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Sample records for additional ground water

  1. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  2. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  3. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  4. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  5. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  6. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  7. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  8. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  9. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  10. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    In view of complex environmental/energy decisions, the Environmental Impacts Division of the Office of Technology Impacts develops analytical methods for conducting policy analyses supporting decision making. The methods development process often begins with a workshop of leading experts and specialists in the relevant disciplines and issue areas; workshop findings are subsequently utilized by OTI to form a more solid foundation for viable policies. The National Workshop on Ground Water and Energy Production was envisioned as a tool through which OTI could obtain insights, information, and methods (on environmental, economical, physical, political, legal, and social issues) to use in its analyses, models, and assessments. To accomplish this, the Workshop comprised both plenary sessions and individual working groups. The former provided opportunities for all participants to explore issues from a broad perspective, whereas the latter enabled participants to focus on the three following areas: ground water supply; conflicts and barriers to its use; and alternatives or solutions to the various issues. This report summarizes information and insights gained by the Office of Technology Impacts during the course of the Workshop. The Key Findings section summarizes the most important facts discovered during the Workshop. The three general topics that follow (Supply, Conflicts and Barriers, and Alternatives) are those described in the Core Issues statements. The statements are reflective of the recommendations and analyses prepared by the several working groups.

  11. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  12. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  13. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  14. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  15. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME I: GROUND WATER AND CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  16. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  17. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  18. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  19. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  20. Ground water protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

  1. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  2. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling protocol should be dictated by the sampling objective(s). It is important to obtain representative ground water samples, regardless of the sampling objective(s). Low-flow (minimum draw-down) purging and sampling techniques are best in most instances, particularly for VOC...

  3. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  4. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  5. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  7. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  8. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  9. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  10. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  11. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  12. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  13. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  14. Ground-water levels in Arkansas, spring 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edds, Joe

    1983-01-01

    About 640 ground-water level measurements were made in observation wells in Arkansas in the spring of 1981. In addition , the report contains potentiometric-surface maps and well hydrographs relating to the alluvial aquifer and the Sparta Sand , the most important aquifers with respect to ground-water availability and use in Arkansas. (USGS)

  15. Nitrates in Wisconsin ground water.

    PubMed

    Schuknecht, B; Lawton, G W; Steinka, P; Delfino, J J

    1975-01-01

    Nitrate analyses were performed on ground water well samples originating from sources throughout Wisconsin. The data ranged from below the analytical detection limit up to 140 mg NO3-N/1. Over nine percent of all wells sampled has nitrate concentrations in excess of 10 mg NO3-N/1. Six individual counties had more than 10 mg NO3-N/1 in at least twenty percent of the wells covered in this survey. However, data reported for over eight thousand new wells driven in 1971-1972 showed only slightly more than two percent with nitrate levels above 10 mg NO3-N/1. This reflected the trend toward drilling deeper wells which are influenced less by nitrate seepage as well as adherence to new and stricter well construction codes. PMID:1183417

  16. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  17. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  18. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  19. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  20. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  1. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E., Jr.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  2. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  3. Model-estimated ground-water recharge and hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    The computer model PULSE, described in this report, can be used to construct a hydrograph of ground-water discharge to a stream. The model is applicable to a ground-water flow system that is driven by areally uniform recharge to the water table, and in which ground water discharges to a gaining stream. One of the two formulations used by the model allows for an instantaneous recharge pulse and subsequent ground-water discharge to the stream. The other formulation, which allows for a gradual hydrologic gain or loss term in addition to the instantaneous pulse, can be used to simulate the effects of gradual recharge to the water table, ground-water evapotranspiration, or downward leakage to a deeper aquifer.

  4. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  7. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  8. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  9. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME II: METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  10. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  11. International borders, ground water flow, and hydroschizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Todd; Giordano, Mark; Puri, Shammy; Matsumoto, Kyoko; Wolf, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    A substantial body of research has been conducted on transboundary water, transboundary water law, and the mitigation of transboundary water conflict. However, most of this work has focused primarily on surface water supplies. While it is well understood that aquifers cross international boundaries and that the base flow of international river systems is often derived in part from ground water, transboundary ground water and surface water systems are usually managed under different regimes, resulting in what has been described as "hydroschizophrenia." Adding to the problem, the hydrologic relationships between surface and ground water supplies are only known at a reconnaissance level in even the most studied international basins, and thus even basic questions regarding the territorial sovereignty of ground water resources often remain unaddressed or even unasked. Despite the tensions inherent in the international setting, riparian nations have shown tremendous creativity in approaching regional development, often through preventive diplomacy, and the creation of "baskets of benefits," which allow for positive-sum, integrative allocations of joint gains. In contrast to the notion of imminent water wars, the history of hydropolitical relations worldwide has been overwhelmingly cooperative. Limited ground water management in the international arena, coupled with the fact that few states or countries regulate the use of ground water, begs the question: will international borders serve as boundaries for increased "flows" of hydrologic information and communication to maintain strategic aquifers, or will increased competition for shared ground water resources lead to the potential loss of strategic aquifers and "no flows" for both ground water users? PMID:16149973

  12. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  13. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  14. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  15. A primer on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Helene L.; McGuinness, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Most of us don't have to look for water. We grew up either in big cities where there was a public water supply, or in small towns or on farms where the water came from wells. But there are some people to whom finding a new supply of water is vitally important.

  16. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  17. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  18. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  19. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  20. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  2. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  3. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Gurdak, Jason J; McCray, John E; Thyne, Geoffrey; Qi, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. PMID:17470124

  4. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  5. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives. PMID:12772830

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  7. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Peck, M.F.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 134 wells and more than 700 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1983 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1983. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1974-83. Mean annual water levels ranged from 9 feet higher to 6 feet lower in 1983 than in 1982. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the upper and lower water-bearing zones of the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady in the Brunswick and Hilton Head Island areas. (USGS)

  8. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities.

  9. Ground water recharge from Lake Chad

    SciTech Connect

    Isiorho, S.; Matisoff, G.; McCall, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lake Chad is a shallow, closed basin lake located in Sub-Sharan Africa. It has the largest drainage basin of any lake in the world, and is also very old, being formed by tectonic processes during the Cretaceous. These features should combine to form a saline lake, but the open waters of Lake Chad are reasonably fresh, having a total dissolved solids concentration of about 320 mg/1. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by noting that recharge of the unconfined aquifer to the SW in Nigeria by ground water infiltration through the lakebed can remove significant quantities of water and dissolved solutes from the lake. The authors have measured and calculated ground water infiltration and velocities by several techniques. Direct, volumetric measurements of ground water recharge seepage give velocities on the order of .28-8.8 x 10/sup -3/ m/day. Tracer monitoring in a borehole dilution test yielded ground water velocities of 3.6 m/day to the SW (away from the lake). Hydraulic conductivities approx. .004-.6 m/day were determined by falling head measurements. Finally, using static water levels, the potentiometric surface within approx. 80 km of the southwest portion of Lake Chad yields water table gradients of 1.0-1.7 x 10/sup -4/ away from the lake. These results confirm that surface water and solute inflow to Lake Chad is removed by recharge to the unconfined aquifer in Nigeria.

  10. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    provided by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system. Ground-water flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex ground-water flow systems. Ground-water flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional ground-water flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and evapotranspiration (ET) are the dominant natural ground-water discharge processes. Ground water also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Ground-water flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, a 3D finite-difference modular ground-water flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 m on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins, also simulated by drains. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient model gener

  11. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 155 wells and more than 800 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1984 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1984. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1975-84. Mean annual water levels ranged from 7 feet lower to 7 feet higher in 1984 than in 1983. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of a real and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady. (USGS)

  12. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  13. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  14. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  15. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  16. Ground-water quality in Wisconsin through 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Holt, C. L. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Ground water, a plentiful and largely underdeveloped resource of Wisconsin, has good to excellent chemical quality in most places. This resource is readily available in most parts of the State for municipal, industrial, and rural uses. In 1970, about 0.5 billion gallons of ground water a day was pumped in Wisconsin for all uses (Murray and Reeves, 1972). In addition, underground reservoirs discharge an average of 16 billion gallons per day of water of relatively constant temperature and uniform quality, which maintains the base flow of streams and the level of lakes (Holt, 1964).

  17. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  18. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  19. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  20. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  1. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  2. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  3. Selenium speciation in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  4. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  5. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  6. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  7. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  8. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  9. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  10. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  11. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  12. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  13. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  14. MODELING TOOLS FOR GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project develops algorithms for simulating the dynamic interactions between surface water and ground water in rivers and riparian streams. The algorithms rely on physically based linear response functions which describe the exchange rates and volumes of water between the str...

  15. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  16. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  17. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  18. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  19. Ground Water in a Fish Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes creating a Model Aquatic/Terrestrial Ecosystem for use in helping students understand how water moves beneath the ground's surface. The model is constructed from a fish tank using rocks, soil, gravel, clay, and organic materials. Author describes possible cooperative-learning and problem-solving activities that can be done with this…

  20. GROUND-WATER DATA MANAGEMENT WITH STORET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual has been designed to address both ground-water quality data and the related well site characteristics. For non-USGS wells, appropriate fields have been added to include the information on site characteristics. Much of the information has been adopted from the site char...

  1. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  2. Reading Ground Water Levels with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2015-04-01

    Most ground water levels in the world are measured manually. It requires employees of water management organizations to visit sites in the field and execute a measurement procedure that requires special tools and training. Once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. This procedure is slow and prone to human errors. A new development is the introduction of modern Information and Communication Technology to support this task and make it more efficient. Two innovations are introduced to measure and immediately store ground water levels. The first method is a measuring tape that gives a sound and light when it just touches the water in combination with an app on a smartphone with which a picture needs to be taken from the measuring tape. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the depth is read on the tape and it is verified if the light is on. The second method estimates the depth using a sound from the smartphone that is sent into the borehole and records the reflecting waves in the pipe. Both methods use gps-localization of the smartphone to store the depths in the right location in the central database, making the monitoring of ground water levels a real-time process that eliminates human errors.

  3. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  4. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  5. Ground water maps of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.; Harris, S.F.; Hartman, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the June 1990, ground water level measurement program at the 100 Areas and 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (Figure 1). The water levels beneath these areas are measured regularly on a semiannual basis and the data received are used to produce the following set of maps for public release. For clarity, the locating prefixes have been omitted from all well numbers shown on the maps. Wells in the 100 Areas have the prefix 199; wells in the 200 Areas have the prefix 299, and the wells outside these areas have the prefix 699. Ground Water Maps of the Hanford Site is prepared by the Geosciences Group, Environmental Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company, for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  7. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  8. Ground water exfiltration in a river oxbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suck, M.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of the exchange between ground water and surface water in a river oxbow. Implementation and evaluation of the study site are based upon a conceptual model, in which exfiltration into the oxbow and mainly into the adjacent river Spree are supposed as major transport processes. A clogging mud layer in the oxbow with its low hydraulic conductivity controls exfiltration and is the highest hydraulic resistance in the considered aquatic system. The measurement of temperature depth profiles within that layer was one of the methods applied to measure groundwater exfiltration. Because of the different groundwater and surface water temperatures there are temperature differences between the upper and lower boundary of the mud layer. Depending on the extent of ground water exfiltration that depth profile is more or less curved. By adaptation of an analytical solution to the plotted temperature depth profiles the flux rates were calculated. A supplementary method to measure exfiltration, the seepage meter, is used for direct measurements of the flux rates. With that method the ground water flux which passes a defined cross section of the sediment-water boundary is collected. The evaluation of the results yields higher exfiltration rates for the temperature depth profiles than for the seepage meters. For the seepage meters the results show only a part of the actual flux rates because of several error sources. Despite those errors the comparison of the results from both methods shows a similar flux pattern with strong small-scale heterogeneities. At scales of few meters the measured flux rates fluctuate more than an order of magnitude. The flux rates near the bank are frequently higher than in the middle of the oxbow. However, the flux rates are controlled by the thickness of the clogging mud layer, its hydraulic conductivity, its heterogeneity and the water table differences between surface water and adjacent aquifer.

  9. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  10. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  11. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  12. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  13. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  14. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  15. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  16. Coupled surface-water and ground-water model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1991-01-01

    In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.

  17. Effects of unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Marino, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding-an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the dynamic nature of basin infiltration, the finite transmission time of the infiltration front to the water table, or the interception of the basin floor by the capillary fringe.The design of infiltration basins used to dispose of treated wastewater or for aquifer recharge often requires estimation of ground-water mounding beneath the basin. However, the effect that the unsaturated zone has on water-table response to basin infiltration often has been overlooked in this estimation. A comparison was made between two methods used to estimate ground-water mounding - an analytical approach that is limited to the saturated zone and a numerical approach that incorporates both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. Results indicate that the error that is introduced by a method that ignores the effects of the unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding increases as the basin-loading period is shortened; as the depth to the water table increases, with increasing subsurface anisotropy; and with the inclusion of fine-textured strata. Additionally, such a method cannot accommodate the

  18. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  19. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  20. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  1. Remediation of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Flathman, P.E.; Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This case history describes the physical and biological treatment of dichloromethane (DCM)-contaminated ground water following the rupture of an underground pipeline which contaminated an estimated 11,000 m[sup 3] (14,000 yd[sup 3]) of soil and ground water in the early fall of 1983. Air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was initiated and provided an estimated 97% reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. When it became evident that physical treatment alone would no longer be effective in removing residual DCM from the ground water environment, the practice of air stripping DCM from recovered ground water was terminated. Biological treatment was initiated and provided greater than a 500,000-fold reduction in the ground water concentration of DCM. Biological treatment had far exceeded the ability of physical treatment along to remediate a ground water environment contaminated with a biodegradable contaminant. 14 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    specifically for the CBM program and 72 existing wells from the coal-mine hydrogeology program. Additionally, drilling of about 25 more wells is in the planning stage. About 20 springs are being monitored specific to CBM. At all sites both water-quantity data (regular water levels, one-time aquifer testing, flow rates at springs) and water-quality data (field parameters or laboratory samples for major and minor constituents) are being collected. Monitoring locations and specific monitoring activities will continue to be adjusted in response to CBM development and data needs. All data collected as part of this program are made immediately available to the public on the Internet through the Montana Ground-Water Information Center (http://mbmggwic.mtech.edu/). Interpretive reports based on data collected will be published under standard scientific protocols. Data and reports will be used by industry, landowners, regulators and researchers in assessing impacts, lack of impacts and recovery of ground-water systems in relation to production of coalbed methane. Funding for this program has been provided by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, local Conservation Districts and the State of Montana. Coalbed methane production and consequent impacts to ground-water in this semi-arid region are controversial. Acceptance by all parties of data and interpretations resulting from the CBM monitoring program is enhanced by the credibility established through the more than 30-year history of the coal-mine hydrogeology program.

  4. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  5. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  6. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  7. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  8. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  9. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  10. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  11. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Joiner, C.N.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 146 wells and water level measurements from an additional 1,100 wells in Georgia during 1985 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1985. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1976-86. During 1985, annual mean water levels were generally lower than in 1984, and ranged from 11.4 feet lower to 0.6 feet higher. Much of the decline can be attributed to below-normal precipitation from mid-1984 to mid-1985. Water quality samples also are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Along the coast, the chloride concentration in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained stable in the Savannah and Brunswick areas. (USGS)

  12. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.; Lieberman, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  14. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  15. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  16. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  17. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  18. Guidelines for Evaluating Ground-Water Flow Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water flow modeling is an important tool frequently used in studies of ground-water systems. Reviewers and users of these studies have a need to evaluate the accuracy or reasonableness of the ground-water flow model. This report provides some guidelines and discussion on how to evaluate complex ground-water flow models used in the investigation of ground-water systems. A consistent thread throughout these guidelines is that the objectives of the study must be specified to allow the adequacy of the model to be evaluated.

  19. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  20. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3B: Southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 108 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 24 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 354 wells; and water quality at 2 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  1. Water resources data Florida, water year 2004: Volume 3B: southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 98 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 56 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 374 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  2. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  3. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    on reported measurements or estimates: precipitation was 53 inches per year (in/yr), runoff was 11 in/yr, spring discharge was 2 in/yr, and net lateral subsurface outflow and exported water was 1 in/yr. Evapotranspiration was 39 in/yr, which was calculated as the residual of the water-budget analysis, assuming changes in storage were negligible. Water-quality samples were collected from April 1999 through May 2001 from a total of 26 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 1 well tapping the intermediate confining unit, 24 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, 2 springs issuing from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and 8 wells tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer. These data were supplemented with existing water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride in samples from the surficial aquifer system generally were low. Concentrations of nitrate were higher in samples from the surficial aquifer system than in samples from the Upper Floridan or Lower Floridan aquifers, probably as a result of agricultural and residential land use. Water type throughout most of the Upper Floridan and Lower Floridan aquifers was calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, probably as a result of dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Water type in both the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in eastern Orange County is sodium chloride. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride in the aquifers increase toward eastern Orange County. Data from 16 of 24 wells in eastern Orange County with long-term water-quality records indicated distinct increases in concentrations of chloride over time. The increases probably are related to withdrawal of ground water at the Cocoa well field, causing an upwelling of deeper, more saline water. The most commonly detected trace elements were aluminum, barium, boron, iron, manganese, and strontium. In addition, arse

  4. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; Joiner, C.N.; Peck, M.F.; McFadden, K.W.; Milby, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 152 wells and water level measurements from an additional 750 wells in Georgia during 1986 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1986. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-yr period 1977-86. During 1986, a prolonged drought resulted in water level declines throughout the State. Annual mean water levels were from 2.7 ft higher to 17.3 ft lower than in 1985, and record lows were measured in 33 wells in the summer and fall. The 1986 lows were from 0.02 ft to 29.2 ft lower than the previous record lows. The largest declines were measured in the Clayton aquifer in the southwestern part of the State. The declines can be attributed to reduced recharge and increased pumping that resulted from below-normal precipitation during the first half of the year. Water quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that the chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer there generally has remained stable. (USGS)

  5. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. PMID:26367067

  6. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  7. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  8. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  9. Ground-water and water-chemistry data for the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzol, Leonard L.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Meissner, Tiffany R.; Lee, Douglas B.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents ground-water data collected and compiled as part of a study of the ground-water resources of the Willamette River Basin, Oregon. The report includes tabulated information and a location map for 1,234 field-located water wells and 6 springs, hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations during various time periods for 265 of the wells, borehole geophysical data for 16 wells, and water-chemistry analyses from 125 wells and 6 springs. These data, as well as data for 4,752 additional fieldlocated wells and 1 spring, are included on a CD-ROM. In addition, the locations of the field-located wells and springs are provided in geographic information system formats on the CD-ROM.

