United States. Risk metrics such as core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF) have been used as surrogates for the QHOs. In its review of the new plant licensing policy the ACRS has looked at the safety goals, as has the NRC. A number of issues have been raised including what the Commission had in mind when it drafted the safety goals and QHOs, how risk from multiple reactors at a site should be combined for evaluation, how the combination of a new and old reactor at the same site should be evaluated, what the criteria for evaluating new reactors should be, and whether new reactors should be required to be safer than current generation reactors. As part of the development and application of the NRC safety goal policy statement the Commissioners laid out the expectations for the safety of a nuclear power plant but did not address the risk associated with current multi-unit sites, potential modular reactor sites, and hybrid sites that could contain current generation reactors, new passive reactors, and/or modular reactors. The NRC safety goals and the QHOs refer to a "nuclear power plant," but do not discuss whether a "plant" refers to only a single unit or all of the units on a site. There has been much discussion on this issue recently due to the development of modular reactors. Additionally, the risk of multiple reactor accidents on the same site has been largely ignored in the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) done to date, and in most risk

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  6. Goals in Teaching About Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis; Gordon, Audrey

    This guide provides a set of goals and guidelines for teachers who are introducing "death and dying" into the school curriculum. These goals are: (1) to provide factual information concerning legal, medical, and sociological practices; (2) to give insight into personal feelings and family dynamics when death occurs; (3) to provide consumer…

  7. Goal Making for English Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Henry B., Ed.

    Originally presented at a series of NCTE Spring Institutes on the topic "Behavioral Objectives/Humanistic Goals: Bridging the Gap," the papers in this monograph are divided into four sections. Sections one contains personal credos on the goals of English teaching: "McNamara's Band and the Educational Edsel" by Charles Weingartner; "English…

  8. Kindergarten Goals for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas D.; Silvern, Steven B.

    This paper presents an outline of kindergarten goals for the seventies along with specific suggestions for supporting classroom activities. The kindergarten goals are divided into four developmental areas: (1) Cognitive or Intellectual Development (with emphasis on concept development, or "content skills" and mastery or "process skills"); (2)…

  9. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.

  10. Imagining Success: Multiple Achievement Goals and the Effectiveness of Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Blankert, Tim; Hamstra, Melvyn R. W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Imagery (richly imagining carrying out a task successfully) is a popular performance-enhancement tool in many domains. This experiment sought to test whether pursuing two achievement goals (vs. one) benefits performance after an imagery exercise. We examined mastery goals (aiming to improve skill level) and performance goals (aiming to outperform others) among 65 tennis players who were assigned to a mastery goal condition, a performance goal condition, or a mastery goal and performance goal condition. After reading instructions for a service task, which included the goal manipulation, participants completed 20 tennis services. They then completed an imagery exercise and, finally, completed another 20 services. Postimagery service performance was better in the dual-goal condition than in the other conditions. PMID:28366970

  11. The Goals of Higher Education and Their Financial Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    This paper identifies the goals that are sought through higher education in all its aspects and explores the implications of these goals for the financing of higher education. Fifteen goals are considered including: economic growth and military power, supply of professional and other skilled persons, citizenship and civic leadership, solution of…

  12. Goal-Driven Autonomy in a Navy Strategy Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    and goal management . To explain our conceptualization of the problem ARTUE addresses, we present a new conceptual framework, goal-driven autonomy...novel architecture, which includes components for Hierarchical Task Network planning, explanation, and goal management . Our evaluation shows that ARTUE... Introduction  Many modern video games and training simulations are complex environments that are continuous in time and space, partially observable

  13. Do Goals Affect the Structure of Students' Argumentative Writing Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Ralph P.; Lewis, William E.; Andrews-Weckerly, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Fourth- and sixth-grade students with and without learning disabilities wrote essays about a controversial topic after receiving either a general persuasion goal or an elaborated goal that included subgoals based on elements of argumentative discourse. Students in the elaborated goal condition produced more persuasive essays that were responsive…

  14. Russian Child Care Goals and Values: From Perestroika to 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, Jean M.

    2002-01-01

    Compared goals and values of early childhood educators in six Moscow child care centers to those held before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Determined current goals and values from interviews, observations, and recent Russian pedagogical books. Found that changes include more emphasis on individualistic goals, more attention to fostering…

  15. Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2005-01-01

    At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

  16. Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals: an interpersonal circle model of goals for interactions between groups.

    PubMed

    Locke, Kenneth D

    2014-04-01

    Six studies (N = 1,682) used the Circumplex Scales of Intergroup Goals (CSIG)--an inventory based on the interpersonal circle-to assess individuals' agentic and communal goals for interactions between groups (nations in Studies 1-4, organizations in Study 5, political parties in Study 6). Noteworthy findings included the following: People with stronger unagentic-and-uncommunal goals perceived other groups as dangers, were wary of intergroup negotiations, and sanctioned authoritarianism and inequality. People with stronger agentic-and-uncommunal goals proudly identified with their country and compatriots, disapproved of nations unlike their own, and preferred the conservative candidate in a national election. People with stronger communal-and-unagentic goals identified with people beyond their ingroup, and wanted their group to resolve intergroup conflicts by behaving cooperatively rather than competitively or aggressively. By providing an encompassing framework capable of organizing and integrating these types of diverse findings, the circumplex model can facilitate cumulative scientific progress.

  17. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  18. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  19. Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

  20. Goals of an Undergraduate Plant Design Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baasel, William D.

    1982-01-01

    Students complete a project at Ohio University to understand the process of plant design. This and other goals of a plant design course are discussed, including student/instructor presentations and typical problems confronted by the instructors of the course. (JN)

  1. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 2: Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The principal elements and functions of the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) compiler are presented. The technique used to transcribe the syntax diagrams into machine processable format for use by the parsing routines is described. An explanation of the parsing technique used to process GOAL source statements is included. The compiler diagnostics and the output reports generated during a GOAL compilation are explained. A description of the GOAL program package is provided.

  2. Neural correlates of idiographic goal priming in depression: goal-specific dysfunctions in the orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Kari M; Dolcos, Florin; McLean, Amy Noll; Krishnan, K Ranga; Cabeza, Roberto; Strauman, Timothy J

    2009-09-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as previous research, we predicted that depressed patients would manifest attenuated left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in response to their own promotion goals as well as exaggerated right OFC activation in response to their own prevention goals. Unmedicated adults with major depression (n = 22) and adults with no history of affective disorder (n = 14) completed questionnaires and a personal goal interview. Several weeks later, they were scanned during a judgment task which (unknown to them) included stimuli representing their promotion and prevention goals. Both groups showed similar patterns of task-related activation. Consistent with predictions, patients showed significantly decreased left OFC and increased right OFC activation compared to controls on trials in which they were exposed incidentally to their promotion and prevention goals, respectively. The results suggest that depression involves dysfunction in processing two important types of personal goals. The findings extend models of the etiology of depression to incorporate cognitive and motivational processes underlying higher order goal representation and ultimately may provide an empirical basis for treatment matching.

  3. Differences between Students in the Consequences of Goals and Goal Structures: The Role of Culture and Family Obligation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdan, Tim; Giancarlo, Carol

    This study investigated whether generational status and concern with family would moderate the effect of personal goals and goal structures on high school students' self-regulation and English achievement. Participants included first-, second-, and third-generation Americans who completed questionnaires examining personal goal orientations,…

  4. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  5. Goal Congruence in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Lily; Neumann, Yoram

    1983-01-01

    A questionnaire administered to 150 undergraduates and 90 faculty members compared their relative levels of goal congruence with those of their university. Programs in medicine, social sciences, and engineering were studied. (JW)

  6. From goal motivation to goal progress: the mediating role of coping in the Self-Concordance Model.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the mediating role of self-regulatory mechanisms in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress in the Self-Concordance Model. First, a systematic review, using meta-analytical path analysis, supported the mediating role of effort and action planning in the positive association between autonomous goal motivation and goal progress. Second, results from two additional empirical studies, using structural equation modeling, lent credence to the mediating role of coping in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress of university students. Autonomous goal motivation was positively associated with task-oriented coping, which predicted greater goal progress during midterm exams (Study 1, N=702) and at the end of the semester in a different sample (Study 2, N=167). Controlled goal motivation was associated with greater disengagement-oriented coping (Study 1 and Study 2) and lesser use of task-oriented coping (Study 2), which reduced goal progress. These results held up after controlling for perceived stress (Study 2). Our findings highlight the importance of coping in the "inception-to-attainment" goal process because autonomous goal motivation indirectly rather than directly predicts goal progress of university students through their usage of task-oriented coping.

  7. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  8. The nature and dimensions of achievement goals: mastery, evaluation, competition, and self-presentation goals.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marina S; Gonçalves, Teresa; Lens, Willy; Rodrigues, Luís P

    2014-10-28

    The present study aimed to clarify the nature and dimensions of achievement goals and to examine structural differences in students' goals across school levels. Participants were 134 students from 5th and 6th grades, and 423 students from 7th to 9th grades. A variety of achievement goals were assessed, including mastery goals and several performance-related goals representing three main dimensions: competition, self-presentation, and valence. Two alternative models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. For middle-school students a three factor model with presentation, competition, and simple evaluation/mastery goals, was found χ²(132, N = 134) = 160.9, p < .001; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .04, 95%CI [.02 - .06]. In the junior-high sample, one avoidance factor, one competition factor, and a simple evaluation/mastery factor, best fitted the data χ²(114, N = 423) = 269.8638 p < .001; CFI = .93; RMSEA = .06, 95%CI [.05 - .07] thus suggesting that distinct dimensions organize younger and older students' motivation. However, common to both grade levels was the existence of (a) separate but low incidence competition goals, and (b) simple evaluation goals, which encompass neither self-presentation nor competition, and are closely linked to mastery goals. Moreover, significant differences were found in the relative importance attached by students to the different types of goals (p < .001 for all comparisons), both at middle-school F(2, 266) = 220.98; p < .001; η2 = .624) and at junior-high school F(2, 820) = 464.4; p < .001; η2 = .531.

  9. FORUM: Defining Goals and Criteria for Ecosystem-Based Management

    PubMed

    Slocombe

    1998-07-01

    / Identifying goals or targets for landscape and ecosystem management is now a widely recognized need that has received little systematic attention. At a micro-level most planners and managers of both ecosystems and economies continue to pursue traditional goals and targets that miss many desirable characteristics of ecosystem-based management goals. Desirable characteristics of ecosystem and landscape management goals and targets include: addressing complexity, transdisciplinarity, and the dynamic nature of natural systems; reflecting the wide range of interests and goals that exist; recognizing goals and values and limits; involving people and being explainable and implementable in a consistent way to different people and groups; and evolving adaptively as conditions and knowledge change. Substantive and procedural goals can be distinguished; the latter supporting the former. Substantive goals can be grouped according to their relationship to system structure, organization, and process/dynamics, and their disciplinary or subsystemic breadth. These discussions are illustrated by a review of the goals of biodiversity, sustainability, ecological health, and integrity. An example of a hierarchical framework of procedural goals and objectives that supports achievement of substantive goals is also provided. The conclusion is that a parallel, linked system of substantive and procedural goals at different levels of complexity and disciplinarity is needed to facilitate ecosystem-based management.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Goals and objectives; Assessment criteria

  10. Reaching the Goals. Goal 2: High School Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.

    The second of the National Education Goals, adopted following a summit meeting held in 1989 between the U.S. President and 50 governors, states that, by the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90%. This document, an abridged version of a report produced by a work group on school completion, is an examination of…

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research. PMID:25177358

  14. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Subjective Well-Being, and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F; Miller, Gregory E

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses how individuals can adjust to the experience of unattainable goals and protect their subjective well-being and physical health. We discuss theoretical aspects involved in the self-regulation of unattainable goals and point to the importance of general individual differences in goal disengagement and goal reengagement capacities. In addition, we review the extant literature, suggesting that goal disengagement capacities can reduce psychological distress and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if individuals experience unattainable goals. Goal reengagement capacities, by contrast, are shown to be associated with positive indicators of subjective well-being (e.g., positive affect or purpose in life), but rarely predict psychological distress or physical health outcomes. We finally address several remaining issues that have become apparent in the extant literature and may deserve more attention in future research.

  15. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  16. Goal-based ultimatum game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates the human decision-making in ultimatum game in the context of neuroscience theories that give more insight into decision-making process by humans. Based on this approach, a new model of human decision-making has been developed by using Goal Programming approach. The satisficing and egalitarian philosophies on which weighted and Chebyshev Goal Programming (GP) rely; seem to offer an adequate and natural way for modeling human decision processes in at least the single-shot games of coordination. The simulation of ultimatum games gives the distribution of proposers' offer which shows some similarity with the distribution from the experiments with real subjects. The sensitivity analyses of this model are also presented. The solutions returned by the proposed GP approach aim to strike the right balance on several dimensions of conflicting goal that are set by players themselves.

  17. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  18. The Fallacies of Numerical Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the problems inherent in the federal government's statistical method of determining and enforcing goals for the hiring and composition of faculty of colleges and universities with federal contracts. Stress is on the need for revision of the program to correct flaws and eliminate red tape. (Editor/JT)

  19. Efficient goal-directed exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Y.; Koenig, S.; Veloso, M.M.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    If a state space is not completely known in advance, then search algorithms have to explore it sufficiently to locate a goal state and a path leading to it, performing therefore what we call goal-directed exploration. Two paradigms of this process are pure exploration and heuristic-driven exploitation: the former approaches explore the state space using only knowledge of the physically visited portion of the domain, whereas the latter approaches totally rely on heuristic knowledge to guide the search towards goal states. Both approaches have disadvantages: the first one does not utilize available knowledge to cut down the search effort, and the second one relies too much on the knowledge, even if it is misleading. We have therefore developed a framework for goal-directed exploration, called VECA, that combines the advantages of both approaches by automatically switching from exploitation to exploration on parts of the state space where exploitation does not perform well. VECA provides better performance guarantees than previously studied heuristic-driven exploitation algorithms, and experimental evidence suggests that this guarantee does not deteriorate its average-case performance.

  20. Goals for a Changing University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Michael; And Others

    Today's college executive is forced to deal with conflict that is built into the system because of the different goals, values, and priorities expressed by the constituent bodies both on and off the campus. How does a president, dean, or department head under pressure to change focus on new targets decide what targets to focus on? What kind of…

  1. We Have Goals. Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Longanecker, David; Witham, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The nation is in an era of policy reform aimed at improving the productivity and effectiveness of higher education. Major philanthropies and policy groups have converged around variations of the ambitious college completion goals announced by President Obama at the beginning of his administration. But at the same time, many state governments,…

  2. Androgyny: A Goal for Counseling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1985-01-01

    Although psychological androgyny is a useful and attractive concept for many counselors, a review of the literature suggests that androgyny cannot now serve as a concrete goal for sex-role counseling. It may also pose its own problems for individuals. (Author)

  3. Health Education. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide presents the common curriculm goals for health education developed by the Oregon State Department of Education. Four content strands--safe living, stressor/risk-taking management, physical fitness, and nutrition--are a synthesis of the traditional health education and health promotion objectives. Knowledge and skills objectives are…

  4. Progress toward goals in silicon sheet development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    One of the goals of the national photovoltaic program in the U.S. is the establishment of an industry producing photovoltaic material which can be sold at a price not exceeding $0.70/W by 1986. A key element concerning the achievement of this goal is the development and utilization of improved methods for producing silicon sheet. Specific technologies being investigated in this connection can be divided into two categories. Methods of one category are based on a utilization of sheet growth techniques including film-fed growth, dendritic web, and silicon-on-ceramic processes. The approaches used by methods of the second category involve ingot and wafering processes, including Czochralski growth, the heat exchanger method, multiblade procedures, and the use of a fixed abrasive multiwire. It is found that using $84/kg silicon, most sheet technologies would yield module prices in the $2.00/Wp to $3.00/Wp range.

  5. Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

  6. Detection of goal events in soccer videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  7. Detection of goal events in soccer videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  8. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers…

  9. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  10. Modifiable predictors associated with having a gestational weight gain goal.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Guthrie, Lauren B; Platek, Deborah; Stuebe, Alison; Herring, Sharon J; Oken, Emily

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this paper was to determine predictors of having a weight gain goal in early pregnancy. In 2008, we administered a 48-item survey to 249 pregnant women attending obstetric visits. We examined predictors of women having a goal concordant or discordant with 1990 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines, vs. no goal, using binary and multinomial logistic regression. Of the 292 respondents, 116 (40%) had no gestational weight gain goal, 112 (39%) had a concordant goal and 61 (21%) had a goal discordant with IOM guidelines. Predictors of a guideline-concordant goal, vs. no goal, included sugar sweetened beverage consumption < vs. ≥ 1 serving per week (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.1, 5.7), physical activity ≥ vs. <2.5 h per week (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 1.7, 7.5), agreeing that 'I tried to keep weight down not to look pregnant' (OR = 14.3, 95%CI: 1.4, 140.5). Other predictors only of having a discordant goal (vs. no goal) included agreeing that 'as long as I am eating well, I don't care how much I gain' (OR = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.8) and agreeing that 'if I gain too much weight one month, I try to keep from gaining the next' (OR = 4.1, 95%CI: 1.6, 10.4). Women whose doctors recommended weight gains consistent with IOM guidelines were more likely to have a concordant goal (vs. no goal) (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 1.5, 18.6). Engaging in healthy behaviors and having health providers offer IOM weight gain recommendations may increase the likelihood of having a concordant gestational weight gain goal, which, in turn, is predictive of actual weight gains that fall within IOM guidelines.

