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Sample records for additional ground-water withdrawals

  1. Effects of Proposed Additional Ground-Water Withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer on Water Levels in Lonoke County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2006-01-01

    The Grand Prairie Water Users Association, located in Lonoke County, Arkansas, plans to increase ground-water withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer from their current (2005) rate of about 400 gallons per minute to 1,400 gallons per minute (2,016,000 gallons per day). The effect of pumping from a proposed well was simulated using a digital model of ground-water flow. The proposed additional withdrawals were added to an existing pumping cell specified in the model, with increased pumping beginning in 2005, and specified to pump at a total combined rate of 2,016,000 gallons per day for a period of 46 years. In addition, pumping from wells owned by Cabot Water Works, located about 2 miles from the proposed pumping, was added to the model beginning in 2001 and continuing through to the end of 2049. Simulated pumping causes a cone of depression to occur in the alluvial aquifer with a maximum decline in water level of about 8.5 feet in 46 years in the model cell of the proposed well compared to 1998 withdrawals. However, three new dry model cells occur south of the withdrawal well after 46 years. This total water-level decline takes into account the cumulative effect of all wells pumping in the vicinity, although the specified pumping rate from all other model cells in 2005 is less than for actual conditions in 2005. After 46 years with the additional pumping, the water-level altitude in the pumped model cell was about 177.4 feet, which is 41.7 feet higher than 135.7 feet, the altitude corresponding to half of the original saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer (a metric used to determine if the aquifer should be designated as a Critical Ground-Water Area (Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, 2006)).

  2. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  3. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Justet, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913-1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  4. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Resources as to type, method, installation, maintenance, calibration, reading, and accuracy. Withdrawals... and elapsed hours of operation of any well or pump used to withdraw ground water, and report...

  5. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Resources as to type, method, installation, maintenance, calibration, reading, and accuracy. Withdrawals... and elapsed hours of operation of any well or pump used to withdraw ground water, and report...

  6. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Resources as to type, method, installation, maintenance, calibration, reading, and accuracy. Withdrawals... and elapsed hours of operation of any well or pump used to withdraw ground water, and report...

  7. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and elapsed hours of operation of any well or pump used to withdraw ground water, and report such... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water...

  8. 18 CFR 430.19 - Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and elapsed hours of operation of any well or pump used to withdraw ground water, and report such... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground water withdrawal metering, recording, and reporting. 430.19 Section 430.19 Conservation of Power and Water...

  9. Ground-water-withdrawal component of the Michigan water-withdrawal screening tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  10. Effects of present and projected ground-water withdrawals on the Twin Cities aquifer system, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Projected changes in population and industrial development suggest that future ground-water withdrawals may increase from those for the 1970's. Steady-state model results indicate that the potentiometric surface of the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 125 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawal rates of about 200 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer also would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 200 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawals of 160 million gallons per day. Given the projected distribution of future ground-water development, and the limitations inherent in simulating ground-water flow, the model results indicate that an approximate limit of ground-water availability in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, is from about 500 to 800 million gallons per day.

  11. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  12. Ground-water resources and simulated effects of withdrawals in the East Shore area of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, David W.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Puryear, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    based on doubling the 1980-84 rate of municipal and industrial withdrawals for 20 years, and using both average and below-average recharge rates. The simulations indicated water-level declines of an additional 35 to 50 feet near the principal pumping center; a decrease in natural discharge to drains, evapotranspiration, and Great Salt Lake; and a decrease in ground-water storage of 80,000 to 115,000 acre-feet after 20 years.

  13. Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System in 1992, and Simulated Effects of Projected Ground-Water Withdrawals in 2020 in the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Alison D.

    2003-01-01

    In 1992, ground-water withdrawals from the unconfined and confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain totaled about 300 million gallons per day, and about 70 percent (200 million galllons per day) of this water was pumped from confined aquifers. The withdrawals have created large cones of depression in several Coastal Plain aquifers near populated areas, particularly in Camden and Ocean Counties. The continued decline of water levels in confined aquifers could cause saltwater intrusion, reduction of stream discharge near the outcrop areas of these aquifers, and depletion of the ground-water supply. Because of this, withdrawals from wells located within these critical areas have been reduced in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. A computer-based model that simulates freshwater and saltwater flow was used to simulate transient ground-water flow conditions and the location of the freshwater-saltwater interface during 1989-92 in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. This simulation was used as the baseline for comparison of water levels and flow budgets. Four hypothetical withdrawal scenarios were simulated in which ground-water withdrawals were either increased or decreased. In scenario 1, withdrawals from wells located within critical area 2 in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system were reduced by amounts ranging from 0 to 35 percent of withdrawals prior to 1992. Critical area 2 is mainly located in Camden County, and most of Burlington and Gloucester Counties. With the reductions, water levels recovered about 30 feet in the regional cone of depression centered in Camden County in the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer and by 20 ft in the Lower and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. In scenarios 2 to 4, withdrawals projected for 2020 were input to the model. In scenario 2, withdrawal restrictions within the critical areas were imposed in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer

  14. Faulting arrested by control of ground-water withdrawal in Houston, Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.; Gabrysch, R.K.; Verbeek, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    More than 86 historically active faults with an aggregate length of 150 miles have been identified within and adjacent to the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. Although scarps of these faults grow gradually and without causing damaging earthquakes, historical fault offset has cost millions of dollars in damage to houses and other buildings, utilities, and highways that were built on or across the faults. The historical fault activity results from renewed movement along preexisting faults and appears to be caused principally by withdrawal of ground water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses in the Houston area. Approximately one-half of the area's water supply is obtained from local ground water. Monitoring by the US Geological Survey of heights of fault scarps indicates that many of the scarps have recently stopped increasing in height. The area where faulting has ceased coincides with the area where ground-water pumping was cut back in the mid-1970s to slow the damage caused by land subsidence along Galveston Bay and the Houston Ship Channel. Thus, it appears that efforts to halt land subsidence in the coastal area have provided the additional benefit of arresting damaging surface faulting. -from Authors

  15. Effects of Irrigation, Drought, and Ground-Water Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical ground-water-flow model was used to investigate the effects of irrigation on ground-water levels in the southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, and the relation between declining ground-water levels observed in the basin in the 1990s and early 2000s and concurrent drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal. Results of steady-state model simulations indicate that changing from pre-development to 1981 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could, given enough time for steady state to be achieved, raise ground-water levels in some areas of the southern Lihue Basin by as much as 200 feet, and that changing from 1981 to 1998 irrigation and ground-water-withdrawal conditions could lower ground-water levels in some areas by as much as 100 feet. Transient simulations combining drought, irrigation reduction, and changes in ground-water withdrawal show trends that correspond with those observed in measured water levels. Results of this study indicate that irrigation reduction was the primary cause of the observed decline in ground-water-levels. In contrast, ground-water withdrawal had a long-duration but small-magnitude effect, and drought had a widespread, high-magnitude but short-duration effect. Inasmuch as irrigation in the future is unlikely to return to the same levels as during the period of peak sugarcane agriculture, the decline in ground-water levels resulting from the reduction and ultimate end of sugarcane irrigation can be considered permanent. Assuming that irrigation does not return to the southern Lihue Basin and that, on average, normal rainfall persists and ground-water withdrawal remains at 1998 rates, model projections indicate that average ground-water levels in the Kilohana-Puhi area will continue to recover from the drought of 1998-2002 and eventually rise to within about 4 feet of the pre-drought conditions. Long-term climate trends, increases in ground-water withdrawal, or other factors not simulated in

  16. Ground-water resources and simulated effects of withdrawals in the Bountiful area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, David W.; Clark, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water resources in the Bountiful area, Utah, were studied to document changes in ground-water conditions and to simulate the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals and changes in recharge. The aquifer system is in basin-fill deposits and is primarily a confined system with unconfined parts along the mountain front.Recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to range from about 22,000 to 32,000 acre-feet per year during 1947-85.  Discharge was estimated to range from 26,000 to 30,000 acre-feet per year during 1947-85.Long-term trends of ground-water levels indicate a steady decline at most observation wells from 1952 to 1962. Importation of surface water for irrigation in 1962 resulted in decreased ground-water withdrawals, causing water levels to rise. Water levels fluctuated from 1962 to 1985, depending on changes in withdrawals and precipitation.A computer model of the aquifer system was constructed and calibrated using water-level data from 1946 and changes in ground-water withdrawals from 1947-86. Simulations of aquifer responses to projected withdrawals were based on a 50-percent increase in the 1981-85 rate of municipal and industrial withdrawals for 20 years using both average and less-than-average recharge rates. The simulations indicated water-level declines between 5 and 50 feet; a decrease in natural discharge to drains, by evapotranspiration, and to Great Salt Lake; and a decrease of ground water in storage after 20 years between 25,000 acre-feet using the average recharge rate, and 70,000 acre-feet using the less-than-average recharge rate.

  17. Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawal on Kaunakakai Stream Environmental Restoration Plan, Moloka`i, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the County of Maui Department of Public Works and Environmental Management, has proposed to construct 2.75 acres of shallow ponds and mudflats near the mouth of Kaunakakai Stream, Moloka`i, Hawai`i to restore habitat for the endangered native Hawaiian Stilt. Kaunakakai Stream is ephemeral upstream from the habitat-restoration site. Where the pond and wetland bottoms are below the water table, the ponds and wetland will be sustained by ground-water discharge during dry-weather conditions. Because ground water is the main source of water for the proposed ponds and wetland, a reduction of ground-water levels and discharge near the mouth of Kaunakakai Stream will have an effect on the availability of habitat. In response to concerns about the possible effects of ground-water withdrawal on the habitat restoration project near the mouth of Kaunakakai Stream, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook the present investigation to estimate, using an existing numerical ground-water-flow model, the changes in ground-water level and coastal discharge caused by redistributed and additional ground-water withdrawals. Steady-state water-level and coastal-discharge changes, relative to recent base-case conditions, were estimated for each of six withdrawal scenarios. Redistributed and additional ground-water withdrawals in the six scenarios were simulated from selected sites in the area between Kualapu`u and `Ualapu`e. For the scenarios tested, model results indicate that withdrawals from existing and proposed wells cause a water-level decline of about 0.1 ft in the vicinity of the Kaunakakai habitat-restoration site. In addition, model results indicate a reduction of ground-water discharge, ranging from 98,000 to 170,000 gal/d, to the model element containing the habitat-restoration site, although the existing spatial discretization in the model is too coarse to reliably estimate the reduction of ground-water discharge to the stream

  18. Simulation of proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.

    2006-01-01

    The confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (surficial aquifer) are major sources of water for southeastern New Jersey. Because of recent concerns about streamflow depletion resulting from ground-water withdrawals and the potential ecological effects on stream habitat in the area, the focus on future withdrawals has been shifted away from the surficial aquifer to the confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand until the effects of increased withdrawals from the surficial aquifer can be investigated. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. The proposed withdrawals are increases above the 2004 allocated rates (full allocation). The effects of full-allocation ground-water withdrawals and the cumulative effect of withdrawals for each of seven proposed increases in withdrawals were simulated using three previously published ground-water flow models: the New Jersey Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer System Analysis model, the Coastal Plain Optimization model, and a model of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in Atlantic County, New Jersey. These models were used to simulate changes in water levels, the source supplying the increased ground-water flow, and the effects on saltwater movement towards production wells in Cape May County as a result of the proposed increased withdrawals at proposed or existing wells. The results of the simulations represent the effects of the proposed increase from full-allocation withdrawals to an additional 1,825 Mgal/yr (million gallons per year) from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and an additional 1,045 Mgal/yr from the deep part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system near the updip limit of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Most of the simulated decline in water levels in Atlantic County occurred as the result of the proposed

  19. Effects of ground-water withdrawals on the Rock River and associated valley aquifer, eastern Rock County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Richard J.; Landon, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Model results indicate that the additional water withdrawn by wells due to anticipated increased ground-water withdrawals was derived from a decrease in net leakage of ground water from the aquifer to the streams. The simulations indicated that the increased ground-water withdrawals and normal precipitation resulted in an increase in induced infiltration from the Rock River of 0.1 cubic feet per second for the Luverne Municipal well field and 0.3 cubic feet per second for the Rock County Rural Water well field. Maximum drawdowns ranged from 0.5 to 1.4 feet near the three well fields. For drought conditions, the simulated streamflow losses constituted approximately 30 percent and nearly 65 percent of the flows in the Rock River for the Luverne Municipal and Rock County Rural Water well fields, respectively. Maximum drawdowns ranged from 3.8 to 7.0 feet near the three well fields. Transient simulations with anticipated increased ground-water withdrawals and drought conditions indicated declines in hydraulic heads ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 feet per year in the vicinity of the three well fields, except for near the Rock River. 

  20. Effects of Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in Southern Maryland and the Adjacent Eastern Shore, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water supply in most areas of Maryland?s Atlantic Coastal Plain, including Southern Maryland. The counties in this area are experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development in the State, resulting in an increased demand for ground-water production. The cooperative, basic water-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Maryland Geological Survey has collected long-term observations of ground-water levels in Southern Maryland and parts of the Eastern Shore for many decades. Additional water-level observations were made by both agencies beginning in the 1970s, under the Power Plant Research Program of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. These long-term water levels commonly show significant declines over several decades, which are attributed to ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water-level trends since 1980 in major Coastal Plain aquifers such as the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, Magothy, upper Patapsco, lower Patapsco, and Patuxent were compared to water use and withdrawal data. Potentiometric surface maps show that most of the declines in ground-water levels can be directly related to effects from major pumping centers. There is also evidence that deep drawdowns in some pumped aquifers may be causing declines in adjacent, unpumped aquifers. Water-level hydrographs of many wells in Southern Maryland show linear declines in levels year after year, instead of the gradual leveling-off that would be expected as the aquifers equilibrate with pumping. A continual increase in the volumes of water being withdrawn from the aquifers is one explanation for why they are not reaching equilibrium. Although reported ground-water production in Southern Maryland has increased somewhat over the past several decades, the reported increases are often not large enough to account for the observed water-level declines. Numerical modeling simulations indicate that a steady, annual increase in the number of small wells could

  1. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  2. Hydrogeology and Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Big River Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering expanded use of ground-water resources from the Big River area because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. This report describes the hydrology of the area and numerical simulation models that were used to examine effects of ground-water withdrawals during 1964?98 and to describe potential effects of different withdrawal scenarios in the area. The Big River study area covers 35.7 square miles (mi2) and includes three primary surface-water drainage basins?the Mishnock River Basin above Route 3, the Big River Basin, and the Carr River Basin, which is a tributary to the Big River. The principal aquifer (referred to as the surficial aquifer) in the study area, which is defined as the area of stratified deposits with a saturated thickness estimated to be 10 feet or greater, covers an area of 10.9 mi2. On average, an estimated 75 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) of water flows through the study area and about 70 ft3/s flows out of the area as streamflow in either the Big River (about 63 ft3/s) or the Mishnock River (about 7 ft3/s). Numerical simulation models are used to describe the hydrology of the area under simulated predevelopment conditions, conditions during 1964?98, and conditions that might occur in 14 hypothetical ground-water withdrawal scenarios with total ground-water withdrawal rates in the area that range from 2 to 11 million gallons per day. Streamflow depletion caused by these hypothetical ground-water withdrawals is calculated by comparison with simulated flows for the predevelopment conditions, which are identical to simulated conditions during the 1964?98 period but without withdrawals at public-supply wells and wastewater recharge. Interpretation of numerical simulation results indicates that the three basins in the study area are in fact a single ground-water resource. For example, the Carr River Basin above Capwell Mill Pond is naturally losing water

  3. Evaluation of methods for estimating ground-water withdrawals in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Claud H.