  10. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  11. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  12. Ground Water at Grant Village Site, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Ellis D.; McCullough, Richard A.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    1961-01-01

    On behalf of the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey during the summer of 1959 made a study of ground-water conditions in the area of the Grant Village site, along the shore of the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, 1 to 2 miles south of the present facilities at West Thumb. The water supply for the present development at West Thumb is obtained from Duck Lake, but the quantity of water available from this source probably will be inadequate for the planned development at Grant Village. During the investigation, 11 auger holes were bored and 6 test wells were drilled. Aquifer tests by pumping and bailing methods were made at two of the test wells. All material penetrated in the auger holes and test wells is of Quaternary age except the welded tuff of possible Pliocene age that was penetrated in the lower part of test well 4. Small to moderate quantities of water were obtained from the test wells in the area. Test well 2 yielded 35 gpm (gallons per minute) at a temperature of nearly 100 deg F. Test well 6 yielded about 15 gpm at a temperature of 48 deg F. The yield of this well might be increased by perforation of additional sections of casing, followed by further development of the well. Water from the other four test wells was of inadequate quantity, too highly mineralized, or too warm to be effectively utilized. Most of the ground water sampled had high concentrations of silica and iron, and part of the water was excessively high in fluoride content. Otherwise, the ground water was of generally suitable quality for most uses. The most favorable area for obtaining water supplies from wells is near the lakeshore, where a large part of the water pumped would be ground-water flow diverted from its normal discharge into the lake. Moderate quantities of relatively cool water of fairly good quality may be available near the lakeshore between test wells 5 and 6 and immediately east of test well 6.

  13. In Situ Tritium Probe for Ground Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, C.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has requested a probe system that can provide daily measurements of tritium in ground waters, fit into 5 cm diameter ground water monitor wells, and survive extended periods (months to years) at hydrostatic pressures of 12,000 kPa (1800 psi) and water temperatures to 60oC. The analytical Minimum Detectable Limit Allowable (MDA) requested for tritium in solution is <1,000 picoCuries per liter (pCi L-1) and preferably <300 pCi L-1 (11 Bq L-1). The In Situ Tritium probe system (ITP) must produce analytical results without drawing a ground water sample to the surface while operating unattended and automatically download data from remote well sites without external power or communication lines. An ITP has been developed that satisfies most of these requirements. A prototype system that demonstrated proof-of-principal was deployed successfully in shallow monitor wells. Ground water samples were processed and analyzed onboard the prototype ITP and data automatically transmitted to the wellhead. A third generation tritium detection and measurement cell that quantitatively measures dissolved tritium at activities <2,000 pCi L-1 has been tested under laboratory conditions. This, or a more sensitive, detection cell will be integrated into the ITP platform and deployed for extensive tests in deep monitor wells at the USDOE/NNSA Nevada Test Site within the next two years. Ultimate goals for the ITP system are low detection limits for dissolved tritium (<300 pCi L-1) plus additional analytical capabilities for nuclear and chemical parameters such as in situ gamma and neutron fluxes, pH, EH, EC, concentrations of specific aqueous components, etc.

  14. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  15. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  16. Characterization of Surface-Water/Ground-Water Interaction Along the Spokane River, Idaho and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Bowers, C. L.; Hein, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    Historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River basin of northern Idaho has resulted in elevated concentrations of some trace metals (particularly Cd, Pb, and Zn) in water and sediments of Coeur d'Alene Lake and downstream in the Spokane River. On average during 1999 and 2000, about 20,000 kg/yr of whole-water lead (particulate plus dissolved), 2,100 kg/yr of whole-water cadmium, and 450,000 kg/yr of whole-water zinc flowed out of Coeur d'Alene Lake into the Spokane River. These elevated trace-metal concentrations in the Spokane River have raised concerns about potential contamination of ground water in the underlying Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for the city of Spokane and surrounding areas. A study conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program examined the interaction of the river and aquifer using hydrologic and chemical data along a losing reach of the Spokane River. The river and ground water were extensively monitored over a range of hydrologic conditions at 3 stream gages and 25 monitoring wells (including 18 wells installed for this study) ranging from 8 to 1,000 m from the river. River stage, ground-water level, water temperature, and specific conductance were measured hourly to biweekly, and water samples were collected 8 times. Additional regional ground-water data were collected from more than 190 wells within 5 km of the study reach. Hydrologic and chemical data indicate that the Spokane River recharges the Spokane Valley/Rathdrum Prairie aquifer along a 35-km reach between Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane. Ground-water levels in near-river (<125 m from the river) wells responded rapidly to variations in river stage and indicated the presence of an unsaturated zone beneath the river and a ground-water flow gradient away from the river. Chemical data indicated that river recharge may influence ground-water chemistry as far as 900 m from the river. The chemistry and

  17. Ground water quality assessment using multi-rectangular diagrams.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Sen, Zekai; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2003-01-01

    A new graphical technique is proposed here for classifying chemical analyses of ground water. In this technique, a diagram is constructed using rectangular coordinates. The new diagram, called a multi-rectangular diagram (MRD), uses adjacent multi-rectangles in which each rectangle represents a specific ground water type. This new diagram has the capability to accommodate a large number of data sets. MRDs have been used to classify chemical analyses of ground water in the Chaj Doab area of Pakistan to illustrate this new approach. Using this graphical method, the differentiated ground water types are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate emerges as the most abundant ground water type. MRDs also offer a visual display of the Chebotarev sequence of ground water quality evolution. PMID:14649865

  18. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  19. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  20. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  1. The role of ground water in water-supply emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, E. G.; Li, Z.; Hermans, C.

    2008-12-01

    Catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or floods, can result in water-supply disruptions. Such disruptions can cause large economic losses and pose threats to public health. Water managers seek to develop cost- effective strategies for reducing these risks and ensuring water security. In many areas, ground water can play an important role in such water-supply emergency planning. We present a probabilistic framework for estimating the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using ground water as a backup supply in the event of a disruption in imported-water deliveries. We also estimate the benefits of ground-water management strategies, such as artificial recharge, in terms of reduced costs of responding to water-supply emergencies. The magnitude of these benefits will depend on the expected severity and duration of the imported-water disruption, the functioning of the hydrogeologic system, and economic parameters. We apply the framework to address water-supply emergency planning in the Los Angeles area. A simulation model is used to generate response functions, which relate emergency ground-water pumpage to potential adverse effects, such as increased pumping lifts, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. These response functions are incorporated into a Monte Carlo analysis, along with cost coefficients and information on the probable severity of the disruption. Disruption severity is represented by a probability distribution, which can be elicited from water managers. In the example, the primary emergency-related benefits of artificial recharge are reductions in potential subsidence costs. The framework could be extended to consider additional engineering factors (e.g., well capacities and integrity of local distribution systems), institutional arrangements, and regulatory requirements.

  2. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  3. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  5. Ground-water appraisal of sand plains in Benton, Sherburne, Stearns, and Wright counties, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.

    1980-01-01

    Both modeled areas will support additional withdrawals, but caution must be exercised because lowering ground-water levels will also lower lake levels and reduce streamflow. In some areas, aquifer dewatering will reduce individual well yields.

  6. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Justet, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913-1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  7. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  8. Characterization and Ground Water Management of two Rural Water Supply Sources in Kentucky and Illinois.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, S.

    2007-05-01

    resulting increase in drawdown did not cause excessive decrease in ground water storage nor drawdown, even under persistent drought conditions. Drought conditions were simulated with no recharge and low rive pools. Also, there was a little but insignificant increase in the capture zone as a result of the increase in the withdrawal rates. Under excessive recharge conditions (flooding), the rise of ground water with each aquifer was about 20 feet below ground surface. Thus, areas with outcrops of sandy material rather than silt and clay may be more vulnerable to surface and near-surface contaminant sources. This is particularly important at locations where new subdivisions could introduce contamination via septic systems. These rural areas do not have sewer treatment facilities. Additional observation wells are needed to characterize the two aquifers better.

  9. Review of ground water modeling needs for the US Army

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report was prepared to assist the U.S. Army in remediation of ground water contamination from hazardous, toxic, and radioactive wastes at Army installations. The Waterways Experiment Station of the Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Water Science and Technology Board evaluate the state of the art in mathematical models of ground water flow and contaminant transport, and then advise the Corps of Engineers on how it might support and use such models to meet Army's ground water remediation needs over the next ten years. The study recommends that the Army develop in-house expertise in ground water modeling, expand partnership programs between the Army and academic researchers, and develop a ground water modeling support center to help focus research, technology transfer and training activities.

  10. REMEDIATION AND PROTECTION OF GROUND WATER FROM CONTAMINATION BY ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful prevention of public exposure to arsenic in ground-water resources impacted by natural sources or contaminated sites is dependent on scientifically-based strategies for site remediation and water resource management. Research within the National Risk Management Resear...

  11. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  12. Ground Water in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-phased study of ground-water resources, including well drilling, aquifer tests, analysis of ground-water discharge, and numerical ground-water modeling, indicates that the rocks of the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, have permeabilities that are much lower than in most other areas of ground-water development in the Hawaiian islands. The regional hydraulic conductivity of the Koloa Volcanics, which dominates fresh ground-water flow in the basin, is about 0.275 foot per day. The Waimea Canyon Basalt which surrounds the basin and underlies the Koloa Volcanics within the basin is intruded by dikes that reduce the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the rocks to about 1.11 feet per day. The low permeabilities result in steeper head gradients compared with other areas in the Hawaiian islands, and a higher proportion of ground-water discharging to streams than to the ocean. Water levels rise from near sea level at the coast to several hundreds of feet above sea level at the center of the basin a few miles inland. The high inland water levels are part of a completely saturated ground-water system. Because of the low regional hydraulic conductivity and high influx of water from recharge in the southern Lihue Basin, the rocks become saturated nearly to the surface and a variably saturated/unsaturated (perched) condition is not likely to exist. Streams incising the upper part of the aquifer drain ground water and keep the water levels just below the surface in most places. Streams thus play an important role in shaping the water table in the southern Lihue Basin. At least 62 percent of the ground water discharging from the aquifer in the southern Lihue Basin seeps to streams; the remainder seeps directly to the ocean or is withdrawn by wells.

  13. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  14. Investigation of ground-water pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Beginning in December 1982, an extensive investigation was conducted to determine the presence and extent of industrial chemical pollution at Air Force Plant No. 4. A major portion of this work was devoted to the testing of ground water flowing within the overburden. In addition, 16 wells were drilled to monitor for polluted ground water in the upper and middle zones of the Paluxy Formation. Paluxy ground water was monitored; trichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and lesser amounts of other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the existence of abnormally high water levels in the upper zone of the Paluxy Formation in well P-8(U) were discovered.

  15. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  16. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  17. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  3. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  4. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  5. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR REGRESSION MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the uses of ground-water flow models and which classes of use require treatment of stochastic components. He then compares traditional and stochastic procedures for modeling actual (as distinguished from hypothetical) systems. Finally, he examines the conceptual basis and characteristics of the regression approach to modeling ground-water flow.

  7. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is one in a series of Ground Water Issue papers which have been prepared in response to needs expressed by the Ground Water Forum. It is based on findings from the research community in concert with experience gained at sites undergoing remediation. the intent of th...

  8. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  9. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  13. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  14. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  15. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  16. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  17. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  18. Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2003, Volume 6. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 880 ground-water observation wells and water-quality data for 158 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  19. Ground-water flow and water quality of the Indian Island well field near Grand Island, Nebraska, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Patrick J.; Bowman, Phillip R.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is the principal source of water for public and self-supplied domestic use in Nebraska. Ground water supplied about 235 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1990, or about 78 percent of the estimated public-water supply in Nebraska. In addition, ground water supplied about 1,017 Mgal/d, or about 83 percent of the irrigation water in the Platte River Valley (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). Withdrawing ground water in the valley induces recharge from the river and has the potential to change ground-water quality near the river where many public-supply wells are located. The Platte River alluvial aquifer, which underlies the Platte River Valley (fig. 1), is the single most important source of water for public supply in central and eastern Nebraska. The aquifer, which is part of the High Plains aquifer, consists of stream-laid deposits of sand and gravel with discontinuous layers of clay and silt, and is connected hydraulically to the Platte River. The aquifer provides about 117 Mgal/d, or nearly 50 percent of the total daily ground-water production for Nebraska (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). The aquifer also supplies water to Nebraska's largest cities including Kearney, Grand Island, Lincoln, and Omaha.

  20. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  1. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  2. Ground-water resources of the Lexington, Kentucky, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water in the Lexington, Kentucky, area occurs in Ordovician Limestones in which cavity development is generally limited to about 100 feet below land surface. Some wells produce about 300 gallons per minute in some of the large stream valleys , about 50 gallons per minute in the rolling upland and small stream valleys, and about 5 gallons per minute on hilltops and steep slopes. Many wells throughout the area do not furnish adequate water for domestic supplies because no significant water-bearing openings are penetrated during drilling. Ground-water use is limited mostly to domestic and stock supplies and a few small public supplies. Ground water is generally a calcium bicarbonate type and in places contains sodium chloride and (or) hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial pollution of ground water is widespread because of direct recharge of polluted runoff and streamflow to cavernous limestones. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Base flow and ground water in upper Sweetwater Valley, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, R.D.; Lewis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Base flow measurements showed interbasin transfer of water among sub-basins of upper Sweetwater Valley. In general, topographically higher sub-basins have deficient surface outflow unless significant spring flow occurs in the basin. Topographically lower areas adjacent to the main channel of Sweetwater Creek generally have surplus flow. Major flow surpluses were associated with areas in which the majority of flow originated at a spring. Unusual outflow was related to geology to hypothesize a ground-water flow network. Areas of ground-water flow up-gradient of large springs were hypothesized as likely areas for significant ground-water reservoirs. A water budget study indicated that during dry years approximately three-fourths of the annual flow to Sweetwater Creek may be derived from ground-water sources. Streamflow records were analyzed to estimate the frequency of low-flow of Sweetwater Creek. (USGS)

  4. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Wilkinson, James M.; Orzol, Leonard L.

    1998-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking program to demonstrate a method of evaluating ground-water vulnerability. The study area encompassed the part of the Portland Basin located in Clark County, Washington. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results and to evaluate ground-water vulnerability by identifying recharge areas and their characteristics, determining the downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and estimating the age of ground water. The report presents a description of the methods used and the results of the evaluation of ground-water vulnerability.

  5. ESTIMATING FLOW AND FLUX OF GROUND-WATER DISCHARGE USING WATER TEMPERATURE AND VELOCITY. (R827961)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of ground water discharge to a stream has important implications for nearby ground water flow, especially with respect to contaminant transport and well-head protection. Measurements of ground water discharge were accomplished in this study using (1) differences bet...

  6. Evidence for ground-water stratification near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Marshall, B.D.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2006-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  7. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  8. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  9. Ground Water and Surface Water in the Haiku Area, East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The Haiku study area lies on the gently sloping eastern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Kakipi Gulch to the east. The study area lies on the northwest rift zone of East Maui Volcano, a geologic feature 3 to 5 miles wide marked by surface expressions such as cinder, spatter, and pumice cones. The study area contains two geologic units, the main shield-building stage Honomanu Basalt and the Kula Volcanics. The hydraulic conductivity of the Honomanu Basalt was estimated to be between 1,000 and 3,600 feet per day on the basis of aquifer tests and 3,300 feet per day on the basis of the regional recharge rate and observed ground-water heads. The hydraulic conductivity of the Kula Volcanics is expected to be several orders of magnitude lower. An estimated 191 million gallons per day of rainfall and 22 million gallons per day of fog drip reach the study area and about 98 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Nearly all of the ground water currently withdrawn in the study area is from well 5520-01 in Maliko Gulch, where historic withdrawal rates have averaged about 2.8 million gallons per day. An additional 18 million gallons per day of ground-water withdrawal is proposed. Flow in Waiohiwi Gulch, a tributary to Maliko Gulch, is perennial between about 2,000 ft and 4,000 ft altitude. At lower altitudes in Maliko Gulch, flow is perennial at only a few spots downstream of springs and near the coast. The Kuiaha and Kaupakulua Gulch systems are usually dry from sea level to an altitude of 350 feet and gain water from about 350 feet to about 900 feet altitude. The two main branches of the Kaupakulua Gulch system alternately gain and lose water as high as 2,400 feet altitude. Kakipi Gulch has perennial flow over much of its length but is often dry near the coast below 400 feet altitude. Fresh ground water occurs in two main forms: (1) as perched high-level water held up by

  10. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  11. Assessing ground water development potential using landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Mutiti, Samuel; Levy, Jonathan; Mutiti, Christine; Gaturu, Ndung'u S

    2010-01-01

    Seven villages in southeastern Kenya surround Mt. Kasigau and depend on the mountain's cloud forest for their water supply. Five of these villages have regularly experienced water shortages, and all village water supplies were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. There is a need to economically find new sources of fresh ground water. Remote sensing offers a relatively quick and cost-effective way of identifying areas with high potential for ground water development. This study used spectral properties of features on Landsat remote sensing imagery to map linear features, soil types, surface moisture, and vegetation. Linear features represented geologic or geomorphologic features indicating either shallow ground water or areas of increased subsurface hydraulic conductivity. Regarding soil type, black soils were identified as potential indicators of shallow aquifers based on their relatively lower elevation and association with river valleys. A vegetation map was created using unsupervised classification, and three of the resulting vegetation classes were observed to be commonly associated with wet areas and/or ground water discharge. A wetness map, created using tasseled cap analysis, was used to identify all areas of high ground moisture, including those that corresponded to vegetated areas. The linear features, soil type, vegetation, and wetness maps were overlaid to produce a composite that highlighted areas with the highest potential for ground water development. Electrical resistivity surveys confirmed that areas highlighted by the composite image had relatively shallow depths to the water table. Some figures in this paper are available in color in the online version of the paper. PMID:19210559

  12. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  13. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  14. Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Predmore, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 660 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  16. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  17. Arsenic Species in the Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Arsenic concentrations in ground varies widely and regionally across the United States and exists as oxyanions having two oxidation states: As(+III) and As(+V). As(V) is effectively removed by most arsenic treatment processes whereas uncharged As(III) is poorly removed...