  11. Mental Schemas Hamper Memory Storage of Goal-Irrelevant Information

    PubMed Central

    Sweegers, C. C. G.; Coleman, G. A.; van Poppel, E. A. M.; Cox, R.; Talamini, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low momentary relevance. In particular, when existing schemas suffice to guide goal-directed behavior, this may actually reduce encoding of the redundant sensory input, in favor of gaining efficiency in task performance. The present experiment set out to test this schema-induced shallow encoding hypothesis. Our approach involved a memory task in which faces had to be coupled to homes. For half of the faces the responses could be guided by a pre-learned schema, for the other half of the faces such a schema was not available. Memory storage was compared between schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items. To characterize putative schema effects, memory was assessed both with regard to visual details and contextual aspects of each item. The depth of encoding was also assessed through an objective neural measure: the parietal old/new ERP effect. This ERP effect, observed between 500–800 ms post-stimulus onset, is thought to reflect the extent of recollection: the retrieval of a vivid memory, including various contextual details from the learning episode. We found that schema-congruency induced substantial impairments in item memory and even larger ones in context memory. Furthermore, the parietal old/new ERP effect indicated higher recollection for the schema-incongruent than the schema-congruent memories. The combined findings indicate that, when goals can be achieved using existing schemas, this can hinder the in-depth processing of novel input, impairing the formation of perceptually detailed and contextually rich memory traces. Taking into account both current and previous findings, we suggest that schemas can both positively and negatively bias the processing of sensory

  12. Law & psychiatry: Assisting people in recovery who have criminal records to reach their employment goals.

    PubMed

    Haimowitz, Stephan; Rio, John

    2014-04-01

    Working, a goal of most people in recovery from mental disorders, can be impeded by legal exclusions and by employers' rejections based on an applicant's criminal record. This column describes established tools that can partially lower these barriers and recent legal developments that provide additional strategies, in particular the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Enforcement Guidance. These developments address the permissible use of arrest and conviction information in employment contexts, focusing on individualized consideration of specific factors, including rehabilitation. The authors also suggest strategies for job interview preparation that, when combined with job retention planning, can improve clients' prospects of achieving their employment goals.

  13. Goals during adolescence and their relationship with antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, psychological research has emphasized the role of goals in adolescent development and, particularly, in the development of socially adapted lifestyles. Along those lines, the present study, analyzing data collected from a sample of 488 participants, explores: a) The structure of adolescent goals and their importance for young people, b) The relationship between adolescent goals and antisocial behavior and c) The role of gender in this relationship. The results show that adolescent goals are structured according to 6 factors: Social Recognition, Emancipation, Education, Physical-Athletic, Antisocial and Interpersonal-Familial. Educational and emancipative goals appear to be most important for young people. In addition, it has been found that there are significant correlations between certain types of goals and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as significant gender differences. The data reflect the need to incorporate motivational dimensions into explanatory models of adolescent behavioral problems.

  14. Cui bono? Selfish goals need to pay their way.

    PubMed

    Spurrett, David

    2014-04-01

    The target article falls short of explaining the phenomena, including motivational conflict, that it sets out to. The two main reasons for this are: (1) It is unclear in what sense goals are "selfish"; (2) We need an account of how selfish goals motivate people. If selfish goals are not in the replication business, then what is in it for them? And if they do not offer people something that they want, how do they ever influence what people do?

  15. Adolescent Students' Multiple Goals in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-hung

    Researchers in goal orientation studies have successfully demonstrated the distinct effects of two separate single learning goals, mastery and performance goal. To advance the understanding of learning goals, a new research direction should be geared towards exploring the notion of multiple goals. Recent work in the field has also called for the…

  16. The Elusive Goal of Accountability in Graduate Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Debra F

    2015-09-01

    Repeated calls for greater accountability of graduate medical education (GME) have been issued in recent years. In this context, Kenneth Ludmerer's Let Me Heal examines the issue of duty hours limits and paints a picture of failed accountability. The ways in which duty hours regulations have failed are discussed, pointing toward a need to focus on goals and outcomes (such as patient safety) rather than process (such as schedules and shift length).This Commentary considers key issues-who should be accountable, for what, and to whom?-and proposes a potential path for achieving accountability in GME. The author draws from consensus reports published by the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation and the Institute of Medicine to outline the case for why the U.S. system of GME should be accountable to the public, to individual patients, and to the residents and fellows being educated. Domains of accountability include graduating competent physicians, producing the right workforce, and ensuring an efficient and cost-effective training process that is designed to protect patients. In addition, the author argues that GME should be accountable for providing trainees with reasonable working conditions and compensation.Key requirements for achieving meaningful GME accountability are proposed, including (1) a more effective partnership with the public; (2) explicit goals and assigned responsibilities, reflecting reasonable expectations of what GME can accomplish; (3) reliable metrics for GME outcomes; and (4) a governance system that provides coordination and has the authority to effect changes.

  17. Listening for Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Goals for Effective Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eljamal, Melissa B.; Sharp, Sally; Stark, Joan S.; Arnold, Gertrude L.; Lowther, Malcolm A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that examines the extent to which effective thinking skills are incorporated in faculty teaching goals across nine academic disciplines--mathematics, the sciences, and humanities. Indicates that effective thinking skills are included in all faculty goal statements except for those in the romance languages. (3 tables and 33…

  18. Role of Achievement Goals in Children's Learning in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2005-01-01

    To address the debate over the need for revised achievement goal theory, the author investigated the validity of the trichotomous framework of achievement goals in the context of the Taiwanese classroom. Participants included 198 sixth-grade Taiwanese children. On the basis of the revised framework, the author explored relations between…

  19. Teacher-Reported Goal Structures: Assessing Factor Structure and Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Fan, Weihua; Daugherty, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on achievement goal theory by examining the measurement and understanding of goal structures using teacher-reported data. A large number of elementary, middle, and high school teachers completed an online survey that included items assessing their use of instructional practices associated with…

  20. Using Achievement Goal Theory to assess an elementary physical education running program.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping; Bruene, April; McBride, Ron E

    2004-08-01

    Using Achievement Goal Theory as a theoretical framework, this study examined an elementary physical education running program called Roadrunners and assessed relationships among achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and student achievement behavior. Roadrunners promotes cardiovascular health, physical active lifestyles, and mastery behaviors such as persistence and effort. Students were required to run/walk once a week during the school year in their regularly scheduled physical education classes. Participants included 116 fourth graders (67 boys, 49 girls), who participated in Roadrunners since kindergarten. Near the end of spring semester, students completed a 36-item questionnaire assessing achievement goals and perceived motivational climate of Roadrunners. Student persistence/effort was assessed by the number of run/walk laps over the year-long program. Performance was measured by a timed, one-mile run. Results revealed the mastery goal related positively to student persistence/effort for Roadrunners and to their one-mile run performance. Interaction between the mastery goal and perception of a mastery-focused climate emerged as a positive predictor of student one-mile run performance. Results provided additional empirical support for mastery goals and perceptions of a mastery-focused climate as beneficial to student motivation and learning.

  1. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A Fast Goal Recognition Technique Based on Interaction Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    E-Martin, Yolanda; R-Moreno, Maria D.; Smith, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Recognition is the task of inferring an actor's goals given some or all of the actor's observed actions. There is considerable interest in Goal Recognition for use in intelligent personal assistants, smart environments, intelligent tutoring systems, and monitoring user's needs. In much of this work, the actor's observed actions are compared against a generated library of plans. Recent work by Ramirez and Geffner makes use of AI planning to determine how closely a sequence of observed actions matches plans for each possible goal. For each goal, this is done by comparing the cost of a plan for that goal with the cost of a plan for that goal that includes the observed actions. This approach yields useful rankings, but is impractical for real-time goal recognition in large domains because of the computational expense of constructing plans for each possible goal. In this paper, we introduce an approach that propagates cost and interaction information in a plan graph, and uses this information to estimate goal probabilities. We show that this approach is much faster, but still yields high quality results.

  3. A framework for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne M; Larson, Diane L; DalSoglio, Julie A; Harris, James A; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Skrabis, Kristin E

    2016-04-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  4. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2016-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  5. Overarching goals: a strategy for improving healthcare quality and safety?

    PubMed

    Nanji, Karen C; Ferris, Timothy G; Torchiana, David F; Meyer, Gregg S

    2013-03-01

    The management literature reveals that many successful organisations have strategic plans that include a bold 'stretch-goal' to stimulate progress over a ten-to-thirty-year period. A stretch goal is clear, compelling and easily understood. It serves as a unifying focal point for organisational efforts. The ambitiousness of such goals has been emphasised with the phrase Big Hairy Audacious Goal ('BHAG'). President Kennedy's proclamation in 1961 that 'this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth' provides a famous example. This goal energised the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and it captured the attention of the American public and resulted in one of the largest accomplishments of any organisation. The goal set by Sony, a small, cash-strapped electronics company in the 1950s, to change the poor image of Japanese products around the world represents a classic BHAG. Few examples of quality goals that conform to the BHAG definition exist in the healthcare literature. However, the concept may provide a useful framework for organisations seeking to transform the quality of care they deliver. This review examines the merits and cautions of setting overarching quality goals to catalyse quality improvement efforts, and assists healthcare organisations with determining whether to adopt these goals.

  6. Clear Goals, Clear Results: Content-Focused Routines Support Learning for Everyone--Including Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Bernstein-Danis, Tabetha; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to give effective feedback can be a difficult task for teacher leaders. This is especially true for what is called "hard feedback"--that is, feedback that challenges the teacher's practice and therefore may cause some level of professional discomfort. Educators at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Learning have…

  7. A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.

    PubMed

    DeShon, Richard P; Gillespie, Jennifer Z

    2005-11-01

    Rapid organizational change is increasing the pressure on employees to continually update their skills and adapt their behavior to new organizational realities. Goal orientation is a promising motivational construct that may explain why some individuals adapt to change better. Unfortunately, the current goal orientation literature is in a state of conceptual and methodological disarray. This presentation reviews the goal orientation literature and identifies numerous conceptual ambiguities, including definitional inconsistencies, dimensional inconsistencies, and inconsistencies in the conceptualization of stability. These conceptual ambiguities result in a confusing array of goal orientation measures and manipulations and ultimately an incoherent empirical database. A dynamic self-regulation model of goal orientation, termed motivated action theory, is presented to integrate the various conceptual perspectives and to provide guidelines for future goal orientation research.

  8. Neural representation of emotion regulation goals.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Baudewig, Juergen; Jacobs, Arthur M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-02-01

    The use of top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses as circumstances change is critical for mental and physical health. Several theoretical models of emotion regulation have been postulated; it remains unclear, however, in which brain regions emotion regulation goals (e.g., the downregulation of fear) are represented. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of regulating emotion using fMRI and identified brain regions representing reappraisal goals. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, combining standard activation-based and pattern-information analyses, we identified a distributed network of lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions implicated in reappraisal and within it, a core system that represents reappraisal goals in an abstract, stimulus-independent fashion. Within this core system, the neural pattern-separability in a subset of regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe was related to the success in emotion regulation. Those brain regions might link the prefrontal control regions with the subcortical affective regions. Given the strong association of this subsystem with inner speech functions and semantic memory, we conclude that those cognitive mechanisms may be used for orchestrating emotion regulation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:600-620, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Achieving the goal of halving global hunger by 2015.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prakash

    2006-02-01

    The FAO World Food Summit (WFS) in 1996 set the goal of halving the numbers of the global population suffering hunger by the year 2015, which was later incorporated into the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that commit the international community to an expanded vision of development, and one that vigorously promotes human development as the key to sustaining social and economic progress in all countries. The two targets under the first MDG goal to eradicate poverty and hunger call for halving the proportion of individuals who suffer from poverty and from hunger by 2015. This commitment is another instance of the international community through the UN system yet again renewing its efforts and setting a target and a time frame to deal with the global problem of hunger, poverty and malnutrition. To date, the efforts to reduce global hunger in the developing world have fallen far short of the pace required to meet these targets. There has no doubt been some progress and several countries in the developing world have proved that success is possible. The economic and societal costs to developing countries of not taking decisive action, and thus failing to achieve a reduction in hunger and undernutrition, including micronutrient malnutrition costs, are that every year five million children lose their lives, 220 million disability-adjusted life years are lost as a result of childhood and maternal undernutrition and billions of dollars are lost in productivity and incomes in these countries. Alongside this perennial problem in developing societies are emerging new epidemics of diet-related diseases resulting from the profound demographic changes, urbanization and the economic transition that is transforming and globalizing the food systems in these countries. Thus, many developing countries are facing new and additional challenges of co-existing hunger alongside the emergence of other forms of malnutrition. Meeting the WFS and MDG targets of achieving the goal of

  10. Goal Fluency, Pessimism and Disengagement in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.; O’Dea, Christian; Field, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of prominent theoretical models of goal motivation and its importance in daily life, research has rarely examined goal dysregulation processes in clinical depression. Here we aimed to investigate problematic aspects of goal regulation in clinically depressed adults, relative to controls. Depressed participants (n = 42) were recruited from two Improving Access to Psychological Therapy clinics in north-west England. Control participants (n = 51) were recruited from the same region. Participants generated personal approach goals (e.g., improve my marathon time) and avoidance goals (e.g., avoid getting upset over little things) and completed self-report measures of goal attainment likelihood and depressive symptoms. Participants also completed a measure of ease of disengagement from unattainable goals and re-engagement with new goals. Compared to controls, depressed participants reported fewer approach goals (but not more avoidance goals), rated their approach goal (rewarding) outcomes as less likely to happen and avoidance goal (threatening) outcomes as more likely to happen. Depressed participants also reported greater ease of disengagement from unattainable goals and more difficulty re-engaging with new goals than controls. Our findings extend current knowledge of the psychopathology of depression from a goal regulation perspective, suggesting that pessimism around goal pursuit accompanies fewer approach goal pursuits and a general tendency to disengage when difficulties are encountered. PMID:27902708

  11. Rehabilitation Goals: Their Hierarchical and Multifaceted Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1988-01-01

    Rehabilitation goals are analyzed from a hierarchical, multifaceted perspective, illustrating reduction of the ultimate goal of life adjustment to smaller goals. Addressed are: the contexts within which rehabilitation takes place, the activity levels defining human performance, and the functional levels achieved. A matrix of 12 sets of goals is…

  12. The conscious roots of selfless, unconscious goals.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Balcetis, Emily

    2014-04-01

    We counter Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) metaphoric description of the unconscious, selfish goal on three points. First, we argue, unconscious goals are rooted in conscious choices related to well-being. Second, unconscious goal pursuit occurs through early-stage orienting mechanisms that promote individuals' well-being. Third, unconscious goals work selflessly, resulting in their own demise.

  13. Guidelines for Movable Soccer Goal Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents guidelines for the installation, use, and storage of full-size or nearly full-size movable soccer goals to help prevent deaths and serious injuries from soccer goal tipover. The guide first reviews soccer goal injuries and deaths occurring in the United States and briefly examines the soccer rules associated with goals. It…

  14. Social Goals and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.

    2017-01-01

    Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…

  15. Mania and dysregulation in goal pursuit: A review★

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence for deficits in goal regulation in bipolar disorder. A series of authors have described mania as related to higher accomplishment, elevated achievement motivation, and ambitious goal setting. These characteristics appear to be evident outside of episodes, and to some extent, among family members of people with a history of mania. In addition, people with a history of mania demonstrate intense mood reactivity, particularly in response to success and reward. During positive moods, they appear to experience robust increases in confidence. These increases in confidence, coupled with a background of ambitious goals, are believed to promote excessive pursuit of goals. This excessive goal engagement is hypothesized to contribute to manic symptoms after an initial life success. PMID:15642648

  16. Preventing Mania: A Preliminary Examination of the GOALS Program

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a relationship between goal dysregulation and mania. Building on these findings, we examined the feasibility of developing a mania prevention treatment program designed to improve goal regulation skills for those with bipolar disorder. Here, we describe the process of developing a manual, delivering the intervention to a series of cases, and then conducting a small open uncontrolled trial. All participants met diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were not currently experiencing episodes of depression or mania. Ten participants (8 female, mean age = 46.7 years) were enrolled in the GOALS program and completed an average of 13.2 weekly sessions. Participants were administered the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale (BRMS) and the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at baseline and termination. Some participants completed self-report scales including the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unrealistic Pursuits at baseline and termination. In addition, participants were administered a consumer satisfaction questionnaire at termination. At termination, all 10 participants found the program highly relevant and helpful. Most importantly, even though levels of mania were low initially, mean levels of manic symptoms on the BRMS decreased significantly from baseline to termination, and all 10 participants were within a healthy range (BRMS <7) at termination. Although the lack of control group or follow-up data limits this study, preliminary evidence suggests that it is feasible to identify treatment targets by drawing from the basic research literature in bipolar disorder. Findings await replication and more careful testing within a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19433142

  17. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Using the SCERTS model assessment tool to identify music therapy goals for clients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Darcy D; Register, Dena; Engel, Judy Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to identify and compare goals and objectives addressed by music therapists that are contained in the SCERTS Model, for use with children at risk or diagnosed with a communication impartment including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A video analysis of music therapists working with clients at risk or diagnosed with ASD (N = 33) was conducted to: (a) identify the areas of the SCERTS assessment model that music therapists are currently addressing within their sessions for clients with ASD, and (b) compare the frequency of SCERTS domains and goals addressed by music therapists within sessions. Results of the analysis revealed that all three domains of social communication, emotional regulation, and transactional support were addressed within music therapy sessions. Within each domain both broad goals were all addressed including joint attention and symbol use for social communication, self-regulation and mutual regulation for emotional regulation, and interpersonal support and learning support for transactional support. Overall, music therapists addressed transactional support goals and subgoals more often than social communication and emotional regulation goals and subgoals. The highest frequency goal area addressed was interpersonal support (73.96%) and the lowest goal area addressed was joint attention (35.96%). For the social partner and language partner language stages, 58 of the 320 possible subgoals were addressed with 90% frequency or higher, while 13 of the same subgoals were never addressed. The SCERTS Model is designed for use by a multidisciplinary team of professionals and family members throughout a client's treatment and contains an ongoing assessment tool with resulting goals and objectives. This analysis indicates that many SCERTS goals and objectives can be addressed in music therapy interventions. Additionally, goals and subgoals not previously recognized in music therapy treatment can be generated by the use of the

  19. Which Factors Are Associated with Monitoring Goal Progress?

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Betty P. I.; Webb, Thomas L.; Benn, Yael; Stride, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how people assess their progress on personal goals (e.g., whether they compare their progress to the past and/or to a desired target state), along with factors that might influence the nature of progress monitoring (e.g., whether the goal involves attaining a positive outcome or avoiding a negative outcome). Study 1 involved semi-structured interviews with 40 participants, in which we examined how participants monitored their progress and whether this was related to: (a) their level of self-efficacy, (b) whether the goal was prevention focused, and (c) whether goal progress was represented in quantifiable terms. Studies 2 (N = 492) and 3 (N = 481) were conducted online and additionally examined whether how participants monitored their progress differed as a function of the domain of the goal (i.e., whether it was related to physical development/health, finances, work/study, or social relationships). The findings suggest that participants: (i) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals that were related to avoiding negative outcomes, (ii) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals related to finances, work, or study with reference to the past, than progress toward other goals (e.g., those relating to physical development and health), (iii) found it easier to monitor their progress toward goals that they felt confident of attaining, but harder to monitor their progress toward goals related to work or study. Finally, the more participants thought about their goal in quantifiable terms, the more likely they were to monitor their progress, and the easier they found monitoring their progress to be. Taken together, these studies begin to describe the nature of progress monitoring and the factors that influence this important self-regulatory process. PMID:28392775

  20. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  1. Goal-based dictator game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  2. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum.