    1979-01-01

    Individual users report ground-water withdrawals annually to the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. It is estimated that these values are 10 to 15 percent higher than actual values because most users do not possess the means for accurately determining discharge rates. Methods of estimating ground-water use in western Kansas that appear to offer the desired accuracy include (1) extrapolation from a sample of metered withdrawals, (2) calculation from precipitation and irrigated acreages of various crop types, and (3) calculation from a sample of power-coefficients. All three methods are being tested and compared with actual measured values. Newly developed electronic running-time and discharge-totaling meters are being tested that may give accurate values of total pumping time and discharge at small cost. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Ground-Water Resources in Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Island of Hawaii, and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Tribble, Gordon W.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, which was established in 1978, the ground-water flow system is composed of brackish water overlying saltwater. Ground-water levels measured in the Park range from about 1 to 2 feet above mean sea level, and fluctuate daily by about 0.5 to 1.5 feet in response to ocean tides. The brackish water is formed by mixing of seaward flowing fresh ground water with underlying saltwater from the ocean. The major source of fresh ground water is from subsurface flow originating from inland areas to the east of the Park. Ground-water recharge from the direct infiltration of precipitation within the Park area, which has land-surface altitudes less than 100 feet, is small because of low rainfall and high rates of evaporation. Brackish water flowing through the Park ultimately discharges to the fishponds in the Park or to the ocean. The ground water, fishponds, and anchialine ponds in the Park are hydrologically connected; thus, the water levels in the ponds mark the local position of the water table. Within the Park, ground water near the water table is brackish; measured chloride concentrations of water samples from three exploratory wells in the Park range from 2,610 to 5,910 milligrams per liter. Chromium and copper were detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park and one well upgradient of the Park at concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per liter. One semi-volatile organic compound, phenol, was detected in water samples from the three wells in the Park at concentrations between 4 and 10 micrograms per liter. A regional, two-dimensional (areal), freshwater-saltwater, sharp-interface ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of regional withdrawals on ground-water flow within the Park. For average 1978 withdrawal rates, the estimated rate of fresh ground-water discharge to the ocean within the Park is about 6.48 million gallons per day, or about 3 million gallons per day per mile of coastline

  5. Simulating the effects of ground-water withdrawals on streamflow in a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, P.J.; Barlow, P.M.; Duda, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff models are used to assess the effects of water use and management alternatives on streamflow. Often, ground-water withdrawals are a major water-use component that affect streamflow, but the ability of surface-water models to simulate ground-water withdrawals is limited. As part of a Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) precipitation-runoff model developed to analyze the effect of ground-water and surface-water withdrawals on streamflow in the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts, an analytical technique (STRMDEPL) was developed for calculating the effects of pumped wells on streamflow. STRMDEPL is a FORTRAN program based on two analytical solutions that solve equations for ground-water flow to a well completed in a semi-infinite, homogeneous, and isotropic aquifer in direct hydraulic connection to a fully penetrating stream. One analytical method calculates unimpeded flow at the stream-aquifer boundary and the other method calculates the resistance to flow caused by semipervious streambed and streambank material. The principle of superposition is used with these analytical equations to calculate time-varying streamflow depletions due to daily pumping. The HSPF model can readily incorporate streamflow depletions caused by a well or surface-water withdrawal, or by multiple wells or surface-water withdrawals, or both, as a combined time-varying outflow demand from affected channel reaches. These demands are stored as a time series in the Watershed Data Management (WDM) file. This time-series data is read into the model as an external source used to specify flow from the first outflow gate in the reach where these withdrawals are located. Although the STRMDEPL program can be run independently of the HSPF model, an extension was developed to run this program within GenScn, a scenario generator and graphical user interface developed for use with the HSPF model. This extension requires that actual pumping rates for each well be stored

  6. Estimated Ground-water Withdrawals From the Death Valley Regional Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-98

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Moreo; K.J. Halford; R.J. LaCamera; and R.J. Laczniak

    2003-09-30

    Ground-water withdrawals from 1913 through 1998 from the Death Valley regional flow system have been compiled to support a regional,three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. Withdrawal locations and depths of production intervals were estimated and associated errors were reported for 9,300 wells. Withdrawals were grouped into three categories: mining, public-supply, and commercial water use; domestic water use; and irrigation water use. In this report, groupings were based on the method used to estimate pumpage. Cumulative ground-water withdrawals from 1913 through 1998 totaled 3 million acre-feet, most of which was used to irrigate alfalfa. Annual withdrawal for irrigation ranged from 80 to almost 100 percent of the total pumpage. About 75,000 acre-feet was withdrawn for irrigation in 1998. Annual irrigation withdrawals generally were estimated as the product of irrigated acreage and application rate. About 320 fields totaling 11,000 acres were identified in six hydrographic areas. Annual application rates for high water-use crops ranged from 5 feet in Penoyer Valley to 9 feet in Pahrump Valley. The uncertainty in the estimates of ground-water withdrawals was attributed primarily to the uncertainty of application rate estimates. Annual ground-water withdrawal was estimated at about 90,000 acre-feet in 1998 with an assigned uncertainty bounded by 60,000 to 130,000 acre-feet.

  7. Estimated Ground-Water Withdrawals from the Death Valley Regional Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Halford, Keith J.; La Camera, Richard J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from 1913 through 1998 from the Death Valley regional flow system have been compiled to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. Withdrawal locations and depths of production intervals were estimated and associated errors were reported for 9,300 wells. Withdrawals were grouped into three categories: mining, public-supply, and commercial water use; domestic water use; and irrigation water use. In this report, groupings were based on the method used to estimate pumpage. Cumulative ground-water withdrawals from 1913 through 1998 totaled 3 million acre-feet, most of which was used to irrigate alfalfa. Annual withdrawal for irrigation ranged from 80 to almost 100 percent of the total pumpage. About 75,000 acre-feet was withdrawn for irrigation in 1998. Annual irrigation withdrawals generally were estimated as the product of irrigated acreage and application rate. About 320 fields totaling 11,000 acres were identified in six hydrographic areas. Annual application rates for high water-use crops ranged from 5 feet in Penoyer Valley to 9 feet in Pahrump Valley. The uncertainty in the estimates of ground-water withdrawals was attributed primarily to the uncertainty of application rate estimates. Annual ground-water withdrawal was estimated at about 90,000 acre-feet in 1998 with an assigned uncertainty bounded by 60,000 to 130,000 acre-feet.

  8. Effects of municipal ground-water withdrawals on the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, M.E.; Bergman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma consists of a thick sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and clastic rocks of Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age. Fractures and karst features locally increase the aquifer's capacity to transmit and store ground water. The aquifer is a principal source of water for municipal and rural users. A hydrologic study was conducted to evaluate the effects of municipal ground-water withdrawal from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer on local ground-water levels and discharge from nearby springs and streams in south-central Pontotoc County. A municipal well was pumped for 63 hours at an average rate of 1,170 gallons per minute. A maximum observed drawdown of 0.3 feet was recorded half a mile from the pumping well. Drawdown was observed as far as 1.2 miles from the pumping well. No measurable response was observed at any of the surface-water-discharge measurement sites; however, recharge from precipitation may have masked any decreases in discharge caused by the pumping. Simultaneous pumping of two municipal wells for 241 hours at average rates of 1,170 and 2,730 gallons per minute resulted in a maximum observed drawdown of 1.3 feet recorded at an average distance of 0.80 miles from the pumping wells. The most distant drawdown observed was at an average distance 1.1 miles from the pumped wells. Less that 2 days after pumping stopped, increases in springflow were recorded at two springs; it is unknown whether these discharge responses reflect the effects of recharge from precipitation, or the combined effects of precipitation and the cessation of ground-water withdrawal. The effects of the stress tests on the hydrologic system were offset by recharge from concurrent precipitation. The maximum observed drawdown represents about 6 percent of the median natural water-level fluctuation during the study period. The effect of drawdown could become critical during extended periods of low precipitation, if water levels are

  9. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  10. Municipal ground-water development and withdrawals in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan, 1870-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltusis, M.A.; Quigley, M.F.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Municipal water-supply systems in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan were categorized into four regions on the basis of source of water for 1987. These categories included water systems that obtained water from aquifers in glacial drift, bedrock, or both, as well as those that obtained water from surface-water sources. Data on ground-water development were collected for 182 municipal water-supply systems for the period 1870-1987. Of the 182 systems, 135 used ground water for supply. Wells in glacial-drift aquifers supplied water for 60 municipalities; wells in bedrock aquifers supplied 58 municipalities. Combinations of wells in bedrock and glacial-drift aquifers supplied 17 municipalities. Surface-water sources supplied 45 municipalities; two municipalities used surface water and ground water. Of the 182 municipal systems, withdrawal data were available for only 145. Withdrawal data were collected for the period 1903-1985. Analysis of annual ground-water withdrawal data for the 145 municipal water-supply systems indicates that average annual per capita municipal ground-water withdrawal ranged from 60 gallons per day per person in 1915 to 166 gallons per day per person in 1973. The maximum reported groundwater withdrawal for the area was 103 million gallons per day in 1979. Records from most municipalities include long periods for which no ground-water withdrawal data are available. The average annual per capita data among the municipalities varies over the period of record because of incomplete reporting of pumping rates, unusually high pumping rates, short-term economic changes, and other changes not associated with local population changes.

  11. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  12. Deformation-induced changes in hydraulic head during ground-water withdrawal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal from a confined or semiconfined aquifer causes three-dimensional deformation in the pumped aquifer and in adjacent layers (overlying and underlying aquifers and aquitards). In response to the deformation, hydraulic head in the adjacent layers could rise or fall almost immediately after the start of pumping. This deformation-induced effect suggest that an adjacent layer undergoes horizontal compression and vertical extension when pumping begins. Hydraulic head initially drops in a region near the well and close to the pumped aquifer, but rises outside this region. Magnitude of head change varies from a few centimeters to more than 10 centimeters. Factors that influence the development of deformation-induced effects includes matrix rigidity (shear modulus), the arrangement of aquifer and aquitards, their thicknesses, and proximity to land surface. Induced rise in hydraulic head is prominent in an aquitard that extends from land surface to a shallow pumped aquifer. Induced drop in hydraulic head is likely observed close to the well in an aquifer that is separated from the pumped aquifer by a relatively thin aquitard. Induced effects might last for hours in an aquifer, but could persist for many days in an aquitard. Induced effects are eventually dissipated by fluid flow from regions of higher head to regions of lower head, and by propagation of drawdown from the pumped aquifer into adjacent layers.

  13. Hydrogeology and analysis of ground-water withdrawal in the Mendenhall-D'Lo area, Simpson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strom, E.W.; Oakley, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    The cities of Mendenhall and D'Lo, located in Simpson County, rely on ground water for their public supply and industrial needs. Most of the ground water comes from an aquifer of Miocene age. A study began in 1991 to describe the hydrogeology, analyze effects of ground-water withdrawal by making a drawdown map, and estimate the effects increased ground-water withdrawal might have on water levels in the Miocene age aquifer in the Mendenhall-D'Lo area. The most significant withdrawals of ground water in the study area are from 10 wells screened in the lower sand of the Catahoula Formation of Miocene age. Analysis of the effect of withdrawals from the 10 wells was made using the Theis non- equilibrium equation and applying the principle of superposition. Analysis of 1994 conditions was based on the pumpage history and aquifer properties deter- mined for each well. The drawdown surface resulting from the analysis indicates three general cones of depression. One cone is in the northwestern D'Lo area, one in the south-central Mendenhall area, and one about 1-1/2 miles east of Mendenhall. Calculated drawdown ranges from 21 to 47 feet. Potential drawdown-surface maps were made for 10 years and 20 years beyond 1994 using a constant pumpage. The map made for 10 years beyond 1994 indicates an average total increase in drawdown of about 5.3 feet. The map made for 20 years beyond 1994 indicates an average total increase in drawdown of about 7.3 feet.

  14. Migration of induced-infiltrated stream water into nearby aquifers due to seasonal ground water withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of stream-aquifer interaction due to ground water extraction has traditionally focused on the determination of the amount of water depleted in the stream. Less attention has been paid to the movement of infiltrated stream water inside aquifer, particularly for agricultural areas. This paper presents a method of using particle-tracking techniques to evaluate the transport of the leaked stream water in the nearby aquifers. Simple stream-aquifer conditions are used to demonstrate the usefulness of the analysis. Travel times, pathlines, and influence zones of stream water were determined between a stream and nearby pumping wells for seasonal ground water extraction areas. When water quantity is a concern, the analyses provide additional information about stream depletion; when water quality is an issue, they offer information for wellhead protection. Analyses were conducted for transient conditions, and both pumping and nonpumping periods were considered. According to the results from the simulation examples, migration of infiltrated stream water into the nearby aquifers is generally slow and most infiltrated stream water does not arrive at the pumping well at the end of a 90-day irrigation season. Infiltrated stream water may remain in the aquifer for several years before arriving at the pumping well. For aquifers with a regional hydraulic gradient toward streams, part of the infiltrated stream water may discharge back to streams during a recovery period.