  18. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

  19. Sewage in ground water in the Florida Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    More than 24,000 septic tanks, 5,000 cesspools, and greater than 600 shallow disposal wells introduce sewage effluents into porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To porous and permeable limestone underlying the Florida Keys. To assess the fate of sewage nutrients, 21 2- to 20-m-deep wells were core drilled and completed as water-monitoring wells. The wells were sampled quarterly and analyzed for 17 parameters. including nutrients and bacteria. Nutrients (mainly NH4, - which is 30 to 40 times higher than in surface sea water) were detected in ground water beneath the Keys and offshore coral reefs. Highest levels were beneath reefs 5 to 8 km offshore. Ground waters were generally hypersaline and fecal bacteria (fecal coliform and streptococci) were detected in ground water beneath living coral reefs. Higher sea level on the Florida Bay side of the Keys is proposed as the mechanism for forcing ground water toward offshore coral reefs. Tidal pumping, which is more pronounced near the Keys, causes leakage of ground water where the sediment is thin. Areas lacking sediment cover consist of bare limestone bedrock or permeable coral reefs. These are the areas where coral diseases and algal growth have increased in recent years. Pollutants entering the ground water beneath the Florida Keys are likely to be transported seaward beneath impermeable Holocene sediments and may be upwelling through coral reefs and other hardbottom communities.

  20. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  1. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  2. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  3. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  4. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder installation at Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. Previous investigations conducted at the Riverton site to date supports a preliminary determination regarding the selection of ground water remediation alternatives appropriate to this site. Although ground water modeling employing existing data indicates that a natural flushing strategy may be appropriate, additional site-specific data are needed to confirm the applicability and feasibility of this remedial option. The data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area.

  5. Availability of Ground-Water Data for Idaho, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, collects a large amount of data each year pertaining to the ground-water resources of Idaho. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 2005, data were published in a report series entitled, 'Water Resources Data for Idaho, Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of that series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 2006, the ground-water data reporting requirement was discontinued. However, data continue to be available in our databases. This fact sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 2006.

  6. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  7. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  8. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  9. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  10. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  11. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  12. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUNDSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as "Superfund" sites. eview of Superfund Reco...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  14. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  15. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  16. Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl− concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl− profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

  17. LAS VEGAS VALLEY WATER BUDGET: RELATIONSHIP OF DISTRIBUTION, CONSUMPTIVE USE, AND RECHARGE TO SHALLOW GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of quantity and geographic distribution of recharge to the shallow ground-water zone from water use return flows in Las Vegas Valley were made for the years 1973, 1965, 1958, 1950, and 1943 as part of a broader study on the impact of water and land use on ground-water q...

  18. Proceedings of the second international conference on ground water ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Valett, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held March 27--30, 1994 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on groundwater ecosystems. Attention is focused on the following topics: Biogeochemistry; ecology of metazoans; ground water management; microbial ecology; modeling; pollution, restoration and bioremediation; problems in karst systems; and surface and ground water interaction zones. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  19. Ground-water/surface-water relations along Honey Creek, Washtenaw County, Michigan, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Ann Arbor, Mich., investigated the ground-water/surface-water relations along the lower reaches of Honey Creek, Washtenaw County, Mich., and an unnamed tributary to Honey Creek (the discharge tributary) from June through October 2003. Streamflow in these reaches was artificially high during a naturally low-flow period due to an anthropogenic discharge. Ground-water/surface-water relations were examined by seepage runs (series of streamflow measurements for the computation of streams gains or losses) and measurements of the difference in head between the stream surface and shallow aquifer. Specific conductance and water-temperature measurements were used as ancillary data to help identify gaining and losing reaches. Three seepage runs and four runs in which hydraulic-head differences between the stream and shallow aquifer were measured (piezometer runs) were made during periods of base flow. Streamflow measurements were made at 18 sites for the seepage runs. Instream piezometers were installed at 16 sites and bank piezometers were installed at 2 sites. Two deeper instream piezometers were installed at site 13 on September 4, 2003 to collect additional data on the ground-water/surface-water relations at that site. The seepage runs indicate that the main stem of Honey Creek and the discharge tributary in the study area are overall gaining reaches. The seepage runs also indicate that smaller reaches of Honey Creek and the discharge tributary may be losing reaches and that this relation may change over time with changing hydraulic conditions. The piezometer-run measurements support the seepage-run results on the main stem, whereas piezometer-run measurements both support and conflict with seepage-run measurements on the discharge tributary. Seepage runs give an average for the reach, whereas piezometer head-difference measurements are for a specific area around the piezometer. Data that may appear to be

  20. Characterization and identification of Na-Cl sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Greenberg, S.E.; Krapac, I.G.; Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl -) in surface and ground water are common in the United States and other countries, and can serve as indicators of, or may constitute, a water quality problem. We have characterized the most prevalent natural and anthropogenic sources of Na+ and Cl- in ground water, primarily in Illinois, and explored techniques that could be used to identify their source. We considered seven potential sources that included agricultural chemicals, septic effluent, animal waste, municipal landfill leachate, sea water, basin brines, and road deicers. The halides Cl-, bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-) were useful indicators of the sources of Na+-Cl- contamination. Iodide enrichment (relative to Cl-) was greatest in precipitation, followed by uncontaminated soil water and ground water, and landfill leachate. The mass ratios of the halides among themselves, with total nitrogen (N), and with Na+ provided diagnostic methods for graphically distinguishing among sources of Na+ and Cl- in contaminated water. Cl/Br ratios relative to Cl- revealed a clear, although overlapping, separation of sample groups. Samples of landfill leachate and ground water known to be contaminated by leachate were enriched in I- and Br-; this provided an excellent fingerprint for identifying leachate contamination. In addition, total N, when plotted against Cl/Br ratios, successfully separated water contaminated by road salt from water contaminated by other sources. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  2. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  3. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  4. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  5. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  6. An Online Interactive Map Service for Displaying Ground-Water Conditions in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the availability of the nation's ground-water supplies is of critical importance to planners and water managers. The general public also has an interest in understanding the status of ground-water conditions, especially in the semi-arid Southwestern United States where much of the water used by municipalities and agriculture comes from the subsurface. Unlike surface-water indicators such as stage or discharge, ground-water conditions may be more difficult to assess and present. Individual well observations may only represent conditions in a limited area surrounding the well and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well measurement interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many years, depending on recharge, soil properties and depth to the water table. This lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions combined with differing time scales of water-level changes makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. In this report, we describe a publicly-available online interactive map service that presents several different layers of ground-water-conditions information for the alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona (http://montezuma.wr.usgs.gov/website/azgwconditions/). These data layers include wells experiencing water-level decline, wells experiencing water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, change in water level since predevelopment and change in storage since predevelopment. Recent pumpage totals and projected population numbers are also provided for ground-water basins and counties in the region of the Lower Colorado River in Arizona along with a bibliography

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  8. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  9. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  10. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.404 Treatment technique violations for ground water systems. (a) A ground water system with...

  11. Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1980-02-01

    The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

  12. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    salty ground water toward the deepest parts of the cone of depression in central Queens County. Contamination of ground water is probably also occurring from leaking sewers and from pollutants leaking downward from the land surface. Thermal pollution of the ground water has occurred locally where ground water pumped for cooling uses is returned, with elevated temperatures, to the source aquifer through recharge wells. The quality of ground water in Queens County in 1967 was generally satisfactory for public-supply and most industrial uses. However, the rate and distribution of ground-water withdrawals in the county are leading to greater decline of the water table and to increasing contamination of the aquifers. No 'safe limit' on pumpage can be set for the county because limits on the effects of pumping have not been established. A safe limit, at the present stage of urbanization, could range from considerably less than the current average 60 mgd to considerably more over a wide-range of pumping effects and acceptable water quality. However, continued removal of fresh water from storage and deterioration of water quality reduces the value of the county's aquifers, not only for current supply, but also for additional supply to the county and other parts of New York City in times of drought or other emergency.

  13. Decontaminating materials used in ground water sampling devices: Organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.V.; Ranney, T.A.

    2000-12-31

    In these studies, the efficiency of various decontamination protocols was tested on small pieces of materials commonly used in ground water sampling devices. Three materials, which ranged in ability to sorb organic solutes, were tested: stainless steel (SS), rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The test pieces were exposed to two aqueous test solutions: One contained three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one nitroaromatic compound, and the other contained four pesticides. Also, three types of polymetic tubing were exposed to pesticide solutions. Generally, the contact times were 10 minutes and 24 hours for sorption and desorption. The contaminants were removed from the nonpermeable SS and the less-sorptive rigid PVC test pieces simply by washing with a hot detergent solution and rinsing with hot water. Additional treatment was required for the PTFE test pieces exposed to the VOCs and for the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) tubing exposed to the pesticide test solution. Solvent rinsing did not improve removal of the three VOCs form the PTFE and only marginally improved removal of the residual pesticides from the LDPE. However, a hot water and detergent wash and rinse followed by oven drying at approximately 105 C was effective for removing the VOCs from the PTFE and substantially reduced pesticide contamination from the LDPE.

  14. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    selected samplings. One set of ground-water samples was collected for helium-3/tritium and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) age dating. Several lines of evidence indicate that surface water is the primary input to the Straight Creek ground-water system. Straight Creek streamflow and water levels in wells closest to the apex of the Straight Creek debris fan and closest to Straight Creek itself appear to respond to the same seasonal inputs. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in Straight Creek surface water and ground water are similar, and concentrations of most dissolved constituents in most Straight Creek surface-water and shallow (debris-flow and alluvial) aquifer ground-water samples correlate strongly with sulfate (concentrations decrease linearly with sulfate in a downgradient direction). After infiltration of surface water, dilution along the flow path is the dominant mechanism controlling ground-water chemistry. However, concentrations of some constituents can be higher in ground water than can be accounted for by concentrations in Straight Creek surface water, and additional sources of these constituents must therefore be inferred. Constituents for which concentrations in ground water can be high relative to surface water include calcium, magnesium, strontium, silica, sodium, and potassium in ground water from debris-flow and alluvial aquifers and manganese, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium, and potassium in ground water from the bedrock aquifer. All ground water is a calcium sulfate type, often at or near gypsum saturation because of abundant gypsum in the aquifer material developed from co-existing calcite and pyrite mineralization. Calcite dissolution, the major buffering mechanism for bedrock aquifer ground water, also contributes to relatively higher calcium concentrations in some ground water. The main source of the second most abundant cation, magnesium, is probably dissolution of magnesium-rich carbonates or silicates. Strontium may also be

  15. Ground-water and water-chemistry data for the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Truini, Margot

    1997-01-01

    This report presents ground-water data collected and compiled as part of a study of the ground-water resources of the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Data in this report include tabulated information and a location map for more than 1,500 field-located water wells, hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations over various time periods for 102 of the wells, and water-chemistry analyses from 26 wells, 7 springs, and 5 surface-water sites.

  16. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  17. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1969-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    The investigation of the ground-water resources of Oklahoma by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board includes a continuing program to collect records of water levels in selected observation wells on a systematic basis. These water-level records: (1) provide an index to available ground-water supplies; (2) facilitate the prediction of trends in water levels that will indicate likely changes in storage; (3) aid in the prediction of the base flow of streams; (4) provide information for use in basic research; (5) provide long-time continuous records of fluctuations of water levels in representative wells; and (6) serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data my be related. Prior to 1956, measurements of water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma were included in water-supply papers published annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Beginning with the 1956 calendar year, however, Geological Survey water-level reports will contain only records of a selected network of observation wells, and will be published at 5-year intervals. The first of this series, for the 1956-59 period was published in 1962. In addition to the water-supply papers, the U.S. Geological Survey, cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, has published the following informal reports on water levels in Oklahoma. Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1956-60 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1961-62 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1963-64 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1965-66 Ground-water levels in observations wells in Oklahoma, 1967-68 Records of water-level measurements in wells in the Oklahoma Panhandle, 1966-70 Records of water-level measurements in wells in the Oklahoma Panhandle, 1971-72 The basic observation-well network in Oklahoma during the period 1969-70 included the following counties: Alfalfa, Beaver, Beckham, Caddo, Cimarron

  18. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  19. Ground-water resources of the El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Albert Nelson; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1945-01-01

    released from storage by the formation of the cone centering in the Mesa field was calculated at 22,000 acre-feet, but the total pumpage was estimated to have been 90,000 acre-feet. Thus, about one-fourth of the total pumpage was taken from storage; the remaining three-fourths and apparently was taken from recharge. About 210,000 acre-feet of water has been pumped from the cone of depression in the El Paso Valley in and near El Paso. The volume of this cone could not be determined because there are artesian conditions in this area. Computations were made of the amount of water that would be recovered from storage if, for a distance of 10 miles north of the Mesa well field, the water level in a series of wells were drawn down the same amount as the present drawdown in the wells in that field. The water that would be recovered from storage in the formation 0f this depression in the ground water surface was calculated at about 130,000 acre-feet, the equivalent of about 70 years' supply at the 1935 rate of pumping.It is, of course, available in addition to the annual recharge. The sudden increase in 1924 in the saltwater content of the water from El Paso well 3 (well 52), in the Montana well field, was shown to be the result of a leak in the casing at a depth of about 127 feet, and the well was successfully repaired during the investigation. However, the chloride content of all of the wells in the field has been increasing gradually. This may indicate that salty water is being pulled in from considerable distances or that the barriers between the fresh-water-bearing beds and the saltwater-bearing beds above-them are not capable of preventing vertical movement of the ground water. The fact that in the valley the static water level in the shallow beds yielding poor water is higher than that in the deeper beds is disquieting, and if the level in the lower beds continues to decline, seepage from the river will eventually force the shallow highly mineralized water

  20. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  1. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Londquist, Clark J.

    1997-01-01

    Geohydrologic data were collected from Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center in the Mojave Desert of southern California by the U.S. Geological Survey during 199296 to deter mine the quantity and quality of ground water available in this basin. In addition to data collected from existing wells and test holes, 17 monitoring sites were constructed in Irwin Basin to provide data on subsurface geology, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Eleven of these sites were multiple-well monitoring sites that were constructed to provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data in the aquifer system. The aquifer system of Irwin Basin, defined on the basis of hydrologic data collected from wells in Irwin Basin, consists of an upper and a lower aquifer. A 1994 water-table contour map shows that a cone of depression beneath Irwin Basin well field has developed as a result of ground-water development. Water-quality samples collected from Irwin Basin wells to determine potential sources of ground-water degradation indicate that water in three areas in the basin contains high nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge in this basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged before 1953 and that this water may be more than 14,000 years old.

  2. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia

    2001-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our databases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2000. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2000 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  4. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley, located about 30 miles north of San Francisco, is one of several basins in Sonoma County that use a combination of ground water and water delivered from the Russian River for supply. Over the past 30 years, Sonoma Valley has experienced rapid population growth and land-use changes. In particular, there has been a significant increase in irrigated agriculture, predominantly vineyards. To provide a better understanding of the ground-water/surface-water system in Sonoma Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled and evaluated existing data, collected and analyzed new data, and developed a ground-water flow model to better understand and manage the ground-water system. The new data collected include subsurface lithology, gravity measurements, groundwater levels, streamflow gains and losses, temperature, water chemistry, and stable isotopes. Sonoma Valley is drained by Sonoma Creek, which discharges into San Pablo Bay. The long-term average annual volume of precipitation in the watershed is estimated to be 269,000 acre-feet. Recharge to the ground-water system is primarily from direct precipitation and Sonoma Creek. Discharge from the ground-water system is predominantly outflow to Sonoma Creek, pumpage, and outflow to marshlands and to San Pablo Bay. Geologic units of most importance for groundwater supply are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, the Huichica Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. In this report, the ground-water system is divided into three depth-based geohydrologic units: upper (less than 200 feet below land surface), middle (between 200 and 500 feet), and lower (greater than 500 feet). Synoptic streamflow measurements were made along Sonoma Creek and indicate those reaches with statistically significant gains or losses. Changes in ground-water levels in wells were analyzed by comparing historical contour maps with the contour map for 2003. In addition, individual hydrographs were evaluated to assess temporal

  5. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  6. 37. Roof Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Sections,and Details. Addition to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Roof Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Sections,and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. June 1915. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because ground water is a source of potable water for millions of people, an economical means of removing volatile organic contaminants is essential. Laboratory, pilot-scale and full-scale studies are being carried out in the United States of America to determine the effect of va...

  8. Quality of ground water from private domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

  9. Chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Two maps portray the chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia. One map shows dissolved-solids concentration and chemical analyses diagrams. The other indicates hardness and areas of marginal water quality. Three tables of chemical analysis representing the three distinct rock types in the county are presented also. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION NEAR PAVILLION, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to complaints by domestic well owners regarding objectionable taste and odor problems in well water, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a ground water investigation near the town of Pavillion, Wyoming under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental ...

  11. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  12. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.J.; Mundorff, M.J.; Walker, E.H.

    1967-01-01

    The lower Henrys Fork region includes the plains and low benches between Ashton and the junction of Henrys Fork and Snake River in eastern Idaho. The northwestern and western parts of the area are part of the Snake River lava plain. The central part of the area is occupied by alluvial plains of the Snake, Teton, and Falls Rivers, and Henrys Fork. The southeastern part of the area is a bench (Rexburg Bench), chiefly on silicic and basaltic volcanic rocks, which rises gradually to mountain peaks southeast of the area. The basalt, and the sand and gravel under the alluvial plains are good aquifers and yield large amounts of water with small drawdowns. The silicic volcanic rocks and the interbedded ash, pyroclastics, and sedimentary deposits generally yield much less water than the basalt and alluvium. The regional water table slopes southward beneath the basalt and alluvial plains. Seepage from stream channels and irrigated tracts has resulted in an extensive body of ground water perched above the regional water table. The perched water in part moves vertically down to the regional water table and in part laterally to the streams. Ground water beneath the Rexburg Bench moves generally northwestward to join the regional ground-water body beneath the alluvial plain. The regional water table is below the level of the streams in the area and ground water in the main aquifer, therefore is not tributary to the streams. Recharge to the regional water table is estimated to average 725,000 acre-feet annually. Pumping from the regional ground-water reservoir for irrigation or other uses would have no effect on streamflow or surface-water rights within the study area. However, depletion of the underflow would eventually reduce the inflow to American Falls Reservoir unless the depletion was offset by additional recharge. Total withdrawals of ground water for irrigation in 1962 were estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet and caused no significant decline in the water table. In the

  13. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  15. Ground- and Surface-Water Chemistry of Handcart Gulch, Park County, Colorado, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Kimball, Briant A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Runkel, Robert L.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Adams, Monique; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.; Fey, David L.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary project to determine the processes that control ground-water chemistry and flow in mineralized alpine environments, ground- and surface-water samples from Handcart Gulch, Colorado were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes and water and dissolved sulfate stable isotopes in selected samples. The primary aim of this study was to document variations in ground-water chemistry in Handcart Gulch and to identify changes in water chemistry along the receiving stream of Handcart Gulch. Water analyses are reported for ground-water samples collected from 12 wells in Handcart Gulch, Colorado. Samples were collected between August 2003 and October 2005. Water analyses for surface-water samples are reported for 50 samples collected from Handcart Gulch and its inflows during a low-flow tracer injection on August 6, 2003. In addition, water analyses are reported for three other Handcart Gulch stream samples collected in September 2005 and March 2006. Reported analyses include field parameters (pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and Eh), major and trace constituents, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of water and oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Ground-water samples from this study are Ca-SO4 type and range in pH from 2.5 to 6.8. Most of the samples (75 percent) have pH values between 3.3 and 4.3. Surface water samples are also Ca-SO4 type and have a narrower range in pH (2.7?4.0). Ground- and surface-water samples vary from relatively dilute (specific conductance of 68 ?S/cm) to concentrated (specific conductance of 2,000 ?S/cm).