  3. Accelerating Innovation: Turning Goals into Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The success of NASA's programs depends upon innovation, which is recognized by several characteristics. All aspects of a program including tools, processes, materials, subsystems, vehicles, and operations should be evaluated to determine possible innovations which might be implemented. Several examples are presented of ways in which innovation has substantially furthered the goals of NASA. The specific fields mentioned include high performance computing, advanced technologies for aerospace system design, advanced materials and manufacturing processes, neural based flight control, linear aerospike engines, advanced space propulsion systems, high altitude and long duration autonomous flights, advanced vehicle concepts, advanced space propulsion systems, as well as advanced weather information. A final list details the perceived ways in which NASA can benefit from continued innovation in such ways as partnering with the private sector.

  4. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  5. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  6. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Science Goal Driven Observing and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Grosvenor, Sandy; Korathkar, Anuradha; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft autonomy will be an integral part of mission operations in the coming decade. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will meet the science goals of a program, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the onboard software can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download a subset of observations at a reduced resolution, the spacecraft's overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof- of-concept effort to address the above challenge. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher-level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations. This paper will focus on our strategy for developing SGM and the technical challenges that we have encountered. We will discuss the SGM architecture as it applies to the proposed MIDEX-class mission Kronos. However, the architecture and interfaces will also be designed for easy adaptability to other observing platforms, including ground-based systems and to work with different scheduling and pipeline processing systems.

  9. EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model provides companies with a transparent and publicly available benchmarking resource to help evaluate and establish new or existing GHG goals that go beyond business as usual for their individual sectors.

  10. Achievement Goals and Student Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Kaplan; Maehr

    1999-10-01

    This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Achievement goals and interpersonal behavior: how mastery and performance goals shape information exchange.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2007-10-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).

  12. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals),…

  13. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  14. Flow theory – goal orientation theory: positive experience is related to athlete’s goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.; Psychountaki, Maria; Georgiadis, Emmanouil; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos; Zervas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between flow experience and goal orientation theory, as well as, the differences in flow experience based on the orthogonal model of goal orientation theory. Two hundred and seventy eight athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionnaire based on how they usually feel. The challenge and skills ratings were completed 1 h before the competition, based on how they felt at the exact time of answering. In the following, the Flow State Scale-2 was completed up to 30 min after the competition they just participated, along with the challenge-skill ratings, based on how athletes felt during the competition. The results indicated that the athletes’ task orientation may be an important factor for attaining flow in competitive sport, feeling more skillful and estimating the upcoming competition as challenging, while low ego and low task oriented athletes lack these elements, which are important for them to get into flow. Additionally, not the level of task and ego orientation per se, but the balance between athletes’ goal orientation preferences seems important for the formation of flow experience, indicating that high task – high ego and high task – low ego athletes are experiencing the most positive mental state. PMID:26500577

  15. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  16. Applications of Goal Programming to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This paper discusses goal programming, a computer-based operations research technique that is basically a modification and extension of linear programming. The authors first discuss the similarities and differences between goal programming and linear programming, then describe the limitations of goal programming and its possible applications for…

  17. Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    This essay discusses educational goals for universal basic and secondary education. It suggests some of the difficulties that may explain the great diversity of educational goals. The purposes of this essay are to (1) stimulate attention to educational goals on the part of individuals, families, educational professionals, community leaders in…

  18. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  19. JCAHO'S National Patient Safety Goals 2006.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2006-02-01

    The Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations released their first set of National Patient Safety Goals in 2002, which became effective in January 2003. This original set of goals is reviewed and a new set published every year. This article provides a review of the 2006 National Patient Safety Goals with an emphasis on perioperative/perianesthesia implications.

  20. The Language Factor in Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    Although development goals are usually set as targets that must be achieved in a development process, experience with development goals in Africa has tended to underscore underperformance either in terms of a shortfall in the targets attained or in terms of inadequate pursuit of specific goals. To illustrate this syndrome, the African Union's New…

  1. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  2. Goal-directed imitation: the means to an end.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Spencer J; Ashford, Derek; Bennett, Simon J

    2008-02-01

    The effects of goal-directed imitation and observational learning were examined whilst learning a goal-directed motor skill (three-ball cascade juggling). An observational learning (OL) group observed a model and a control (CON) group received minimal verbal instructions regarding how to hold and release the juggling balls. The OL group performed more juggling cycles across practice and retention than the CON group. In addition, the OL group's upper limb coordination and ball flight trajectory pattern were more similar to the model's movements than the CON group. These data show that when the to-be-learnt movement pattern and end-goal are not specified by the task's mechanical constraints, or can be achieved by modifying a pre-existing motor skill, individuals have difficulty learning on the basis of discovery processes alone. Under these circumstances, observational learning is effective because it conveys to the individual the specific means by which the end-goal can be achieved. These findings lead us to suggest that when the end-goal and the means to achieve the end-goal are directly linked, the means are given sufficient weight in the goal hierarchy such that the model's movement is imitated.

  3. Life Goals Matter to Happiness: A Revision of Set-Point Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the long-running German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (SOEP), this paper provides evidence that life goals matter substantially to subjective well-being (SWB). Non-zero sum goals, which include commitment to family, friends and social and political involvement, promote life satisfaction. Zero sum goals, including commitment to career…

  4. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in a General Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Sara J.; Pieper, Suzanne L.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ), when modified for a general academic context, were examined. Previous research has found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goal orientation when this measure was used in a course-specific context. This study is an important addition to goal orientation…

  5. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  6. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  7. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  8. Standard circumstances and vital goals: comments on Venkatapuram's critique.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2013-06-01

    This article is a reply to Venkatapuram's critique in his article Health, Vital Goals, Capabilities, this volume. I take issue mainly with three critical points put forward by Venkatapuram with regard to my theory of health. (1) I deny that the contents of my vital goals are relative to each community or context, as Venkatapuram claims. There is no conceptual connection at all between standard circumstances and vital goals, as I understand these concepts. (2) Venkatapuram notes that I stop short of filling the framework of vital goals with any content and thereby make my concept of health less concrete. I reply that some vital goals are indeed universal, viz. the ones which are necessary conditions for survival. Many other vital goals are individual and cannot therefore be included in a universal list. (3) Venkatapuram claims that my definition of vital goals is too broad, since it entails that some persons without any disease can be regarded as ill. However, in my understanding health is a relational concept from a state of complete health to a state of maximal illness. In this framework, a minor reduction of a state of complete health does not entail illness. This article also contains a comparison between my theory of health and Martha Nussbaum's theory of capabilities for dignity.

  9. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  10. Goal representation in the infant brain.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria; Begus, Katarina; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; di Gangi, Valentina; Hamilton, Antonia

    2014-01-15

    It is well established that, from an early age, human infants interpret the movements of others as actions directed towards goals. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms which underlie this ability are hotly debated. The current study was designed to identify brain regions involved in the representation of others' goals early in development. Studies with adults have demonstrated that the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) exhibits repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals, implicating this specific region in goal representation in adults. In the current study, we used a modified paired repetition suppression design with 9-month-old infants to identify which cortical regions are suppressed when the infant observes a repeated goal versus a new goal. We find a strikingly similar response pattern and location of activity as had been reported in adults; the only brain region displaying significant repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals was the left anterior parietal region. Not only does our data suggest that the left anterior parietal region is specialized for representing the goals of others' actions from early in life, this demonstration presents an opportunity to use this method and design to elucidate the debate over the mechanisms and cues which contribute to early action understanding.

  11. Connecting Goals and Actions during Reading: The Role of Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; Tarín, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate information that is separated within a text, such as connecting a character's action to a goal stated earlier in the text, is a critical factor in narrative comprehension. In the present study, we analyze the ability of 9- and 11-year olds to integrate such information. In addition, we examined the effect of…

  12. Realistic Goals and Processes for Future Space Astronomy Portfolio Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    It is generally recognized that international participation and coordination is highly valuable for maximizing the scientific impact of modern space science facilities, as well as for cost-sharing reasons. Indeed, all large space science missions, and most medium and small missions, are international, even if one country or space agency has a clear leadership role and bears most of the development costs. International coordination is a necessary aspect of future mission planning, but how that coordination is done remains debatable. I propose that the community's scientific vision is generally homogeneous enough to permit international coordination of decadal-scale strategic science goals. However, the timing and budget allocation/funding mechanisms of individual countries and/or space agencies are too disparate for effective long-term strategic portfolio planning via a single international process. Rather, I argue that coordinated space mission portfolio planning is a natural consequence of international collaboration on individual strategic missions. I review the process and outcomes of the U.S. 2010 decadal survey in astronomy & astrophysics from the perspective of a government official who helped craft the survey charter and transmitted guidance to the scientific community on behalf of a sponsoring agency (NASA), while continuing to manage the current portfolio that involved ongoing negotiations with other space agencies. I analyze the difficulties associated with projecting long-term budgets, obtaining realistic mission costs (including the additional cost burdens of international partnerships), and developing new (possibly transformational) technologies. Finally, I remark on the future role that privately funded space science missions can have in accomplishing international science community goals.

  13. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  14. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  16. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  17. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  18. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  19. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated.

  20. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  1. Weight loss goals of patients in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine

  2. Career Goal Revision in Response to Negative Feedback: Testing a Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi; Creed, Peter A; Hood, Michelle

    2017-02-06

    We tested a model based on goal-setting and self-regulation theories of the cross-lagged relationships among negative career-related feedback, negative affect (career-related stress), and career goal revision (downward goal revision and goal disengagement). Participants were 409 Chinese university/college students (Mage 19 years; 58% female), who completed a survey at 2 time points approximately 6 months apart. Consistent with our hypotheses, negative career-related feedback at T1 was related to more career goal disengagement and greater downward goal revision at T2. Career-related stress partially mediated the relationship between negative career-related feedback and downward goal revision. In addition, there were reverse relationships between negative career-related feedback and career-related stress, and between career-related stress and goal disengagement. These findings highlight important roles for negative career-related feedback and negative affect in young peoples' career goal pursuit. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p < .001) of goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  4. Divided representation of concurrent goals in the human frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Charron, Sylvain; Koechlin, Etienne

    2010-04-16

    The anterior prefrontal cortex (APC) confers on humans the ability to simultaneously pursue several goals. How does the brain's motivational system, including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), drive the pursuit of concurrent goals? Using brain imaging, we observed that the left and right MFC, which jointly drive single-task performance according to expected rewards, divide under dual-task conditions: While the left MFC encodes the rewards driving one task, the right MFC concurrently encodes those driving the other task. The same dichotomy was observed in the lateral frontal cortex, whereas the APC combined the rewards driving both tasks. The two frontal lobes thus divide for representing simultaneously two concurrent goals coordinated by the APC. The human frontal function seems limited to driving the pursuit of two concurrent goals simultaneously.

  5. Hippocampal theta sequences reflect current goals.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal information processing is discretized by oscillations, and the ensemble activity of place cells is organized into temporal sequences bounded by theta cycles. Theta sequences represent time-compressed trajectories through space. Their forward-directed nature makes them an intuitive candidate mechanism for planning future trajectories, but their connection to goal-directed behavior remains unclear. As rats performed a value-guided decision-making task, the extent to which theta sequences projected ahead of the animal's current location varied on a moment-by-moment basis depending on the rat's goals. Look-ahead extended farther on journeys to distant goals than on journeys to more proximal goals and was predictive of the animal's destination. On arrival at goals, however, look-ahead was similar regardless of where the animal began its journey from. Together, these results provide evidence that hippocampal theta sequences contain information related to goals or intentions, pointing toward a potential spatial basis for planning.

  6. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  7. Predicting Singapore Students' Achievement Goals in Their English Study: Self-Construal and Classroom Goal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-construal and classroom goal structure in predicting Singapore secondary students' achievement goals in their English study. Students from 104 classes were administered surveys of achievement goals, classroom goal structure, English self-concept, and self-construal. The results of two-level hierarchical linear…

  8. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  9. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  10. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  11. Multiple Goals in a Hong Kong Chinese Educational Context: An Investigation of Developmental Trends and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, David; Hattie, John

    2012-01-01

    Social goals have also been proposed as important additions to mastery and performance goals in educational contexts, particularly in non-Western cultures but no study has yet tested the possibility that such goals can also combine with mastery and performance goals leading to superior learning outcomes. Longitudinal studies are also rare in this…

  12. Anytime synthetic projection: Maximizing the probability of goal satisfaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A projection algorithm is presented for incremental control rule synthesis. The algorithm synthesizes an initial set of goal achieving control rules using a combination of situation probability and estimated remaining work as a search heuristic. This set of control rules has a certain probability of satisfying the given goal. The probability is incrementally increased by synthesizing additional control rules to handle 'error' situations the execution system is likely to encounter when following the initial control rules. By using situation probabilities, the algorithm achieves a computationally effective balance between the limited robustness of triangle tables and the absolute robustness of universal plans.

  13. Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress & Future Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa

    2001-01-01

    This award was intended to provide financial support for an international astrophysics conference on gravitational lensing which was held at Boston University from July 25 to July 30, 1999. Because of the nature of the award, no specific research was proposed, nor was any carried out. The participants at the conference presented results of their on-going research efforts, and written summaries of their presentations have been published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as part of their conference series. The reference to the conference proceedings book is Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress and Future Goals, ASP Conference Series volume 237, eds. T. G. Brainerd and C. S. Kochanek (2001). The ISBN number of this book is 1-58381-074-9. The goal of the conference was to bring together both senior and junior investigators who were actively involved in all aspects of gravitational lensing research. This was the first conference in four years to address gravitational lensing from such a broad perspective (the previous such conference being IAU Symposium 173 held in Melbourne, Australia in July 1995). The conference was attended by 190 participants, who represented of order 70 different institutions and of order 15 different countries. The Scientific Organizing Committee members were Matthias Bartelmann (co-chair), Tereasa Brainerd (co-chair), Ian Browne, Richard Ellis, Nick Kaiser, Yannick Mellier, Sjur Refsdal, HansWalter Rix, Joachim Wambsganss, and Rachel Webster. The Local Organizing Committee members were Tereasa Brainerd (chair), Emilio Falco, Jacqueline Hewitt, Christopher Kochanek, and Irwin Shapiro. The oral sessions were organized around specific applications of gravitational lensing and included invited reviews, invited 'targeted talks', and contributed talks. The review speakers were Roger Blandford, Tereasa Brainerd, Gus Evrard, Nick Kaiser, Guinevere Kaufmann, Chris Kochanek, Charley Lineweaver, Gerry Luppino, Shude Mao, Paul Schechter, Peter

  14. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  15. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  16. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686

  17. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  18. Goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    This paper lists goals for curriculum development in environmental education prepared in response to objectives proposed at the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in 1977. The goals are presented in four levels. In level one, the ecological foundation level, nine conceptual components are presented including…

  19. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  20. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.32 Goals. The Warden is to ensure, to the extent possible, that leisure activities...

  1. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.32 Goals. The Warden is to ensure, to the extent possible, that leisure activities...