  15. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  16. Simulated Ground-Water Withdrawals by Cabot WaterWorks from the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Lonoke County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Cabot WaterWorks, located in Lonoke County, Arkansas, plans to increase ground-water withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer from a 2004 rate of approximately 2.24 million gallons per day to between 4.8 and 8 million gallons per day by the end of 2049. The effects of increased pumping from several wells were simulated using a digital model of ground-water flow. The proposed additional withdrawals by Cabot WaterWorks were specified in three 1-square-mile model cells with increased pumping beginning in 2007. Increased pumping was specified at various combined rates for a period of 44 years. In addition, augmented pumping from wells owned by Grand Prairie Water Users Association, located about 2 miles from the nearest Cabot WaterWorks wells, was added to the model beginning in 2007 and continuing through to the end of 2049 in 10 of the 16 scenarios analyzed. Eight of the scenarios included reductions in pumping rates in model cells corresponding to either the Grand Prairie Water Users Association wells or to wells contained within the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project. Drawdown at the end of 44 years of pumping at 4.8 million gallons per day from the Cabot WaterWorks wells ranged from 15 to 25 feet in the three model cells; pumping at 8 million gallons per day resulted in water-level drawdown ranging from about 15 to 40 feet. Water levels in those cells showed no indication of leveling out at the end of the simulation period, indicating non-steady-state conditions after 44 years of pumping. From one to four new dry cells occurred in each of the scenarios by the end of 2049 when compared to a baseline scenario in which pumping was maintained at 2004 rates, even in scenarios with reduced pumping in the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project; however, reduced pumping produced cells that were no longer dry when compared to the baseline scenario at the end of 2049. Saturated thickness at the end of 2049 in the three Cabot WaterWorks wells

  17. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels from 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 2, Southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system within Water Supply Critical Area 2 in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated in the early 1990s. The Critical Area consists of the depleted zone and the threatened margin. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system consists of the Upper, Middle, and Lower aquifers. Generally, ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers declined 5 to 10 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) and water levels recovered 0 to 40 ft (foot) from 1988 to 2003. In order to reevaluate water-allocation restrictions in Critical Area 2 in response to changes in the ground-water-flow system and demands for additional water supply due to increased development, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) needs information about the effects of changes in those allocations. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJDEP, used an existing ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain to evaluate the effects of withdrawal alternatives on hydraulic heads in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in Critical Area 2. The U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow. Two withdrawal conditions were tested by using the model to evaluate hydraulic heads and differences in heads in these aquifers: 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (17.4 Mgal/d greater than 2003 withdrawals). Model results are presented using head maps and head-difference maps that compare 2003 to full-allocation withdrawals. Mandated hydrologic conditions for Critical Area protection are that the simulated -30-ft head contour not extend beyond the boundary of the depleted zone and (or) be at least 5 mi (miles) updip from the 250-mg/L (milligram per liter) isochlor in all three aquifers. Simulation results indicate that, for 2003 withdrawals, the simulated -30-ft head

  18. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas, 1918, with simulations of hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, encompassing parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee supplies an average of 5 billion gallons of water per day. However, withdrawals from the aquifer in recent years have caused considerable drawdown in the hydraulic heads in southeastern Arkansas and other areas. The effects of current ground-water withdrawals and potential future withdrawals on water availability are major concerns of water managers and users as well as the general public. A full understanding of the behavior of the aquifer under various water-use scenarios is critical for the development of viable water-management and alternative source plans. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg District, and the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission developed and calibrated a ground-water flow model for the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas to simulate hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals. A previously published ground-water flow model for the alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas was updated and recalibrated to reflect more current pumping stresses with additional stress periods added to bring the model forward from 1982 to 1998. The updated model was developed and calibrated with MODFLOW-2000 finite difference numerical modeling and parameter estimation software. The model was calibrated using hydraulic-head data collected during 1972 and 1982 and hydraulic-head measurements made during spring (February to April) of 1992 and 1998. The residuals for 1992 and 1998 have a mean absolute value of 4.74 and 5.45 feet, respectively, and a root mean square error of 5.9 and 6.72 feet, respectively. The effects of projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated through 2049 in three predictive scenarios by adding five additional stress periods of 10 years each. In the three scenarios

  19. Balancing Ground-Water Withdrawals and Streamflow in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt Basin, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water withdrawn for water supply reduces streamflow in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt Basin in Rhode Island. These reductions may adversely affect aquatic habitats. A hydrologic model was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, Town of North Kingstown, Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, and Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation to aid water-resource planning in the basin. Results of the model provide information that helps water suppliers and natural-resource managers evaluate strategies for balancing ground-water development and streamflow reductions in the basin.

  20. Simulation of Hydrologic-System Responses to Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt Stream-Aquifer System, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Ostiguy, Lance J.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical-modeling study was done to better understand hydrologic-system responses to ground-water withdrawals in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt (HAP) stream-aquifer system of Rhode Island. System responses were determined by use of steady-state and transient numerical ground-water-flow models. These models were initially developed in the late 1990s as part of a larger study of the stream-aquifer system. The models were modified to incorporate new data made available since the original study and to meet the objectives of this study. Changes made to the models did not result in substantial changes to simulated ground-water levels, hydrologic budgets, or streamflows compared to those calculated by the original steady-state and transient models. Responses of the hydrologic system are described primarily by changes in simulated streamflows and ground-water levels throughout the basin and by changes to flow conditions in the aquifer in three wetland areas immediately east of the Lafayette State Fish Hatchery, which lies within the Annaquatucket River Basin in the town of North Kingstown. Ground water is withdrawn from the HAP aquifer at 14 large-capacity production wells, at an industrial well, and at 3 wells operated by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management at the fish hatchery. A fourth well has been proposed for the hatchery and an additional production well is under development by the town of North Kingstown. The primary streams of interest in the study area are the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt Rivers and Queens Fort Brook. Total model-calculated streamflow depletions in these rivers and brook resulting from withdrawals at the production, industrial, and fish-hatchery wells pumping at average annual 2003 rates are about 4.8 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) for the Hunt River, 3.3 ft3/s for the Annaquatucket River, 0.5 ft3/s for the Pettaquamscutt River, and 0.5 ft3/s for Queens Fort Brook. The actual amount of streamflow reduction

  1. Simulated hydrologic responses of the Quashnet River stream-aquifer system to proposed ground-water withdrawals, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.M.; Hess, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the Quashnet River stream- aquifer system on Cape Cod was initiated in response to concern over possible streamflow reduction and degradation of the sea-run brown trout habitat of the river resulting from proposed ground-water withdrawals. A two-layer finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the stream-aquifer system. Steady-state pumping rates of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 million gallons per day were simulated at three well sites 1,500 to 2,500 feet west of the river. No infiltration of water from the river to the aquifer was induced in any of the simulations. Maximum streamflow depletion along the river for the scenarios tested ranged from 3 to 15 percent of calculated steady-state prepumping streamflow. Mean monthly streamflow depletions determined by use of the transient model, for a constant withdrawal of 1.0 million gallons per day from a site 1,500 feet west of the river, range from 6 to 8 percent of the mean monthly streamflows measured at a gage located 0.3 miles from the mouth of the river. A particle-tracking postprocessor to the steady-state model was used to delineate contributing areas of the river and the proposed withdrawal sites. Although the simulated cone of depression produced by pumping extends beyond the river, the contributing area of the well does not include the river under any of the withdrawal schemes simulated.

  2. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  3. Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals for citrus irrigation, Hardee and De Soto counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Hardee and De Soto Counties in west-central Florida was evaluated, and a ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of expected increases in ground-water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1988, total citrus acreage in Hardee and De Soto Counties was 89,041 acres. By the year 2020, citrus acreage is projected to increase to 130,000 acres. Ground water is the major source of water supply in the study area, and 94 percent of the ground-water withdrawn in the area is used for irrigation purposes. The principal sources of ground water in the study area are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer system, and upper water-yielding units of the Floridan aquifer system, commonly referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer is a permeable hydrogeo1ogic unit contiguous with land surface that is comprised predominately of surficial quartz sand deposits that generally are less than 100 feet thick. The intermediate aquifer system is a somewhat less permeable hydrogeologic unit that lies between and retards the exchange of water between the overlying surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system ranges from about 200 to 500 feet and transmissivity ranges from 400 to 7,000 feet squared per day. The highly productive Upper Floridan aquifer consists of 1,200 to 1,400 feet of solution-riddled and fractured limestone and dolomite. Transmissivity values for this aquifer range from 71,000 to 850,000 feet squared per day. Wells open to the Upper Floridan aquifer. the major source of water in the area, can yield as much as 2,500 gallons of water per minute. The potential effects of projected increases in water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on groundwater heads were evaluated by the use of a quasi-three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model. The

  4. Estimating pumping time and ground-water withdrawals using energy- consumption data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R.T.; Litke, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydrology of an aquifer requires knowledge about the volume of groundwater in storage and also about the volume of groundwater withdrawals. Totalizer flow meters may be installed at pumping plants to measure withdrawals; however, it generally is impractical to equip all pumping plants in an area with meters. A viable alternative is the use of rate-time methods. Rate-time methods may be used at individual pumping plants to decrease the data collection necessary for determining withdrawals. At sites where pumping-time measurement devices are not installed, pumping time may be determined on the basis of energy consumption and power demand. At pumping plants where energy consumption is metered, data acquired by reading of meters is used to estimate pumping time. Care needs to be taken to read these meters correctly. At pumping plants powered by electricity, the calculations need to be modified if transformers are present. At pumping plants powered by natural gas, the effects of the pressure-correction factor need to be included in the calculations. At pumping plants powered by gasoline, diesel oil, or liquid petroleum gas, the geometry of storage tanks needs to be analyzed as part of the calculations. The relation between power demand and pumping rate at a pumping plant can be described through the use of the power-consumption coefficient. Where equipment and hydrologic conditions are stable, this coefficient can be applied to total energy consumption at a site to estimate total groundwater withdrawals. Random sampling of power consumption coefficients can be used to estimate area-wide groundwater withdrawal. (USGS)

  5. Ground-water withdrawals in Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham counties, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luukkonen, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Tri-County region includes Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties in the south-central Lower Peninsula of Michigan (fig. 1). People in the Lansing Metropolitan area, which is located near the center of this region, generally enjoy high-quality drinking water. In fact, taste testers ranked Lansing's water as second in the Nation at the 1988 American Water Resources Association Water-Use Symposium in Tucson, Arizona. However, a drought in 1988 and subsequent water rationing within the Tri-County region prompted local communities to assess the adequacy of water resources for future needs. As part of that effort, this fact sheet provides a brief overview of the development of ground-water resources within the region.

  6. Potential hydrologic effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Dakota Aquifer, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    , similar to water in the High Plains aquifer, in the subcrop area. However, in areas distant from the subcrop, water in the Dakota aquifer is a sodium bicarbonate type water with dissolved-solids concentrations in excess of 500 milligrams per liter. In some parts of the study area, water from the Dakota presents high to very high salinity and sodium hazards to crops and soil when it is used for irrigation. The Cheyenne aquifer locally contains mineralized water, as indicated by the response of resistivity curves on geophysical logs. Hydrographs of wells completed in the Dakota aquifer indicate that the Dakota and High Plains aquifers are hydraulically connected in and near subcrop areas. Locally, the Dakota aquifer has converted from confined to unconfined conditions as a result of declining water levels due to pumpage from the Dakota aquifer and as the result of depletion of the High Plains aquifer in subcrop areas. Gradual declines in the potentiometric surface of the Dakota aquifer have occurred since the onset of pumpage in the 1960's; however, water levels in some wells have risen during the late 1970's. A digital computer model of three-dimensional groundwater flow was developed to simulate hydrologic conditions of a five-layer hydrologic system for 1975-82 conditions. The major components of the simulated 1975-82 water budget were well discharge from the High Plains aquifer and loss of ground water from storage in the High Plains aquifer. Although downward leakage from the High Plains aquifer in the study area represented only 18,000 acre-feet of the 1,365,000 acre-feet discharged from the High Plains aquifer during 1982, it was a major source of inflow to the Dakota aquifer. Changes in storage in the Dakota aquifer in the study area during 1982 were about 5,000 acre-feet. A baseline projection was made using 1982 simulated hydraulic heads from the calibrated model and 1982 rates of pumpage from both the High Plains and the Dakota aquifer

  7. Geohydrology of the French Creek basin and simulated effects of droughtand ground-water withdrawals, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2004-01-01

    recharge rate of 6.2 in/yr. Average conditions were simulated by adjusting the recharge rate until simulated streamflow at streamflow-measurement station 01472157 matched the long-term (1968-2001) average base flow of 54.1 cubic feet per second. The recharge rate used for average conditions was 15.7 in/yr. The effect of drought in the French Creek Basin was simulated using a drought year recharge rate of 8 in/yr for 3 months. After 3 months of drought, the simulated streamflow of French Creek at streamflow-measurement station 01472157 decreased 34 percent. The simulations show that after 6 months of average recharge (15.7 in/yr) following drought, streamflow and water levels recovered almost to pre-drought conditions. The effect of increased ground-water withdrawals on stream base flow in the South Branch French Creek Subbasin was simulated under average and drought conditions with pumping rates equal to 50, 75, and 100 percent of the Delaware River Basin Commission Ground Water Protected Area (GWPA) withdrawal limit (1,393 million gallons per year) with all pumped water removed from the basin. For average recharge conditions, the simulated streamflow of South Branch French Creek at the mouth decreased 18, 28, and 37 percent at a withdrawal rate equal to 50, 75, and 100 percent of the GWPA limit, respectively. After 3 months of drought recharge conditions, the simulated streamflow of South Branch French Creek at the mouth decreased 27, 40, and 52 percent at a withdrawal rate equal to 50, 75, and 100 percent of the GWPA limit, respectively. The effect of well location on base flow, water levels, and the sources of water to the well was simulated by locating a hypothetical well pumping 200 gallons per minute in different places in the Beaver Run Subbasin with all pumped water removed from the basin. The smallest reduction in the base flow of Beaver Run was from a well on the drainage divide

  8. Estimated public-water supply and industrial-commercial ground-water withdrawals and returns in Nassau County, Long Island, New York, 1973-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, D.S.; Williams, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nassau County, New York depends upon ground water for its freshwater supply. The primary water uses are for public-water supply and industrial-commercial purposes, which together accounted for 202 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1975. Public-water suppliers withdrew 85 percent of their water from the Magothy Formation. About 133 Mgal/d was returned to the ground after use in 1975, and about 69; Mgal/d was discharged to tidewater. In addition, about 34 Mgal/d infiltrated into sewerlines in 1975 and was also discharged to tidewater. Because of the importance of this freshwater supply, the New York State Department of Environmental conservation reviews applications for the installation of wells and compiles data on pumpage throughout Long Island. It also reviews applications to discharge wastewater into the surface water and ground water of the State. This report summarizes the data filed with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for Nassau County during 1973-79. It presents data and estimates on withdrawals for public and industrial-commercial supply, returns to the ground, and discharges through sewer systems. It also includes information on population and land use. (USGS)