  16. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  17. MONITORING OXIDATION-REDUCTION PROCESS DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS AT THE CHICKASAW NRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineralized ground waters at the Chickasaw National Recreational Area contain hydrogen sulfide, i.e., sulfur in the -2 valence state. As these mineralized ground waters discharge at the surface and mix with oxygen-rich waters a series of abiotic and biotic reactions occur that c...

  18. LAND AND WATER USE EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN LAS VEGAS VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrogeologic study of the shallow ground-water zone in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada determined the sources and extent of ground-water contamination to develop management alternatives and minimize adverse effects. An extensive, computerized data base utilizing water analyses, wel...

  19. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2000-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1999. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  20. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia H.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.' Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1997. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  1. Availability of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    1999-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local water agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year. These data constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. In 1994, the Volume 5 Ground-Water Data report was discontinued, but data continue to be available in our data bases. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for 1998. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for the current water year (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  2. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  3. Hydrogeology and Simulation of Regional Ground-Water-Level Declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  4. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed. PMID:18378277

  5. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  6. Geology, ground-water flow, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water along hydrogeologic sections through Wisconsin aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was begun with the objectives of describing water quality and its relation to the hydrology of Wisconsin's principal aquifers and summarizing instances of ground-water contamination and quality problems from information available in DNR files. The first objective was met by a hydrologic investigation done by the USGS, and the second, by preparation of a report by the DNR, for their internal use, that describes the State's water resources and known ground-water quality and contamination problems and makes policy recommendations for ground-water management.The USGS investigation was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of compiling available water-quality and hydrogeologic data and collecting new data to describe general regional water-quality and hydrogeologic relations within and between Wisconsin aquifers. The second phase began concurrently with the later part of the first phase and consisted of an areal description of water quality and flow in the State's shallow aquifer system (Kammerer, 1995). The overall purpose of this investigation was to provide a regional framework that could serve as a basis for intensive local and site specific ground-water investigations by State and local government agencies.This report presents the results of the first phase of the USGS investigation. Regional hydrogeologic and water-quality relations within and between aquifers are shown along 15 hydrogeologic sections that traverse the State. Maps are used to show surficial geology of bedrock and unconsolidated deposits and horizontal direction of ground-water flow. Interpretations on the maps and hydrogeologic sections are based on data from a variety of sources and provide the basis for the areal appraisal of water quality in the State's shallow aquifer system in the second phase of the investigation.

  7. The effect of switchable water additives on clay settling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Shun; Lau, Ying Yin; Mercer, Sean M; Robert, Tobias; Horton, J Hugh; Jessop, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    The recycling of process water from strip mining extractions is a very relevant task both industrially and environmentally. The sedimentation of fine tailings during such processes, however, can often require long periods of time and/or the addition of flocculants which make later water recycling difficult. We propose the use of switchable water additives as reversible flocculants for clay/water suspensions. Switchable water additives are compounds such as diamines that make it possible to reversibly control the ionic strength of an aqueous solution. Addition of CO(2) to such an aqueous solution causes the ionic strength to rise dramatically, and the change is reversed upon removal of the CO(2). These additives, while in the presence of CO(2), promote the aggregation of clay tailings, reduce settling times, and greatly increase the clarity of the liberated water. The removal of CO(2) from the liberated water regenerates a low ionic strength solution that does not promote clay aggregation and settling until CO(2) is added again. Such reversible behavior would be useful in applications such as oil sands separations in which the recycled water must not promote aggregation. When added to kaolinite and montmorillonite clay suspensions, switchable water provided process waters of lower turbidity than those additives from inorganic salts or by CO(2)-treatment alone. When recollected, the switchable water supernatant was shown to be recyclable over three cycles for enhanced settling of kaolinite. PMID:22945593

  8. Denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Hwang, H.-H.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Beaumont, W.C.; Holm, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution of surface water by N is considered a major cause of hypoxia. Because Corn Belt watersheds have been identified as major sources of N in the Mississippi River basin, the fate and transport of N from midwestern agricultural watersheds have received considerable interest. The fate and transport of N in the shallow ground water of these watersheds still needs additional research. Our purpose was to estimate denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, Corn Belt watershed with fine-grained soils. Over a 3-yr period, N was monitored in the surface and ground water of an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. A significant amount of N was transported past the tile drains and into shallow ground water. The ground water nitrate was isotopically heavier than tile drain nitrate, which can be explained by denitrification in the subsurface. Denitrifying bacteria were found at depths to 10 m throughout the watershed. Laboratory and push-pull tests showed that a significant fraction of nitrate could be denitrified rapidly. We estimated that the N denitrified in shallow ground water was equivalent to 0.3 to 6.4% of the applied N or 9 to 27% of N exported via surface water. These estimates varied by water year and peaked in a year of normal precipitation after 2 yr of below average precipitation. Three years of monitoring data indicate that shallow ground water in watersheds with fine-grained soils may be a significant N sink compared with N exported via surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  10. Ground-water modeling of pumping effects near regional ground-water divides and river/aquifer systems - Results and implications of numerical experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Agreements between United States governors and Canadian territorial premiers establish water-management principles and a framework for protecting Great Lakes waters, including ground water, from diversion and consumptive uses. The issue of ground-water diversions out of the Great Lakes Basin by large-scale pumping near the divides has been raised. Two scenario models, in which regional ground-water flow models represent major aquifers in the Great Lakes region, were used to assess the effect of pumping near ground-water divides. The regional carbonate aquifer model was a generalized model representing northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana; the regional sandstone aquifer model used an existing calibrated ground-water flow model for southeastern Wisconsin. Various well locations and pumping rates were examined. Although the two models have different frameworks and boundary conditions, results of the models were similar. There was significant diversion of ground water across ground-water divides due to pumping within 10 miles of the divides. In the regional carbonate aquifer model, the percentage of pumped water crossing the divide ranges from about 20 percent for a well 10 miles from the divide to about 50 percent for a well adjacent to the divide. In the regional sandstone aquifer model, the percentages range from about 30 percent for a well 10 miles from the divide to about 50 percent for a well adjacent to the divide; when pumping on the west side of the divide, within 5 mi of the predevelopment divide, results in at least 10 percent of the water being diverted from the east side of the divide. Two additional scenario models were done to examine the effects of pumping near rivers. Transient models were used to simulate a rapid stage rise in a river during pumping at a well in carbonate and glacial aquifers near the river. Results of water-budget analyses indicate that induced infiltration, captured streamflow, and underflow were important for both glacial and

  11. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowing where and what type of risks to ground water exist can alert water-resource managers and private users of the need to protect water supplies. Although nitrate generally is not an adult public-health threat, ingestion in drinking water by infants can cause low oxygen levels in the blood, a potentially fatal condition (Spalding and Exner, 1993). For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995). Nitrate concentrations in natural ground waters are usually less than 2 mg/L (Mueller and others, 1995).

  12. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

  13. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  14. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. Availability of ground-water data for California, water year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    This Fact Sheet serves as an index to California ground-water data for 1996. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water- quality data for the current year and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the data bases of the Water Resources Division, California District.

  16. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  17. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  18. Ground water in the Blanchard area, McClain County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon Virgil; Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    A letter from Lloyd L. Bowser, City Clerk, dated January 8, 1948, in behalf of the town council and Mayor Walter Casey, indicates that a serious shortage of water is faced by the town of Blanchard, McClain County, Oklahoma. The town is near the eastern boundary of Grady County, where an investigation of the ground-water resources is being made by the Oklahoma Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a State-wide investigation. Information obtained thus far may aid the town by showing where additional ground water for municipal supply may be sought.

  19. Data on ground-water resources of the Spring Mountains area, Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, William D.; Davis, Louise E.

    1979-01-01

    This report lists data on ground-water levels for 16 wells and discharge for 18 springs in the Spring Mountain area of the Tolyabe National Forest. Water levels in wells ranged from 325 to 519 feet below land surface. The highest spring discharge listed is 107 gallons per minute. In addition, data on the chemical quality of the water from selected wells and springs are listed.

  20. Ground water chlorinated ethenes in tree trunks: Case studies, influence of recharge, and potential degradation mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Clinton, B.D.; Vose, J.M.; Casey, C.C.; Harvey, G.J.; Bradley, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected in cores of trees growing above TCE-contaminated ground at three sites: the Carswell Golf Course in Texas, Air Force Plant PJKS in Colorado, and Naval Weapons Station Charleston in South Carolina. This was true even when the depth to water was 7.9 m or when the contaminated aquifer was confined beneath ???3 m of clay. Additional ground water contaminants detected in the tree cores were cis-1,2-dichloroethene at two sites and tetrachloroethene at one site. Thus, tree coring can be a rapid and effective means of locating shallow subsurface chlorinated ethenes and possibly identifying zones of active TCE dechlorination. Tree cores collected over time were useful in identifying the onset of ground water contamination. Several factors affecting chlorinated ethene concentrations in tree cores were identified in this investigation. The factors include ground water chlorinated ethene concentrations and depth to ground water contamination. In addition, differing TCE concentrations around the trunk of some trees appear to be related to the roots deriving water from differing areas. Opportunistic uptake of infiltrating rainfall can dilute prerain TCE concentrations in the trunk. TCE concentrations in core headspace may differ among some tree species. In some trees, infestation of bacteria in decaying heartwood may provide a TCE dechlorination mechanism within the trunk.

  1. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.

    1995-01-01

    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  2. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  3. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Geothermal Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John

    Subsurface geothermal sites are commonly colonized by chemolithotrophic bacteria which use rock minerals and CO_2 as sole nutrients. This type of ``life cradle'' may not only be common on Earth but may also be a likely scenario on many other planets. Three geothermal sites in southern New Mexico have been chosen to characterize geothermal waters for microbial diversity and chemical content. All sites of this on-going study are located on or near the Rio Grande Rift and are tapped into fractured reservoir systems of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Tertiary volcanic rocks or consolidated basin-fill sediments. Geothermal fluids were analyzed for major cations and anions, selected trace elements, TOC, phosphate, fluoride and dissolved gases. The microbial analysis included phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and DNA sequencing. Geothermal ground water was high in dissolved solids, had high concentrations of carbon dioxide and was more acidic than adjacent ground water not affected by geothermal activity. Geothermal ground-water samples contained very low amounts of biomass composed of relatively simple microbial communities. Several species of Archaebacteria were detected in some of the ground water that was derived from wells tapping into deep fractured systems. The analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) images indicated distinct differences of the types of microbes present in geothermal water compared to an adjacent deep non-thermal flow system.

  4. Stereochemistry of enzymatic water addition to C=C bonds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds using hydratases is attracting great interest in biochemistry. Most of the known hydratases are involved in primary metabolism and to a lesser extent in secondary metabolism. New hydratases have recently been added to the toolbox, both from natural sources or artificial metalloenzymes. In order to comprehensively understand how the hydratases are able to catalyse the water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, this review will highlight the mechanistic and stereochemical studies of the enzymatic water addition to carbon-carbon double bonds, focusing on the syn/anti-addition and stereochemistry of the reaction. PMID:25640045

  5. Ground-water contamination control: Detection and remedial planning

    SciTech Connect

    Woldt, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation is divided into three main sections that correspond to a typical sequence of actions resulting in a final remedial action plan for handling contamination at a particular site. The first section develops a methodology for detecting and mapping suspected contamination using multiple sources of data. Different data types are combined by using a modified form of kriging with uncertain data, termed compound kriging. In addition, the use of fuzzy set theory merged with geostatistics is explored as a possible mapping technique when variogram parameters are difficult to quantify. A decision support system for observation network design is presented in the second section. Network design is approached from a multiple objective decision making perspective. The objective is to identify the most cost-effective network design while considering the trade-off between performance and cost. Geostatistical variance reduction analysis and prior knowledge related to the site are used as performance measures in the decision support system. A remedial action design support system is described in the third section. Three dimensional geostatistical simulation and analytical ground water modeling are used to assess the need for further remedial action planning. In addition, a methodology for measuring the performance of candidate remediation systems under conditions of uncertainty in aquifer parameters and plume location is presented. These performance measures, combined with cost factors, are used in a multiple-criteria decision making system to determine the preferred clean up system for a site being investigated.

  6. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  7. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  8. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  10. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  11. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  12. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  13. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  14. Real-time ground-water-level monitoring in New Jersey, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.; Navoy, Anthony S.; Pope, Daryll A.

    2003-01-01

    This network was created to provide data to indicate water-level trends in shallow ground-water systems within the State of New Jersey and to make the data available in the shortest time possible. The wells in this network are located throughout New Jersey (fig. 1) and were chosen because they are completed in shallow aquifers (table 1). The monitoring of shallow aquifers is important because these aquifers are relied on for water supply and irrigation. Additionally, the natural discharge from shallow aquifers provides base flow to streams. Water levels in these aquifers respond relatively quickly to precipitation and dry periods, so the rapid reporting of water-level data is necessary to follow trends. This network, for example, provides data that allow observation of the onset of drought conditions in ground water. Also, the data from this network can be used to estimate the most recent water-level trend in surficial-aquifer wells not outfitted with satellite telemetry.

  15. Availability Of Ground-Water Data For California, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Beginning with the 1985 water year and continuing through 1993, these data were published in a report series entitled ?Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data.? Prior to the introduction of this series, historical ground-water information was published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  16. Assessment of information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water/surface-water interactions are important to the hydrology of shallow aquifers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. Information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent was assessed. The ground-water/surface-water interactions in physiographic and climatic areas that contain many wetlands differed from the interactions in areas that consisted predominantly of alluvial aquifers along large streams. In both types of areas, however, the interactions are complex. The distribution of shallow ground-water observation wells in the northern midcontinent and the frequency of measurement were evaluated. Most shallow wells are located adjacent to major streams, especially in areas where wetlands are not a dominant surface-water feature. The frequency of measurement was inconsistent between states.

  17. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  18. Mathematical ground-water model of Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, R.M., Jr.; Robson, S.G.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Indian Wells Valley ground-water basin was developed and verified. The alternating-direction implicit method was used to compute the mathematical solution. It was assumed that there are only two aquifers in the valley, one being deep and the other shallow. Where the shallow aquifer occurs, the underlying deep aquifer is confined or artesian. Flow between the aquifers under steady-state conditions is assumed to be in one direction, from deep to shallow. The transmissivity of the deep aquifer ranges from about 250,000 to 22,000 gallons per day per foot and from about 25,000 to 5,000 gallons per day per foot for the shallow aquifer. The storage coefficient for the deep aquifer ranges from 1 x 10 -4 to 0.20. Steady-state recharge and discharge in each aquifer was estimated to be 9,850 acre-feet per year. Ground-water pumping, sewage-effluent recharge, and capture of ground-water discharge occurred under non-steady-state conditions. Most of the ground-water pumpage is near Ridgecrest and Inyokern and in the area between the two towns. By 1968 pumpage in the deep aquifer had caused a reversal in the ground-water gradient south of China Lake and small water-level declines over most of the aquifer. The model for the deep aquifer was verified under steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. The shallow aquifer was verified under steady-state conditions only. The verified model was then used to generate 1983 water-level conditions in the deep aquifer.

  19. GWVis: A Tool for Comparative Ground-Water Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application (GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. Current three dimensional models of ground-water are overly complex, while the two dimensional representations (i.e., on paper) are neither comprehensive, nor engaging. At present, GWVis operates on water head elevation data over a given time span, together with a matching (fixed) underlying geography. Two elevation scenarios are compared with each other, typically a control data set (actual field data) and a simulation. Scenario comparison can be animated for the time span provided. We developed GWVis using the Python programming language, associated libraries, and pyOpenGL extension packages to improve performance and control of attributes of the mode (such as color, positioning, scale, and interpolation). GWVis bridges the gap between two dimensional and dynamic three dimensional research visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives and to infer information about scenarios. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows the information to be presented to a large audience base.

  20. Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of

  1. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  2. Selenium speciation in ground water. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-07-10

    Selenium toxicity diseases in animals may occur when the intake exceeds 4 mg/kg and selenium deficiency symptoms may occur when dietary intake is less than 0.04 mg/kg. Since the selenium dietary requirement is very close to toxic concentration, it is important to understand the distribution of selenium in the environment. Selenium occurs in four oxidation states (-II, 0, +IV, and +VI) as selenide, elemental selenium, selenite and selenate. Selenate is reported as more soluble and less adsorbed than selenite. Selenate is more easily leached from soils and is the most available form for plants. Increased mobility of Se into the environment via anthropogenic activities, and the potential oxidation-reduction behavior of the element have made it imperative to study the aquatic chemistry of Se. For this purpose, Se species are divided into two different categories: dissolved Se (in material that passes through filters with 0.45 u openings) and particulate Se (in material of particle size > 0.45 mm) typically suspended sediment and other suspended solids. Element and colloidal phase, not truly dissolved, but passing through the filter is deemed to consist of selenium (-2,0). In dissolved state selenium may exist in three of its four oxidation states; Se(-II), Se(+IV), and Se(+VI). Particulate Se may exist in the same oxidation states as dissolved Se and can be found in different phases of the particulate matter. In sediments, Se may be within the organic material, iron and manganese oxides, carbonates or other mineral phases. The actual chemical forms of Se may be adsorbed to or coprecipitated with these phases (primarily selenite, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) and selenate, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Selenide, Se(-II), can be covalently bound in the organic portion of a sediment. In addition, Se may be found in anoxic sediments as insoluble metal selenide precipitates, an insoluble elemental Se or as ferroselite (FeSe{sub 2}) and Se containing pyrite.