  2. Fashioning a selfish self amid selfish goals.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Winegard, Bo M

    2014-04-01

    The selfish goal, at some point in evolution, gave rise to a selfish self. In humans, this selfish self might exert influence over goals, deciding upon which to execute and which to inhibit. This, in fact, may be one of the chief functions of the self.

  3. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  4. Online Goals Before There Was Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that digital resources and telecommunications give librarians the best chance in decades to reexamine and achieve many of their fundamental goals. Discusses the goals of providing the right information in appropriate formats, keeping the intellectual record, providing personalized information services, and serving as educators, and cites…

  5. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  6. A Measure of Teachers' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Christodoulidis, Triantafyllos

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the construct validity of a measure of teachers' achievement goals. The first study involved 143 teachers. Factor analysis of responses to the measure revealed three factors assessing mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. In the second study, a nationally representative sample of…

  7. An Approach to Goal-Statement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, John R.; Robinson, Donald W.

    1969-01-01

    "The results of this study support the proposition that the application of environmental assessment techniques based on CUES items provides information which can help evaluate the formal goals of an institution in terms of the degree to which the institutional environment is facilitative of those goals. (Author)

  8. Goal Directedness and Decision Making in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenward, Ben; Folke, Sara; Holmberg, Jacob; Johansson, Alexandra; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    The term "goal directed" conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types--motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of…

  9. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  10. Rural Development: Goals, Dynamics, Crises and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlik, Paul J.

    The continuing transition of rural development from its old to present day form is discussed, treating varied perceptions of its goals and the continuing resolution of approaches through legislation and appropriations. Some of the goals are community development, human resources development, natural resources preservation, and a more equitable…

  11. Growth Goals, Maturity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jack J.; McAdams, Dan P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of…

  12. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  13. Goals and Strategies of Interactive Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan; Stevens, Albert L.

    Methods and approaches used by effective teachers are examined, and the set of goals and subgoals that guide these teachers, the set of specific strategies that they use to generate cases, questions, and comments for their pupils, and the control structure that they use to allocate their time between different goals are specified. The theory…

  14. Libraries for the National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Barbara K.

    Focusing on the major educational initiatives of our times--the National Education Goals outlined and endorsed in 1990 by the nation's governors, and President Bush's America 2000 strategy--this report reviews and summarizes information about the role of libraries in many different educational efforts designed to meet the national goals. It is…

  15. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  16. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  17. Perceived control over personal goals in Russian and American college students.

    PubMed

    Savina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cultural variations in perceived control over personal goals in Russian and American college students. Several appraisal dimensions of personal goals were studied including goals' importance, their attainability, and sources of control over goal attainment, such as self, others, luck, and fate. The association between assimilative (tenacious goal pursuit) and accommodative (flexible goal adjustment) control strategies and perceived attainability of goals was also examined. The results indicated that both Russian and American students gave higher priority to work- and education-related goals and lower priority to the familial goal. In both samples, the familial goal was the most influenced and health was the least influenced by luck/chance and fate. Overall, American students were more optimistic about the perceived probability to attain their goals, which may be affected by a cultural tendency for self-enhancement and positive outlook. Russian students had a stronger belief in control by luck/chance and fate over personal goals, which coincides with a less agentic orientation of Russian culture. Regardless of culture and goal content, goal importance was associated with greater perceived success in goal attainment. However, control strategies (assimilative and accommodative) as well as internal control differentially predicted perceived attainability of goals depending on the goals' content. For both Russians and Americans, perceived attainability of education-related goals was associated with assimilative strategies and internal control; leisure was associated with accommodative strategies and health-related goals were associated with internal control. Characteristics of cultural contexts accountable for crosscultural differences in perceived control over personal goals are discussed.

  18. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    PubMed

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  19. Goal-directed and goal-less imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-08-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they tracked the hand with their eyes, in the goal-less compared to goal-direction condition. In contrast, the ASD group exhibited more goal-directed eye movements, and failed to modulate the observed movement kinematics successfully in either condition. These results increase the evidence for impaired goal-less imitation in ASD, and suggest that there is a reliance on goal-directed strategies for imitation in ASD, even in the absence of visual goals.

  20. Goals and Strategies for the Human Lunar Reference Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Calvin H.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines common goals for human lunar exploration and strategic guidance. Three major sections include illustrative example goals, introduction to the GPoD campaign, and GPoD overview. The first section includes slides about strategic view of partnerships, the moon as a stepping stone and a uniquely preserved record, human-robotic partnership, innovative engagement, strategic considerations, and evaluation of campaigns against common goals. The second section examines campaigns considered, the philosophy of GPoD, GPoD campaign phase definitions, and GPoD design decision points. The third section examines lunar exploration capabilities, extended stay-relocation exploration mode, notional campaign destinations for GPoD, early robotics phase, development of the GPoD early robotics phase, polar exploration/system validation phase, polar relocatability phase, non-polar relocatability phase, long duration phase, and return to evaluation of campaigns.

  1. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    PubMed

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  2. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  3. Premature Delivery and the Millennium Development Goal

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

  4. Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4.

  5. Goals, History and Current Programs of Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mr. Robert Fusaro, coordinator for the Glenn Research Center Space Mechanisms program, presented the goals of the workshop, history of previous workshops and gave an overview of current space mechanisms work performed by Glenn Research Center. Highlights of his presentation are shown. Following the presentation, Mr. Fusaro demonstrated the new NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide CD ROM, which was featured as a highlight of the workshop. The handbook is an authoritative guide for design and testing of space mechanisms and related components. Over 600 pages of guidelines written by 25 experts in the field provide in-depth information on how to design space mechanisms and components, including: deployables, release devices, latches, rotating and pointing mechanisms, dampers, motors, gears, fasteners, valves, etc. The handbook provides details on appropriate environmental and tribological testing methods and practices required to evaluate new mechanisms and components. Distribution of the Handbook and Reference Guide is limited by ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations). It is available only to US companies and citizens. A request form for the CD ROM can be found on the Space Mechanisms Project website at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/spacemech/.

  6. The Two Main Goals of Bioequivalence Studies.

    PubMed

    Endrenyi, Laszlo; Blume, Henning H; Tothfalusi, Laszlo

    2017-02-02

    The principal goal of bioequivalence (BE) investigations has crucial importance and has been the subject of extensive discussions. BE studies are frequently considered to serve as procedures for sensitive discrimination. The BE investigation should be able to provide methods and conditions sensitively identifying relevant differences between drug products if such differences in fact exist. Alternatively, BE studies can be deemed as surrogates of clinical investigations assessing therapeutic equivalence. Bioequivalent drug products will be provided to patients for their benefits. Both points of view are valid since they represent two aspects of product performance. It has been argued that both should be equally sustained and applied. In practice, however, they collide when regulatory conditions and statements are developed. For instance, some regulators prefer to conduct BE studies following single drug administrations since these conditions are considered to provide the highest sensitivity of discrimination between pharmacokinetic profiles and thus, a product's in-vivo performance. Others suggest that, at least for modified-release products, BE investigations should be performed in the steady state since it represents clinical conditions. Preference for one point of view or the other pervades other regulatory statements including suggestions for subjects to be selected in studies and pharmacokinetic measures to be evaluated. An overview is provided on the disturbing inconsistency of statements within and between regulations. It is argued that harmonization would be highly desirable, and relevant recommendations are offered.

  7. The Goal-Oriented Approach to Evaluation: Critique and Case Study From Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for setting and monitoring program goals are discussed, using a drug treatment project as an example. Implementation steps include goal setting, checking for consistency, monitoring, and providing feedback. The advantages and limitations of this goal-oriented approach are described. Available from: Pergamon Press, Maxwell House,…

  8. College Students' Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life: An Achievement Goal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Xiang, Ping; Gu, Xiangli; Rose, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The 2 × 2 achievement goal model, including the mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goal orientations, has recently been used to explain motivational outcomes in physical activity. This study attempted to examine the relationships among 2 × 2 achievement goal orientations, physical…

  9. Using Goal-Setting in "P(paw)LANS" to Improve Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2009-01-01

    We taught a fifth grade student in resource room how to set goals and monitor his progress toward achieving them in the area of story writing by using the self-regulated strategy development model. The steps of this approach are included in the mnemonic PLANS (Pick goals, List ways to meet goals, And make Notes, Sequence notes). These steps were…

  10. Dropout Prevention Intervention with Secondary Students: A Pilot Study of Project GOAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Pyle, Nicole; Fall, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Project GOAL is a systematic dropout prevention model including individual and peer-mediated group interventions for at-risk students. This article provides an overview of the Project GOAL model and describes a 2-year experimental pilot study of Project GOAL with a cohort of eighth-and ninth-grade students in a low-income school district in the…

  11. The Interaction between Social Goals and Self-Construal on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong

    2013-01-01

    The motivational effects of mastery goals and performance goals have been widely documented in previous research on achievement motivation. However, recent studies have increasingly indicated a need to include social goals so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of achievement motivation. The purpose of the present research was to examine…

  12. Determining University Goals in an Institution of Higher Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garduno-Estrada, Leon R.

    This study sought to determine the most important goals of the University of the Americas-Puebla (Mexico) through a needs-analysis survey of the faculty. A survey instrument was developed which included a series of 58 goal statements. The university's 168 faculty members were asked to rate the degree to which each goal is being met, rate the…

  13. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, Randy J.; Omitaomu, Olufemi A.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  14. Task structure complexity and goal neglect in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gareth; Anderson, Mike

    2014-04-01

    Goal neglect is a failure to enact task requirements despite being able to accurately report them. In this study, we introduce a new child-appropriate experimental paradigm to measure goal neglect in children between 7 and 11 years of age and test the hypothesis that the complexity of an action plan, not real-time trial demands, increases goal neglect. A total of 66 children (Mage=9.50 years) were administered a Feature Match task. Half of the children were given four rules for matching, and half were given three rules for matching. After practice, the four-rules group was told to ignore the additional rule, and both groups completed an identical three-rules task. The results showed that the extra rule increased goal neglect and its correlation with fluid intelligence. Although intermittent trial errors were correlated with fluid intelligence for both groups, only in the four-rules group were systematic rule failures (i.e., goal neglect) correlated with fluid intelligence. Task performance improved with chronological age; however, when controlling for the influence of fluid intelligence, the relationship between age and task performance was effectively removed. This suggests that a child's current level of fluid intelligence (and not age) determines task performance. We suggest that the relationship among goal neglect, complex task instructions, and fluid intelligence is linked to the mental preparation for future events, that is, mentally compiling verbal instructions into a set of activated goal representations in working memory that represent what is to be done and under what circumstances.

  15. Management goals for type 1 Gaucher disease: An expert consensus document from the European working group on Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Biegstraaten, M; Cox, T M; Belmatoug, N; Berger, M G; Collin-Histed, T; Vom Dahl, S; Di Rocco, M; Fraga, C; Giona, F; Giraldo, P; Hasanhodzic, M; Hughes, D A; Iversen, P O; Kiewiet, A I; Lukina, E; Machaczka, M; Marinakis, T; Mengel, E; Pastores, G M; Plöckinger, U; Rosenbaum, H; Serratrice, C; Symeonidis, A; Szer, J; Timmerman, J; Tylki-Szymańska, A; Weisz Hubshman, M; Zafeiriou, D I; Zimran, A; Hollak, C E M

    2016-10-24

    Gaucher Disease type 1 (GD1) is a lysosomal disorder that affects many systems. Therapy improves the principal manifestations of the condition and, as a consequence, many patients show a modified phenotype which reflects manifestations of their disease that are refractory to treatment. More generally, it is increasingly recognised that information as to how a patient feels and functions [obtained by patient- reported outcome measurements (PROMs)] is critical to any comprehensive evaluation of treatment. A new set of management goals for GD1 in which both trends are reflected is needed. To this end, a modified Delphi procedure among 25 experts was performed. Based on a literature review and with input from patients, 65 potential goals were formulated as statements. Consensus was considered to be reached when ≥75% of the participants agreed to include that specific statement in the management goals. There was agreement on 42 statements. In addition to the traditional goals concerning haematological, visceral and bone manifestations, improvement in quality of life, fatigue and social participation, as well as early detection of long-term complications or associated diseases were included. When applying this set of goals in medical practice, the clinical status of the individual patient should be taken into account.

  16. Exercise adherence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an exploration of motivation and goals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy H T

    2007-01-01

    Adherence to an exercise regimen is challenging. Motivation is an important factor that can enhance exercise adherence. A key component of motivation is the setting and accomplishment of specified goals. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between patients' motivation and goals. Motivation and goal orientation in 14 participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were assessed. Participants were also interviewed to explore their exercise and activity goals. Motivation was significantly associated with goal orientation. In addition, participants reported many explicit activity goals, but few participants had set specific exercise goals. The inconsistency between activity and exercise goals has not been reported previously. Findings from this preliminary study provide novel and relevant information that may help care providers understand factors that may influence exercise adherence in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions.

  18. Front-of-pack nutrition labels. Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Erica; Trijp, Hans C M van

    2011-08-01

    Although front-of-pack nutrition labeling can help consumers make healthier food choices, lack of attention to these labels limits their effectiveness. This study examines consumer attention to and use of three different nutrition labeling schemes (logo, multiple traffic-light label, and nutrition table) when they face different goals and resource constraints. To understand attention and processing of labels, various measures are used including self-reported use, recognition, and eye-tracking measures. Results of two experiments in different countries show that although consumers evaluate the nutrition table most positively, it receives little attention and does not stimulate healthy choices. Traffic-light labels and especially logos enhance healthy product choice, even when consumers are put under time pressure. Additionally, health goals of consumers increase attention to and use of nutrition labels, especially when these health goals concern specific nutrients.

  19. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  20. Goals for Teacher Learning about Energy Degradation and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daane, Abigail R.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) require teachers to understand aspects of energy degradation and the second law of thermodynamics, including energy's availability and usefulness, changes in energy concentration, and the tendency of energy to spread uniformly. In an effort to develop learning goals that support teachers in building…

  1. Core Self-Evaluation and Goal Orientation: Understanding Work Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…

  2. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  3. Predicting Undergraduate Leadership Student Goal Orientation Using Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…

  4. 20 CFR 628.701 - Program goals and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program goals and objectives. 628.701 Section 628.701 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER... (including mathematics and reading comprehension); encouragement of school completion or enrollment...

  5. 20 CFR 628.701 - Program goals and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program goals and objectives. 628.701 Section 628.701 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER... (including mathematics and reading comprehension); encouragement of school completion or enrollment...

  6. Thoughts on Higher Educational Purposes and Goals: A Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R.

    1974-01-01

    Still valid today, the 85 "Theses" from the 1971 Assembly on University Goals and Governance opened with an emphasis on equality of higher educational opportunity. Emphases in the future should also include diversity and differentiation of institutions, comprehensive curricular reform, and absolute commitment to lifetime learning. (JH)

  7. Structuring Training Goals for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A multiaxial model that structures educational goals for psychodynamic psychotherapy has been developed. It specifies core aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clusters them in categories that further define and link related areas, and presents a sequence that enables educators and students to focus on training goals in a consistent progression. This model has been used by the Director of Education as a basis for developing the curriculum, by students as a way of focusing learning and giving perspective to current work, and by supervisors to link individual teaching to the goals of the training program. This method has enhanced consistency, clarity, and efficiency in the psychotherapy program. PMID:9407472

  8. Goal Analysis: Plan Recognition in Dialogue Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    explained matches more than one planfor in long-term memory. For example, the ques- tion: User: Do you know how to print a file on the imagen ? can be...Abelson’s concept of an instru- mental goal is an absolute one; a particular goal is either an instrumental goal or it isn’t. Thus, getting a loan is... Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language. The MIT Press, 1985. Richard E. Fikes and Nils J. Nilsson. STRIPS: A new approach to

  9. Aristotle, Hume and the goals of medicine.

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, David

    2016-08-01

    Whilst medicine is now an immense global industry clinicians often appear unclear as to its goals. This paper uses two philosophical steps to clarify our conceptualization of health and thus our goals for healthcare. Firstly, clinicians need to understand the significance of Hume's fact / value distinction in medicine, for medicine relies on both facts and values. Secondly clinicians need a better specified definition of 'health' to use as a goal for healthcare. Aristotle's model of human flourishing is used as the starting point for a new conceptualization of health.

  10. Life Goals in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Robb, Sheri L.; Rand, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Purposes of this systematic review of life goal research in cancer patients were to: 1) identify life goal characteristics and processes being examined, 2) describe instruments used to assess life goal constructs, 3) identify theoretical models being used to guide research, and 4) summarize what is known about the impact of the cancer experience on life goal characteristics, processes, and psychological outcomes. Methods We conducted this systematic review using MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) published between 1993 and 2014, 2) English language, 3) cancer patient population, and 4) original research articles that assessed life goal characteristics and/or goal processes. One-hundred ninety-seven articles were screened and 27 included in the final review. Results Seven life goal characteristics and seven life goal processes were identified, and less than half of studies investigated associations between goal characteristics and processes. Conceptual definitions were not provided for about half of the identified life goal constructs. Studies used both validated and author-developed instruments to assess goal constructs. Twenty-four different theoretical models were identified, with self-regulation theory most frequently cited. Overall, the literature suggests that cancer impacts patients’ life goal characteristics and processes, and life goal disturbance is related to poorer psychological outcomes. Conclusions The impact of the cancer experience on life goals is an important and emerging area of research that would benefit from conceptual and theoretical clarity and measurement consistency. PMID:25990641

  11. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  12. Motivation and goals of ERL 2005

    SciTech Connect

    S. Chattopadhyay

    2005-03-19

    Various types of ERL sources are introduced, the relevant beam physics and accelerator technology issues noted, innovative areas of development identified and current and future goals of ERL research and development established.