  9. Numerical model analysis of the effects of ground-water withdrawals on discharge to streams and springs in small basins typical of the Puget Sound Lowland, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, D.S.; Jones, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical ground-water flow model of a hypothetical basin was constructed and used to investigate the effects of ground-water withdrawals on rates of natural discharge to streams and springs in small basins of the Puget Sound Lowland. Definitions of the topography, geology, drainage, and climate of the hypothetical basin were based on the features of typical small basins in the Puget Sound Lowland. This information was used to construct a 13-layer numerical ground-water flow model capable of simulating water levels, hydraulic gradients, and discharge to streams and springs. Three sequences of glacial drift and interglacial deposits were simulated in the model; each sequence consisted of recessional outwash, till, advance, outwash, and fine-grained interglacial sediments. Alluvial sediments of the major stream valleys and undifferentiated glacial and interglacial deposits were also included in the model. The model was calibrated by comparing simulated hydrologic conditions with expected conditions and making adjustments to values of hydraulic characteristics as needed. The model was calibrated to predevelop- ment conditions (those prior to pumping), and then used to simulate the effects of pumping on natural discharge to streams and springs. Seven series of simulations were made to investigate the effects of (1) distance from the well to a stream, (2) the presence of confining layers, (3) pumping rate, (4) depth of the pumped aquifer, (5) distance from the well to a bluff, (6) well density, and (7) recharge rate. The discharge of wells pumping from unconfined outwash aquifers on the drift plains is derived almost entirely from capture of natural discharge to nearby stream reaches. Increasing the lateral distance between the well and stream caused more of the well discharge to be captured from other streams on the drift plain. Pumping from aquifers separated from the stream by one or more confining layers caused a reduction in the effects of pumping on discharge to

  10. Simulated effects of projected withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifer on ground-water levels in the Camden, New Jersey, area and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is being considered as a potential source of future water supply for the Camden, New Jersey, area. The deeper Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is currently the major major source of water supply for the area, but its use may be curtailed or reduced by 35 percent of 1983 withdrawals through its designation by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy as "Water Supply Critical Area#2." Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer currently (1989) total about 7 million gallons per day. The anticipated use of this aquifer by communities with access to it, as an alternative supply, could increase to more than 14 million gallons per day by 2020. If the communities of Clayton and Glassboro decrease their withdrawals from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system by 50 percent or cease them entirely because of their proximity to saline water, the use of Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer could increase to greater than 15 million gallons per day by 2020. Simulation of the ground-water system indicates that the projected increase in withdrawals will cause cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in the Camden metro- politan area by 2020 that extend to depths ranging from 10 feet above sea level to 60 feet below sea level. This represents a secline of about 40 to 100 feet thr 1990 conditions. Withdrawals in northeastern Burlington County will cause a large cone of depression that, by 2020, will extend to depths of about 220 feet below sea level, represent- ing a decline of about 140 feet from 1990 conditions. Simulation results indicate that water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer near the Salem Nuclear Power Plant are somewhat insensitive to withdrawals elsewhere in the aquifer. In some areas, especially in Burlington County, the cones of depression have developed in proximity to the aquifer-outcrop area and could induce infiltration from streams crossing the

  11. Effects of Land-Use Changes and Ground-Water Withdrawals on Stream Base Flow, Pocono Creek Watershed, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    The Pocono Creek watershed drains 46.5 square miles in eastern Monroe County, Pa. Between 2000 and 2020, the population of Monroe County is expected to increase by 70 percent, which will result in substantial changes in land-use patterns. An evaluation of the effect of reduced recharge from land-use changes and additional ground-water withdrawals on stream base flow was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Delaware River Basin Commission as part of the USEPA?s Framework for Sustainable Watershed Management Initiative. Two models were used. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed by the USEPA provided areal recharge values for 2000 land use and projected full buildout land use. The USGS MODFLOW-2000 ground-water-flow model was used to estimate the effect of reduced recharge from changes in land use and additional ground-water withdrawals on stream base flow. This report describes the ground-water-flow-model simulations. The Pocono Creek watershed is underlain by sedimentary rock of Devonian age, which is overlain by a veneer of glacial deposits. All water-supply wells are cased into and derive water from the bedrock. In the ground-water-flow model, the surficial geologic units were grouped into six categories: (1) moraine deposits, (2) stratified drift, (3) lake deposits, (4) outwash, (5) swamp deposits, and (6) undifferentiated deposits. The unconsolidated surficial deposits are not used as a source of water. The ground-water and surface-water systems are well connected in the Pocono Creek watershed. Base flow measured on October 13, 2004, at 27 sites for model calibration showed that streams gained water between all sites measured except in the lower reach of Pocono Creek. The ground-water-flow model included the entire Pocono Creek watershed. Horizontally, the modeled area was divided into a 53 by 155 cell grid with 6,060 active cells. Vertically, the modeled area

  12. Withdrawal of ground water and pond water on Long Island from 1904 to 1949

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, Norbert J.

    1950-01-01

    For more than 50 years the highly productive and readily replenishable water-bearing sands and gravels on Long Island -- capable of yielding an average of at least 1,000 million gallons a day -- and also some surface streams and ponds have been utilized on a large scale of public water supply and industrial, agricultural and domestic uses. During the drought months of 1949, when many surface and groundwater supplied were being depleted at an alarming rate in many localities in the Northeast, the abundant water resources of Long Island provided sufficient water for public water supply for a large number of private companies and municipalities, as well as for large emergency drafts by the City of New York. In addition they kept industrial concerns from curtailing production, saved millions of dollars of potato, cauliflower, and other Long Island crops, and even furnished, during the summer heat, comfort cooling and theatergoers.

  13. Use of Superposition Models to Simulate Possible Depletion of Colorado River Water by Ground-Water Withdrawal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Greer, William; Watt, Dennis; Weghorst, Paul

    2008-01-01

    According to the 'Law of the River', wells that draw water from the Colorado River by underground pumping need an entitlement for the diversion of water from the Colorado River. Consumptive use can occur through direct diversions of surface water, as well as through withdrawal of water from the river by underground pumping. To develop methods for evaluating the need for entitlements for Colorado River water, an assessment of possible depletion of water in the Colorado River by pumping wells is needed. Possible methods include simple analytical models and complex numerical ground-water flow models. For this study, an intermediate approach was taken that uses numerical superposition models with complex horizontal geometry, simple vertical geometry, and constant aquifer properties. The six areas modeled include larger extents of the previously defined river aquifer from the Lake Mead area to the Yuma area. For the modeled areas, a low estimate of transmissivity and an average estimate of transmissivity were derived from statistical analyses of transmissivity data. Aquifer storage coefficient, or specific yield, was selected on the basis of results of a previous study in the Yuma area. The USGS program MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh and others, 2000) was used with uniform 0.25-mile grid spacing along rows and columns. Calculations of depletion of river water by wells were made for a time of 100 years since the onset of pumping. A computer program was set up to run the models repeatedly, each time with a well in a different location. Maps were constructed for at least two transmissivity values for each of the modeled areas. The modeling results, based on the selected transmissivities, indicate that low values of depletion in 100 years occur mainly in parts of side valleys that are more than a few tens of miles from the Colorado River.

  14. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  15. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion and Ground-Water Withdrawal on Streamflow and Habitat, Punaluu Stream, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2006-01-01

    The surface- and ground-water resources of the Punaluu area of northeast Oahu, Hawaii, have been and continue to be important for cultural, domestic, agricultural, recreational, and aesthetic purposes. Punaluu Stream flows perennially because rain falls frequently in the area and ground water discharges to the stream. Flow in Punaluu Stream is reduced by the direct diversion of water for off-stream uses and possibly from the withdrawal of ground water near the stream. Punaluu Ditch diverts water from Punaluu Stream near an altitude of 210 feet. During the recent period 1995-2004, discharge in Punaluu Stream that was equaled or exceeded 50 percent of the time (median or Q50 discharge) and discharge that was equaled or exceeded 95 percent of the time (Q95 discharge) measured immediately upstream from the Punaluu Ditch diversion intake, respectively, were 18 and 13 cubic feet per second, whereas the Q50 and Q95 discharges measured immediately downstream from the diversion intake, respectively, were 7.0 and 1.3 cubic feet per second. Thus, near an altitude of 210 feet, diversion of surface water by the Punaluu Ditch caused the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream to be reduced to 39 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was reduced to 10 percent of the natural value. The relative effects of the Punaluu Ditch diversion on flow in Punaluu Stream decreased in a downstream direction, mainly because of the compensating effects of tributary inflows and ditch return flows. At an altitude of 10 feet, the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream was 82 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was 69 percent of the natural value. Changes in streamflow affect the quantity and quality of physical habitat used by native stream fauna. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) approach was used to evaluate the effects of different diversion scenarios on physical habitat for selected native species in Punaluu Stream. Habitat-suitability criteria

  16. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; New England region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnott, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Withdrawals of fresh ground water in 1975 aggregated about 220 billion gallons (830 hm3), or about 12 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (from all sources) of 1,800 billion gallons (6,800 hm3). In view of the available ground-water reserves, considerable additional water, for the anticipated continuing increase in population and economic activity, could be developed.

  17. Land-surface subsidence resulting from ground-water withdrawals in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, through 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.; Coplin, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    The ground-water system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas is composed of layers of sand and compressible clay. The system has been divided into two major aquifers, the Chicot and Evangeline, and the underlying Burkeville confining unit. The Chicot aquifer overlies the Evangeline aquifer. The Chicot aquifer contains the most permeable sand layers and also the more compressible clay layers.

  18. Hydrogeology, water quality, and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, Seminole County and vicinity, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Halford, Keith J.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Seminole County in east-central Florida was evaluated. A ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of both present day (September 1996 through August 1997) and projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels in the surficial aquifer system and the potentiometric surface of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers in Seminole County and vicinity. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1965, ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Seminole County were about 11 million gallons per day. In 1995, withdrawals totaled about 69 million gallons per day. Of the total ground water used in 1995, 74 percent was for public supply, 12 percent for domestic self-supplied, 10 percent for agriculture self-supplied, and 4 percent for recreational irrigation. The principal water-bearing units in Seminole County are the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. The two aquifer systems are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which are separated by a less-permeable semiconfining unit. Upper Floridan aquifer water levels and spring flows have been affected by ground-water development. Long-term hydrographs of four wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer show a general downward trend from the early 1950's until 1990. The declines in water levels are caused predominantly by increased pumpage and below average annual rainfall. From 1991 to 1998, water levels rose slightly, a trend that can be explained by an increase in average annual rainfall. Long-term declines in the potentiometric surface varied throughout the area, ranging from about 3 to 12 feet. Decreases in spring discharge also have been

  19. Evaluation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence caused by hypothetical withdrawals in the northern part of the Gulf Coast Aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Reece, Brian D.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    During 2003?04 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD), used the previously developed Northern Gulf Coast Ground-Water Availability Modeling (NGC GAM) model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical projected withdrawals on ground-water flow in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence in the NGC GAM model area of Texas. The Gulf Coast aquifer system comprises, from the surface, the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit. Two withdrawal scenarios were simulated. The first scenario comprises historical withdrawals from the aquifer system for 1891?2000 and hypothetical projected withdrawals for 2001?50 compiled by the TWDB (TWDB scenario). The projected withdrawals compiled by the TWDB are based on ground-water demands estimated by regional water planning groups. The second scenario is a ?merge? of the TWDB scenario with an alternate set of projected withdrawals from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston metropolitan area for 1995?2030 provided by the HGCSD (HGCSD scenario). Under the TWDB scenario withdrawals from the entire system are projected to be about the same in 2050 as in 2000. The simulated potentiometric surfaces of the Chicot aquifer for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 show relatively little change in configuration from the simulated 2000 potentiometric surface (maximum water-level depths in southern Harris County 150?200 feet below NGVD 29). The simulated decadal potentiometric surfaces of the Evangeline aquifer show the most change between 2000 and 2010. The area of water levels 250?400 feet below NGVD 29 in western Harris County in 2000 shifts southeastward to southern Harris County, and water levels recover to 200?250 feet below NGVD 29 by 2010. Water levels in southern Harris County recover to 150?200 feet below NGVD 29

  20. Simulation of five ground-water withdrawal projections for the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Eychaner, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The N Aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400 sq mi Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. Water in the aquifer is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 sq mi of the area. Maximum saturated thickness is about 1,050 ft. Annual groundwater withdrawals from 1972 through 1986 averaged 5,480 acre-ft and included 3,820 acre-ft used to operate a coal mine on Black Mesa. As a result, water levels have declined in a large part of the aquifer. The coal company has applied for a permanent permit under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. An existing mathematical model of the aquifer in the Black Mesa area was converted to a newer model program and recalibrated by using revised estimates of selected aquifer parameters and a finer spatial grid. The model was used to simulate four groundwater withdrawal alternatives that combined the existing and proposed mining plans with projected constant or increasing pumpage for nearby communities. A fifth alternative combined increasing community pumpage with no mine withdrawals and was used as a basis for comparison. Simulated water levels for the year 2031 in the coal-lease area are projected to be 60 ft lower than in 1985 for the proposed mining plan combined with growing community pumpage and > 100 ft lower than predevelopment water levels over an area of 1,660 sq mi. Groundwater would rise to within 100 ft of predevelopment levels < 10 yr after mine withdrawals cease. Withdrawals at the mine were a minor factor in determining simulated water levels at most communities in the study area. Water levels at Tuba City were not affected by mine pumpage in any projection. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Sauk River Valley Aquifer and on streamflow in the Cold Spring area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The simulated contributing areas for selected watersupply wells in the Cold Spring area generally extend to and possibly beyond the model boundaries to the north and to the southeast. The contributing areas for the Gold'n Plump Poultry Processing Plant supply wells extend: (1) to the Sauk River, (2) to the north to and possibly beyond to the northern model boundary, and (3) to the southeast to and possibly beyond the southeastern model boundary. The primary effects of projected increased ground-water withdrawals of 0.23 cubic feet per second (7.5 percent increase) were to: (1) decrease outflow from the Sauk River Valley aquifer through constant-head boundaries and (2) decrease leakage from the valley unit of the Sauk River Valley aquifer to the streams. No appreciable differences were discernible between the simulated steady-state contributing areas to wells with 1998 pumpage and those with the projected pumpage.

  2. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    the model. Areally specified recharge rates ranged from 0 to about 30 inches and total recharge increased from 1972 to 1998 by a factor of about four. Water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated using the calibrated model. Simulations represented a period of 50 years into the future in three scenarios with either unchanged pumpage, pumpage increased by historic trends, or pumpage increased by historic trends except in two areas of the Grand Prairie. If pumping remains at 1997 rates, this produces extreme water-level declines (areas where model cells have gone dry or where the water level in the aquifer is equal to or less than the original saturated thickness, assuming confined conditions in the aquifer everywhere in the formation in predevelopment times) in the aquifer in two areas of the aquifer (one in the Grand Prairie area between the Arkansas and White Rivers and the other west of Crowleys Ridge along the Cache River) with about 400 square miles going dry. Increasing the pumping rates to that which would be projected using historic data led to increased extreme water-level declines in both areas with about 1,300 square miles going dry. Declines in both scenarios generally occurred most rapidly between 2009 and 2019. Reducing the pumping rates to 90 percent of that used for projected historic rates in areas between the Arkansas and White Rivers relating to two diversion projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies did little to decrease the extreme water-level declines. However, these pumpage reductions are small (amounting to about 16 percent of the reductions that could result from implementation of these diversion projects).