  3. Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinxin; Zuo, Qiang; Ma, Wenwen; Li, Sen; Shi, Jianchu; Tao, Yueyue; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaofei; Lin, Shan; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-09-01

    The ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) offers a potentially water-saving alternative to the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS) by furrow irrigating mulched soil beds and maintaining soils under predominately unsaturated conditions. The guiding hypothesis of this study was that a GCRPS would decrease both physiological and non-physiological water consumption of rice compared to a TPRPS while either maintaining or enhancing production. This was tested in a two-year field experiment with three treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat keeping root zone average soil water content near saturated, and GCRPS80% keeping root zone average soil water content as 80-100% of field water capacity) and a greenhouse experiment with four treatments (TPRPS, GCRPSsat, GCRPSfwc keeping root zone average soil water content close to field water capacity, and GCRPS80%). The water-saving characteristics of GCRPS were analyzed as a function of the measured soil water conditions, plant parameters regarding growth and production, and water input and consumption. In the field experiment, significant reduction in both physiological and non-physiological water consumption under GCRPS lead to savings in irrigation water of ∼61-84% and reduction in total input water of ∼35-47%. Compared to TPRPS, deep drainage was reduced ∼72-88%, evaporation was lessened ∼83-89% and transpiration was limited ∼6-10% under GCRPS. In addition to saving water, plant growth and grain yield were enhanced under GCRPS due to increased soil temperature in the root zone. Therefore, water use efficiencies (WUEs), based on transpiration, irrigation and total input water, were respectively improved as much as 27%, 609% and 110% under GCRPS. Increased yield attributed to up to ∼19%, decreased deep drainage accounted for ∼75%, decreased evaporation accounted for ∼14% and reduced transpiration for ∼5% of the enhancement in WUE of input water under GCRPS, while increased runoff and water storage had

  4. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Arthur L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  5. Modeling in situ iron removal from ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Appelo, C.A.J.; Drijver, B.; Hekkenberg, R.; Jonge, M. de

    1999-12-01

    In situ iron removal is conducted routinely in a number of European countries. A volume of oxygenated water is injected, and subsequently a larger volume of ground water can be pumped with a lower iron concentration than is found in native ground water. The underlying reaction mechanism has not been well described so far, and the process has not been modeled quantitatively. The essential problem is how the electron transfer takes place between the dissolved oxygen in injection water and the dissolved iron in ground water. An intermediate reaction step, involving cation exchange of ferrous iron and subsequent oxidation by oxygen of injection water, explains the efficiency increase during the initial cycles and the absence of clogging by precipitated iron-oxyhydroxide. A hydrogeochemical transport model has been used to model column experiments with good results. The quantification of the reaction mechanism allows the assessment of operational conditions. For example, it can be shown that increasing the oxidant concentration in the injected water has an insignificant effect when exchangeable ferrous iron is low.

  6. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  7. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  8. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  9. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  10. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  11. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  12. 10 CFR 63.331 - Separate standards for protection of ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separate standards for protection of ground water. 63.331... Standards Ground-Water Protection Standards § 63.331 Separate standards for protection of ground water. DOE... ground water to exceed the limits in the following Table 1: Table 1—Limits on Radionuclides in...

  13. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  14. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  15. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  16. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program...

  17. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  18. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.23 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent...

  19. Ground water maps of Hanford Site Separations Areas, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Separations Areas consist of the 200 East and 200 West areas and the surrounding vicinity on the Hanford Site. Chemical processing operations are carried out in the Separations Areas by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. This set of ground water maps consists of: (1) Separations Areas depth-to-water map, (2) Separations Areas water table map, and (3) a map comparing the potentiometric surface of the Rattlesnake Ridge confined aquifer with the water table of the unconfined aquifer. The field measurements for these maps were collected during December 1989. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Availability of ground-water data for California, water year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1?September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2002. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and waterquality data for water year 2002 and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, California District.

  1. Ground water and the law - some selected annotated references

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vorhis, Robert C.

    1955-01-01

    The strictly "legal" literature of ground-water use and control -except for a few essays in certain of the law reviews- is quite limited. A larger and more pointful source of information and analysis is the legal-scientific writings of the geologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, engineers and others. When new statutes are to be drafted by legislatures, and new decisions are to be made by courts on this subject, such literature may well be of far greater importance than legal precedents unfounded on scientific fact. This may be demonstrated by the character and scope of the legal-scientific literature of ground water, just one branch of water science, but one which is of major importance to any thoughtful consideration of water use and control.

  2. Cooperative modeling: linking science, communication, and ground water planning.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Vincent C; van den Brink, Cors

    2008-01-01

    Equitable allocation of ground water resources is a growing challenge due to both the increasing demand for water and the competing values placed on its use. While scientists can contribute to a technically defensible basis for water resource planning, this framework must be cast in a broader societal and environmental context. Given the complexity and often contentious nature of resource allocation, success requires a process for inclusive and transparent sharing of ideas complemented by tools to structure, quantify, and visualize the collective understanding and data, providing an informed basis of dialogue, exploration, and decision making. Ideally, a process that promotes shared learning leading to cooperative and adaptive planning decisions. While variously named, mediated modeling, group modeling, cooperative modeling, shared vision planning, or computer-mediated collaborative decision making are similar approaches aimed at meeting these objectives. In this paper, we frame "cooperative modeling" in the context of ground water planning and illustrate the process with two brief examples. PMID:18194321

  3. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  4. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a

  5. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  6. Over-Water Aspects of Ground-Effect Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Carter, Arthur W.; Schade, Robert O.

    1960-01-01

    The large thrust augmentation obtainable with annular-jet configurations in ground proximity has led to the serious investigation of ground-effect machines. The basic theoretical work on these phenomena has been done by Chaplin and Boehler. Large thrust-augmentation factors, however, can be obtained only at very low heights, that is, of the order of a few percent of the diameter of the vehicle. To take advantage of this thrust augmentation therefore the vehicle must be either very large or must operate over very smooth terrain. Over-land uses of these vehicles then will probably be rather limited. The water, however, is inherently smooth and those irregularities that do exist, that is waves, are statistically known. It appears therefore that some practical application of ground-effect machines may be made in over-water application.

  7. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  8. Factors controlling tungsten concentrations in ground water, Carson Desert, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of a childhood leukemia cluster by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that residents of the Carson Desert, Nevada, are exposed to high levels of W and this prompted an investigation of W in aquifers used as drinking water sources. Tungsten concentrations in 100 ground water samples from all aquifers used as drinking water sources in the area ranged from 0.27 to 742 ??g/l. Ground water in which W concentrations exceed 50 ??g/l principally occurs SE of Fallon in a geothermal area. The principal sources of W in ground water are natural and include erosion of W-bearing mineral deposits in the Carson River watershed upstream of Fallon, and, possibly, upwelling geothermal waters. Ground water in the Fallon area is strongly reducing and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides may be releasing W; however, direct evidence that the metal oxides contain W is not available. Although W and Cl concentrations in the Carson River, a lake, and water from many wells, appear to be controlled by evaporative concentration, evaporation alone cannot explain the elevated W concentrations found in water from some of the wells. Concentrations of W exceeding 50 ??g/l are exclusively associated with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl water types and pH > 8.0; in these waters, geochemical modeling indicates that W exhibits <10% adsorption. Tungsten concentrations are strongly and positively correlated with As, B, F, and P, indicating either common sources or common processes controlling their concentrations. Geochemical modeling indicates W concentrations are consistent with pH-controlled adsorption of W. The geochemical model PHREEQC was used to calculate IAP values, which were compared with published Ksp values for primary W minerals. FeWO4, MnWO4, Na2WO4, and MgWO4 were undersaturated and CaWO4 and SrWO 4 were approaching saturation. These conclusions are tentative because of uncertainty in the thermodynamic data. The similar behavior of As and W observed in

  9. Desalination of Ground Water Minerals (Case Study: Kashan Desert in Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, S. E.; Esmaeli Mahani, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Jafari, M.

    2009-12-01

    The present study focuses on testing quality and desalination of minerals from ground water that is used as the only source of water supply particularly for drinking in the Kashan Desert in Iran. About 14.2 cubic meter water/year from 59 wells, with the average depth of 120 meter, are used for drinking and personal usage in the selected study area. To test the quality of ground water, in general, salinity of minerals such as: chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO4), carbonate (CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), as well as PH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), and Temperature (T) are measured. EC and TDS in the deserts and arid areas are usually very high because of lack of rainfall, higher temperature, and high rate of evaporation. If the TDS is greater than 1000 mg/l, ground water needs to be desalinated. The TDS of ground water samples in Kashan Desert is greater than 2500 mg/l, which is higher than international World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard values. Conventional treatment can not be the only solution for making Kashan Desert ground water that much pure that can be used as fresh water for drinking because EC, Mg, Na, Cl, and SO4 are also higher than standard values. Various techniques such as: Ion Exchange (IX), Microfiltration (MF), Ultra Filtration (UF), Nano Filtration (NF), Electro Dialysis (ED), and Reserve Osmosis (RO) are examined to desalinate above mentioned minerals. Based on molecular weight and diameter of chemical particles which should be removed, in addition to experiences of operational groups in Iran, the RO technique has been selected as the best methodology. The results show that the RO technique could improve the quality of Kashan Desert ground water by comparison with the standard fresh water up to 95% to 99%.

  10. GROUND WATER PURGING AND SAMPLING METHODS: HISTORY VS. HYSTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  11. STATISTICAL ESTIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work presents methods of visualizing and animating statistical estimates of ground water and/or soil contamination over a region from observations of the contaminant for that region. The primary statistical methods used to produce the regional estimates are nonparametric re...

  12. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  13. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND WATER BY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies are underway to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon for removing volatile organic compounds from ground water. For fifteen C1 through C6 compounds being considered for possible regulatory action, the adsorption isotherm capacity ranges fro...

  14. Alternate conceptual model of ground water flow at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Attempts to predict the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States have lead to the development of alternative conceptual models of the ground watre flow field in which the repository will be located. This step has come about because of the lage uncertainties involved in predicting the movement of water and radionuclides through an unsaturated fractured rock. Further, one of the standards to which we are comparing performance is probabilistic, so we are forced to try to conceive of all credible scenarios by which ground water may intersect the repository horizon and perhaps transport radionuclides to a given compliance boundary. To simplify this task, the DOE set about identifying alternative conceptual models of ground water flow which are consistent with existing data. Modeling these concepts necessitates the use of simplifying assumptions. Among the modeling assumptions commonly utilized by analysts of the Yucca Mountain site are those of uniformly distributed, small volumes of recharge and matrix or porous media flow. Most scientists would agree that recharge at Yucca Mountain does not occur in this ideal and simplified fashion, yet modeling endeavors continue to commonly utilize this approach. In this paper, we examine the potential effects of focused recharge on the flow field at Yucca Mountain in concert with a fractured matrix and non-equilibrium view of ground water flow.

  15. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods.

  16. MANUAL: GROUND-WATER AND LEACHATE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can be used as a treatment technology screening tool in conjunction with other references. Mo...

  17. FILTRATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES FOR METALS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration of a ground water samples with 0.45 um filters for determination of 'dissolved' metals is not only inaccurate for distinguishing between dissolved and particulate phases, but if used for estimates of mobile contaminant loading in a given aquifer, may result in sign...

  18. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  19. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  20. 21. WATER TOWERBARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. WATER TOWER-BARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS (Buildings No. 48, 49, 50) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-13) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  1. 20. WATER TOWERBARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WATER TOWER-BARRACKS COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS THE PARADE GROUNDS (Buildings No. 50, 49, 48) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-12) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  2. TBA IN GROUND WATER FROM THE NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At many UST spills, the concentrations of TBA in ground water are much higher than would be expected from the presence of TBA in the gasoline originally spilled. The ratio of concentrations of TBA to concentrations of MTBE in monitoring wells at gasoline spill sites was compared ...

  3. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  4. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  5. MODELING MULTIPHASE ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN SOILS AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface contamination due to immiscible organic liquids is a widespread problem which poses a serious threat to ground-water resources. n order to understand the movement of such materials in the subsurface, a mathematical model was developed for multiphase flow and multicompo...

  6. REMEDIAL COSTS FOR MTBE IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extensive contamination of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has introduced concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to sites with BTEX only contamination. In an attempt to evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 sit...

  7. REMEDIAL COSTS FOR MTBE IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Underg...

  8. REMEDIAL COSTS FOR MTBE IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extensive contamination of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has introduced concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to sites with BTEX only contamination. In an attempt to evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 site...

  9. Summary of I-129 measurements in ground and surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kantelo, M.V.

    1987-11-17

    The iodine-129 content of groundwater and surface water at on-plant (Savannah River Plant) and off-plant locations has been determined at irregular intervals since 1970 using neutron activation analysis. I-129 was detected in groundwater near the Burial Ground and near the seepage basins of the Separations areas. For reference, I-129 concentrations in the groundwater can be compared to the EPA drinking water standard. At a few locations the concentrations exceeded both the existing and pending EPA drinking water standard. In surface water, Four Mile Creek was the only SRP stream found to transport significant I-129 to the Savannah River. Dilution by C-Reactor discharge and the Savannah River reduced the off-plant I-129 concentrations in river water to less than 1% of the existing EPA drinking water standard and less than 0.01% of the pending EPA drinking water standard.

  10. Index of ground-water quality data for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Williams, O.O.

    1985-01-01

    The Master Water Data Index of the U.S. Geological Survey contains records and information for 13,925 ground-water quality collection sites in Florida as follows: 2,180 active and 11,559 inactive well sites, and 39 active and 147 inactive spring sites. Ground-water quality data have been and are being collected at more sites in Florida than are other types of ground- and surface-water hydrologic data. Information available from the Master Water Data Index includes location (county, hydrologic unit, and latitude-longitude); reporting agency; agency identifying number; period and frequency of record; types of data (parameter sampled); and for wells, the principal aquifer sampled and well depth. This information may be retrieved, upon request, in a variety of formats. This report contains an index of the information available, not the actual water-quality data itself. The actual data may be obtained from the reporting agency that collected and stored the data. (USGS)

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  12. Chemical quality of ground water in the central Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, Ronald P.

    1978-01-01

    The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the central Sacramento Valley adjacent to the Sacramento River from Knights Landing to Los Molinos, Calif. With recent agricultural development in the area, additional land has been brought under irrigation from land which had been used primarily for dry farming and grazing. This report documents the chemical character of the ground water prior to water-level declines resulting from extensive pumping for irrigation or to changes caused by extensive use of imported surface water. Chemical analyses of samples from 209 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic purposes. Most of the water sampled in the area has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 100 to 700 milligrams per liter. The general water types for the area are a calcium magnesium bicarbonate or magnesium calcium bicarbonate and there are negligible amounts of toxic trace elements. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Estimated ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration, Ash Meadows Area, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.D.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Rapp, T.R.

    1997-05-01

    Ground water discharges from the regional ground-water flow system that underlies the eastern part of the Nevada Test Site through numerous springs and seeps in the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in southern Nevada. The total spring discharge was estimated to be about 17,000 acre-feet per year by earlier studies. Previous studies estimated that about 10,500 acre-feet of this discharge was lost to evapotranspiration. The present study was undertaken to develop a more rigorous approach to estimating ground-water discharge in the Ash Meadows area. Part of the study involves detailed field investigation of evapotranspiration. Data collection began in early 1994. The results of the first year of study provide a basis for making preliminary estimates of ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration. An estimated 13,100 acre-feet of ground water was evapotranspired from about 6,800 acres of marsh and salt-grass. Additional 3,500 acre-feet may have been transpired from the open water and from about 1,460 acres of other areas of Ash Meadows in which field studies have not yet been made.

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  15. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  16. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    ground-water irrigation on stream base flow for 1940 through 2005 and for 2006 through 2045. Simulated base flows were compared for scenarios that alternately did or did not include a representation of the effects of ground-water irrigation. The difference between simulated base flows for the two scenarios represents the predicted effects of ground-water irrigation on base flow. Comparison of base flows between simulations with ground-water irrigation and no ground-water irrigation indicated that ground-water irrigation has cumulatively reduced streamflows from 1940 through 2005 by 888,000 acre-feet in the Elkhorn River Basin and by 2,273,000 acre-feet in the Loup River Basin. Generally, predicted cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation on base flow were 5 to 10 times larger from 2006 through 2045 than from 1940 through 2005, and were 7,678,000 acre-feet for the Elkhorn River Basin and 14,784,000 acre-feet for the Loup River Basin. The calibrated simulation also was used to estimate base-flow depletion as a percentage of pumping volumes for a 50-year future time period, because base-flow depletion percentages are used to guide the placement of management boundaries in Nebraska. Mapped results of the base-flow depletion analysis conducted for most of the interior of the study area indicated that pumpage of one additional theoretical well simulated for a future 50-year period generally would result in more than 80 percent depletion when it was located close to the stream, except in areas where depletion was partly offset by reduced ground-water discharge to evapotranspiration in wetland areas. In many areas, depletion for the 50-year future period composed greater than 10 percent of the pumped water volume for theoretical wells placed less than 7 or 8 miles from the stream, though considerable variations existed because of the heterogeneity of the natural system represented in the simulation. For a few streams, predicted future simulated base flows dec

  17. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  18. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  19. Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

  20. Ground-water supplies in the Murfreesboro area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Moran, Mary S.; Woods, E. Jean

    1977-01-01

    Ground water occurs in the Murfreesboro area in solution openings in the otherwise dense paleozoic limestones that underlie most of central Tennessee. Test drilling based on conceptual models of ground-water occurrence in carbonate-rock aquifers indicate that multimillion-gallon-per-day supplies could be developed from strategically located production wells in the Shiloh and Overall Creek localities. The Shiloh locality which encompasses an elongated synclinal depression in the bedrock has the potential to supply 5 to 8 million gallons per day. The Overall Creek locality which straddles a joint-oriented lineament has the potential to supply 3 to 6 million gallons per day. Some local springs could be used as a supplemental source of potable water, but storage facilities would be needed to offset poorly sustained flows during dry periods. An exception is Fox Camp Spring which appears to be a natural well. The quality of ground water in the Murfreesboro area is typically hard, moderately mineralized and moderately to highly alkaline. Although the shallowest aquifers are subject to bacterial contamination from the land surface, aquifers beneath a depth of 100 feet are prone to yield potable water. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  2. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured during the period January-October 1994. Water-level data were collected from 248 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  3. Movement of agricultural chemicals between surface water and ground water, lower Cedar River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Caldwell, J.P.; Schulmeyer, P.M.; Harvey, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bank storage is probably an important source of agricultural chemicals discharged from the alluvial aquifer but becomes depleted with time after surface runoff. Herbicides discharged from the alluvial aquifer during periods of extended base flow entered the alluvial aquifer with ground-water recharge at some distance from the river. The movement of nitrate between surface water and ground water is minor, when compared to the herbicides, even though nitrite was detected in the Cedar River during runoff.