  13. Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.

    Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.

  14. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) textbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickison, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.

  15. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  16. The Physiology of Early Goal-Directed Therapy for Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lief, Lindsay; Arbo, John; Berlin, David A

    2016-10-05

    In 2001, Rivers and colleagues published a randomized controlled trial of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for the treatment of sepsis. More than a decade later, it remains a landmark achievement. The study proved the benefits of early aggressive treatment of sepsis. However, many questions remain about specific aspects of the complex EGDT algorithm. Recently, 3 large trials attempted to replicate these results. None of the studies demonstrated a benefit of an EGDT protocol for sepsis. This review explores the physiologic basis of goal-directed therapy, including the hemodynamic targets and the therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the physiologic basis of EGDT helps reconcile the results of the clinical trials.

  17. Goal Certainty Modulates Infants' Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Ivanina; Elsner, Claudia; Elsner, Birgit; Wilkinson, Nick; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether 12-month-old infants rely on information about the certainty of goal selection in order to predict observed reaching actions. Infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed action sequences in a multiple-goals design. We found that 12-month-old infants exhibited gaze shifts significantly earlier when…

  18. Moving beyond Academic Achievement Goal Measures: A Study of Social Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2007-01-01

    The current research explored the theory of social goal orientation. More specifically, we conducted three studies utilizing six-independent university student samples to evaluate the construct validity of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (SAGOS; Ryan & Hopkins, 2003), a measure representing the construct of social goal orientation.…

  19. The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth…

  20. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  1. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  2. Compilation of Fall 1974 Goals, Subgoals and Priorities Meeting Goals Collection Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Systems Planning Corp., Sacramento, CA.

    California school districts reported their goals, subgoals, and priorities by matching statements to those in a catalog of 279 possible educational goals developed by a state legislature subcommittee. This report compiles data collected from 217 school districts that met certain goals collection criteria. Data from the remaining 614 participating…

  3. Achieving the Goals: Goal 1. All Children in America Will Start School Ready To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    "Reaching the Goals" is a series of eight books designed to inform people involved in education reform, or people who want to be involved, of the myriad of programs and resources that are available from the Federal Government to support each of the National Education Goals defined in 1990. This first book is dedicated to Goal 1,…

  4. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  5. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly increased…

  6. Genes, hosts, goals: disentangling causal dependencies.

    PubMed

    Merker, Bjorn

    2014-04-01

    The special sense in which the concept of "selfishness" is defined in Dawkins's popularization of basic evolutionary theory is analyzed with regard to its applicability to the relation between goals and those who entertain and pursue them. It is concluded that grounds analogous to those on which independent self-interest vis-á-vis their hosts is attributed to genes in Dawkins's sense are lacking in the case of goals in their relation to those who entertain and pursue them.

  7. Domain-Independent Heuristics for Goal Formulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    While this increases autonomy, it employs a domain- dependent reward function; indirectly, LGDA’s goal selection strategy is guided by a human. MADBot...autonomy for responding to unexpected events in strategy simulations. To appear in Computational Intelligence. Molineaux, M., Klenk, M., & Aha, D.W...2010a). Goal-driven autonomy in a Navy strategy simulation. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Atlanta

  8. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  9. Thermal and cost goal analysis for passive solar heating designs

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, S.A.; Kirschner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Economic methodologies developed over the past several years for the design of residential solar systems have been based on life cycle cost (LCC) minimization. Because of uncertainties involving future economic conditions and the varied decision making processes of home designers, builders, and owners, LCC design approaches are not always appropriate. To deal with some of the constraints that enter the design process, and to narrow the number of variables to those that do not depend on future economic conditions, a simplified thermal and cost goal approach for passive designs is presented. Arithmetic and graphical approaches are presented with examples given for each. Goals discussed include simple payback, solar savings fraction, collection area, maximum allowable construction budget, variable cost goals, and Btu savings.

  10. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  11. The Double-Edged Sword of Goal Engagement: Consequences of Goal Pursuit in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies suggest that bipolar disorder is related to high sensitivity to incentives and that incentive sensitivity (or sensitivity of the approach system) can predict the course of mania. Incentive sensitivity in bipolar disorder seems to be related to two processes: a tendency to invest in difficult-to-attain goals and an over-reactivity to cues of goal progress versus thwarting. Both of those processes appear relevant to symptom generation. Hence, bipolar disorder seems related to a greater emphasis on reaching goals and also a problematic reactivity to reaching those highly desired goals. We suggest directions for treatment development focused on these issues in goal regulation. PMID:22610999

  12. Self-regulation and goal theories in brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Tessa; Evans, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Goal planning is a central concept in the clinical practice of rehabilitation. Several disciplines within psychology and medicine have elaborated theories related to goal attainment and self-regulation, the process of managing one's own goal-directed behavior. These theories may be highly relevant to brain injury rehabilitation both to help address characteristic deficits in executive function and to teach clients how to manage life tasks outside of formal rehabilitation. In this article, we describe testable, theoretically motivated interventions at 2 levels: the goal level focused on attaining or enhancing performance on individual tasks and the self-regulation level of metacognitive processes involved in planning and managing one's own goal-directed behavior. We also discuss issues in experimental methodology that are important to adapting this area of research to brain injury rehabilitation, including consideration of cognitive status and other individual differences in selecting the participant sample, choice of between-subjects versus within-subjects experimental design, and selection of appropriate outcome measures.

  13. Anterior hippocampus and goal-directed spatial decision making.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Doeller, Christian F; Hartley, Tom; Bird, Chris M; Burgess, Neil

    2011-03-23

    Planning spatial paths through our environment is an important part of everyday life and is supported by a neural system including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated the precise functional roles of the components of this system in humans by using fMRI as participants performed a simple goal-directed route-planning task. Participants had to choose the shorter of two routes to a goal in a visual scene that might contain a barrier blocking the most direct route, requiring a detour, or might be obscured by a curtain, requiring memory for the scene. The participant's start position was varied to parametrically manipulate their proximity to the goal and the difference in length of the two routes. Activity in medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and left posterior parietal cortex was associated with detour planning, regardless of difficulty, whereas activity in parahippocampal gyrus was associated with remembering the spatial layout of the visual scene. Activity in bilateral anterior hippocampal formation showed a strong increase the closer the start position was to the goal, together with medial prefrontal, medial and posterior parietal cortices. Our results are consistent with computational models in which goal proximity is used to guide subsequent navigation and with the association of anterior hippocampal areas with nonspatial functions such as arousal and reward expectancy. They illustrate how spatial and nonspatial functions combine within the anterior hippocampus, and how these functions interact with parahippocampal, parietal, and prefrontal areas in decision making and mnemonic function.

  14. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    As our experience grows, space missions and systems are expected to address ever more complex and demanding requirements with fewer resources (e.g., mass, power, budget). One approach to accommodating these higher expectations is to increase the level of autonomy to improve the capabilities and robustness of on- board systems and to simplify operations. The goal decomposition hierarchies described here provide a simple but powerful form of goal-directed behavior that is relatively easy to implement for space systems. A goal corresponds to a state or condition that an operator of the space system would like to bring about. In the system described here goals are decomposed into simpler subgoals until the subgoals are simple enough to execute directly. For each goal there is an activation condition and a set of decompositions. The decompositions correspond to different ways of achieving the higher level goal. Each decomposition contains a gating condition and a set of subgoals to be "executed" sequentially or in parallel. The gating conditions are evaluated in order and for the first one that is true, the corresponding decomposition is executed in order to achieve the higher level goal. The activation condition specifies global conditions (i.e., for all decompositions of the goal) that need to hold in order for the goal to be achieved. In real-time, parameters and state information are passed between goals and subgoals in the decomposition; a termination indication (success, failure, degree) is passed up when a decomposition finishes executing. The lowest level decompositions include servo control loops and finite state machines for generating control signals and sequencing i/o. Semaphores and shared memory are used to synchronize and coordinate decompositions that execute in parallel. The goal decomposition hierarchy is reactive in that the generated behavior is sensitive to the real-time state of the system and the environment. That is, the system is able to react

  15. Representation of Cognitive Reappraisal Goals in Frontal Gamma Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35–55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  16. Neural correlates of reflection on goal states: the role of regulatory focus and temporal distance.

    PubMed

    Packer, Dominic J; Cunningham, William A

    2009-01-01

    Effective self-regulation requires the ability to consider alternate goal states in order to adapt to shifting circumstances. Previous research on goal reflection has identified goal-type dissociations in brain regions broadly associated with self-projection. Importantly, however, there is a need to distinguish activation differences due to recruitment of distinct processes from activations that reflect common processes with varying levels of recruitment. The fact that different types of goals tend to covary naturally with time allowed us to vary the difficulty of goal reflection across content domains. Participants in an fMRI study thought about promotion or prevention goals at three time points. Goals that varied in terms of content, time-frame, valence, and abstractness but were difficult to construct (relative to other goals) activated an area of dorsal medial PFC, suggesting that this region may support general-purpose projective processes. In contrast, goals that were easy to construct activated a region of dorsolateral PFC involved in domain-general memory retrieval. Importantly, we also observed domain-specific effects of goal type and temporal distance; promotion goals were associated with heightened activity in medial PFC, short-term goals activated precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex, and longer-term goals activated frontal areas, including ventrolateral PFC and orbitofrontal cortex.

  17. Joint attention, shared goals and social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel social closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task whilst sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e. averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any significant effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected co-actors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  18. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another.

  19. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J Mark G

    2010-12-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whether such interventions might alter CGS. Study 1 examined the correlation between changes in dispositional mindfulness and changes in CGS over a 3-4 month period in patients participating in a pilot randomised controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Results indicated that increases in dispositional mindfulness were significantly associated with decreases in CGS, although this effect could not be attributed specifically to the group who had received training in meditation. Study 2 explored the impact of brief periods of either breathing or loving kindness meditation on CGS in 55 healthy participants. Contrary to expectation, a brief period of meditation increased CGS. Further analyses indicated that this effect was restricted to participants low in goal re-engagement ability who were allocated to loving kindness meditation. Longer term changes in dispositional mindfulness are associated with reductions in CGS in patients with depressed mood. However initial reactions to meditation, and in particular loving kindness meditation, may be counterintuitive and further research is required in order to determine the relationship between initial reactions and longer-term benefits of meditation practice.

  20. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    PubMed

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  1. Nurse Communication About Goals of Care.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Goldsmith, Joy; Buller, Haley; Neiman, Tammy

    2016-03-01

    Conversations about goals of care with the patient and family are a critical component of advanced practice in oncology. However, there are often inadequate team structures, training, or resources available to assist advanced practitioners in initiating these conversations. We conducted a study to assess nurses' perceived role and communication tasks in such conversations about goals of care. In a cross-sectional survey of 109 nurses attending a comprehensive 2-day end-of-life nursing education course, nurses were asked to describe how they would participate in a "goals of care" meeting in three different scenarios. They were also asked what changes they desired in their clinical settings. Nurses overwhelmingly described that their primary task and communication role was to assess patient/family understanding. Nurses referenced their team members and team support with the least frequency across scenarios. Team roles, structure, and process were reported as areas in greatest need of change in patient/family goals of care meetings. These findings demonstrate that lack of preparation to function as a team is a barrier for nurses in communicating about goals of care, and there is a demand to move such conversations upstream in oncology care.

  2. Nurse Communication About Goals of Care

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Goldsmith, Joy; Buller, Haley; Neiman, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Conversations about goals of care with the patient and family are a critical component of advanced practice in oncology. However, there are often inadequate team structures, training, or resources available to assist advanced practitioners in initiating these conversations. We conducted a study to assess nurses’ perceived role and communication tasks in such conversations about goals of care. In a cross-sectional survey of 109 nurses attending a comprehensive 2-day end-of-life nursing education course, nurses were asked to describe how they would participate in a "goals of care" meeting in three different scenarios. They were also asked what changes they desired in their clinical settings. Nurses overwhelmingly described that their primary task and communication role was to assess patient/family understanding. Nurses referenced their team members and team support with the least frequency across scenarios. Team roles, structure, and process were reported as areas in greatest need of change in patient/family goals of care meetings. These findings demonstrate that lack of preparation to function as a team is a barrier for nurses in communicating about goals of care, and there is a demand to move such conversations upstream in oncology care. PMID:28090365

  3. Exploring preferences for domain-specific goal management in patients with polyarthritis: what to do when an important goal becomes threatened?

    PubMed

    Arends, Roos Y; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-11-01

    Usually priorities in goal management--intended to minimize discrepancies between a given and desired situation--are studied as person characteristics, neglecting possible domain-specific aspects. However, people may make different decisions in different situations depending on the importance of the personal issues at stake. Aim of the present study therefore was to develop arthritis-related vignettes to examine domain-specific goal management and to explore patients' preferences. Based on interviews and literature, situation-specific hypothetical stories were developed in which the main character encounters a problem with a valued goal due to arthritis. Thirty-one patients (61 % female, mean age 60 years) evaluated the face validity of the newly developed vignettes. Secondly, 262 patients (60 % female, mean age 63 years) were asked to come up with possible solutions for the problems with attaining a goal described in a subset of the vignettes. Goal management strategies within the responses and the preference for the various strategies were identified. The 11 developed vignettes in three domains were found to be face-valid. In 90 % of the responses, goal management strategies were identified (31 % goal maintenance, 29 % goal adjustment, 21 % goal disengagement, and 10 % goal re-engagement). Strategy preference was related to domains. Solutions containing goal disengagement were the least preferred. Using vignettes for measuring domain-specific goal management appears as valuable addition to the existing questionnaires. The vignettes can be used to study how patients with arthritis cope with threatened goals in specific domains from a patient's perspective. Domain-specific strategy preference emphasizes the importance of a situation-specific instrument.

  4. Structural Optimization for Reliability Using Nonlinear Goal Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed E.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development of a reliability based multi-objective design tool for solving structural optimization problems. Based on two different optimization techniques, namely sequential unconstrained minimization and nonlinear goal programming, the developed design method has the capability to take into account the effects of variability on the proposed design through a user specified reliability design criterion. In its sequential unconstrained minimization mode, the developed design tool uses a composite objective function, in conjunction with weight ordered design objectives, in order to take into account conflicting and multiple design criteria. Multiple design criteria of interest including structural weight, load induced stress and deflection, and mechanical reliability. The nonlinear goal programming mode, on the other hand, provides for a design method that eliminates the difficulty of having to define an objective function and constraints, while at the same time has the capability of handling rank ordered design objectives or goals. For simulation purposes the design of a pressure vessel cover plate was undertaken as a test bed for the newly developed design tool. The formulation of this structural optimization problem into sequential unconstrained minimization and goal programming form is presented. The resulting optimization problem was solved using: (i) the linear extended interior penalty function method algorithm; and (ii) Powell's conjugate directions method. Both single and multi-objective numerical test cases are included demonstrating the design tool's capabilities as it applies to this design problem.

  5. Changing Relationship Growth Belief: Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Consequences of Compassionate Goals

    PubMed Central

    Canevello, Amy; Crocker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The belief that difficulties can lead to growth in relationships, or growth belief, has consequences for relationships (e.g., Knee, 1998). But what predicts change in this belief? We hypothesized that compassionate goals to support others (Crocker & Canevello, 2008) predict increased growth belief through increased need satisfaction. In Study 1, 199 college freshmen reported their friendship growth belief and goals. In Study 2, 65 roommate pairs reported their roommate growth belief, goals, and need satisfaction. Across studies, compassionate goals predicted increased growth belief. In Study 2, goals predicted increased perceived mutual need satisfaction, which predicted increased growth belief. Additionally, partners’ compassionate goals predicted actors’ increased growth belief. Results suggest that growth beliefs are shaped by goals – own and others’. PMID:21949478

  6. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  7. Nuclear Technology for the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Science, technology and innovation will play a crucial role in helping countries achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since the discovery of nuclear fission in the 1930s, the peaceful applications of nuclear technology have helped many countries improve crops, fight pests, advance health, protect the environment and guarantee a stable supply of energy. Highlighting the goals related to health, hunger, energy and the environment, in this presentation I will discuss how nuclear technology contributes to the SDGs and how nuclear technology can further contribute to the well-being of people, help protect the planet and boost prosperity.

  8. [Fluid management: goal-directed therapy].

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Matthias; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT) is one important step in perioperative therapy as it improves complication rate and mortality by optimisation of oxygen delivery. There is a convincing evidence for GDT when used early, before organ failure occurs, and in high-risk patients. Moderne algorithms use goals derived from advanced haemodynamic monitoring and are based on the concept of fluid responsiveness and optimisation of global perfusion. Future investigations will have to prove the advantage of using the new less or non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring devices or automatic closed-loop fluid administration systems for GDT.