  3. Estimating irrigation water use and withdrawal of ground water on the High Plains, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In four decades following the Dust Bowl days of the 1930's, extensive areas of dry farming and rangeland on the semi-arid U.S. High Plains were transformed into a vast region of irrigated oases, producing meat and grain for much of the world. The agricultural economy has experienced such rapid growth in part because of the availability of ground water and because of development of new irrigation technology to use that water for agriculture. However, more water is being used than is being replaced. To estimate both the volume of water withdrawn and the regional scope of the problem a technique has been developed that combines multispectral data from Earth-orbiting satellite with known pumpage data for the same growing season. The location and extent of irrigated cropland-some with different crops watered at different times-is inventoried using computer-assisted analysis of the data from Landsat. The amount of water used is estimated by multiplying and summing surface area of irrigated agriculture and the average measured pumpage from sampled sites. Published findings to date are cited in the Selected References. All suggest transferability of a promising technology to the study of land transformation processes elsewhere. ?? 1983.

  4. Simulation of the ground-water flow system and proposed withdrawals in the northern part of Vekol Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, K.J.; Marie, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Pursuant to the Ak-Chin Indian Community Water Rights Settlement Act (Public Law 95-328-enacted on July 28, 1978) a study was undertaken to assess the effect of proposed groundwater withdrawal from Federal lands near the reservation. The first area to be evaluated was the northern part of the Vekol Valley. The evaluation was made using a numerical model based on detailed geohydrologic concepts developed during the study. The numerical model, which was calibrated to steady-state and transient groundwater conditions in the northern part of Vekol Valley, adequately duplicated the conceptual model and was used to estimate the effect of withdrawing approximately 174,000 acre-ft from the system during a 25-yr period. At the end of the 25-yr period, the water level was drawn down an average of about 95 ft, and about 150,5000 acre-ft of water was removed from storage. The 150,500 acre-ft of water represents 43% of the estimated recoverable groundwater in storage. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals and artificial recharge on discharge to streams, springs, and riparian vegetation in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of ground-water resources, “capture” or “streamflow depletion” refers to withdrawal-induced changes in inflow to or outflow from an aquifer. These concepts are helpful in understanding the effects of long-term development of ground-water resources. For the Upper San Pedro Basin in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, a recently developed ground-water flow model is available to help quantify capture of water from the river and riparian system. A common method of analysis is to compute curves of capture and aquifer-storage change for a range of time at select points of interest. This study, however, presents results of a method to show spatial distributions of total change in inflow and outflow from withdrawal or injection for select times of interest. The mapped areal distributions show the effect of a single well in terms of the ratio of the change in boundary flow rate to rate of withdrawal or injection by the well. To the extent that the system responds linearly to ground-water withdrawal or injection, fractional responses in the mapped distributions can be used to quantify response for any withdrawal or injection rate. Capture distributions calculated using the Upper San Pedro model include response to (1) withdrawal in the lower basin-fill aquifer for times of 10 and 50 years following the initiation of pumping from predevelopment conditions and (2) artificial recharge to the water table in the area underlain by the lower basin-fill aquifer after 10 and 50 years. The mapped distributions show that response to withdrawals and injections is greatest near the river/riparian system. Presence of clay layers in the vertical interval between withdrawal locations and the river/riparian system, however, can delay the response.

  6. Simulated response of the High Plains aquifer to ground-water withdrawals in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peckenpaugh, J.M.; Kern, R.A.; Dugan, J.T.; Kilpatrick, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Soil Tilth Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, conducted a study as part of the multi- scale, interagency Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program to evaluate the effects of agricultural management (farming) systems on water quality. Data on surface flow, tileflow, and streamflow in the Walnut Creek watershed just south of Ames, Iowa, were collected during April 1991-September 1993 at five sites with drainage areas ranging from 366 to 5,130 hectares. Precipitation, flow discharge, and concentration, loads, and yields of nitrate as nitrogen, atrazine, and metolachlor were analyzed to relate the transport of agricultural chemicals to major water-flow processes and to examine and transport differences among three subwatersheds. Antecedent conditions and basin-characteristic differences had significant effects on the flow response from the subwatersheds. Monthly streamflow-to- precipitation ratios were greater than 1.0, as a result of snowmelt, and negative when streamflow was lost to the ground-water system in the downstream subwatershed. Dry antecedent conditions resulted in ratios less than 0.3 (July 1992), whereas wet antecedent conditions resulted in ratios from 0.7 to almost 1.0 (July 1993) during months with similar large rainfall amounts. Most of the streamflow from the upland subwatersheds came from tileflow. Surface flow (surface runoff, interflow, and return flow0 was highly variable and intermittent, usually lasting for only a few days after a storm, although it could be the dominant source of flow when stormflow was large. Tileflow was less variable and much more persistent, ceasing only after prolonged dry periods. Large quantities of nitrate as nitrogen were transported in Walnut Creek, with concen- trations often greater than the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for

  7. Ground-water appraisal of sand plains in Benton, Sherburne, Stearns, and Wright counties, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.

    1980-01-01

    Both modeled areas will support additional withdrawals, but caution must be exercised because lowering ground-water levels will also lower lake levels and reduce streamflow. In some areas, aquifer dewatering will reduce individual well yields.

  8. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY:...

  9. Projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Arkansas River Valley, 1980-99, Hamilton and Kearny counties, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunlap, L.E.; Lindgren, Richard J.; Carr, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine the effects that additional ground-water development would have on streamflow and water levels on an area along the Arkansas River in Hamilton and Kearny Counties, southwestern Kansas. A computer model was used to simulate the changes in streamflow and water levels from 1980 through 1999. Six pumpage options were tested using variations in pumpage rate and number of wells pumping in the model area. If the full amount appropriated by water rights were pumped rather than actual 1979 conditions of pumpage, annual pumpage would be reduced 24 percent, but net annual river loss would be reduced only 1 percent. A pumpage increase of approximately 19 percent over 1979 pumpage conditions would cause an increase of net annual river loss from 5 to 9 percent. Increased pumpage, in the form of additional wells in the model area, would cause additional ground water to be removed from storage in the aquifer and an increase in net annual river loss. (USGS)

  10. Quantifying Impacts of Ground Water Withdrawal on Avian Communities in Desert Riparian Woodlands of the Southwestern U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    breeding in a wide range of environments (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005), previous studies indicate that White-winged Doves prefer woodlands next to oxbow ... lakes or other surface water in parts of their breeding range (Schwertner et al. 2002). In addition, Corman and Wise- Gervais (2005) noted that white... Lake City, Utah. Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais. 2005. Arizona breeding bird atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. Hosmer, D

  11. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  12. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State of Georgia and city and county governments, a Statewide water-level-measurement program was started in 1938. Initially, this program consisted of an observation-well network in the coastal area of Georgia to monitor variations in ground-water storage and quality. Additional wells were later included in areas where data could be used to aid in water resources development and management. During 1999, periodic water-level measurements were made in 46 wells, and continuous water-level measurements were obtained from 165 wells. Continuous water-level records were obtained using analog (pen and chart

  13. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  14. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  15. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  16. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  17. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water Flow in the Tooele Valley ground-water basin, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2009-01-01

    and bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentration increases in the central and northern parts of Tooele Valley, at the distal ends of the ground-water flow paths. Increased concentration is due mainly to greater amounts of sodium and chloride. Deuterium and oxygen-18 values indicate water recharged primarily from precipitation occurs throughout the ground-water basin. Ground water with the highest percentage of recharge from irrigation exists along the eastern margin of Tooele Valley, indicating negligible recharge from the adjacent consolidated rock. Tritium and tritiogenic helium-3 concentrations indicate modern water exists along the flow paths originating in the Oquirrh Mountains between Settlement and Pass Canyons and extending between the steep hydraulic gradient areas at Tooele Army Depot and Erda. Pre-modern water exists in areas east of Erda and near Stansbury Park. Using the change in tritium along the flow paths originating in the Oquirrh Mountains, a first-order estimate of average linear ground-water velocity for the general area is roughly 2 to 5 feet per day. A numerical ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Tooele Valley ground-water basin and to test the conceptual understanding of the ground-water system. Simulating flow in consolidated rock allows recharge and withdrawal from wells in or near consolidated rock to be simulated more accurately. In general, the model accurately simulates water levels and water-level fluctuations and can be considered an adequate tool to help determine the valley-wide effects on water levels of additional ground-water withdrawal and changes in water use. The simulated increase in storage during a projection simulation using 2003 withdrawal rates and average recharge indicates that repeated years of average precipitation and recharge conditions do not completely restore the system after multiple years of below-normal precipitation. In the similar case where precipitation is 90

  18. Development and calibration of a ground-water flow model for the Sparta Aquifer of southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana and simulated response to withdrawals, 1998-2027

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer, which consists of the Sparta Sand, in southeastern Arkansas and north-central Louisiana is a major water resource and provides water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses. In recent years, the demand in some areas has resulted in withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer that substantially exceed replenishment of the aquifer. Considerable drawdown has occurred in the potentiometric surface forming regional cones of depression as water is removed from storage by withdrawals. These cones of depression are centered beneath the Grand Prairie area and the cities of Pine Bluff and El Dorado in Arkansas, and Monroe in Louisiana. The rate of decline for hydraulic heads in the aquifer has been greater than 1 foot per year for more than a decade in much of southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana where hydraulic heads are now below the top of the Sparta Sand. Continued hydraulic-head declines have caused water users and managers alike to question the ability of the aquifer to supply water for the long term. Concern over protecting the Sparta aquifer as a sustainable resource has resulted in a continued, cooperative effort by the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey to develop, maintain, and utilize numerical ground-water flow models to manage and further analyze the ground-water system. The work presented in this report describes the development and calibration of a ground-water flow model representing the Sparta aquifer to simulate observed hydraulic heads, documents major differences in the current Sparta model compared to the previous Sparta model calibrated in the mid-1980's, and presents the results of three hypothetical future withdrawal scenarios. The current Sparta model-a regional scale, three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow model-was constructed and calibrated using available hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and water-use data from 1898 to 1997. Significant changes

  19. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  20. Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.; Halford, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

  1. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  2. Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stanley N.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

  3. Simulated Effects of Projected 2010 Withdrawals on Ground-Water Flow and Water Levels in the New Jersey Coastal Plain - A Task of the New Jersey Water Supply Plan, 2006 Revision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Alison D.

    2007-01-01

    A ground-water flow model previously developed as part of a Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) of the New Jersey Coastal Plain was used to simulate ground-water flow in eight major confined aquifers to help evaluate ground-water resources in support of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's revision of the New Jersey State Water Supply Plan. This model was calibrated to 1998 steady-state and transient conditions. Withdrawals at wells in operation in 1998 were varied in three scenarios to evaluate their effects on flow directions, water levels, and water budgets in the confined aquifers. The scenarios used to predict changes in pumpage from 1998 to 2010 were based on (1) a continuation of 1990-99 trends in water use, (2) public-supply withdrawals estimated from county population projections, and (3) restricted withdrawals in Water-Supply Critical Areas. Total withdrawals in these three scenarios were approximately 366, 362, and 355 million gallons per day, respectively. The results of these simulations are used by New Jersey water-management officials to help address water-supply concerns for the State. In the revision of the New Jersey State Water Supply Plan, the eight major confined aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and their outcrop areas are divided into 41 hydrologic budget areas (HBAs). Simulation results were used to assess the effects of changing ground-water withdrawals on water levels and the flow budgets in each budget area. Simulation results for each scenario were compared with 1998 (baseline) simulated water levels and flow budgets. The 41 hydrologic budget areas are in areas of large ground-water withdrawals, water-level declines, and (or) saltwater-intrusion potential. Their boundaries are based on various hydrologic, geohydrologic, and withdrawal conditions, such as aquifer extent, location of the 250-milligram-per-liter isochlor, aquifer outcrop area, and ground-water divides. The budget areas include primarily the

  4. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    provided by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system. Ground-water flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex ground-water flow systems. Ground-water flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional ground-water flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and evapotranspiration (ET) are the dominant natural ground-water discharge processes. Ground water also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Ground-water flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, a 3D finite-difference modular ground-water flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 m on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins, also simulated by drains. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient model gener

  5. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1997 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1997 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 71 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. In 1997, annual mean ground-water levels in Georgia ranged from 6.2 feet (ft) lower to 5.6 ft higher than in 1996. Of the 71 wells summarized in this report, 23 wells had annual mean water levels that were higher, 35 wells had annual mean water levels that were lower, and 11 wells had annual mean water levels that were about the same in 1997 as during 1996. Data for two wells are incomplete because data collection was discontinued at one well, and the equipment was vandalized at one well. Record-low daily mean water levels were recorded in six wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, one well tapping the Caliborne aquifer, two wells tapping the Clayton aquifer, and three wells tapping Cretaceous aquifers. These record lows were from 0.2 to 5.6 ft lower than previous record lows. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standard. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality data are essential for water assessment and management. Ground-water-level fluctuations and trends can be used to estimate changes in aquifer storage resulting from the effects of ground-water withdrawal and recharge from precipitation. These data can be used to address water-management needs and to evaluate the effects of management and conservation programs. As part of the ground-water

  6. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  7. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  8. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  9. Regional water table (2000) and ground-water-level changes in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2000, the U. S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-nine hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 13 short-term (1996 to 2000) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 1998 and 2000 water-levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basins, water-level data showed little change from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of areas along the Mojave River. Water levels along the Mojave River were typically in decline or unchanged, with exceptions near the Hodge and the Lenwood outlet, where water levels rose in response to artificial recharge. The Morongo ground-water basin had virtually no change in water levels from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of Yucca Valley, where artificial recharge and ground-water withdrawal continues.

  10. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    avenues of ground-water flow. Prior to this investigation, the conceptual model of ground-water flow for the region focused primarily on bedding planes and strike-parallel faults and joints as controls on ground-water flow but did not recognize the importance of cross-strike faults and fracture zones that allow ground water to flow downgradient across or through less permeable geologic formations. Results of the ground-water flow simulation indicate that current operations at the Center do not substantially affect either streamflow (less than a 5-percent reduction in annual streamflow) or ground-water levels in the Leetown area under normal climatic conditions but potentially could have greater effects on streamflow during long-term drought (reduction in streamflow of approximately 14 percent). On the basis of simulation results, ground-water withdrawals based on the anticipated need for an additional 150 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute) of water at the Center also would not seriously affect streamflow (less than 8 to 9 percent reduction in streamflow) or ground-water levels in the area during normal climatic conditions. During drought conditions, however, the effects of current ground-water withdrawals and anticipated additional withdrawals of 150 to 200 gal/min to augment existing supplies result in moderate to substantial declines in water levels of 0.5-1.2 feet (ft) in the vicinity of the Center's springs and production wells. Streamflow was predicted to be reduced locally by approximately 21 percent. Such withdrawals during a drought or prolonged period of below normal ground-water levels would result in substantial declines in the flow of the Center's springs and likely would not be sustainable for more than a few months. The drought simulated in this model was roughly equivalent to the more than 1-year drought that affected the region from November 1998 through February 2000. The potential reduction in streamflow is a result of capture of ground water tha

  11. Proceedings of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Ground Water. Topics covered include: Practical use and pitfalls of numerical models; Reliability of predictions; Strengths and limitations of coupled flow/transport/geochemical models; Ground water management/water resources; The macrodispersion experiment (made-scale tracer test; Partially saturated models; Use of ground water flow/transport modeling for aquifer evaluation; Aquifer tests and tracer tests; Risk assessment for groundwater pollution control; and Groundwater quality management.