  4. Contemporary approaches to studying and mapping of active water exchange zone of ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, C. Ye

    2016-03-01

    The article deals with a zone of ground water active exchange. New principles of the zone study and mapping under the platform hydrogeological condition are discussed. The assessment and distribution techniques are suggested for the active water exchange zone under the condition of hydrogeological parameterization uncertainty. The efficiency and significance of the suggested techniques are proved using the example of ground water in the southwest of Black Sea artesian basin.

  5. Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

    1975-01-01

    The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

  6. Ground-water levels in observation wells in Oklahoma, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goemaat, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the observation-well program are (1) to provide long-term records of water-level fluctuations in representative wells, (2) to facilitate the prediction of water-level trends and indicate the future availability of ground-water supplies, and (3) to provide information for use in basic research. These selected records serve as a framework to which other types of hydrologic data may be related. The stratigraphic nomenclature and age determinations used in this report are those accepted by the Oklahoma Geological Survey and do not necessarily agree with those of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  7. Availability of fresh and slightly saline ground water in the basins of westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph Spencer; Stanley, W.D.; Ackermann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    Significant quantities of fresh ground water occur in the basin fill of the northern Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley and in the Wildhorse Flat, Michigan Flat, Lobo Flat, and Ryan Flat areas of the Salt Basin; and may occur in Red Light Draw, Presidio bolson, and Green River valley. More than 20 million acre-feet of freshwater is estimated to be in storage in the basin fill of westernmost Texas. About 12 million acre-feet, or more than half, is in El Paso County in the Hueco bolson and Mesilla Valley. In addition, the basins contain about 7 million acre-feet of slightly saline water in basin fill, in Rio Grande alluvium in the Hueco bolson and lower Mesilla Valley, and in the Capitan Limestone in the northern Salt Basin. Ground-water pumping for municipal supply and industrial use in the El Paso area caused water-level declines of as much as 74 feet during 1903-73, and pumping for irrigation in the Salt Basin caused a maximum decline of 150 feet at Lobo Flat during 1949-73. Additional development of ground water in westernmost Texas will be accompanied by further declines in water levels, and will probably induce local migration of slightly saline or poorer quality water into freshwater areas. Land-surface subsidence could occur in local areas where water-level declines are large and the basin fill contains large amounts of compressible clay. (Kosco-USGS)

  8. Hydrogeology and ground-water-flow simulation of the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2002-01-01

    The ground-water resource in the Cave Springs area is used by the Hixson Utility District as a water supply and is one of the more heavily stressed in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. In 1999, ground-water withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District averaged about 6.4 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) from two pumping centers. The Hixson Utility District has historically withdrawn about 5.8 Mgal/d from wells at Cave Springs. In 1995 to meet increasing demand, an additional well field was developed at Walkers Corner, located about 3 miles northeast of Cave Springs. From 1995 through 2000, pumping from the first production well at Walkers Corner averaged about 1.8 Mgal/d. A second production well at Walkers Corner was approved for use in 2000. Hixson Utility District alternates the use of the two production wells at Walkers Corner except when drought conditions occur when they are used simultaneously. The second production well increased the capacity of the well field by an additional 2 Mgal/d. The aquifer framework in the study area consists of dense Paleozoic carbonate rocks with secondary permeability that are mantled by thick residual clay-rich regolith in most of the area and by coarse-grained alluvium in the valley of North Chickamauga Creek. Cave Springs, one of the largest springs in Tennessee, derives its flow from conduits in a carbonate rock (karst) aquifer. Production wells at Cave Springs draw water from these conduits. Production wells at Walkers Corner primarily draw water from gravel zones in the regolith near the top of rock. Transmissivities estimated from hydraulic tests conducted across the Cave Springs area span a range from 240 to 900,000 feet squared per day (ft2/d) with a median value of 5,200 ft2/d. Recharge to the aquifer occurs from direct infiltration of precipitation and from losing streams. Most recharge occurs during the winter and spring months. Computer modeling was used to provide a better understanding of the ground-water

  9. Characterizing a ground water basin in a new England mountain and valley terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    A ground water basin is defined as the volume of subsurface through which ground water flows from the water table to a specified discharge location. Delineating the topographically defined surface water basin and extending it vertically downward does not always define the ground water basin. Instead, a ground water basin is more appropriately delineated by tracking ground water flowpaths with a calibrated, three-dimensional ground water flow model. To determine hydrologic and chemical budgets of the basin, it is also necessary to quantify flow through each hydrogeologic unit in the basin. In particular, partitioning ground water flow through unconsolidated deposits versus bedrock is of significant interest to hillslope hydrologic studies. To address these issues, a model is developed and Calibrated to simulate ground water flow through glacial deposits and fractured crystalline bedrock in the vicinity of Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. Tracking of ground water flowpaths suggests that Mirror Lake and its inlet streams drain a ground water recharge area that is about 1.5 times the area of the surface water basin. Calculation of the ground water budget suggests that, of the recharge that enters the Mirror Lake ground water basin, about 40% travels through the basin along flowpaths that stay exclusively in the glacial deposits, and about 60% travels along flowpaths that involve movement in bedrock.A ground water basin is defined as the volume of subsurface through which ground water flows from the water table to a specified discharge location. Delineating the topographically defined surface water basin and extending it vertically downward does not always define the ground water basin. Instead, a ground water basin is more appropriately delineated by tracking ground water flowpaths with a calibrated, three-dimensional ground water flow model. To determine hydrologic and chemical budgets of the basin, it is also necessary to quantify flow through each hydrogeologic unit in

  10. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. 141.401 Section 141.401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401 Sanitary surveys for ground water systems....

  11. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.19 Ground water withdrawal metering,...

  12. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the State invalidates a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample under § 141.402(d), a... ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  13. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the State invalidates a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample under § 141.402(d), a... ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  14. 40 CFR 141.404 - Treatment technique violations for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the State invalidates a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample under § 141.402(d), a... ground water systems. 141.404 Section 141.404 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  15. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. 141.402 Section 141.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.402 Ground water source...

  16. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.19 Ground water withdrawal metering,...

  17. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. 141.402 Section 141.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.402 Ground water source...

  18. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... virus inactivation and removal) before or at the first customer for the ground water source. (7) Special... ground water systems. 141.403 Section 141.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule §...

  19. [Utility of noise addition image made by using water phantom and image addition and subtraction software].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryo; Ogawa, Masato; Mituzono, Hiroki; Aoki, Takahiro; Hayano, Mizuho; Watanabe, Yuka

    2010-08-20

    In optimizing exposures, it is very important to evaluate the impact of image noise on image quality. To realize this, there is a need to evaluate how much image noise will make the subject disease invisible. But generally it is very difficult to shoot images of different quality in a clinical examination. Thus, a method to create a noise addition image by adding the image noise to raw data has been reported. However, this approach requires a special system, so it is difficult to implement in many facilities. We have invented a method to easily create a noise addition image by using the water phantom and image add-subtract software that accompanies the device. To create a noise addition image, first we made a noise image by subtracting the water phantom with different SD. A noise addition image was then created by adding the noise image to the original image. By using this method, a simulation image with intergraded SD can be created from the original. Moreover, the noise frequency component of the created noise addition image is as same as the real image. Thus, the relationship of image quality to SD in the clinical image can be evaluated. Although this method is an easy method of LDSI creation on image data, a noise addition image can be easily created by using image addition and subtraction software and water phantom, and this can be implemented in many facilities. PMID:20953102

  20. A guide for using the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blainey, Joan B.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  1. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  2. GWERD Overview: U.S. EPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  3. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2006. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2006 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  4. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.; Haltom, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2007. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2007 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  5. Availability of Ground-Water Data for California, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the ground-water resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to ground-water data for water year 2005. The 2-page report contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level and water-quality data for water year 2005 (fig. 2) and instructions for obtaining this and other ground-water information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report 'Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data'; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  6. Iodine Systematics in the Ground Water of a Natural Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, R.; Clark, I. D.; Kotzer, T.; Bottomley, D.

    2001-12-01

    The transport and partitioning of 129I has been examined for a shallowly circulating ground water system at Sturgeon Falls in eastern Ontario. Vertical recharge occurs in a sandy aquifer with a seasonally inundated boreal forest. Concentrations of stable iodine, 129I, and tritium were measured on samples of ground water, precipitation, and soil litter. The present-day tritium profile delineates the position of the early 1960's thermonuclear bomb-pulse at a depth approximately 12 m. The concentrations of stable iodine for ground waters above, near and below the present-day bomb pulse were largely invariant, at approximately 0.5 ppb, whereas 129I concentrations decreased from 1.9 x 106 atoms/L at 9 m, to approximately 1.9 x 105 atoms/L on tritium-depleted waters occurring below the present-day location of the recharging thermonuclear bomb-test peak at 35 m. No substantial increases in the levels of 129I were evident in waters sampled near the present-day location of the thermonuclear bomb peak. Along a 30 cm soil profile, the concentrations of 129I ranged from approximately 4.3 x 108 atoms/g in the uppermost soil litter layer to 5.6 x 107 atoms/g in the siltier bottom soil horizons. Over that same profile, stable iodine varied from 4.7 ppm in the upper layers to 3.9 ppm in the lower layers. Rao and Fehn, 1999, measured iodine and 129I levels in surface waters and soils in western New York. They found 129I concentrations ranging from 3.5 x 108 atoms/g to 7.1 x 1010 atoms/g in the upper most layers of their soil cores, depending on the site's proximity to a former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Similarly, they noticed that the lower layers of their soil cores had 129I concentrations of at least an order of magnitude lower than the upper layers. It is proposed here that the levels of 129I in the deepest, tritium-depleted ground waters reflect the concentrations of 129I during the pre-thermonuclear testing period. However, the lower concentrations of 129I at Sturgeon

  7. BALANCE : a computer program for calculating mass transfer for geochemical reactions in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Thorstenson, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    BALANCE is a Fortran computer designed to define and quantify chemical reactions between ground water and minerals. Using (1) the chemical compositions of two waters along a flow path and (2) a set of mineral phases hypothesized to be the reactive constituents in the system, the program calculates the mass transfer (amounts of the phases entering or leaving the aqueous phase) necessary to account for the observed changes in composition between the two waters. Additional constraints can be included in the problem formulation to account for mixing of two end-member waters, redox reactions, and, in a simplified form, isotopic composition. The computer code and a description of the input necessary to run the program are presented. Three examples typical of ground-water systems are described. (USGS)

  8. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Mundorff, Maurice John; Walker, Eugene H.

    1970-01-01

    rights within the study area. However, depletion of the underflow would eventually reduce the inflow to American Falls Reservoir, unless the depletion was offset by additional recharge. Total withdrawals of ground water for irrigation in 1962, principally in the Rexburg Bench, were estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet. About 10,000 acre-feet was withdrawn for domestic, municipal, and stock supplies. These withdrawals caused no significant decline in the water table. In the Ashton area, surface-water irrigation has caused water to be perched in basalt above the silicic volcanic rocks, and much of' this perched water contributes to streamflow. Some ground water can be pumped from the basalt for irrigation and other uses. If ground water were pumped for irrigation, the flow of Henrys Fork would be decreased by the amount of pumped water consumed by crops. Water pumped for nonconsumptive use would have little effect on streamflow. Ground-water prospects for irrigation in the Falls River area are not encouraging.

  9. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  10. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Data-Collection Program in Hawaii, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in the State of Hawaii consisted of 188 wells distributed among the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii. Water-level and water-quality (temperature, specific conductance, and chloride concentration) data were collected from observation wells, deep monitoring wells that penetrate the zone of transition between freshwater and saltwater, free-flowing wells, and pumped wells. The objective of the program was to collect sufficient spatial and temporal data to define seasonal and long-term changes in ground-water levels and chloride concentrations induced by natural and human-made stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Wells needed to meet this objective can be divided into two types of networks: (1) a water-management network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to human-induced stresses, such as pumpage, and (2) a baseline network to determine the response of ground-water flow systems to natural stresses for different climatic and hydrogeologic settings. Maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage and the distribution of proposed pumped wells are presented to identify areas in need of water-management networks. Wells in the 1992 U.S. Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program were classified as either water-management or baseline network wells. In addition, locations where additional water-management network wells are needed for water-level and water-quality data were identified.

  11. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md. Samiur; Iqubal, Md. Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. Methods: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem. PMID:27625765

  12. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Heisel, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water resources will continue to be important within the region. In order to meet future needs, it is necessary that hydrologic principles be applied in managing the total water resource. Optimal use of the water resources can be accomplished through conjunctive use of surface and ground waters and through conservation practices. Optimal use may involve artificial recharge, ground-water salvage, saline-ground-water mining, use of seawater, desalination of saline ground water, waste-water reuse, and use of underground space for temporary storage of wastes, which could otherwise contaminate valuable water supplies.

  13. Mass-balance model for predicting nitrate in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, Michael H.; Donohue, John J.; Rapacz, Michael V.

    1990-01-01

    A mass-balance accounting model can be used to guide the management of septic systems and fertilizers to control the degradation of ground-water quality in zones of an aquifer that contribute water to public-supply wells. The nitrate concentration of the mixture in the well can be predicted for steady-state conditions by calculating the concentration that results from the total weight of nitrogen and total volume of water entering the zone of contribution to the well. These calculations will allow water-quality managers to predict the nitrate concentrations that would be produced by different types and levels of development, and to plan development accordingly. Computations for different development schemes provide a technical basis for planners and managers to compare water-quality effects and to select alternatives that limit nitrate concentration in wells.

  14. Some unreliable types of ground-water observation wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Remson, Irwin; Fox, G.S.

    1954-01-01

    Several primary requirements must be fulfilled by any observation well that is to be used as an indicator of ground-water levels over considerable distances. First of all, the water level inside the well must be the same as that outside of the well. the water level inside the well must be able to adjust to water -level fluctuations in the aquifer within a certain period of time, that time dependent upon the type of study for which the observations are to be used. Finally, to be of value in most areal studies, the water level outside the well must be representative of the level throughout the aquifer, and not reflect merely some speical local condition. Should any of these requirements remain unsatisfied, the derived data may be misleading. 

  15. Chemical quality of ground water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Gay, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Cape Cod is a 440 square mile hook-shaped peninsula which extends 40 miles into the Atlantic. Freshwater in Pleistocene sand and gravel deposits is the source of supply for nearly 100 municipal and thousands of private domestic wells. Most ground water on Cape Cod is of good chemical quality for drinking and other uses. It is characteristically low in dissolved solids and is soft. In 90 percent of the samples analyzed, dissolved solids were less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and pH was less than 7.0. Highway deicing salt, sea-water flooding due to storms , and saltwater intrusion due to ground-water withdrawal are sources of sodium chloride contamination. Chloride concentrations have increased from 20 to 140 mg/l, owing to saltwater intrusion at Provincetown 's wells in Truro. In Yarmouth, contaminated ground water near a salt-storage area contained as much as 1,800 mg/l chloride. Heavy metals, insecticides, and herbicides were not found at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's recommended limits for public drinking-water supplies, but iron and manganese in some samples exceeded those limits. Ninety percent of 84 samples analyzed for nitrate reported as nitrogen contained less than 1.3 mg/l and 80 percent contained 0.5 mg/l or less of nitrate as nitrogen. Water containing nitrogen in excess of 0.5 mg/l has probably been affected by municipal or domestic sewage or fertilizer, and water with less than this amount may have been affected by them. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Ground-Water Occurrence and Contribution to Streamflow, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The study area lies on the northern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) and covers about 129 square miles between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Makapipi Stream to the east. About 989 million gallons per day of rainfall and 176 million gallons per day of fog drip reaches the study area and about 529 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Average annual ground-water withdrawal from wells totals only about 3 million gallons per day; proposed (as of 1998) additional withdrawals total about 18 million gallons per day. Additionally, tunnels and ditches of an extensive irrigation network directly intercept at least 10 million gallons per day of ground water. The total amount of average annual streamflow in gaged stream subbasins upstream of 1,300 feet altitude is about 255 million gallons per day and the total amount of average annual base flow is about 62 million gallons per day. Six major surface-water diversion systems in the study area have diverted an average of 163 million gallons per day of streamflow (including nearly all base flow of diverted streams) for irrigation and domestic supply in central Maui during 1925-97. Fresh ground water is found in two main forms. West of Keanae Valley, ground-water flow appears to be dominated by a variably saturated system. A saturated zone in the uppermost rock unit, the Kula Volcanics, is separated from a freshwater lens near sea level by an unsaturated zone in the underlying Honomanu Basalt. East of Keanae Valley, the ground-water system appears to be fully saturated above sea level to altitudes greater than 2,000 feet. The total average annual streamflow of gaged streams west of Keanae Valley is about 140 million gallons per day at 1,200 feet to 1,300 feet altitude. It is not possible to estimate the total average annual streamflow at the coast. All of the base flow measured in the study area west of Keanae Valley represents ground-water discharge from the high

  17. Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Barbash, Jack E.; Crawford, Charles G.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Nowell, Lisa H.; Scott, Jonathan C.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Thelin, Gail P.; Wolock, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications, The Quality of Our Nation's Waters, that describe major findings of the NAWQA Program on water-quality issues of regional and national concern. This report presents evaluations of pesticides in streams and ground water based on findings for the first decadal cycle of NAWQA. 'Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001' greatly expands the analysis of pesticides presented in 'Nutrients and Pesticides,' which was the first report in the series and was based on early results from 1992 to 1995. Other reports in this series cover additional water-quality constituents of concern, such as volatile organic compounds and trace elements, as well as physical and chemical effects on aquatic ecosystems. Each report builds toward a more comprehensive understanding of regional and national water resources. The information in this series is intended primarily for those interested or involved in resource management, conservation, regulation, and policymaking at regional and national levels. In addition, the information might interest those at a local level who wish to know more about the general quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that quality compares with other areas across the Nation.