  9. Retrosplenial Cortical Neurons Encode Navigational Cues, Trajectories and Reward Locations During Goal Directed Navigation.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Miller, Adam M P; Harrison, Marc B; Smith, David M

    2016-07-29

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays an important role in memory and spatial navigation. It shares functional similarities with the hippocampus, including the presence of place fields and lesion-induced impairments in spatial navigation, and the RSC is an important source of visual-spatial input to the hippocampus. Recently, the RSC has been the target of intense scrutiny among investigators of human memory and navigation. fMRI and lesion data suggest an RSC role in the ability to use landmarks to navigate to goal locations. However, no direct neurophysiological evidence of encoding navigational cues has been reported so the specific RSC contribution to spatial cognition has been uncertain. To examine this, we trained rats on a T-maze task in which the reward location was explicitly cued by a flashing light and we recorded RSC neurons as the rats learned. We found that RSC neurons rapidly encoded the light cue. Additionally, RSC neurons encoded the reward and its location, and they showed distinct firing patterns along the left and right trajectories to the goal. These responses may provide key information for goal-directed navigation, and the loss of these signals may underlie navigational impairments in subjects with RSC damage.

  10. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  11. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  12. Using Growth Norms to Set Instructional Goals for Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…

  13. Unconscious goals: specific or unspecific? The potential harm of the goal/gene analogy.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2014-04-01

    Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) definition of goals is ambiguous between "specific goals" - the end-state of a token action I am about to perform - and "unspecific goals" - the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework.

  14. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  15. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  16. Cenozoic biodiversity: goals, challenges and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, David

    2014-05-01

    Understanding biodiversity is a major goal of modern science. Biologists document living diversity; study the factors that maintain it, and the effects biodiversity has on ecosystem services. Paleontologists try to understand these same issues by examining biodiversity in the geologic past, and how this history correlates to changes in past environments. Both research agendas are driven by concerns about how biodiversity can be sustained into the future, despite human impacts on biodiversity, including climate change. Measuring biodiversity is a major challenge. Generally only a subset of the total diversity that exist(s/ed) at any one location can actually be recorded, due to rarity of many species, or (for fossils) species that were not preserved. Taxa occurrence data not collected for biodiversity studies is also frequently incompletely recorded. Incomplete, inconsistent taxonomy; and for fossils also incorrect geologic ages for observations are other major sources of error. Several different methods are used to correct for these problems, such as subsampling occurrence data or using expert-compiled taxonomic catalogs. No method is normally fully satisfactory, but, depending on data quality, can often yield useful approximations of actual (usually relative) diversity. Assuming that diversity has been accurately estimated, a second challenge comes in comparing diversity to possible causal factors. A common approach is a statistical comparison between diversity and environmental data series. Whether this is a meaningful exercise depends on the underlying statistical model, and whether this is similar to the processes that we are trying to understand. If for example, we suspect diversity to respond largely only when environmental thresholds are crossed, a linear regression test is not very informative. Our understanding of possible processes is however still primitive, and a poor guide to model selection and analysis. Scale is also important (temporal, geographic

  17. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  18. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  19. Mapping to Curricular and Institutional Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, D'Arcy J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will discuss how institutional research professionals might integrate co-curricular learning outcomes into larger measures of institutional effectiveness. By mapping co-curricular learning outcomes to align with curricular and institutional goals, linkages can be made that demonstrate mission-congruent activities and outcomes across…

  20. 28 CFR 544.81 - Program goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program goals. 544.81 Section 544.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION... marketable skill through one or more programs of Occupation Education (OE); (d) Complete one or...

  1. CETA Goal Making: Perception and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Haskel D., II.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes alternative staff and participant perceptions regarding the goals of the CETA program in Tennessee. The perceptions regarded the relative importance of the economic, personal development, and social outcomes of participating in a CETA program. It was concluded that avoidance of staff stereotyping of clientele would benefit the program.…

  2. Rural Youth and Anticipatory Goal Deflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.; And Others

    Race, sex, community size, occupation of major wage earner, father's education, mother's education, and certainty of expectations were the variables used in this study to determine the "anticipatory occupational goal deflection" (AOGD) of urban and rural youth (blacks and whites) in Louisiana. Least squares analysis of variance and other…

  3. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  4. Accomplishing Multiple Goals through Community Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jody

    2007-01-01

    With schools being asked to accomplish more and more, it is increasingly important to, whenever possible, address multiple goals in teaching. Educating the whole child dictates that we find ways to ensure our graduates are well-rounded, independent thinkers capable of becoming well-adjusted, contributing adults. Thus community service has become a…

  5. University Student's Goal Profiles and Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, undergraduate students provided confidence ratings to predict future performance in answering questions drawn from the text before reading the text, after reading the text and after rereading the text. Self-reports of achievement goal orientations during reading and posttest scores were also collected. Student's calibration index…

  6. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation... provided to meet social, physical, psychological, and overall wellness needs of inmates. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation... provided to meet social, physical, psychological, and overall wellness needs of inmates. (a)...

  8. Managing Mission, Program Goals and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four articles about education for library and information studies in the United States discuss philosophies, goals, and objectives of graduate programs; the history and status of undergraduate degree and certification programs; the differentiation between master's, postmaster's, and doctoral programs; and the impact of professional associations on…

  9. Stability and Change in Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, James W.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of stability and change in achievement goal endorsement over time, using 4 complementary data-analytic approaches (differential continuity, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity). Three longitudinal studies were conducted in college classrooms; in each study, achievement goals…

  10. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  11. Tying Individual Dreams to Organizational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossop, Catherine

    Most people want to learn, grow and achieve their career dreams. Linking individuals' career aspirations to organizational goals can be challenging, yet it is the foundation for personal and organizational success. This chapter discusses how to use learning objectives to link career learning or development to organizational strategy. Using a…

  12. National Goals Prove An Elusive Target

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, David M.

    1972-01-01

    Reports the results of a three-day workshop sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Social and physical scientists discussed some of the broad questions regarding the role of science and technology in national goals. (Author/TS)

  13. Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care…

  14. True North: Goals for Denver Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell-Kay Foundation (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many metrics along K-12 education may serve as indicators of potential success, but they are not goals. Students must leave the public school system at least proficient enough to face the tasks ahead. At the moment when students depart the K-12 system to enter college or career, it matters neither how proficient they were years before, nor the…

  15. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  16. Scientific Goals of the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project, an effort to sequence all the DNA of a human cell, is needed to better understand the behavior of chromosomes during cell division, with the ultimate goal of understanding the specific genes contributing to specific diseases and disabilities. (MSE)

  17. Striving for Excellence: The National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    This compilation of ERIC Digests describes issues, highlights exemplary programs and promising practices, and explains research results that can assist educators in achieving the far-reaching national education goals adopted by the President and the governors in 1990. The two lead digests are "An Overview of the Six National Education…

  18. Parental Goals and Child Self-Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri

    Participating in an initial investigation of parental goals and guidance techniques related to child self-regulation, 15 parent-child dyads were videotaped in their homes while engaged in four functional tasks: a laundry folding task, an animal matching task, while mixing a snack, and while putting on a smock. The children, averaging 7 and…

  19. 28 CFR 544.81 - Program goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.81 Program goals. The Warden shall ensure that an inmate with the need, capacity, and sufficient time to serve, has the opportunity to: (a)...

  20. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  1. Essential Goals and Objectives for Computer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Developed by the Michigan State Board of Education, this document begins with brief discussions of a philosophy for the integration of computers into all content areas and district planning for computer use in schools. Essential goals and objectives for computer education are then outlined in the following areas: (1) computing and its evolving…

  2. New FCC Goal in Ownership Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Josh

    By first describing the historical stance of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) toward ownership of broadcast facilities and then describing the FCC's most recent policy statements, this report compares the differing viewpoints and recognizes that the new value or goal that seems to have been established conflicts with the past emphasis…

  3. Children's Memory for Goal-Directed Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara

    1991-01-01

    Investigates whether children's representations of the linguistic description of a goal-directed event was similar to their representation of the same event observed visually. Finds that mode of presentation did not affect the recall of most important actions, but that verbal description led to recall characterized by greater cohesion than visual…

  4. ALA Drafts Goals for WHCLIS to Consider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Russell

    1979-01-01

    Presents a draft of a statement articulating the American Library Association's goals for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services in the areas of libraries' social value, library funding, literacy programs, outreach policies, national planning, and access to information. (FM)

  5. Goals & Objectives Statements. SPEC Kit 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of statements of goals and objectives from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) sections from management review and analysis program reports from the University of Washington Libraries and the University of Rochester Library; (2) a detailed organization description from the Columbia…

  6. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  7. Mentoring Beginning Teachers and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Australia has delineated a new direction for teacher education by embedding mentoring programs for teachers who support early-careers teachers as a system approach. This case study investigated how mentors after involvement in a mentoring professional learning program focused on goal setting with beginning teachers in their schools. Data were…

  8. Goal-Directed Action Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyere, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of individuals with autism to represent goal-directed behavioural actions. We compared the performance of subjects with autism (n=16), mentally retarded subjects (n=14) and normal healthy subjects (n=15) in a sequencing task consisted in arranging pictures of single events in their…

  9. Navajo Health Authority: Accomplishments--Future Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    Accomplishments of the Navajo Health Authority (NHA) since it began in 1972 are presented in synopsis form in a report of programs underway at Window Rock and Shiprock, along with NHA goals: to promote development of Navajo Health manpower, preventive medicine, health education, and native healing sciences. After a brief review of executive and…

  10. Parental Goals and Italian Infant Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, Rebecca Staples

    1988-01-01

    Data suggest that strategies of infant care at any one point in time may reflect not just one but all three concerns (for physical well-being, economic feasibility, and cultural ideologies) itemized in LeVine's (1974) hierarchy. Child care strategies that serve multiple goals have the best chance of surviving when environmental circumstances…

  11. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  12. Parental Engagement Proves No Easy Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Few would quarrel with the goal of increasing parents' and families' engagement in education in the name of school improvement. But there is far less consensus on what that engagement should look like--and on how educators and policymakers should be promoting it. Those questions are evident in the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which…

  13. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent.

  14. In Law and Policy: AAMR Legislative and Social Goals: 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    1988-1989 legislative and social goals of the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are outlined. Priorities focus on Medicaid reform, constitutional and civil rights, capital punishment and the criminal justice system, and staff compensation rates. Twenty additional goals in such areas as family support and tax reform are also…

  15. Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

  16. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  17. Are Teachers' Psychological Control, Autonomy Support and Autonomy Suppression Associated with Students' Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…

  18. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  19. Transient neuronal correlations underlying goal selection and maintenance in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Genovesio, Aldo; Wise, Steven P

    2008-12-01

    We reported previously that as monkeys used abstract response strategies to choose spatial goals, 1 population of prefrontal cortex neurons encoded future goals (F cells), whereas a largely separate population encoded previous goals (P cells). Here, to better understand the mechanisms of goal selection and maintenance, we studied correlated activity among pairs of these neurons. Among the 3 possible types of pairs, F-F and F-P pairs often exhibited significant correlations when and after monkeys selected future goals but P-P pairs rarely did. These correlations were stronger when monkeys shifted from a previous goal than when they stayed with that goal. In addition, members of F-F pairs usually preferred the same goal and thus shared both prospective coding and spatial tuning properties. In contrast, cells composing F-P pairs usually had different spatial preferences and thus shared neither coding nor spatial tuning properties. On the assumption that the neurons composing a pair send convergent outputs to target neurons, their correlated activity could enhance their efficacy in context-dependent goal selection, goal maintenance, and the transformation of goal choices into action.

  20. Goal-directed Resuscitative Interventions during Pediatric Interfacility Transport

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Michael H; Sanders, Ronald C; Moss, M Michele; Sullivan, Janice E; Prodhan, Parthak; Melguizo-Castro, Maria; Nick, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This manuscript reports results of the first NIH-funded prospective interfacility transport study, to determine the effect of goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric team to critically ill children with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). We hypothesized that goal-directed therapy during interfacility transport would decrease hospital length of stay, prevent multiple organ dysfunction, and reduce subsequent ICU interventions. Methods Prospective data was collected on all pediatric interfacility transport patients with SIRS transported by the Angel One Transport team at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. A 10 month data collection period was followed by institution of a goal-directed resuscitation protocol. Data was subsequently collected for 10 additional months followed by comparison of pre and post-intervention groups. All transport personnel underwent training with didactics and high-fidelity simulation until mastery with goal-directed resuscitation was achieved. Results All transport patients were screened for SIRS using established parameters, and 235 (123 pre-intervention; 112 post-intervention) were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed shorter hospital stay (11±15vs.7±10days; p=0.02) and fewer required therapeutic ICU interventions in the post-intervention group (TISS-28 scores:19.4±6.8vs.17.3; p=0.04). ICU stay and incidence of organ dysfunction were not statistically different. Multi-variable analysis showed a 1.6 day (95%CI:1.3-2.03; p=0.02) decrease in hospital stay in the post-intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric transport team has the potential to impact the outcomes of critically ill children. Findings from this study should be confirmed across multiple institutions, but have the potential to impact the clinical outcomes of critically ill children with SIRS. PMID:25860203

  1. GOAL: automated Gene Ontology analysis of expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Volinia, Stefano; Evangelisti, Rita; Francioso, Francesca; Arcelli, Diego; Carella, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    One of the most common problems encountered while deciphering results from expression profiling experiments is in relating differential expression of genes to molecular functions and cellular processes. A second important problem is that of comparing experiments performed by different labs using different microarray platforms, or even unrelated techniques. Gene Ontology (GO) is now used to describe biological features, since GO terms are associated with genes, to overcome the apparent distance between expression profiles and biological comprehension. Here we describe the development, implementation and use of GOAL (Gene Ontology Automated Lexicon), a web-based application for the identification of functions and processes regulated in microarray and SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) experiments. We applied GOAL to a range of experimental datasets related to different biological problems, including cancer and the cell cycle. By using GOAL, reported and novel relevant processes were identified in a number of experiments by our collaborators and by us. Different datasets could also be compared with each other to define conserved functional modules. GOAL allows a seamless and high-level analysis of expression profiles and is implemented as a free WWW resource (http://microarrays.unife.it).

  2. The COGs (context, object, and goals) in multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    ten Oever, Sanne; Romei, Vincenzo; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Murray, Micah M; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how perception operates in real-world environments has been substantially advanced by studying both multisensory processes and "top-down" control processes influencing sensory processing via activity from higher-order brain areas, such as attention, memory, and expectations. As the two topics have been traditionally studied separately, the mechanisms orchestrating real-world multisensory processing remain unclear. Past work has revealed that the observer's goals gate the influence of many multisensory processes on brain and behavioural responses, whereas some other multisensory processes might occur independently of these goals. Consequently, other forms of top-down control beyond goal dependence are necessary to explain the full range of multisensory effects currently reported at the brain and the cognitive level. These forms of control include sensitivity to stimulus context as well as the detection of matches (or lack thereof) between a multisensory stimulus and categorical attributes of naturalistic objects (e.g. tools, animals). In this review we discuss and integrate the existing findings that demonstrate the importance of such goal-, object- and context-based top-down control over multisensory processing. We then put forward a few principles emerging from this literature review with respect to the mechanisms underlying multisensory processing and discuss their possible broader implications.

  3. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  4. Mapping the goal space: personality integration and higher-order goals.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B

    2014-04-01

    By situating goals at the heart of human cognitive function, Huang & Bargh (H&B) provide a useful platform for understanding the process of personality integration as the gradual mapping of implicit motives into a coherently organized self-system. This integrative process is a critical feature of human development that must be accounted for by any complete goal theory.

  5. Shaped Goals: Teaching Undergraduates the Effects of Social Stratification on the Formulation of Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touzard, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an in-class activity that helps undergraduate students to understand the effects of their socio-economic position on the formulation, pursuit, and achievement of goals. Social stratification and inequality have an initial impact on the formulation of goals. Through this exercise students will perceive the effects of having a…

  6. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  7. The Tenacious Goal Pursuit and Flexible Goal Adjustment Scales: Examination of Their Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Kim, Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the unidimensionality of the Tenacious Goal Pursuit (TGP) and Flexible Goal Adjustment (FGA) scales and examined the relationships of the factors measured in these scales with two criterion constructs (happiness and self-acceptance) and with age in a sample 292 adults (ranging from 50 to 90 years). Confirmatory factor analyses…

  8. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new representation that enables rigorous definition and decomposition of both nominal and off-nominal system goals and functions: the Goal-Function Tree (GFT). GFTs extend the concept and process of functional decomposition, utilizing state variables as a key mechanism to ensure physical and logical consistency and completeness of the decomposition of goals (requirements) and functions, and enabling full and complete traceabilitiy to the design. The GFT also provides for means to define and represent off-nominal goals and functions that are activated when the system's nominal goals are not met. The physical accuracy of the GFT, and its ability to represent both nominal and off-nominal goals enable the GFT to be used for various analyses of the system, including assessments of the completeness and traceability of system goals and functions, the coverage of fault management failure detections, and definition of system failure scenarios.