  12. Estimated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals on movement of the saltwater front in the Floridan aquifer, 1976-2000, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward

    1982-01-01

    encroachment could result from (1) ground-water development in the zone of transition and (2) deviations of local hydrogeologic conditions from average regional conditions.

  13. 78 FR 43093 - Sensient Technologies Corporation; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Technologies Corporation; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... withdrawal, without prejudice to a future filing, of a color additive petition (CAP 8C0261) proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of External D&C Violet No. 2...

  14. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    iron (0.3 to 6.4 milligrams per liter) and manganese (0.05 to 1.2 milligrams per liter) or is moderately hard to very hard (60 to 260 milligrams per liter as CaCO3).The principal use of ground water in the Hood Basin is for irrigation of crops, with an estimated withdrawal of 7,700 acre-feet in 1979. Additional ground-water withdrawals in 1979 were estimated as: Industrial, 2,600 acre-feet; public supply, 2,100 acre-feet; and domestic and stock supply, 200 acre-feet.

  15. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1999-01-01

    results indicate, however, that water levels do not strictly increase in an inland direction and that a ground-water divide exists within the buried dike complex. Data are not available, however, to verify model results in the area near and inland of the model-calculated ground-water divide. Three simulations to determine the effects of proposed withdrawals from the high water-level area on coastal discharge and water levels, relative to model-calculated, steady-state coastal discharge and water levels for 1997 withdrawal rates, show that the effects are widespread. During 1997, the total withdrawal of ground water from the high water-level area between Palani Junction and Holualoa was about 1 million gallons per day. Model results indicate that it may not be possible to withdraw 25.6 million gallons per day of freshwater from this area between Palani Junction and Holualoa, but that it may be possible to withdraw between 5 to 8 million gallons per day from the same area. For a proposed withdrawal rate of 5.0 million gallons per day uniformly distributed to 12 sites between Palani Junction and Holualoa, the model-calculated drawdown of 0.01 foot or more extends about 9 miles north-northwest and about 7 miles south of the proposed well sites. In all scenarios, freshwater coastal discharge is reduced by an amount equal to the additional freshwater withdrawal. Additional data needed to improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system in the Kona area include: (1) a wider spatial distribution and longer temporal distribution of water levels, (2) improved information about the subsurface geology, (3) independent estimates of hydraulic conductivity, (4) improved recharge estimates, and (5) information about the vertical distribution of salinity in ground water.

  16. Chemical contamination of ground water in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P.

    1996-10-01

    Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

  17. Analysis of ground-water flow and saltwater encroachment in the shallow aquifer system of Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Cape May County, New Jersey, is on a natural peninsula that is virtually surrounded by saltwater. A calibrated quasi-three-dimensional sharp-interface model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer system under two water-supply-development alternatives for a 30-year planning period. The alternatives involve modest increases in withdrawals in combination with desalination of brackish ground water or inland relocation of wells. Simulation results indicate that projected withdrawals for the two alternatives can be sustained without significant additional saltwater encroachment over the planning period.

  18. Ground Water Modeling Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is supporting region, state, and tribal partners at Superfund sites and brownfields to develop new methods to better characterize, monitor, and treat ground water contamination; in order to protect drinking water, surface water, and indoor air.

  19. Ground water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1976-01-01

    Although Minnesota is generally rich in ground-water resources, it is not without associated problems. In the western part of the State, ground-water quality is often a problem, especially in deep aquifers. Throughout the State, few buried outwash aquifers have been delineated or evaluated as to their water-yielding capabilities. Some aquifers are highly susceptible to pollution. Planned development and monitoring of water levels and water quality would be beneficial.

  20. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  1. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  2. 25 CFR 1200.20 - How can a tribe withdraw additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a tribe withdraw additional funds? 1200.20 Section 1200.20 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.20 How can...

  3. 25 CFR 1200.20 - How can a tribe withdraw additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can a tribe withdraw additional funds? 1200.20 Section 1200.20 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.20 How can...

  4. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  5. Ground-Water Availability in the Wailuku Area, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the public water supply in Maui, Hawai'i, is from a freshwater lens in the Wailuku area of the island. Because of population growth, ground-water withdrawals from wells in this area increased from less than 10 Mgal/d during 1970 to about 23 Mgal/d during 2006. In response to increased withdrawals from the freshwater lens in the Wailuku area, water levels declined, the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater became shallower, and the chloride concentrations of water pumped from wells increased. These responses led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells. A three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow and transport model was developed to simulate the effects of selected withdrawal and recharge scenarios on water levels, on the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater, and on surface-water/ground-water interactions. The model was constructed using time-varying recharge, withdrawals, and ocean levels. Hydraulic characteristics used to construct the model were initially based on published estimates but ultimately were varied to obtain better agreement between simulated and measured water levels and salinity profiles in the modeled area during the period 1926-2006. Scenarios included ground-water withdrawal at 2006 and 1996 rates and locations with average recharge (based on 2000-04 land use and 1926-2004 rainfall) and withdrawal at redistributed rates and locations with several different recharge scenarios. Simulation results indicate that continuing 1996 and 2006 withdrawal distributions into the future results in decreased water levels, a thinner freshwater lens, increased salinity from pumped wells, and higher salinity at several current withdrawal sites. A redistributed withdrawal condition in which ground-water withdrawal was redistributed to maximize withdrawal and minimize salinities in the withdrawn water was determined. The redistributed withdrawal simulates 27.1 Mgal/d of withdrawal

  6. 77 FR 65150 - Cryovac North America; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY... filing, of a color additive petition (CAP 4C0276) proposing that the color ] additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of synthetic iron oxide as a color additive in or on cooked...

  7. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... future filing, of a food additive petition (FAP 3M4744) proposing that the food additive regulations be... the Federal Register of November 30, 2004 (69 FR 69606), FDA announced that a food additive...

  8. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-09-01

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  9. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1997-01-01

    southeast and 9 miles northwest from the well. In a third scenario, the withdrawal rate from an existing well near Kualapuu was increased by 0.826 million gallons per day. The model-calculated drawdown of 0.01 foot or more extends 6 miles southeast and 8 miles northwest from the well. In all scenarios, coastal discharge is reduced by an amount equal to the additional withdrawal. Additional data needed to improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system on Molokai include: (1) a wider spatial distribution and longer temporal distribution of water-levels, (2) independent estimates of hydraulic conductivity, (3) improved recharge estimates, (4) information about the vertical distribution of salinity in ground water, (5) streamflow data at additional sites, and (6) improved information about the subsurface geology.

  10. 75 FR 10808 - CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...) CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... prejudice to a future filing, of three color additive petitions (CAP 5C0278, CAP 5C0279, and CAP 5C0280) proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of Color Index...

  11. Hydrogeology and ground-water-flow simulation of the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2002-01-01

    The ground-water resource in the Cave Springs area is used by the Hixson Utility District as a water supply and is one of the more heavily stressed in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. In 1999, ground-water withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District averaged about 6.4 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) from two pumping centers. The Hixson Utility District has historically withdrawn about 5.8 Mgal/d from wells at Cave Springs. In 1995 to meet increasing demand, an additional well field was developed at Walkers Corner, located about 3 miles northeast of Cave Springs. From 1995 through 2000, pumping from the first production well at Walkers Corner averaged about 1.8 Mgal/d. A second production well at Walkers Corner was approved for use in 2000. Hixson Utility District alternates the use of the two production wells at Walkers Corner except when drought conditions occur when they are used simultaneously. The second production well increased the capacity of the well field by an additional 2 Mgal/d. The aquifer framework in the study area consists of dense Paleozoic carbonate rocks with secondary permeability that are mantled by thick residual clay-rich regolith in most of the area and by coarse-grained alluvium in the valley of North Chickamauga Creek. Cave Springs, one of the largest springs in Tennessee, derives its flow from conduits in a carbonate rock (karst) aquifer. Production wells at Cave Springs draw water from these conduits. Production wells at Walkers Corner primarily draw water from gravel zones in the regolith near the top of rock. Transmissivities estimated from hydraulic tests conducted across the Cave Springs area span a range from 240 to 900,000 feet squared per day (ft2/d) with a median value of 5,200 ft2/d. Recharge to the aquifer occurs from direct infiltration of precipitation and from losing streams. Most recharge occurs during the winter and spring months. Computer modeling was used to provide a better understanding of the ground-water

  12. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    salty ground water toward the deepest parts of the cone of depression in central Queens County. Contamination of ground water is probably also occurring from leaking sewers and from pollutants leaking downward from the land surface. Thermal pollution of the ground water has occurred locally where ground water pumped for cooling uses is returned, with elevated temperatures, to the source aquifer through recharge wells. The quality of ground water in Queens County in 1967 was generally satisfactory for public-supply and most industrial uses. However, the rate and distribution of ground-water withdrawals in the county are leading to greater decline of the water table and to increasing contamination of the aquifers. No 'safe limit' on pumpage can be set for the county because limits on the effects of pumping have not been established. A safe limit, at the present stage of urbanization, could range from considerably less than the current average 60 mgd to considerably more over a wide-range of pumping effects and acceptable water quality. However, continued removal of fresh water from storage and deterioration of water quality reduces the value of the county's aquifers, not only for current supply, but also for additional supply to the county and other parts of New York City in times of drought or other emergency.

  13. MTBE concentrations in ground water in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, concentrations, and detection frequency of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used in reformulated gasoline to improve air quality, were characterized in Pennsylvania?s ground water. Two sources of MTBE in ground water, the atmosphere and storage-tank release sites, were examined. An analysis of atmospheric MTBE concentrations shows that MTBE detections (MTBE greater than or equal to 0.2 micrograms per liter) in ground water are more likely the result of storage-tank releases than atmospheric deposition. A comparison of 86 ground-water samples near storage-tank releases and 359 samples from ambient ground water (not thought to be affected by point-source releases of MTBE or BTEX compounds) shows that samples within about 0.5 mile downgradient of storagetank release sites have significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than ambient ground-water samples. Aquifer type, land use, and the use of Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) are associated with high rates of occurrence of MTBE in ground water in Pennsylvania. Ground-water samples from wells in crystalline-rock aquifers near storage- tank release sites have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency (57 percent) compared to other aquifers. Samples from wells in urban areas have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency compared to ambient samples in agricultural and forested areas. Samples from the RFG-use areas in the five southeastern counties of Pennsylvania have a significantly greater MTBE detection frequency than samples outside of the RFG-use area. MTBE detection frequency of samples near storage- tank release sites in the RFG-use area (45 percent) are significantly greater than ambient samples in the RFG-use area.

  14. Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Simulation of the ground-water-flow system in the Kalamazoo County area, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Blumer, Stephen P.; Weaver, T.L.; Jean, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model was developed to investigate the ground-water resources of Kalamazoo County. Ground water is widely used as a source of water for drinking and industry in Kalamazoo County and the surrounding area. Additionally, lakes and streams are valued for their recreational and aesthetic uses. Stresses on the ground-water system, both natural and human-induced, have raised concerns about the long-term availability of ground water for people to use and for replenishment of lakes and streams. Potential changes in these stresses, including withdrawals and recharge, were simulated using a ground-water-flow model. Simulations included steady-state conditions (in which stresses remained constant and changes in storage were not included) and transient conditions (in which stresses changed in seasonal and monthly time scales and storage within the system was included). Steady-state simulations were used to investigate the long-term effects on water levels and streamflow of a reduction in recharge or an increase in pumping to projected 2010 withdrawal rates, withdrawal and application of water for irrigation, and a reduction in recharge in urban areas caused by impervious surfaces. Transient simulations were used to investigate changes in withdrawals to match seasonal and monthly patterns under various recharge conditions, and the potential effects of the use of water for irrigation over the summer months. With a reduction in recharge, simulated water levels declined over most of the model area in Kalamazoo County; with an increase in pumping, water levels declined primarily near pumping centers. Because withdrawals by wells intercept water that would have discharged possibly to a stream or lake, model simulations indicated that streamflow was reduced with increased withdrawals. With withdrawal and consumption of water for irrigation, simulated water levels declined. Assuming a reduction in recharge due to urbanization, water levels declined and flow to

  16. Ground water in Utah's densely populated Wasatch Front area; the challenge and the choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1985-01-01

    320,000 acre-feet during 1979. Additional withdrawals from wells may cause water levels to decline, possibly leading to such problems as conflicts among water-right owners, increased pumping costs, land subsidence, and deterioration of ground-water quality. Some of these problems cannot be avoided if the principal ground-water reservoirs are to be fully used; however, management practices such as artificial ground-water recharge in intensively pumped areas may help to alleviate those problems.

  17. 77 FR 76419 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals; Withdrawal of Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...-2011-0363; FRL-9375-3] RIN 2070-AJ89 Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals.... SUMMARY: EPA is withdrawing the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(d) Health and Safety Data Reporting Rule that it issued on December 3, 2012. The health and safety data reporting rule...

  18. Ground-water flow and water quality of the Indian Island well field near Grand Island, Nebraska, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Patrick J.; Bowman, Phillip R.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is the principal source of water for public and self-supplied domestic use in Nebraska. Ground water supplied about 235 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1990, or about 78 percent of the estimated public-water supply in Nebraska. In addition, ground water supplied about 1,017 Mgal/d, or about 83 percent of the irrigation water in the Platte River Valley (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). Withdrawing ground water in the valley induces recharge from the river and has the potential to change ground-water quality near the river where many public-supply wells are located. The Platte River alluvial aquifer, which underlies the Platte River Valley (fig. 1), is the single most important source of water for public supply in central and eastern Nebraska. The aquifer, which is part of the High Plains aquifer, consists of stream-laid deposits of sand and gravel with discontinuous layers of clay and silt, and is connected hydraulically to the Platte River. The aquifer provides about 117 Mgal/d, or nearly 50 percent of the total daily ground-water production for Nebraska (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). The aquifer also supplies water to Nebraska's largest cities including Kearney, Grand Island, Lincoln, and Omaha.