  18. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin and 5 in the Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin) between 1980 and 2002 and analyzing the samples for major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Selected samples also were analyzed for oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, and carbon-14. The water-quality data indicated that dissolved solids and nitrate concentrations were below regulatory limits for potable water; however, fluoride concentrations in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. Arsenic concentrations and chromium concentrations were generally below regulatory limits; however, arsenic concentrations measured in water from wells perforated in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. The carbon-14 activities ranged from 2 to 72 percent modern carbon and are consistent with uncorrected ground-water ages (time since recharge) of about 32,300 to 2,700 years before present. The oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of water sampled from the upper aquifer is similar to the volume-weighted composition of present-day winter precipitation indicating that winter precipitation was the predominant source of ground-water recharge. Field studies, conducted during water years 2001 through 2003 to determine the distribution and quantity of recharge, included installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Core material and cuttings from the boreholes were analyzed for physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties. Instruments installed in the boreholes were monitored to measure changes in matric potential and temperature. Borehole data were supplemented with temperature data collected from access tubes installed at additional sites along study washes. Streambed hydraulic properties and the response of instruments to infiltration were measured using infiltrometers. Physical and geochemical data collected away from the stream channels show that direct infiltration of precipitation to depths below the root zone and subsequent gro

  19. Compilation of ground water quality data in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's water quality file of 4,671 wells and springs in Pennsylvania provided ground-water-quality data for Pennsylvania. The data were assembled into computer-readable format and sorted into 15 major aquifer groups based on principal lithology, physiographic province, and age. Nineteen variables in each group were summarized by the Statistical Analysis Systems UNIVARIATE procedures to produce descriptive statistics including extreme values and quartiles. The bulk of the water-quality data are in the important aquifers in the unconsolidated Coastal Plain sediments, the Triassic sedimentary rocks, the igneous and metamorphic rocks, and the carbonate rocks. On the other hand, water-quality data for aquifer groups in the Appalachian Plateau and Valley and Ridge Province are sparse. Statewide, only six wells provide sufficient long-term data for trend analyses. Ground-water quality in Pennsylvania is highly diverse. High concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, manganese, sulfate, and nitrate are prevalent forms of natural and manmade contamination. The unconsolidated Coastal Plain aquifers have been most severely degraded. On the other hand, some of the best quality water is found in the quartzite, sandstone, and conglomerate rock units in the Cambrian and Precambrian rocks.

  20. Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene

  1. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  2. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  3. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Quality, Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Michigan, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.; Hoard, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water resource potential of Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Mich. was characterized on the basis of existing hydrogeologic data, water-level records, analyses of water samples, and interpretation of geophysical survey data. Eight ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace-metal composition. In addition, 10 direct current-resistivity soundings were collected throughout Chippewa and Coe Townships to identify potential freshwater in the aquifer system. The aquifer system includes complexly interbedded glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and basal-lodgment tills, which overlie Jurassic or Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. In parts of the township, freshwater is present in all geologic units, but in most areas saline water is encountered near the base of Pleistocene glacial deposits and in the Jurassic or Pennsylvanian bedrock. A near-surface sheet of relatively dense basal-lodgment till likely prevents, or substantially retards, significant direct recharge of ground water to glacial and bedrock aquifers in Chippewa and adjacent townships. Glacial sands and gravels form the principal aquifer for domestic wells (97.5 percent of wells in the township). The single community water supply in the township has wells screened in glacial deposits near the base of the glacial drift. Increased withdrawals of ground water in response to increasing demand has led to a slight decline in water quality from this supply. This water-quality decline is related primarily to an increase of dissolved sulfate, which is probably a function of well depth and dissolution of gypsum, a common mineral constituent in the Jurassic 'red beds,' which form the uppermost bedrock unit throughout most of the township. One explanation for the increase in sulfate is upconing of saline water from bedrock sources, which may contain saline water.

  4. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  5. A controlled experiment in ground water flow model calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; Cooley, R.L.; Pollock, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic test case used for such a study, this work investigates using nonlinear regression in ground water model calibration. Results of the study fall into two categories. First, the study demonstrates how systematic use of a well designed nonlinear regression method can indicate the importance of different types of data and can lead to successive improvement of models and their parameterizations. Our method differs from previous methods presented in the ground water literature in that (1) weighting is more closely related to expected data errors than is usually the case; (2) defined diagnostic statistics allow for more effective evaluation of the available data, the model, and their interaction; and (3) prior information is used more cautiously. Second, our results challenge some commonly held beliefs about model calibration. For the test case considered, we show that (1) field measured values of hydraulic conductivity are not as directly applicable to models as their use in some geostatistical methods imply; (2) a unique model does not necessarily need to be identified to obtain accurate predictions; and (3) in the absence of obvious model bias, model error was normally distributed. The complexity of the test case involved implies that the methods used and conclusions drawn are likely to be powerful in practice.Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic

  6. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  7. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  8. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  9. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  11. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing residential development since in the 1960s has lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water in parts of the 247 square mile study area near La Pine, Oregon. Denitrification is the dominant nitrate-removal process that occurs in suboxic ground water, and suboxic ground water serves as a barrier to transport of most nitrate in the aquifer. Oxic ground water, on the other hand, represents a potential pathway for nitrate transport from terrestrial recharge areas to the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers. The effects of present and potential future discharge of ground-water nitrate into the nitrogen-limited Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers are not known. However, additions of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited rivers can lead to increases in primary productivity which, in turn, can increase the magnitudes of dissolved oxygen and pH swings in river water. An understanding of the distribution of oxic ground water in the near-river environment could facilitate understanding the vulnerability of these rivers and could be a useful tool for management of these rivers. In this study, transects of temporary wells were installed in sub-river sediments beneath the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers near La Pine to characterize near-river reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions near the ends of ground-water flow paths. Samples from transects installed near the center of the riparian zone or flood plain were consistently suboxic. Where transects were near edges of riparian zones, most ground-water samples also were suboxic. Oxic ground water (other than hyporheic water) was uncommon, and was only detected near the outside edge of some meander bends. This pattern of occurrence likely reflects geochemical controls throughout the aquifer as well as geochemical processes in the microbiologically active riparian zone near the end of ground-water flow paths. Younger, typically less reduced ground water generally enters near-river environments through

  12. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing, computer-accessible, ground-water-quality data for Montana. All known sources of ground-water-quality data were reviewed. Although the estimated number of analyses exceeds 25,000, more than three-fourths of the data were not suitable for this study. The only data used were obtained from the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) of the US Geological Survey, because the chemical analyses generally are complete, have an assigned geohydrologic unit or source of water, and are accessible by computer. The data were assessed by geographic region of the State because of climatic and geologic differences. These regions consist of the eastern plains region and the western mountainous region. Within each region, the data were assessed according to geohydrologic unit. The number and areal distribution of data sites for some groupings of units are inadequate to be representative, particularly for groupings stratigraphically below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation in the eastern region and for Quaternary alluvium, terrace deposits, glacial deposits, and associated units in the western region. More than one-half the data for the entire State are for the Tertiary Wasatch, Fort Union, and associated units in the eastern region. The results of statistical analyses of data in WATSTORE indicate that the median dissolved-solids concentration for the groupings of geohydrologic units ranges from about 400 to 5000 milligrams per liter in the eastern region and from about 100 to 200 milligrams per liter in the western region. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The data in WATSTORE for organic constituents presently are inadequate to detect any organic effects of man's activities on ground-water quality. 26 figs., 79 tabs.

  13. Herbicides in ground water beneath Nebraska's Management Systems Evaluation Area.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Exner, Mary E; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Burbach, Mark E; Monson, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of ground water pesticide concentrations beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) describe the effect of 20 yr of pesticide usage on ground water in the central Platte Valley of Nebraska. During the 6-yr (1991-1996) study, 14 pesticides and their transformation products were detected in 7848 ground water samples from the unconfined water table aquifer. Triazine and acetamide herbicides applied on the site and their transformation products had the highest frequencies of detection. Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,-diamine] concentrations decreased with depth and ground water age determined with 3H/3He dating techniques. Assuming equivalent atrazine input during the past 20 yr, the measured average changes in concentration with depth (age) suggest an estimated half-life of >10 yr. Hydrolysis of atrazine and deethylatrazine (DEA; 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) to hydroxyatrazine [6-hydroxy-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] appeared to be the major degradation route. Aqueous hydroxyatrazine concentrations are governed by sorption on the saturated sediments. Atrazine was detected in the confined Ogallala aquifer in ultra-trace concentrations (0.003 microg L(-1)); however, the possibility of introduction during reverse circulation drilling of these deep wells cannot be eliminated. In fall 1997 sampling, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] was detected in 57% of the 230 samples. Metolachlor oxanilic acid [(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) amino]oxo-acetic acid] was detected in most samples. In ground water profiles, concentrations of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid [2-[(ethyl-6-methylphenyl)(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)amino]-2-oxo-ethanesulfonic acid] exceeded those of deethylatrazine. Alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] was detected in <1% of the samples; however, alachlor

  14. Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, E.; Kouris, D.; Guden, H.; Gokcekus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

  15. Development of reaction models for ground-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described for developing geochemical reaction models from the observed chemical compositions of ground water along a hydrologic flow path. The roles of thermodynamic speciation programs, mass balance calculations, and reaction-path simulations in developing and testing reaction models are contrasted. Electron transfer is included in the mass balance equations to properly account for redox reactions in ground water. The mass balance calculations determine net mass transfer models which must be checked against the thermodynamic calculations of speciation and reaction-path programs. Although reaction-path simulations of ground-water chemistry are thermodynamically valid, they must be checked against the net mass transfer defined by the mass balance calculations. An example is given testing multiple reaction hypotheses along a flow path in the Floridan aquifer where several reaction models are eliminated. Use of carbon and sulfur isotopic data with mass balance calculations indicates a net reaction of incongruent dissolution of dolomite (dolomite dissolution with calcite precipitation) driven irreversibly by gypsum dissolution, accompanied by minor sulfate reduction, ferric hydroxide dissolution, and pyrite precipitation in central Florida. Along the flow path, the aquifer appears to be open to CO2 initially, and open to organic carbon at more distant points down gradient. ?? 1983.

  16. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  17. Probabilistic assessment of ground-water contamination. 1: Geostatistical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Istok, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Characterizing the extent and severity of ground-water contamination at waste sites is expensive and time-consuming. A probabilistic approach, based on the acceptance of uncertainty and a finite probability of making classification errors (contaminated relative to a regulatory threshold vs. uncontaminated), is presented as an alternative to traditional site characterization methodology. The approach utilizes geostatistical techniques to identify and model the spatial continuity of contamination at a site (variography) and to develop alternate plausible simulations of contamination fields (conditional simulation). Probabilistic summaries of many simulations provide tools for (a) estimating the range of plausible contaminant concentrations at unsampled locations, (b) identifying the locations of boundaries between contaminated and uncontaminated portions of the site and the degree of certainty in those locations, and (c) estimating the range of plausible values for total contaminant mass. The first paper in the series presents the geostatistical framework and illustrates the approach using synthetic data for a hypothetical site. The second paper presents an application of the proposed methodology to the probabilistic assessment of ground-water contamination at a site involving ground-water contamination by nitrate and herbicide in a shallow, unconfined alluvial aquifer in an agricultural area in eastern Oregon.

  18. Ground-water sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; Alfy, Z.E.

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. This {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years. 65 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  20. GROUND WATER SAMPLING OF VOCS IN THE WATER/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR VAPOR INTRUSION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor intrusion has recently been considered a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from certain volatile organic contaminants (VOCs). The recent Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document states that ground water samples should be obtained from the u...

  1. Characterization and predictive abilities of GroundWater age data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dreuzy, J. R.; Kolbe, T.; Marçais, J.; Thomas, Z.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Leray, S.; Gueutin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater-age data derived from sampled tracer concentrations are recognized as essential characterization and prediction tools in hydrogeology. They give characteristic transit time information as well as indications on aquifer structures and exchanges. Information can however be difficult to extract and often requires additional knowledge on the flow patterns or on the geological heterogeneity that can guide the choice of the interpretation framework. Any constrain on transit times concerning their distribution facilitates greatly the interpretation. Groundwater flow and transport models help in characterizing potential transit time distributions. This has been extensively done in heterogeneous porous and fractured media. Upscaling local pore and Darcy transport processes to some 100m-scale generic breakthrough curves underline the importance of extended tailing (long transit times of several decades to centuries). Shorter transit times from months to decades are also sensitive to recharge variability, catchment topography, aquifer exchanges and sampling conditions. Large-scale calibrated models integrating these different constrains are of high interest to assess the information content of GroundWater age data. Results on a limited number of case studies confirm that the atmospheric tracers of the last 50 years give accurate estimates of cumulative residence times and of the transport fate of some contaminants like nitrates. It already appears that the quality of the prediction does not always come from the capacity of the transit-time model to fit the actual transit-time distribution but also from the nature of the prediction or of the hydrological regime. Access to a wide range of well-informed and calibrated models taken as synthetic references should be developed to confirm and refine these early conclusions.

  2. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow ground water in areas unaffected by settling-pond seepage.

  3. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(3) is fecal indicator-positive. (2) If directed by the State, a ground water system with a ground water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(2), § 141... a significant deficiency, written notice from a laboratory that a ground water source...

  4. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(3) is fecal indicator-positive. (2) If directed by the State, a ground water system with a ground water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(2), § 141... a significant deficiency, written notice from a laboratory that a ground water source...

  5. 40 CFR 141.403 - Treatment technique requirements for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(3) is fecal indicator-positive. (2) If directed by the State, a ground water system with a ground water source sample collected under § 141.402(a)(2), § 141... a significant deficiency, written notice from a laboratory that a ground water source...

  6. Sources of nitrate in ground water in a sewered housing development, Central Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flipse, W.J., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Lindner, J.B.; Markel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in ground water on Long Island, New York, have increased markedly in the last 30 years. A significant amount of this increase has been attributed to lawn and garden fertilizers in addition to cesspool and septic-tank discharges. The increase in nitrate concentration is of particular concern in the central and eastern part of the island, where ground water is the sole source of drinking water. Ground-water samples were collected from 14 wells screened near the water table in the sewered Twelve Pines housing development constructed in Medford, Suffolk County, in 1970. Samples were collected during 1972-79 and analyzed for total ammonium, organic nitrogen, and nitrate. Statistical analyses indicate that concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in water from 10 of the wells increased significantly during 1972-79; those in water from the other four wells did not. Nitrogen loads were estimated to be 2,300 kg/yr from fertilizers, less than 80 kg/yr from irrigation water, 200 kg/yr from animals, and less than 670 kg/yr from precipitation. Leakage from sewers was considered negligible. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope ratios also suggest that the greatest source of nitrogen is from cultivation sources (either mineralized soil nitrogen or fertilizers) rather than human or animal wastes.

  7. MODOPTIM: A general optimization program for ground-water flow model calibration and ground-water management with MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    MODOPTIM is a non-linear ground-water model calibration and management tool that simulates flow with MODFLOW-96 as a subroutine. A weighted sum-of-squares objective function defines optimal solutions for calibration and management problems. Water levels, discharges, water quality, subsidence, and pumping-lift costs are the five direct observation types that can be compared in MODOPTIM. Differences between direct observations of the same type can be compared to fit temporal changes and spatial gradients. Water levels in pumping wells, wellbore storage in the observation wells, and rotational translation of observation wells also can be compared. Negative and positive residuals can be weighted unequally so inequality constraints such as maximum chloride concentrations or minimum water levels can be incorporated in the objective function. Optimization parameters are defined with zones and parameter-weight matrices. Parameter change is estimated iteratively with a quasi-Newton algorithm and is constrained to a user-defined maximum parameter change per iteration. Parameters that are less sensitive than a user-defined threshold are not estimated. MODOPTIM facilitates testing more conceptual models by expediting calibration of each conceptual model. Examples of applying MODOPTIM to aquifer-test analysis, ground-water management, and parameter estimation problems are presented.

  8. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  9. Concentration Data for Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Finished Water of Selected Community Water Systems in the United States, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  10. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  11. Evaluating the Performance of Unmanned Ground Vehicle Water Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Ivanov, Tonislav; Brennan, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation over cross-country terrain. During the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances (RCTA) program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a set of water detection algorithms that are used to detect, localize, and avoid water bodies large enough to be a hazard to a UGV. The JPL water detection software performs the detection and localization stages using a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras. The 3D coordinates of water body surface points are then output to a UGV's autonomous mobility system, which is responsible for planning and executing safe paths. There are three primary methods for evaluating the performance of the water detection software. Evaluations can be performed in image space on the intermediate detection product, in map space on the final localized product, or during autonomous navigation to characterize the avoidance of a variety of water bodies. This paper describes a methodology for performing the first two types of water detection performance evaluations.

  12. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  13. Thermal behavior of water confined in micro porous of clay mineral at additional pressure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Takemura, T.; Fujimori, H.; Nagoe, A.; Sugimoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water is the most familiar substance. However water has specific properties that has a crystal structure of a dozen and density of that is maximum at 277.15 K. Therefore it understands various natural phenomena to study physical properties of water. Oodo et al study physical properties of water confined in silica gel [1]. They indicate that melting point of water confined in silica gel decrease with decreasing pore size of silica gel. Also in case that pore size is less than 2 nm, water confined in silica gel is unfreezing water at low temperature. It is considered that effect of pore size prevent crystal growth of water. Therefore we are interested in water confined in clay minerals. Clay minerals have a number of water conditions. Also it is thought that water confined in clay minerals show different physical behavior to exist the domain where change with various effect. Therefore we studied a thermal properties and phase behavior of absorption water in clay minerals. In addition, we analyzed the changes in the thermal behavior of absorption water due to the effect of earth pressure that was an environmental factor in the ground. [1] Oodo & Fujimori, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 357 (2011) 683.

  14. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  16. Analog-model studies of ground-water hydrology in the Houston District, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.