  9. An expanded framework for biomolecular visualization in the classroom: Learning goals and competencies

    PubMed Central

    Dries, Daniel R.; Dean, Diane M.; Listenberger, Laura L.; Novak, Walter R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A thorough understanding of the molecular biosciences requires the ability to visualize and manipulate molecules in order to interpret results or to generate hypotheses. While many instructors in biochemistry and molecular biology use visual representations, few indicate that they explicitly teach visual literacy. One reason is the need for a list of core content and competencies to guide a more deliberate instruction in visual literacy. We offer here the second stage in the development of one such resource for biomolecular three‐dimensional visual literacy. We present this work with the goal of building a community for online resource development and use. In the first stage, overarching themes were identified and submitted to the biosciences community for comment: atomic geometry; alternate renderings; construction/annotation; het group recognition; molecular dynamics; molecular interactions; monomer recognition; symmetry/asymmetry recognition; structure‐function relationships; structural model skepticism; and topology and connectivity. Herein, the overarching themes have been expanded to include a 12th theme (macromolecular assemblies), 27 learning goals, and more than 200 corresponding objectives, many of which cut across multiple overarching themes. The learning goals and objectives offered here provide educators with a framework on which to map the use of molecular visualization in their classrooms. In addition, the framework may also be used by biochemistry and molecular biology educators to identify gaps in coverage and drive the creation of new activities to improve visual literacy. This work represents the first attempt, to our knowledge, to catalog a comprehensive list of explicit learning goals and objectives in visual literacy. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):69–75, 2017. PMID:27486685

  10. Targeted Interventions Improve Shared Agreement of Daily Goals in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Kyle J; Uhl, Tammy L; Meliones, Jon N; Turner, David A; Smith, P Brian; Mistry, Kshitij P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve communication during daily rounds using sequential interventions. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Multidisciplinary pediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital. Subjects The multidisciplinary rounding team in the pediatric intensive care unit, including attending physicians, physician trainees, and nurses. Interventions Daily rounds on 736 patients were observed over a nine month period. Sequential interventions were timed 8–12 weeks apart: (1) Implementing a new resident daily progress note format, (2) creating a performance improvement `dashboard,' and (3) documenting patients' daily goals on bedside whiteboards. Measurements and Main Results Following all interventions, team agreement with the attending physician's stated daily goals increased from 56.9% to 82.7% (p < 0.0001). Mean agreement increased for each provider category: 65.2% to 88.8% for fellows (p < 0.0001), 55.0% to 83.8% for residents (p < 0.0001), and 54.1% to 77.4% for nurses (p < 0.0001). In addition, significant improvements were noted in provider behaviors following interventions. Barriers to communication (bedside nurse multitasking during rounds, interruptions during patient presentations, and group disassociation) were reduced, and the use of communication facilitators (review of the prior day's goals, inclusion of bedside nurse input, and order read back) increased. The percentage of providers reporting being `very satisfied' or `satisfied' with rounds increased from 42.6% to 78.3%, (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Shared agreement of patients' daily goals among key healthcare providers can be increased through process-oriented interventions. Improved agreement will potentially lead to improved quality of patient care and reduced medical errors. PMID:21478796

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Research-Based Goal Setting in the Writing Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levandowski, Douglas Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined participants' perceptions of research-based goal setting in the writing process. Specifically, the five participants learned how to generate and then used implementation intentions to set goals and state how they would reach those goals in a simulated classroom setting. In addition, this study examined how…

  12. Put Your Imperfections behind You: Temporal Landmarks Spur Goal Initiation When They Signal New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hengchen; Milkman, Katherine L.; Riis, Jason

    2016-01-01

    People often fail to muster the motivation needed to initiate goal pursuit. Across five laboratory experiments, we explore when people naturally experience enhanced motivation to take actions that facilitate goal pursuit and why certain days are more likely to spur goal initiation than others. We provide causal evidence that emphasizing a temporal landmark marking the beginning of a new time period increases people’s intentions to initiate goal pursuit. In addition, we propose and show that people’s strengthened motivation to begin pursuing their aspirations following such temporal landmarks originates in part from the psychological disassociation these landmarks induce from a person’s past, imperfect self. PMID:26546079

  13. Personal goals and psychological growth: testing an intervention to enhance goal attainment and personality integration.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Kasser, Tim; Smith, Kendra; Share, Tamara

    2002-02-01

    We hypothesized that semester goal attainment provides a route to short-term psychological growth. In an attempt to enhance this process, we randomly assigned participants to either a goal-training program or to a control condition. Although there were no main effects of program participation on later goal attainment, important interactions were found. Consistent with a "prepared to benefit" model, participants already high in goal-based measures of personality integration perceived the program as most useful and benefited the most from the program in terms of goal attainment. As a result, they became even more integrated and also increased in their levels of psychosocial well-being and vitality. Implications for theories of short-term growth and positive change are discussed, as is the unanswered question of how to help less-integrated persons grow.

  14. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  15. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    SciTech Connect

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  16. Towards Applying Goal Autonomy for Vehicle Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    receding horizon for the controller as in (Wongpiromsarn, Topcu, & Murray, 2009). Livingston, Murray, and Burdick (2012) and Sarid , Xu, and Kress-Gazit...interest as new destination goals ( Sarid et al., 2012). For a group of collaborating robots, the LTL controller synthesis problem quickly becomes...Apker, T., & Potter, M. (2012). Physicomimetic motion control of physically constrained agents. In W. Spears & D . Spears (Eds.), Physicomimetics

  17. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.

  18. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students.

  19. Goal Representation in Human Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-25

    when an adult reaches to the same goal repeatedly. We used a similar approach in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Adult...measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This phenomenon is termed repetition suppression (RS) and has been shown for a wide range of...The experiment was performed in a 1.5 T GE scanner using a standard birdcage head coil. Scanner parameters were: 25 slices per repetition time (TR

  20. Dose relations between goal setting, theory-based correlates of goal setting and increases in physical activity during a workplace trial.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M

    2010-08-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A group-randomized 12-week intervention that included personal goal setting was implemented in fall 2005, with a multiracial/ethnic sample of employees at 16 geographically diverse worksites. Here, we examined dose-related variables in the cohort of participants (N = 664) from the 8 worksites randomized to the intervention. Participants in the intervention exceeded 9000 daily pedometer steps and 300 weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the last 6 weeks of the study, which approximated or exceeded current public health guidelines. Linear growth modeling indicated that participants who set higher goals and sustained higher levels of self-efficacy, commitment and intention about attaining their goals had greater increases in pedometer steps and MVPA. The relation between change in participants' satisfaction with current physical activity and increases in physical activity was mediated by increases in self-set goals. The results show a dose relation of increased physical activity with changes in goal setting, satisfaction, self-efficacy, commitment and intention, consistent with goal-setting theory.

  1. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational.

  2. Science Goal Driven Observing and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Amuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy; Wolf, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft autonomy will be an integral part of mission operations in the coming decade. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will meet the science goals of a program, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the onboard software can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download a subset of observations at a reduced resolution, the spacecraft's overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address the above challenge. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations.

  3. Students' Achievement Goal Orientations and Their Behavioral and Emotional Engagement: Co-Examining the Role of Perceived School Goal Structures and Parent Goals during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Voulala, Katerina; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2009-01-01

    The role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals in predicting adolescents' goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement in the classroom was examined in the present study. Surveys were given to a sample of 271 seventh- and ninth-grade students. Path analyses showed that (a) perceived school mastery goal structures…

  4. General presentation including new structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  5. Maternal goals for childbirth associated with planned vaginal and planned cesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Blomquist, Joan L; Macmillan, Deborah; McCullough, Alexis; Handa, Victoria L

    2011-10-01

    We describe maternal childbirth goals among women planning either cesarean or vaginal birth. Women in the third trimester planning cesarean or vaginal birth were asked to report up to five childbirth goals. Goal achievement was assessed postpartum. Based on free-text responses, discrete goal categories were identified. Goals and goal achievement were compared between the two groups. Satisfaction was rated on a visual analogue scale and was compared with goal achievement. The sample included 163 women planning vaginal birth and 69 women planning cesarean. Twelve goal categories were identified. Only women planning vaginal birth reported a desire to achieve fulfillment related to childbirth. Women planning cesarean were less likely to express a desire to maintain control over their own responses during childbirth and more likely to report a desire to avoid complications. The 72 women who achieved all stated goals reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than the 94 women reporting that at least one goal was not achieved (P  =  0.001). Goal achievement was higher among women planning cesarean than among those planning vaginal birth (52.2% versus 23.1%, P  <  0.001). This research furthers our understanding of women's attitudes regarding cesarean childbirth and definitions of a successful birth experience.

  6. The Science Goals of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Grunsfeld, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    The recently released policy directive, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U. S. Space Exploration," seeks to advance the U. S. scientific, security and economic interest through a program of space exploration which will robotically explore the solar system and extend human presence to the Moon, Mars and beyond. NASA's implementation of this vision will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance, including the origin of our Solar System and the search for life beyond Earth. The Exploration Roadmap identifies four key targets: the Moon, Mars, the outer Solar System, and extra-solar planets. First, a lunar investigation will set up exploration test beds, search for resources, and study the geological record of the early Solar System. Human missions to the Moon will serve as precursors for human missions to Mars and other destinations, but will also be driven by their support for furthering science. The second key target is the search for past and present water and life on Mars. Following on from discoveries by Spirit and Opportunity, by the end of the decade there will have been an additional rover, lander and orbiter studying Mars. These will set the stage for a sample return mission and increasingly complex robotic investigations in the next decade, and an eventual human landing. The third key target is the study of underground oceans, biological chemistry, and their potential for life in the outer Solar System. Beginning with the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004 and a landing on Titan in 2005, the next decade will see an extended investigation of the Jupiter icy moons by a mission making use of Project Prometheus, a program to develop space nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion. Finally, the search for Earth-like planets and life includes a series of telescopic missions designed to find and characterize extra-solar planets and search them for evidence of life. These missions include HST and

  7. The Science Goals of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grunsfeld, John

    2004-01-01

    The recently released policy directive, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U. S. Space Exploration," seeks to advance the U. S. scientific, security and economic interest through a program of space exploration which will robotically explore the solar system and extend human presence to the Moon, Mars and beyond. NASA's implementation of this vision will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance, including the origin of our Solar System and the search for life beyond Earth. The Exploration Roadmap identifies four key targets: the Moon, Mars, the outer Solar System, and extra-solar planets. First, a lunar investigation will set up exploration test beds, search for resources, and study the geological record of the early Solar System. Human missions to the Moon will serve as precursors for human missions to Mars and other destinations, but will also be driven by their support for furthering science. The second key target is the search for past and present water and life on Mars. Following on from discoveries by Spirit and Opportunity, by the end of the decade there will have been an additional rover, a lander and two orbiters studying Mars. These will set the stage for a sample return mission in 2013, increasingly complex robotic investigations, and an eventual human landing. The third key target is the study of underground oceans, biological chemistry, and their potential for life in the outer Solar System. Beginning with the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004 and a landing on Titan in 2006, the next decade will see an extended investigation of the Jupiter icy moons by a mission making use of Project Prometheus, a program to develop space nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion. Finally, the search for Earth-like planets and life includes a series of telescopic missions designed to find and characterize extra-solar planets and search them for evidence of life. These missions include HST and Spitzer

  8. Goal orientation and self-efficacy in relation to memory in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Erin C.; West, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    The achievement goal framework (Dweck, 1986) has been well-established in children and college-students, but has rarely been examined empirically with older adults. The current study, including younger and older adults, examined the effects of memory self-efficacy, learning goals (focusing on skill mastery over time) and performance goals (focusing on performance outcome evaluations) on memory performance. Questionnaires measured memory self-efficacy and general orientation toward learning and performance goals; free and cued recall was assessed in a subsequent telephone interview. As expected, age was negatively related and education was positively related to memory self-efficacy, and memory self-efficacy was positively related to memory, in a structural equation model. Age was also negatively related to memory performance. Results supported the positive impact of learning goals and the negative impact of performance goals on memory self-efficacy. There was no significant direct effect of learning or performance goals on memory performance; their impact occurred via their effect on memory self-efficacy. The present study supports past research suggesting that learning goals are beneficial, and performance goals are maladaptive, for self-efficacy and learning, and validates the achievement goal framework in a sample including older adults. PMID:21728891

  9. Motor contagion: goal-directed actions are more contagious than non-goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Cédric A; Shipley, Thomas F; Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Recent theories posit a mirror-matching system mapping observed actions onto one's own motor system. Determining whether this system makes a distinction between goal-directed and non-goal-directed actions is crucial for the understanding of its function. The present study tested whether motor interference between observed and executed actions, which is thought to be an index of perceptual-motor matching, depends on the presence of goals in the observed action. Participants executed sinusoidal arm movements while observing a video of another person making similar or different movements. In certain conditions, elements representing goals for the observed movement were superimposed on the video displays. Overall, observing an incongruent movement interfered with movement execution. This interference was markedly increased when the observed incongruent movement was directed toward a visible goal, suggesting a greater perceptual-motor matching during observation of goal-directed versus non-goal-directed actions. This finding supports an action-reconstruction model of mirror system function rather than the traditional direct-matching model.

  10. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  11. Predicting goals in action episodes attenuates BOLD response in inferior frontal and occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Hrkać, Mari; Morikawa, Yuka; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-11-01

    Actions are usually made of several action steps gearing towards an overarching goal. During observation of such action episodes the overarching action goal becomes more and more clear and upcoming action steps can be predicted with increasing precision. To tap this process, the present fMRI study investigated the dynamic changes of neural activity during the observation of distinct action steps that cohere by an overarching goal. Our hypotheses specifically addressed the role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region assumed to be a key hub for integration functions during action processing, as well as the role of regions involved in action perception (often referred to as action observation network or AON) that should benefit from the predictability of forthcoming action steps. Participants watched separate action steps that formed a coherent action goal or not (factor goal coherence) and were performed by a single actor or not (factor actor coherence). Independent of actor coherence, neural activity in IFG and occipitotemporal cortex decreased as a function of goal predictability during the unfolding of goal-coherent episodes. In addition, we identified a network (precuneus, dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, angular gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus) that showed increased activity for goal coherence. We conclude that IFG fosters the integration of action steps to build overarching goals. Identifying the unifying goal of an action episode allows anticipation, and thus efficient processing, of forthcoming action steps. To this end, past action steps of the action episode are buffered and recollected with recourse to episodic memory.

  12. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  13. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section 1282.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing...

  14. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  15. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section 1282.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing...

  16. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  17. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section 1282.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing...

  18. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  19. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 1282.14 Section 1282.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.14 Special Affordable Housing Goal. (a) Purpose of the...

  20. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  1. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  2. Hierarchical Brain Networks Active in Approach and Avoidance Goal Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures. PMID:23785328

  3. Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L

    2016-05-06

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  6. [Choosing the best population development goal].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Liu, J; Yu, Q

    1985-07-29

    Optimizing goals for controlled population growth and development through mathematical modeling has a practical value and is of important theoretical significance. An integrated model for optimizing multiple interactive targets for population development is proposed. A wide array of user-prioritized (weighted) economic indices or factors may be incorporated into this n-tuple m-dimensional model, by which complex linear and vector space computations are solved and interpreted through conventional mathematics. Although this numerical approach toward problem solving is imperfect, when properly used, the mathematical model presented in this paper is a practical and efficient means for solving multidimensional problems.

  7. Using geostatistics to evaluate cleanup goals

    SciTech Connect

    Marcon, M.F.; Hopkins, L.P.

    1995-12-01

    Geostatistical analysis is a powerful predictive tool typically used to define spatial variability in environmental data. The information from a geostatistical analysis using kriging, a geostatistical. tool, can be taken a step further to optimize sampling location and frequency and help quantify sampling uncertainty in both the remedial investigation and remedial design at a hazardous waste site. Geostatistics were used to quantify sampling uncertainty in attainment of a risk-based cleanup goal and determine the optimal sampling frequency necessary to delineate the horizontal extent of impacted soils at a Gulf Coast waste site.

  8. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  9. Power Goals for NASA's Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Exciting Future Programs ahead for NASA. Power is needed for all Exploration vehicles and for the missions. For long term missions as in Lunar and Mars programs, safe, high energy/ultra high energy batteries are required. Safety is top priority for human-rated missions. Two-fault tolerance to catastrophic failures is required for human-rated safety To meet power safety goals -inherent cell safety may be required; it can lessen complexity of external protective electronics and prevents dependency on hardware that may also have limitations. Inherent cell safety will eliminate the need to carry out screening of all cells (X-rays, vibration, etc.)

  10. AGU Scholarship Fund Reaches Its Goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    The Edmond M. Dewan Young Scientist Scholarship fund has reached its goal of $25,000. Those who donated to the fund share AGU's mission in taking an active role in educating and nurturing the next generation of scientists and ensuring a sustainable future for society. Thanks to the generosity of more than 100 members of the AGU and science community, a deserving graduate student of atmospheric or space physics will receive financial assistance to further his or her research and advance his or her research and future career.

  11. Vectorial representation of spatial goals in the hippocampus of bats.

    PubMed

    Sarel, Ayelet; Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2017-01-13

    To navigate, animals need to represent not only their own position and orientation, but also the location of their goal. Neural representations of an animal's own position and orientation have been extensively studied. However, it is unknown how navigational goals are encoded in the brain. We recorded from hippocampal CA1 neurons of bats flying in complex trajectories toward a spatial goal. We discovered a subpopulation of neurons with angular tuning to the goal direction. Many of these neurons were tuned to an occluded goal, suggesting that goal-direction representation is memory-based. We also found cells that encoded the distance to the goal, often in conjunction with goal direction. The goal-direction and goal-distance signals make up a vectorial representation of spatial goals, suggesting a previously unrecognized neuronal mechanism for goal-directed navigation.

  12. Canadian STI national goals and phase specific strategies.

    PubMed

    Wong, T; Sutherland, D

    2002-04-01

    National goals should be "SMART"-specific, measurable, achievable, resource sensitive, and timed. To be meaningful, these goals must be sustainable and realistic within the time frame and fiscal limitations. Multisector partnerships are essential for the goals to become operational.