  19. Ground-Water Availability from the Hawi Aquifer in the Kohala Area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, Mark R.; Meyer, William; Souza, William R.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water study consisting of test-well drilling, aquifer tests, and numerical simulation was done to investigate ground-water availability in the basal part of the Hawi aquifer between the western drainage divide of Pololu Valley and Upolu Point in Kohala, Hawaii. The test-well drilling provided information on geology, water levels, water quality, vertical extent of the freshwater, and the thickness of the freshwater-saltwater transition zone in that aquifer. A total of 12 test wells were drilled at eight locations. Aquifer tests were done at five locations to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Using information on the distribution of recharge, vertical extent of freshwater, hydraulic conductivity, and geometry of the basal aquifer, a numerical model was used to simulate the movement of water into, through, and out of the basal aquifer, and the effect of additional pumping on the water levels in the aquifer. Results of the modeling indicate that ground-water withdrawal of 20 million gallons per day above the existing withdrawal of 0.6 million gallons per day from the basal aquifer is hydrologically feasible, but that spacing, depth, and pumping rates of individual wells are important. If pumping is concentrated, the likelihood of saltwater intrusion is increased. The additional withdrawal of 20 million gallons per day would result in a reduction of ground-water discharge to the ocean by an amount equal to pumpage. Although model-calculated declines in water-level outside the area of pumping are small, pumping could cause some reduction of streamflow near the mouth of Pololu Stream.

  20. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  1. Ground water geology of Edwards County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Archie T.

    1963-01-01

    About 150,000 acre-feet of water is recharged annually to and discharged from the Edwards and associated limestones in Edwards County. Most of this water is available for additional development inasmuch as only about 900 acre-feet per year is currently being used; however, additional development of ground water will result in a reduction in streamflow.

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of regional ground-water-level declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  3. Ground-Water Occurrence and Contribution to Streamflow, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The study area lies on the northern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) and covers about 129 square miles between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Makapipi Stream to the east. About 989 million gallons per day of rainfall and 176 million gallons per day of fog drip reaches the study area and about 529 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Average annual ground-water withdrawal from wells totals only about 3 million gallons per day; proposed (as of 1998) additional withdrawals total about 18 million gallons per day. Additionally, tunnels and ditches of an extensive irrigation network directly intercept at least 10 million gallons per day of ground water. The total amount of average annual streamflow in gaged stream subbasins upstream of 1,300 feet altitude is about 255 million gallons per day and the total amount of average annual base flow is about 62 million gallons per day. Six major surface-water diversion systems in the study area have diverted an average of 163 million gallons per day of streamflow (including nearly all base flow of diverted streams) for irrigation and domestic supply in central Maui during 1925-97. Fresh ground water is found in two main forms. West of Keanae Valley, ground-water flow appears to be dominated by a variably saturated system. A saturated zone in the uppermost rock unit, the Kula Volcanics, is separated from a freshwater lens near sea level by an unsaturated zone in the underlying Honomanu Basalt. East of Keanae Valley, the ground-water system appears to be fully saturated above sea level to altitudes greater than 2,000 feet. The total average annual streamflow of gaged streams west of Keanae Valley is about 140 million gallons per day at 1,200 feet to 1,300 feet altitude. It is not possible to estimate the total average annual streamflow at the coast. All of the base flow measured in the study area west of Keanae Valley represents ground-water discharge from the high

  4. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  5. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  6. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  7. Ground water: the hidden resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Ground water is water underground in saturated zones beneath the land surface. Contrary to popular belief, ground water does not form underground "rivers." It fills the pores and fractures in underground materials such as sand, gravel, and other rock. If ground water flows from rock materials or can be removed by pumping from the saturated rock materials In useful amounts, the rock materials are called aquifers. Ground water moves slowly, typically at rates of 7 to 60 centimeters per day in an aquifer. As a result, water could remain in an aquifer for hundreds or thousands of years. Ground water is the source of about 40 percent of water used for public supplies and about 38 percent of water used for agriculture in the United States.

  8. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  9. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    PubMed

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  10. Ground-water use by public-supply systems in Tennessee in 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water use by public water-supply systems during 1990 was inventoried in Tennessee. Ground- water withdrawals were estimated to average 269 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), or 38 percent of the total public-supply water use. This volume represents an increase of 34 percent in the use of ground water for public supply since 1980 when public-supply withdrawals were 200 Mgal/d. About 212 Mgal/d (79 percent) were withdrawn from the Tertiary sand and Cretaceous sand aquifers in western Tennessee. The largest ground-water with- drawals for public-supply occurred in Shelby County (154 Mgal/d or 57 percent of the total withdrawals for public supply). Thirty-four of the 267 principal public water-supply systems withdrew 1 Mgal/d or more and accounted for 83 percent of ground water withdrawn for public supply.

  11. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Lower Colorado region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for greater development of ground water in the southwestern part of the region is constrained by land subsidence, earth cracks, increasing costs of pumping and transportation, and moderate to poor chemical quality of water. More ground water can be developed in the northeastern part of the region, where the major constraint is pumping cost owing to low to moderate well yields and depth to water. Some benefits can be realized everywhere in the region through changes in current use and greater efficiencies of use. Additional supplies may be made available by capture of natural evapotranspiration. Increasing the efficiency of use is possible hydrologically but, in the near term, is more expensive than increasing groundwater development. Decrease of irrigation, change to water-saving methods of irrigation, use of saline water, decrease of per capita public- supply use, and more reuse of water in almost every type of use could help extend the supply and thereby reduce the current rate of ground-water depletion. Financial problems have not yet caused an overall decrease in pumpage, but, locally, operating costs or partial dewatering of the aquifer has eliminated or decreased withdrawal. Current water laws in all States of the region, except Arizona, control or allocate the use of ground water.

  12. Ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of selected ground-water data for the Beryl-Enterprise area, Iron and Washington Counties, Utah. The records of the wells include such information as driller 's logs, yield, drawdown, use, and temperature of the well water. There are also records of water levels in selected wells for the period 1973-79, chemical analyses of ground water, records of selected springs, and a tabulation of ground-water withdrawals for 1937-78. (USGS)

  13. Geology and ground-water resources of Uvalde County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, F.A.; Reeves, R.D.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from the Edwards and associated limestones in Uvalde County probably could be maintained indefinitely at a rate of about 200,000 acre-feet per year, provided that withdrawals north and west of the county were not increased. However, continued withdrawals at this rate-would cause wells in structurally high areas to go dry, and underflow into Medina County would cease. Furthermore, saline water might invade the fresh-water part of the aquifer from the south, and perennial spring flow in the Leona River valley would cease.

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) was updated to include new information on the hydrogeologic framework (Hawley, J.W., Haase, C.S., and Lozinsky, R.P., 1995, An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin: Proceedings of the 39th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, November 3-4, 1994, p. 37-55). An additional year of ground-water-withdrawal data was appended to the simulation of the historical period and incorporated into the base for future projections to the year 2020. The revised model projects the simulated ground-water levels associated with an aerally enlarged occurrence of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of the Santa Fe Group east and west of the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area and north to Bernalillo. Although the differences between the two model versions are substantial, the revised model does not contradict any previous conclusions about the effect of City of Albuquerque ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Rio Grande or the net benefits of an effort to conserve ground water. Recent revisions to the hydrogeologic model (Hawley, J.W., Haneberg, W.C., and Whitworth, P.M., in press, Hydrogeologic investigations in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1992-1995: Socorro, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Open- File Report 402) of the Albuquerque Basin eventually will require that this model version also be revised and updated.

  15. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  16. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  17. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; South Atlantic Gulf region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, D.J.; Boswell, E.H.; Tarver, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water problems generally are not severe. Critical situations are restricted to areas where large quantities of ground water are being withdrawn or where aquifers are contaminated by oil-field or industrial waste. Large withdrawals in coastal areas have caused some saltwater intrusion. In other localities, highly mineralized water may have migrated along fault zones to freshwater aquifers. Many of the present problems can be resolved or ameliorated by redistributing withdrawals or developing alternative water sources.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Bengasi area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyel, William Watson; Maguire, Frank J.

    1964-01-01

    The Benpsi area of Libya, in the northwestern part of the Province of Cyrenaica (Wilayat Barqah), is semiarid, and available ground-water supplies in the area are relatively small. Potable ground water from known sources is reserved for the present and future needs of the city, and no surface-water supplies are available in the area. This investigation to evaluate known, as well as potential, water supplies in the area was undertaken as part of a larger program of ground-water investigations in Libya under the auspices of the U. S. Operations Mission to Libya and the Government of Libya. A ground-water reservoir underlies the Bengasi area, in which the water occurs in solution channels, cavities, and other openings in Miocene limestone. The reservoir is recharged directly by rainfall on the area and by infiltration from ephemeral streams (wadis) rising in Al Jabal al Akhar to the east. In the Baninah and Al Fuwayhit areas the ground-water reservoir yields water of fair quality and in sufficient quantity for the current (1959) needs. of the Bengasi city supply. The test-drilling program in the area south and southeast of Bengasi indicates that water in sufficient quantity for additional public supply probably can be obtained in some localities from wells. The water, however, is moderately to highly mineralized and would require treatment or demineralization before it could be used for additional public supply. Much of the water could be used directly for irrigation, but careful attention would have to be given to cultivation, drainage, and cropping practices. The hazard of saltwater encroachment also exists if large-scale withdrawals are undertaken in the coastal zones.

  19. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    on reported measurements or estimates: precipitation was 53 inches per year (in/yr), runoff was 11 in/yr, spring discharge was 2 in/yr, and net lateral subsurface outflow and exported water was 1 in/yr. Evapotranspiration was 39 in/yr, which was calculated as the residual of the water-budget analysis, assuming changes in storage were negligible. Water-quality samples were collected from April 1999 through May 2001 from a total of 26 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 1 well tapping the intermediate confining unit, 24 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, 2 springs issuing from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and 8 wells tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer. These data were supplemented with existing water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride in samples from the surficial aquifer system generally were low. Concentrations of nitrate were higher in samples from the surficial aquifer system than in samples from the Upper Floridan or Lower Floridan aquifers, probably as a result of agricultural and residential land use. Water type throughout most of the Upper Floridan and Lower Floridan aquifers was calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, probably as a result of dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Water type in both the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in eastern Orange County is sodium chloride. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride in the aquifers increase toward eastern Orange County. Data from 16 of 24 wells in eastern Orange County with long-term water-quality records indicated distinct increases in concentrations of chloride over time. The increases probably are related to withdrawal of ground water at the Cocoa well field, causing an upwelling of deeper, more saline water. The most commonly detected trace elements were aluminum, barium, boron, iron, manganese, and strontium. In addition, arse

  20. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Johnson, K.K.; Kenny, T.A.; Brockner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1999. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  1. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Walzem, Vince; Cillessen, J.L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    This is the forty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2003. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  2. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2003-01-01

    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  3. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the thirty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep aware of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1996. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  5. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, David D.; Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Herbert, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1997. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Sory, J.D.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    This is the thirty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2000. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  7. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Spangler, L.E.; Sory, J.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Kenney, T.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; Brockner, S.J.; Danner, M.R.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Fisher, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1998. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  8. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/GW2008.pdf.

  9. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/publications/ GW2009.pdf.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2007-01-01

    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and http://ut.water.usgs.gov/newUTAH/GW2007.pdf.

  11. Ground-water quality, levels, and flow direction near Fort Cobb Reservoir, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2001-01-01

    and in the fall due to a seasonal decrease in precipitation, increase in water withdrawals, and increase in evapotranspiration. Ground water near the wastewater spray field moved south-southeast toward Willow Creek along a gradient of about 50 feet per mile. Analysis of ground-water samples suggest that commercial fertilizer is contributing nitrate upgradient of the swine feeding operation and that wastewater from the lagoon is contributing reduced forms of nitrogen, ammonia and nitrite. Additional downgradient wells would be needed to (1) determine if the swine feeding operation is adding excessive amounts of nitrogen to ground water, (2) determine the vertical dimension of wastewater flow, and (3) the extent of wastewater downgradient of the lagoon.

  12. Ground water in Pavant Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, P. E.; Maxey, G.B.; Thomas, H.E.

    1946-01-01

    The users of wells for irrigation in Pavant Valley, particularly in the Flowell district, have long been cognizant of their utter dependency upon ground water for livelihood, and were among the first in the State to make an organized effort to conserve supplies by prevention of waste. Since passage of the State ground-water law in 1935, the State Engineer has not approved applications for new wells in the areas of most concentrated development, and has deferred adjudication of existing water rights until adequate data concerning the ground-water resources become available. The investigation of ground-water resources in Pavant Valley was suggested by the State Engineer and constitutes one of a series that are being made in the important groundwater basins of Utah by the Federal Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. The investigation was under the general supervision of Oscar E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the ground-water division of the Federal Geological Survey. H. E. Thomas, in charge of groundwater investigations in Utah, returned from military service overseas in time to assist in the completion of the manuscript, and edited the report.

  13. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  14. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  15. Latin hypercube approach to estimate uncertainty in ground water vulnerability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.; Qi, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to quantify prediction uncertainty associated with ground water vulnerability models that were developed through an approach that coupled multivariate logistic regression with a geographic information system (GIS). This method uses Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) to illustrate the propagation of input error and estimate uncertainty associated with the logistic regression predictions of ground water vulnerability. Central to the proposed method is the assumption that prediction uncertainty in ground water vulnerability models is a function of input error propagation from uncertainty in the estimated logistic regression model coefficients (model error) and the values of explanatory variables represented in the GIS (data error). Input probability distributions that represent both model and data error sources of uncertainty were simultaneously sampled using a Latin hypercube approach with logistic regression calculations of probability of elevated nonpoint source contaminants in ground water. The resulting probability distribution represents the prediction intervals and associated uncertainty of the ground water vulnerability predictions. The method is illustrated through a ground water vulnerability assessment of the High Plains regional aquifer. Results of the LHS simulations reveal significant prediction uncertainties that vary spatially across the regional aquifer. Additionally, the proposed method enables a spatial deconstruction of the prediction uncertainty that can lead to improved prediction of ground water vulnerability. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  16. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, K.; Stovall, J.; Frailey, S.; Urban, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  17. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  18. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  19. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  20. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Allen, D.V.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, K.M.; Thomas, W.J.; Greene, M.R.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirtieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1992. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1993. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  1. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batty, D.M.; Herbert, L.R.; Sory, J.D.; Hanson, Karen M.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Danner, M.R.; Drumiler, M.M.; Garrett, R.B.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Thomas, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1991. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1987 to the spring of 1992. Most of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  2. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.V.; Steiger, J.I.; Sory, J.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Gerner, S.J.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1994. Much of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  3. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Gates, Joseph S.; Sory, J.D.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Smith, G.J.; Thomas, B.K.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Overman, W.R.; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Drumiler, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1990. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1986 to the spring of 1991. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  4. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, J.I.; Gerner, S.J.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Loving, B.L.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Hadley, H.K.; Enright, Michael; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Brockner, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1995. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources.