    1974-01-01

    The major water-bearing units in the Houston district are the Chicot and the Evangeline aquifers. The Chicot aquifer overlies the Evangeline aquifer, which is underlain by the Burkeville confining layer. Both aquifers consist of unconsolidated and discontinuous layers of sand and clay that dip toward the Gulf of Mexico. Heavy pumping of fresh water has caused large declines in the altitudes of the potentiometric surfaces in both aquifers and has created large cones of depression around Houston. The declines have caused compaction of clay layers, which has resulted in land surface subsidence and the movement of saline ground water toward the centers of the cones of depression. An electric analog model was used to study the hydrologic system and to simulate the declines in the altitudes of the potentiometric surfaces for several alternative plans of ground-water development. The results indicate that the largest part. of the pumped water comes from storage in the water-table part of the Chicot aquifer. Vertical leakage from the aquifers and water derived from the compaction of clay layers in the aquifers are also large sources of the water being pumped. The response of the system, as observed on the model, indicates that development of additional ground-water supplies from the water-table part of the Chicot aquifer north of Houston would result in a minimum decline of the altitudes of the potentiometric surfaces. Total withdrawals of about 1,000 million gallons (5.8 million cubic meters) per day may be possible without seriously, increasing subsidence or salt-water encroachment. Analyses of the recovery of water levels indicate that both land-surface subsidence and salt-water encroachment could be reduced by artificially recharging the artesian part of the aquifer.

  17. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  18. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  19. Evaluation of nonpotable ground water in the desert area of southeastern California for powerplant cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    1989-01-01

    Powerplant siting is dependent upon many factors; in southern California the prevailing physical constraint is water availability. Increasing land-use and other environmental concerns preclude further sites along the coast. A review of available hydrologic data was made of 142 ground-water basins in the southeast California desert area to ascertain if any could be feasible sources of nonpotable powerplant cooling water. Feasibility implies the capacity to sustain a typical 1,000-megawatt electrical-power generating plant for 30 years with an ample supply of ground water for cooling. Of the 142 basins reviewed, 5 met or exceeded established hydrologic criteria for supplying the water demands of a typical powerplant. These basins are: (1) middle Amargosa valley, (2) Soda Lake valley, (3) Caves Canyon valley, (4) Chuckwalla Valley, and (5) Calzona-Vidal Valley. Geohydrologic evaluations of these five basins assessed the occurrence and suitability of ground water and effects of long-term pumping. An additional six basins met or exceeded hydrologic criteria, with qualifications, for providing powerplant cooling water. The remaining 131 basins either did not meet the criteria, or available data were insufficient to determine if the basins would meet the criteria.

  20. Documentation of potential for surface faulting related to ground-water withdrawal in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    Leveling data collected in Las Vegas Valley are compatible with the interpretation that ongoing land-surface displacements related to ground-water withdrawal may be precursory to fault offset of the land surface. Zones of potential faulting intersect regions of intense urban development. The degree of risk and the potential economic consequences from possible surface faulting cannot be assessed adequately without additional data and analysis of the relation between surface faulting and ground-water withdrawal.

  1. Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

  2. Surface Water and Ground Water Interactions in an Irrigated Valley in Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C.; Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Tidwell, V.; King, P.; Cevik, Y.; Cusack, C.

    2008-12-01

    Interactions between surface water and ground water can provide many benefits like terrestrial and aquatic species habitat, aquifer recharge, and shallow ground water return flow. In northern New Mexico, the use of traditional irrigation systems has effectively expanded riparian functions to encompass full irrigated valley width. The objective of this study was to characterize the surface water and ground water interactions occurring in an irrigated valley along the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico. We used a combination of field measurements and modeling for determining different components of the water budget. Our results show that on average ditch flow is 0.9 cms, ditch seepage is 10%, irrigated field deep percolation is 30%, and ground water level rise is 0.4 m over the entire valley after the irrigation season started. We calculated that on average, 50% of the water diverted into the main irrigation ditch returns back to the river as surface return flow and about 10% of the total ditch inflow returns as groundwater flow. Results from this study show that a significant amount of water being diverted into the valley returns back to the river after completing its task of supporting important production and ecological functions in this expanded riverine valley.

  3. Ground-water reconnaissance of the central Weber River area, Morgan and Summit Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Steiger, Judy I.; Green, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground water in the central Weber River area obtained data to help State administrators devise a policy for acting on applications to appropriate ground water resulting from recent and future influxes of residents.

  4. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  5. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been applied as a knowledge-based remediation technology for organic contaminants in ground water. The application of this technology is being considered for remediation of inorganic contaminants in ground water at hazardous waste sites. ...

  6. 78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... review of the draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  9. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: GROUND WATER MONITORING GUIDELINES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses potential ground water pollution from geothermal resource development, conversion, and waste disposal, and proposes guidelines for developing a ground water monitoring plan for any such development. Geothermal processes, borehole logging, and injection well ...

  10. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  11. Ground-water resources of the Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Donald H.

    1978-01-01

    The Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, Calif., pumped 2,600 acre-feet of water in 1975 from five supply wells in the Surprise Spring subbasin. The water levels in those wells declined an average of 35 feet in the preceding 10 years. This decline is a result of (1) the proximity of Surprise Spring fault, a ground-water barrier; (2) the close spacing of wells; and 83) the large volume of water withdrawn. At the present rate of water-level decline, the pumping water levels will be below the pump intakes by 1980. The projected water demand for the base will increase to 3,000 acre-feet per year by 1980. To help evaluate the geohydrologic properties of Surprise Spring subbasin, three test holes were drilled northwest of the present well field. That area shows promise of being a good location for drilling three new supply wells. The addition of these new wells to the water supply will reduce the pumping stress from the existing supply wells and reduce the rate of decline. With an estimated 600,000 acre-feet of ground water remaining in storage after 22 years of pumping and with a projected water demand of 3 ,000 acre-feet per year, Surprise Spring subbasin, if properly developed, could supply the base for many years to come. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Diuron occurrence and distribution in soil and surface and ground water associated with grass seed production.

    PubMed

    Field, Jennifer A; Reed, Ralph L; Sawyer, Thomas E; Griffith, Steven M; Wigington, P J

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea] in soil, ground water, and surface water in areas affected by grass-seed production. A field study was designed to investigate the occurrence and distribution of diuron and its transformation products at a poorly drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette Valley of Oregon. The experimental sites consisted of a field under commercial grass seed production with a cultivated riparian zone and a second site that was part of the same grass seed field but with a noncultivated riparian zone. Diuron and its transformation product DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] were the only significant residues detected in this study. Concentrations of diuron in surface water declined from a maximum of 28 microg/L immediately following application to low levels that persisted as long as flow was present. Diuron and DCPMU concentrations in shallow ground water (15-36 cm below ground surface) were highest (2-13 microg/L) in the zone immediately adjacent (0.5 m) to Lake Creek and indicated the influence of stream water on shallow ground water near the stream. Diuron and DCPMU detected in soil prior to the second season's application indicated the persistence of diuron and DCPMU from the previous year's application. Surface runoff during the rainy season removes only a very small percentage (<1%) of the applied herbicide. In addition, no evidence was obtained for the downward transport of diuron or its transformation products to deep ground water. PMID:12549556

  13. Processes Affecting Nutrients and Other Chemicals in Shallow Ground Waters of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, B. T.

    2001-05-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993-1995 to explore processes influencing concentrations of selected nutrients, major ions, and trace elements in shallow ground waters of the southeastern United States. Results indicate that nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A "nitrate-reduction" component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Additional components extracted by PCA include "calcite dissolution" (18% of variance explained) and "phosphate dissolution" (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Coastal Plain is <0.05 mg/L, median dissolved organic carbon concentration is 4.2 mg/L, and median dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is 2.1 mg/L, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction, however, does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin are 6.2-7.1 mg/L, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61-2.2 mg/L, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain is 6.0 mg/L and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg/L.

  14. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  15. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  16. Ground-water resources of the Dayton area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Stanley Eugene; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1966-01-01

    The principal aquifers of the Dayton area are sand and gravel layers in the 150- to 250-foot thick glacial deposits filling the river valleys (Miami River and its tributaries), which were originally cut in bedrock by preglacial streams. The upper and lower aquifers are separated by a poorly permeable till-rich zone, which confines the water in the lower aquifer; recharge to the lower aquifer is by vertical leakage through the till zone. The upper aquifer is pumped extensively only at Rohrers Island well field of Dayton, where water levels are kept high by artificial recharge. Although few cities in Ohio are as abundantly endowed with ground-water resources as Dayton, the demand is estimated to rise to quantities that cannot be supplied by the year 2000. A comprehensive plan for conservation is needed to meet future growth.

  17. Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James; Mull, Donald; Liebermann, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeat quantitative dye traces between a sinkhole and a spring used for public water supply were used to describe predictive relations between discharge, mean travel time, apparent ground-water flow velocity and solute transport characteristics. Normalized peak concentration, mean travel time, and standard deviation of travel times were used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to simulate solute transport characteristics for selected discharges. Using this curve and previously developed statistical relations, a water manager can estimate the arrival time, peak concentration, and persistence of a soluble contaminant at a supply spring or well based on discharge and the quantity of spilled contaminant.

  18. Ground-water resources of Cumberland County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, James G.

    1971-01-01

    Water use in Cumberland County varies and is highly seasonal, mainly because of increasing requirements for irrigation and the food processing industries in the county. In 1964 seasonal use ranged from 27 mgd in March to 145 mgd in August. This is much higher than withdrawals in neighboring Salem and Cape May Counties. In 1964 withdrawals in Cumberland County averaged about 51 mgd; almost all of this, 49.4 mgd, was from ground-water supplies. The total annual water use in 1964 according to type of use was: for public supply, 10.6 mgd; for industrial uses, 19.0 mgd; irrigation, 15.4 mgd; suburban, rural, residential, institutional, farm, and commercial, 5.9 mgd. 

  19. Ground-water resources of Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jablonski, Leo A.

    1968-01-01

    Aquifers in the Raritan and Magothy Formations and the Englishtown Formation supplied 76 percent of the ground water used in 1958. These aquifers, in conjunction with the Wenonah Formation and Mount Laurel Sand of Late Cretaceous age, are capable of providing relatively large yields to wells. The average yield of 63 large-diameter wells tapping these aquifers is 580 gpm, at depths randing from 100 to 1,140 feet. In general, the concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the aquifers would not restrict the use of the water for most purposes. High concentrations of iron do occur and require treatment. The concentrations of dissolved solids in 39 to 41 samples were 160 ppm (parts per million) or less.

  20. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  1. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    completed in semiconsolidated- and consolidated-rock aquifers, chiefly sandstone and limestone. Some wells withdraw water from volcanic rocks, igneous and metamorphic rocks, or fractured fine-grained sedimentary rocks, such as shale; however, wells completed in these types of rocks generally yield only small volumes of water. Most wells in the four-State area of Segment 8 are on privately owned land (fig. 2). Agriculture, primarily irrigation, is one of the largest uses of ground water. The irrigation generally is on lowlands close to streams (fig. 3). Lowlands within a few miles of major streams usually are irrigated with surface water that is diverted by gravity flow from the main stream or a reservoir and transported through a canal system. Surface water also is pumped to irrigate land that gravity systems cannot supply. In addition, ground water is pumped from large-capacity wells to supplement surface water during times of drought or during seasons of the year when surface water is in short supply. Ground water is the only source of water for irrigation in much of the segment. The thickness and permeability of aquifers in the area of Segment 8 vary considerably, as do yields of wells completed in the aquifers. Ground-water levels and artesian pressures (hydraulic head) have declined significantly in some places as a result of excessive withdrawals by wells. State governments have taken steps to control the declines by enacting programs that either limit the number of additional wells that can be completed in a particular aquifer or prevent further ground-water development altogether. The demand for water is directly related to the distribution of people. In 1990, Montana had a population of 799,065; North Dakota, 638,800; South Dakota, 696,004; and Wyoming, 453,588. The more densely populated areas are on lowlands near major streams. Many of the mountain, desert, and upland areas lack major population centers, particularly in Montana and Wyoming, where use

  3. Effects of Irrigation, Drought, and Ground-Water Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical ground-water-flow model was used to investigate the effects of irrigation on ground-water levels in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, and the relation between declining ground-water levels observed in the basin in the 1990s and early 2000s and concurrent drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal. Results of steady-state model simulations indicate that changing from pre-development to 1981 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could, given enough time for steady state to be achieved, raise ground-water levels in some areas of the southern Lihue Basin by as much as 200 feet, and that changing from 1981 to 1998 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could lower ground-water levels in some areas by as much as 100 feet. Transient simulations combining drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal show trends that correspond with those observed in measured water levels. Results of this study indicate that irrigation reduction was the primary cause of the observed decline in ground-water-levels. In contrast, ground-water withdrawal had a long-duration but small-magnitude effect, and drought had a widespread, high-magnitude but short-duration effect. Inasmuch as irrigation in the future is unlikely to return to the same levels as during the period of peak sugarcane agriculture, the decline in ground-water levels resulting from the reduction and ultimate end of sugarcane irrigation can be considered permanent. Assuming that irrigation does not return to the southern Lihue Basin and that, on average, normal rainfall persists and ground-water withdrawal remains at 1998 rates, model projections indicate that average ground-water levels in the Kilohana-Puhi area will continue to recover from the drought of 1998-2002 and eventually rise to within about 4 feet of the pre-drought conditions. Long-term climate trends, increases in ground-water withdrawal, or other factors not simulated in

  4. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The average apparent age of ground water in fractured-bedrock aquifers in West Virginia was determined using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) dating methods. Since the introduction of CFC gases as refrigerants in the late 1930s, atmospheric concentrations have increased until production ceased in the mid-1990s. CFC dating methods are based on production records that date to the early 1940s, and the preservation of atmospheric CFC concentrations in ground water at the time of recharge. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Ambient Ground-Water Monitoring Network (AGN) programs in West Virginia from 1997 to 2005, 80 samples from the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, 27 samples from the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, and 5 samples from the Ohio River alluvial aquifers were collected to estimate ground-water ages in aquifers of West Virginia. Apparent CFC ages of water samples from West Virginia aquifers ranged from 5.8 to 56 years. In the Appalachian Plateaus, topographically driven ground-water flow is evident from apparent ages of water samples from hilltop, hillside, and valley settings (median apparent ages of 12, 14, and 25 years, respectively). Topographic setting was the only factor that was found to be related to apparent ground-water age in the Plateaus at the scale of this study. Similar relations were not found in Valley and Ridge aquifers, indicating that other factors such as bedding or geologic structure may serve larger roles in controlling ground-water flow in that physiographic province. Degradation of CFCs was common in samples collected from methanogenic/anoxic aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus and suboxic to anoxic aquifers in the Valley and Ridge. CFC contamination was most common in Ohio River alluvial aquifers and carbonate units of the Valley and Ridge, indicating that these highly transmissive surficial aquifers are the most vulnerable to water-quality degradation and may

  5. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14C age and ?? 13C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite.

  6. Ground-water resources and geology of Cook County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sever, Charles W.

    1972-01-01

    Aquifer-performance tests and aquifer studies indicate that the limestone beneath the city of Adel and probably most of Cook County contains potable water to a depth of only about 400 to 500 feet and that "deep" wells that tap these limestones obtain most of their water from a few thin, highly permeable zones rather than from the entire thickness of the rocks. Below about 500 feet the water is mineralized and not potable without treatment. The yield of "shallow wells" is variable and the water generally is corrosive and at places contains appreciable dissolved iron. The volume of ground water flowing through the Suwannee and Marianna Limestones in Cook County and available for development to properly spaced wells and well fields is estimated to be about 18,000,000 gallons per day. That in the Tampa Foundation is estimated to be about 1,500,000 gallons per day. Water levels near the center of the Adel well field have declined 38 feet since 1890 and presently are declining at a rate of 1.6 feet per year.

  7. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  8. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Speciation In Sediments At The Ground Water/Surface Water Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation and mineralogy of sediments contaminated with arsenic at the ground water/surface water interface of the Ft. Devens Super Fund Site in Ft. Devens, MA were determined using X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Speciation and mineralog...

  9. Biological indicators of ground water-surface water interaction: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This document discusses recent research about the use of biological indicators as a tool to evaluate the interaction of ground water and surface water. Topics covered include: hyporheic zone organism sample collection and study methods, study settings and contaminants, and general effectiveness of this research. An extensive bibliography appears at the end of this document.

  10. Water resources data, Oklahoma, water year 2003; Volume 2. Red River basin and ground-water wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazs, R.L.; Walters, D.M.; Coffey, T.E.; Boyle, D.L.; Wellman, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of the water resources data for the 2003 water year for Oklahoma consists of record of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains discharge records for 139 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes or reservoirs and 2 gage height stations; water quality for 46 gaging stations; 32 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations and 5 ground-water sites. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge and water-quality sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Oklahoma.

  11. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, Spring 1981 to Spring 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The withdrawal of ground water was about 5.4 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1981, which is about 800,000 acre-feet more than the amount withdrawn in 1980. Most of the increase in 1981 was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. Through 1981, slightly more than 189 million acre-feet of ground water had been withdrawn from the ground-water reservoirs in Arizona. The report contains two small-scale maps that show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1982, and change in water level in selected wells from 1977 to 1982. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  12. U and Sr Isotopes in ground water and calcite, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Evidence against upwelling water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Peterman, Z.E.; Muhs, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  13. A methodology for validating numerical ground water models.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahmed E

    2004-01-01

    Ground water validation is one of the most challenging issues facing modelers and hydrogeologists. Increased complexity in ground water models has created a gap between model predictions and the ability to validate or build confidence in predictions. Specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and applied to determine the validity of site-specific ground water models do not exist. This is true for both deterministic and stochastic models, with stochastic models posing the more difficult validation problem. The objective of this paper is to propose a general validation approach that addresses important issues recognized in previous validation studies, conferences, and symposia. The proposed method links the processes for building, calibrating, evaluating, and validating models in an iterative loop. The approach focuses on using collected validation data to reduce uncertainty in the model and narrow the range of possible outcomes. This method is designed for stochastic numerical models utilizing Monte Carlo simulation approaches, but it can be easily adapted for deterministic models. The proposed methodology relies on the premise that absolute validity is not theoretically possible, nor is it a regulatory requirement. Rather, the proposed methodology highlights the importance of testing various aspects of the model and using diverse statistical tools for rigorous checking and confidence building in the model and its predictions. It is this confidence that will encourage regulators and the public to accept decisions based on the model predictions. This validation approach will be applied to a model, described in this paper, dealing with an underground nuclear test site in rural Nevada. PMID:15161152

  14. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  15. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  16. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  17. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  18. 77 FR 3770 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' (FRL-9506-7; 76 FR... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the...

  19. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...

  20. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... ground-water protection standards. The individual protection and ground-water protection standards...