  13. 75 FR 55891 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-entry Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... whether there should be housing goals established for mortgages secured by small multifamily properties..., and urged FHFA to also establish small multifamily housing goals. The commenters stated that the small... commenters, including both Enterprises, stated that reporting on small multifamily properties was...

  14. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common core of national performance goals and measures consistent with the data collection, standard... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives...

  15. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common core of national performance goals and measures consistent with the data collection, standard... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives...

  16. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common core of national performance goals and measures consistent with the data collection, standard... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives...

  17. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common core of national performance goals and measures consistent with the data collection, standard... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives...

  18. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common core of national performance goals and measures consistent with the data collection, standard... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives...

  19. Parents' and Service Providers' Perceptions of the Family Goal Setting Tool: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; O'Keefe, Amy; Cook, Madonna; Jones, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: This qualitative study describes parents' and service providers' experiences in using the Family Goal Setting Tool (FGST). This article looks specifically at the tool's perceived clinical utility during annual, collaborative goal setting. Methods: Participants included eight parents and ten service providers involved in a Family and…

  20. Zeroing in on a new goal

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    A recent survey by Resource Services (Atlanta) showed that Georgia had a 32.6% recycling rate, which would catapult the state into the top 10 states in terms of recycling rates. Although these claims have since been disputed by certain environmental and recycling advocacy groups, arguably the state has taken important steps to increase its recycling levels. While recycling has become a growing presence in the home, at the curb, and in the office, another place where recycling has been thrust into the forefront is the Georgia state house in Atlanta. One state legislator in particular, Sen. Donzella James (D), has introduced a spate of recycling-related legislation that could change the face of solid waste management in Georgia. James introduced far-reaching legislation that would establish an ambitious goal of zero waste by the year 2020. The bill is in part a response to the state`s failure to meet a 25% waste diversion goal set in 1992. The bill mandates a graduated reduction in municipal solid waste, with a 25% diversion by 2002 and a 50% diversion by 2007, with total diversion by 2020.

  1. [Mexican treatment goals for plaque psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Aguilar, Lorena; Amaya-Guerra, Mario; Gómez-Flores, Minerva; Guevara-Sanginés, Esther; Jurado-Santacruz, Fermín; Lopeztello-Santillán, Adriana; Maldonado-García, César; Rivera-Gómez, Mónica; Rodríguez-Martínez, Norma; Vega-González, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a worldwide prevalence between 6 and 39% in moderate to severe forms. In European countries like Germany and England was identified that only one third of patients with moderate to severe forms will receive systemic management, this fact motivated to integrate into Europe an international consensus on treatment goals with the aim of providing support to the dermatologist by algorithms that serve as a therapeutic guide that allows you to gain control short and long term effects of this disease. The European group met to develop the definitions of severity of psoriasis, treatment goals for moderate to severe disease, and optimization options and / or therapeutic transition than a paper published in 2011 was obtained. In Mexico a working group of experts on biological therapy (GTEB), made up of 10 members and an extended group of 150 dermatologists' voters in the country for the purpose of issuing Mexico's position on the proposals of the European group was formed. In this document the findings of the Working Group of Experts on Biological Therapy in Mexico are listed.

  2. Goals of thermionic program for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation has the two objectives to assess the feasibility of operating a Brayton power-generating system at 1500 K and to explore the manner in which changing goals for the thermionic program may have resulted in the rise in specific mass that has been observed. Concerning the first objective, it is pointed out that to date no components have been built and evaluated for use in a Brayton space-power system to operate at 1500 K. On the other hand, the principles in design were successfully demonstrated at 1150 K with materials appropriate to that temperature. Long-time creep data for both the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811 C and the molybdenum alloy TZM support the performance predictions made by Harper (1979) with respect to a Brayton system providing a specific mass value of 21 kg/kWe at 1500 K. For the thermionics program, it is recommended to conduct an investigation of the original goals of high emitter temperature (1800-2000 K) and high power density.

  3. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  4. Deriving sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Objectives. Passive sampling is becoming a frequently used measurement technique at Superfund sites with contaminated sediments. Passive sampling measures the concentrations of freely dissolved chemicals (Cfrees) in the sediment interstitial water. The freely dissolved chemical is a good surrogate for and a very practical means for estimating the concentrations of bioavailable chemical in the sediments. Building from this approach, a methodology is proposed to derive sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals (IWRGs) for the protection of benthic organisms from direct toxicity using Cfrees measured with passive sampling.Approach/Activities. In the early 2000s, EPA developed and released Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for a series of chemicals. ESBs are intended to be chemical concentrations below which unacceptable toxicity to benthic organisms does not occur. The ESBs (expressed with the units of ug/g OC) were derived using the equations:ESB= K_OC×FCV where K_OC=0.00028+0.983K_OWThe KOC is the organic carbon normalized sediment-water chemical partition coefficient, FCV is the Final Chronic Value from EPA’s ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life, and KOW is the n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemical. At a specific site, the remedial goal (CS:ESB µg/kg-dw) in sediment are then derived using the site-specific fraction of organic carbon in the sediment (fOC:SS) at the site:C_

  5. Evolutionary programming for goal-driven dynamic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Guest, Clark C.; Ross, David O.

    2002-03-01

    Many complex artificial intelligence (IA) problems are goal- driven in nature and the opportunity exists to realize the benefits of a goal-oriented solution. In many cases, such as in command and control, a goal-oriented approach may be the only option. One of many appropriate applications for such an approach is War Gaming. War Gaming is an important tool for command and control because it provides a set of alternative courses of actions so that military leaders can contemplate their next move in the battlefield. For instance, when making decisions that save lives, it is necessary to completely understand the consequences of a given order. A goal-oriented approach provides a slowly evolving tractably reasoned solution that inherently follows one of the principles of war: namely concentration on the objective. Future decision-making will depend not only on the battlefield, but also on a virtual world where military leaders can wage wars and determine their options by playing computer war games much like the real world. The problem with these games is that the built-in AI does not learn nor adapt and many times cheats, because the intelligent player has access to all the information, while the user has access to limited information provided on a display. These games are written for the purpose of entertainment and actions are calculated a priori and off-line, and are made prior or during their development. With these games getting more sophisticated in structure and less domain specific in scope, there needs to be a more general intelligent player that can adapt and learn in case the battlefield situations or the rules of engagement change. One such war game that might be considered is Risk. Risk incorporates the principles of war, is a top-down scalable model, and provides a good application for testing a variety of goal- oriented AI approaches. By integrating a goal-oriented hybrid approach, one can develop a program that plays the Risk game effectively and move

  6. Multiple goals, writing strategies, and written outcomes for college students learning English as a second language.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen

    2011-04-01

    This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers.

  7. Goals for space exploration based on stakeholder value network considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Bruce G.; Seher, Theodore; Crawley, Edward F.

    2011-06-01

    We present a methodology that provides traceable analysis from stakeholders' needs to prioritized goals for human space exploration. We first construct a network to represent the stakeholder environment of NASA's human exploration efforts, then assess the intensity of these stakeholder needs, and build a numerical model to represent the flow of value in the network. The underlying principle is that as a rational actor, NASA should invest its resources in creating outputs that provide the greatest return of support to it. We showcase this methodology, seeded with test data, the results of which suggests that the most important outputs of the exploration endeavor are human and robotic exploration firsts and science data, but also include funding to the science community, providing interesting NASA mission event content directly to the public and to the media, and commercial contracts. We propose that goals should be structured to ensure these value outputs, and be written in such as way as to convey the subsequent creation of value in the network. The goals derived in this manner suggest that the majority of the value created by human space exploration derives from campaign level design, rather than from operation of transportation elements. There would be higher assurance that these value outputs would be delivered if a responsible official or entity within the exploration function was specifically tasked with ensuring stakeholder value creation.

  8. Recycling in 1998: States moving forward to reach higher goals

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.; Egan, K.

    1998-08-01

    As the end of the decade--and century--approaches, the US still is working to push the recycling envelope. The US as a whole has reached its higher recycling rate ever--27%, according to the US EPA, and individual states are striving to meet and surpass their own recycling goals. Yet, it is difficult to compare rates and goals and budgets of individual states to one another, and come up with the nationwide trend in terms of recycling. Comparing recycling programs from state to state is like comparing apples and oranges. Individual states recycle a different amount of material, include a range of materials in their recycling-rate calculations, and have a variety of costs associated with performing these activities. Recycling in New York City is nothing like recycling in Boise, Idaho, for instance. This article presents information from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on their recycling rates, goals, waste generation rates, and the resources they have allocated toward recycling efforts.

  9. Abstract structural representations of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Ibara, Steven; Seymour, Amy; Cordova, Natalia; Botvinick, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Linguistic theory holds that the structure of a sentence can be described in abstract syntactic terms, independent of the specific words the sentence contains. Nonlinguistic behavior, including goal-directed action, is also theorized to have an underlying structural, or "syntactic," organization. We propose that purposive action sequences are represented cognitively in terms of a means-ends parse, which is a formal specification of how actions fit together to accomplish desired outcomes. To test this theory, we leveraged the phenomenon of structural priming in two experiments. As predicted, participants read sentences describing action sequences faster when these sentences were presented amid other sentences sharing the same parse. Results from a second experiment indicate that the underlying representations relevant to observed action sequences are not strictly tied to language processing. Our results suggest that the structure of goal-directed behavior may be represented abstractly, independently of specific actions and goals, just as linguistic syntax is thought to stand independent of other levels of representation.

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  11. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  12. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  13. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  14. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  15. Report on July 2015 Additional Protocol Coordinators Best Practices Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gitau, Ernest T.N.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Finch, Valerie A.

    2016-07-31

    After 10 years of implementation experience, the Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC) within the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) conducted the Additional Protocol (AP) Coordinators Best Practices Workshop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from July 29-30, 2015. The goal of this workshop was to identify implementation best practices, lessons learned, and compliance challenges from the various Additional Protocol Coordinators (APCs) at each laboratory in the DOE/NNSA complex and associated sites. The workshop provided the opportunity for participants to share their insights and establish networks that APCs can utilize to continue to discuss challenges (new and old), identify best practices, and enhance communication and coordination for reporting multi-lab research projects during review activities. Workshop participants included DOE/NNSA HQ, laboratory and site APCs, seasoned experts, members of the original implementation outreach team, and Field Element and site security representatives.

  16. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6).

  17. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  18. Definition of treatment goals for moderate to severe psoriasis: a European consensus

    PubMed Central

    Kragballe, K.; Reich, K.; Spuls, P.; Griffiths, C. E. M.; Nast, A.; Franke, J.; Antoniou, C.; Arenberger, P.; Balieva, F.; Bylaite, M.; Correia, O.; Daudén, E.; Gisondi, P.; Iversen, L.; Kemény, L.; Lahfa, M.; Nijsten, T.; Rantanen, T.; Reich, A.; Rosenbach, T.; Segaert, S.; Smith, C.; Talme, T.; Volc-Platzer, B.; Yawalkar, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis are undertreated. To solve this persistent problem, the consensus programme was performed to define goals for treatment of plaque psoriasis with systemic therapy and to improve patient care. An expert consensus meeting and a collaborative Delphi procedure were carried out. Nineteen dermatologists from different European countries met for a face-to-face discussion and defined items through a four-round Delphi process. Severity of plaque psoriasis was graded into mild and moderate to severe disease. Mild disease was defined as body surface area (BSA) ≤10 and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) ≤10 and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) ≤10 and moderate to severe psoriasis as (BSA > 10 or PASI > 10) and DLQI > 10. Special clinical situations may change mild psoriasis to moderate to severe including involvement of visible areas or severe nail involvement. For systemic therapy of plaque psoriasis two treatment phases were defined: (1) induction phase as the treatment period until week 16; however, depending on the type of drug and dose regimen used, this phase may be extended until week 24 and (2) maintenance phase for all drugs was defined as the treatment period after the induction phase. For the definition of treatment goals in plaque psoriasis, the change of PASI from baseline until the time of evaluation (ΔPASI) and the absolute DLQI were used. After induction and during maintenance therapy, treatment can be continued if reduction in PASI is ≥75%. The treatment regimen should be modified if improvement of PASI is <50%. In a situation where the therapeutic response improved ≥50% but <75%, as assessed by PASI, therapy should be modified if the DLQI is >5 but can be continued if the DLQI is ≤5. This programme defines the severity of plaque psoriasis for the first time using a formal consensus of 19 European experts. In addition, treatment goals for moderate to severe disease were established

  19. Achievement Goals and Their Relations to Children's Disruptive Behaviors in an After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students' achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3-6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive…

  20. Alarm effectiveness no longer a national patient safety goal for hospitals: ECRI questions wisdom of JCAHO change.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    For 2005, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is no longer including alarm safety among its National Patient Safety Goals. JCAHO states that it has taken this action to keep the list of 2005 goals manageable. ECRI believes that removing the goal sends the wrong message to hospitals.

  1. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  2. Achieving college student possible selves: navigating the space between commitment and achievement of long-term identity goals.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the possible-self construction and achievement process in students of color from low-income communities by investigating these processes in 28 college students. Findings suggest that while parental encouragement of college aspirations may affect age at which the college student possible self is constructed and expectancy level, development of schematic possible selves is more crucial to achievement of possible-self goals. Furthermore, findings point out a need to include conceptual schemas, in addition to procedural schemas, as potential predictors of possible-self achievement.

  3. Adolescents' social status goals: relationships to social status insecurity, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wright, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Peer status is an important aspect of adolescents' social lives and is pursued actively by them. Although extensive research has examined how social behaviors are related to peer status (e.g., social preference, popularity), little attention has been given to adolescents' social goals to obtain a desired peer status. Thus, this study examined two types of social status goals, popularity goal and social preference goal, and their relationships to social status insecurity and social behaviors among 405 ethnically diverse early adolescents (267 girls; M age = 12.92 years; age range = 11-15 years). After accounting for adolescents' attained peer statuses (popularity and social preference), both social status goals were related distinctly to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as measured by self reports and peer nominations. Specifically, higher endorsement of the popularity goal was related to more self-reported relational aggression, but less peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In contrast, higher endorsement of the social preference goal was linked to less self-reported overt and relational aggression, but more self-reported and peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In addition, this study reveals that adolescents' social status insecurity was related positively to both social status goals and had an indirect effect on adolescents' social behaviors through the mediation of popularity goal endorsement. There were variations in goal endorsement as shown by groups of adolescents endorsing different levels of each goal. The group comparison results on social behaviors were largely consistent with the correlational findings. This study provides new insights into adolescents' social cognitive processes about peer status and the implications of the two social status goals on adolescents' behavioral development.

  4. MAGPIE: A Goal-Based Model of Conversation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    entertainment goal of the husband. This corresponds to "the time my husband really had a rotten time." EP21 is indexed by an extreme slot binding in the...about where her husband usually goes bowling. (Like attitudes, this knowledge is indexed by the role bindings in the MOP.) Or, she may explicitly ask her...agenda: Level 1: Binding rules for filling the BOWLER roles, Level 2: MOP-LINK rules for including M-RECREATION and M-SPORTING-ACTIVITIES, (These

  5. Goals and habits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Ray J; Dayan, Peter

    2013-10-16

    An enduring and richly elaborated dichotomy in cognitive neuroscience is that of reflective versus reflexive decision making and choice. Other literatures refer to the two ends of what is likely to be a spectrum with terms such as goal-directed versus habitual, model-based versus model-free or prospective versus retrospective. One of the most rigorous traditions of experimental work in the field started with studies in rodents and graduated via human versions and enrichments of those experiments to a current state in which new paradigms are probing and challenging the very heart of the distinction. We review four generations of work in this tradition and provide pointers to the forefront of the field's fifth generation.

  6. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  7. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s aquatic water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of aquatic life to set the IWRGs for toxicants in sediments. Concentrations of the toxicants in the sediment interstitial water are measured using passive sampling. This document also discusses how to evaluate the consistency between passive sampling measurements and sediment toxicity test results. When these data are consistent, one can be reasonably assured that the causes of toxicity to benthic organisms in the sediment have been correctly identified and that the developed IWRGs for the toxicants will be protective of the benthic organisms at the site. The consistency evaluation is an important step in developing defensible IWRGs. To assist in developing defensible IWRGs.

  8. Career Skills Workshop: Achieving Your Goals Through Effective Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Middle School Assessments that Contribute to Literacy Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin; Whitley, Meredith A.; Manson, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Assessment in physical education is not new. What is new is a national focus on teacher evaluation systems that include the use of student achievement scores from administered assessments. An additional educational focus is on the implementation of Common Core Learning Standards in all subject areas, including physical education. Physical…

  12. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  13. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  14. Health Care, Nutrition, and Goal One. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    Goal One of the six national education goals now embodied in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act states that "By the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn." One of the objectives formulated to meet this goal asserts that "Children will receive the nutrition and health care needed to arrive at school…

  15. Course Goals in Physical Education, Grades K-12. Critique Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Intermediate Education District, Portland, OR.

    This document on course goals in physical education is one part of a critique series dealing with the development and evaluation of course goals in six subject matter areas for grades K-12. The series provides an initial pool of course-level goals that are expected to be of considerable value in assisting educators with goal definition related to…

  16. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  17. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance goals and indicators. 300.157 Section 300... goals and indicators. The State must— (a) Have in effect established goals for the performance of... established performance indicators the State will use to assess progress toward achieving the goals...

  18. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance goals and indicators. 300.157 Section 300... goals and indicators. The State must— (a) Have in effect established goals for the performance of... established performance indicators the State will use to assess progress toward achieving the goals...

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  20. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.