  5. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burden, Carole B.; Smith, G.J.; Greene, Michael R.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Yarbrough, John A.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.; Thomas, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1988. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1988 to the spring of 1989. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Smith, G.J.; Kariya, Kim A.; Eads, James P.; Allen, D.V.; Stolp, Bert; Brooks, Lynette E.; Garrett, R.B.; Brothers, W.C.; Puchta, R.W; Swenson, R.L.; Emett, D.C.; Overman, W.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1989. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1990. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  8. Ground Water and Surface Water in the Haiku Area, East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The Haiku study area lies on the gently sloping eastern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Kakipi Gulch to the east. The study area lies on the northwest rift zone of East Maui Volcano, a geologic feature 3 to 5 miles wide marked by surface expressions such as cinder, spatter, and pumice cones. The study area contains two geologic units, the main shield-building stage Honomanu Basalt and the Kula Volcanics. The hydraulic conductivity of the Honomanu Basalt was estimated to be between 1,000 and 3,600 feet per day on the basis of aquifer tests and 3,300 feet per day on the basis of the regional recharge rate and observed ground-water heads. The hydraulic conductivity of the Kula Volcanics is expected to be several orders of magnitude lower. An estimated 191 million gallons per day of rainfall and 22 million gallons per day of fog drip reach the study area and about 98 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Nearly all of the ground water currently withdrawn in the study area is from well 5520-01 in Maliko Gulch, where historic withdrawal rates have averaged about 2.8 million gallons per day. An additional 18 million gallons per day of ground-water withdrawal is proposed. Flow in Waiohiwi Gulch, a tributary to Maliko Gulch, is perennial between about 2,000 ft and 4,000 ft altitude. At lower altitudes in Maliko Gulch, flow is perennial at only a few spots downstream of springs and near the coast. The Kuiaha and Kaupakulua Gulch systems are usually dry from sea level to an altitude of 350 feet and gain water from about 350 feet to about 900 feet altitude. The two main branches of the Kaupakulua Gulch system alternately gain and lose water as high as 2,400 feet altitude. Kakipi Gulch has perennial flow over much of its length but is often dry near the coast below 400 feet altitude. Fresh ground water occurs in two main forms: (1) as perched high-level water held up by

  9. Simulation of submarine ground water discharge to a marine estuary: Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D

    2003-01-01

    Variable density ground water flow models are rarely used to estimate submarine ground water discharge because of limitations in computer speed, data availability, and availability of a simulation tool that can minimize numerical dispersion. This paper presents an application of the SEAWAT code, which is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3D, to estimate rates of submarine ground water discharge to a coastal marine estuary. Discharge rates were estimated for Biscayne Bay, Florida, for the period from January 1989 to September 1998 using a three-dimensional, variable density ground water flow and transport model. Hydrologic stresses in the 10-layer model include recharge, evapotranspiration, ground water withdrawals from municipal wellfields, interactions with surface water (canals in urban areas and wetlands in the Everglades), boundary fluxes, and submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay. The model was calibrated by matching ground water levels in monitoring wells, baseflow to canals, and the position of the 1995 salt water intrusion line. Results suggest that fresh submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay may have exceeded surface water discharge during the 1989, 1990, and 1991 dry seasons, but the average discharge for the entire simulation period was only approximately 10% of the surface water discharge to the bay. Results from the model also suggest that tidal canals intercept fresh ground water that might otherwise have discharged directly to Biscayne Bay. This application demonstrates that regional scale variable density models are potentially useful tools for estimating rates of submarine ground water discharge.

  10. Simulation of Submarine Ground Water Discharge to a Marine Estuary: Biscayne Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    Variable density ground water flow models are rarely used to estimate submarine ground water discharge because of limitations in computer speed, data availability, and availability of a simulation tool that can minimize numerical dispersion. This paper presents an application of the SEAWAT code, which is a combined version of MODFLOW and MT3D, to estimate rates of submarine ground water discharge to a coastal marine estuary. Discharge rates were estimated for Biscayne Bay, Florida, for the period from January 1989 to September 1998 using a three-dimensional, variable density ground water flow and transport model. Hydrologic stresses in the 10-layer model include recharge, evapotranspiration, ground water withdrawals from municipal wellfields, interactions with surface water (canals in urban areas and wetlands in the Everglades), boundary fluxes, and submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay. The model was calibrated by matching ground water levels in monitoring wells, baseflow to canals, and the position of the 1995 salt water intrusion line. Results suggest that fresh submarine ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay may have exceeded surface water discharge during the 1989, 1990, and 1991 dry seasons, but the average discharge for the entire simulation period was only ???10% of the surface water discharge to the bay. Results from the model also suggest that tidal canals intercept fresh ground water that might otherwise have discharged directly to Biscayne Bay. This application demonstrates that regional scale variable density models are potentially useful tools for estimating rates of submarine ground water discharge.

  11. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  12. Private Domestic-Well Characteristics and the Distribution of Domestic Withdrawals among Aquifers in the Virginia Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; McFarland, E. Randolph; Banks, R. Brent

    2008-01-01

    the area in addition to determination of the geographic distribution of the withdrawals. Because of a lack of comprehensive data on private-well construction and distribution, a sample of private domestic-well records was used to estimate well characteristics and approximate the proportion of wells and withdrawals associated with each aquifer. Construction data on 2,846 private domestic wells were collected from 29 counties and independent cities (localities) having appreciable self-supplied populations and representing private domestic withdrawals of about 31 million gallons per day. Within each locality, geographically stratified random sampling of well records by tax plat characterized details of well construction for the population of domestic wells. Because neither specific location data nor aquifer elevations were available for individual wells, the primary aquifer in which each well is completed was estimated by cross-referencing the screen elevation estimated from the well record with a generalized configuration of hydrogeologic units underlying the locality in which the well is located. For each locality, summarizing the results of this process allowed the determination of the proportion of wells and withdrawals associated with each aquifer. Additional evaluation of spatial data was used to apply the domestic withdrawal rates developed for each aquifer in each locality to a detailed ground-water study of the portion of the Virginia Coastal Plain east of the Chesapeake Bay, which is known as the Eastern Shore Peninsula. Because domestic withdrawal estimates are based on the self-supplied population, the geographic distribution of withdrawals within each of the Eastern Shore counties was estimated by using population data from the 2000 U.S. Census at the resolution of census block groups and further refining the distribution based on road density. The allocation of withdrawals among aquifers was then determined by cross-referencing the spatial distribut

  13. An application of thermometry to the study of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    The precise measurement of fluctuations in ground-water temperature, based on monthly readings in shallow glacial-outwash aquifers (up to about 70 feet deep), is useful in the study of ground-water movement and recharge. In addition to the study of natural phenomena in the hydrologic cycle, thermometry may be used as a tool in making detailed studies of (1) the effects of inducing the infiltration of surface water, (2) artificial recharge, (3) the effects of injecting petroleum products or radioactive or other wastes into the ground, and (4) ground-water movement in mines.

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow and movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface in the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Gordon, Alison D.

    1999-01-01

    on the historical sea level than on the stresses imposed on the flow system by ground-water withdrawals from the Coastal Plain aquifers from 1896 to 1988. Results of a predictive simulation in which pumpage from existing wells was increased by 30 percent indicate that additional withdrawals from each of the eight confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain would broaden and deepen the existing cones of depression and result in significant drawdowns from the 1988 potentiometric surfaces. Drawdowns of 30 feet were simulated at the center of the cone of depression in the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers in Camden and Ocean Counties. Simulated drawdowns exceeded 80 feet at the center of the cone of depression in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel and Englishtown aquifers in Monmouth County. Drawdowns of 30 feet were simulated in the lower Kirkwood-Cohansey and confined Kirkwood aquifers in Cape May County. Simulation results showed that the increase in ground-water withdrawals would result in only minimal movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface by 2040, despite large drawdowns.

  15. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Mid-Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnott, Allen; Cushing, Elliot Morse

    1978-01-01

    About 949 billion gallons of fresh ground water was withdrawn in 1970. This quantity represents about 9 percent of the total freshwater use of 10,220 billion gallons. Available ground-water reserves indicate that a considerable part of the additional supplies needed for the anticipated increase in economic activity in the region could be developed from ground water.

  16. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  17. Estimated withdrawals and use of freshwater in New Hampshire, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura; Horn, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Estimated freshwater withdrawals during 1990 in New Hampshire totaled about 422 million gallons per day from ground-water and surface-water sources. The largest withdrawals were for thermoelectric-power generation (60 percent), public supply (23 percent), and industrial use (9 percent). Most withdrawals, 358 million gallons per day, were made from surface- water sources, as compared to 63.7 million gallons per day from ground-water sources. The largest with- drawals were in the Merrimack river basin (322 million gallons per day). An additional 46,000 million gallons per day was used instream for hydroelectric-power generation, primarily in the Upper Androscoggin and Upper Connecticut River subbasins. Other information describing water-use patterns is shown in tables, bar graphs, pie charts, maps, and accompanying text. The data are aggregated by river basin (hydrologic cataloging unit), and all values are reported in million gallons per day.

  18. Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Don R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins--Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as "safe yield." Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

  19. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  20. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992.

  1. Radon in ground water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 1, California, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Planert, Michael; Williams, John S.

    1995-01-01

    California and Nevada compose Segment 1 of the Ground Water Atlas of the United States. Segment 1 is a region of pronounced physiographic and climatic contrasts. From the Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of northern California, where precipitation is abundant, to the Great Basin in Nevada and the deserts of southern California, which have the most arid environments in the United States, few regions exhibit such a diversity of topography or environment. Since the discovery of gold in the mid-1800's, California has experienced a population, industrial, and agricultural boom unrivaled by that of any other State. Water needs in California are very large, and the State leads the United States in agricultural and municipal water use. The demand for water exceeds the natural water supply in many agricultural and nearly all urban areas. As a result, water is impounded by reservoirs in areas of surplus and transported to areas of scarcity by an extensive network of aqueducts. Unlike California, which has a relative abundance of water, development in Nevada has been limited by a scarcity of recoverable freshwater. The Truckee, the Carson, the Walker, the Humboldt, and the Colorado Rivers are the only perennial streams of significance in the State. The individual basin-fill aquifers, which together compose the largest known ground-water reserves, receive little annual recharge and are easily depleted. Nevada is sparsely populated, except for the Las Vegas, the Reno-Sparks, and the Carson City areas, which rely heavily on imported water for public supplies. Although important to the economy of Nevada, agriculture has not been developed to the same degree as in California due, in large part, to a scarcity of water. Some additional ground-water development might be possible in Nevada through prudent management of the basin-fill aquifers and increased utilization of ground water in the little-developed carbonate-rock aquifers that underlie the eastern one-half of the State

  3. Analysis of ground-water data for selected wells near Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1950-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water-level, ground-water-withdrawal, and ground- water-quality data were evaluated for trends. Holloman Air Force Base is located in the west-central part of Otero County, New Mexico. Ground-water-data analyses include assembly and inspection of U.S. Geological Survey and Holloman Air Force Base data, including ground-water-level data for public-supply and observation wells and withdrawal and water-quality data for public-supply wells in the area. Well Douglas 4 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels for 1972-86 and a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1986-90. Water levels in wells San Andres 5 and San Andres 6 show statistically significant decreasing trends for 1972-93 and 1981-89, respectively. A mixture of statistically significant increasing trends, statistically significant decreasing trends, and lack of statistically significant trends over periods ranging from the early 1970's to the early 1990's are indicated for the Boles wells and wells near the Boles wells. Well Boles 5 shows a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1981-90. Well Boles 5 and well 17S.09E.25.343 show no statistically significant trends in water levels for 1990-93 and 1988-93, respectively. For 1986-93, well Frenchy 1 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from San Andres Canyon for 1963-87. For 1951-57 and 1960-86, ground-water withdrawal from the Boles wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Mule, Arrow, and Lead Canyons. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells and from the Boles wells nearly equaled estimated ground- water recharge for 1989-93 and 1986-93, respectively. For 1987- 93, ground-water withdrawal from the Escondido well regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from Escondido Canyon, and

  4. Transboundary impacts on regional ground water modeling in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Stovall, Jeff; Frailey, Scott; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation required regional grassroots water resources planning across the entire state of Texas. The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), the state's primary water resource planning agency, divided the state into 16 planning regions. Each planning group developed plans to manage both ground water and surface water sources and to meet future demands of various combinations of domestic, agricultural, municipal, and industrial water consumers. This presentation describes the challenges in developing a ground water model for the Llano Estacado Regional Water Planning Group (LERWPG), whose region includes 21 counties in the Southern High Plains of Texas. While surface water is supplied to several cities in this region, the vast majority of the regional water use comes from the High Plains aquifer system, often locally referred to as the Ogallala Aquifer. Over 95% of the ground water demand is for irrigated agriculture. The LERWPG had to predict the impact of future TWDB-projected water demands, as provided by the TWDB, on the aquifer for the period 2000 to 2050. If detrimental impacts were noted, alternative management strategies must be proposed. While much effort was spent on evaluating the current status of the ground water reserves, an appropriate numerical model of the aquifer system was necessary to demonstrate future impacts of the predicted withdrawals as well as the effects of the alternative strategies. The modeling effort was completed in the summer of 2000. This presentation concentrates on the political, scientific, and nontechnical issues in this planning process that complicated the modeling effort. Uncertainties in data, most significantly in distribution and intensity of recharge and withdrawals, significantly impacted the calibration and predictive modeling efforts. Four predictive scenarios, including baseline projections, recurrence of the drought of record, precipitation enhancement, and reduced irrigation demand, were simulated to

  5. Geohydrology and simulated ground-water flow, Plymouth-Carver Aquifer, southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Bruce P.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1992-01-01

    The Plymouth-Carver aquifer underlies an area of 140 square miles and is the second largest aquifer in areal extent in Massachusetts. It is composed primarily of saturated glacial sand and gravel. The water-table and bedrock surface were mapped and used to determine saturated thickness of the aquifer, which ranged from less than 20 feet to greater than 200 feet. Ground water is present mainly under unconfined conditions, except in a few local areas such as beneath Plymouth Harbor. Recharge to the aquifer is derived almost entirely from precipitation and averages about 1.15 million gallons per day per square mile. Water discharges from the aquifer by pumping, evapotranspiration, direct evaporation from the water table, and seepage to streams, ponds, wetlands, bogs, and the ocean. In 1985, water use was about 59.6 million gallons per day, of which 82 percent was used for cranberry production. The Plymouth-Carver aquifer was simulated by a three-dimensional, finite difference ground-water-flow model. Most model boundaries represent the natural hydrologic boundaries of the aquifer. The model simulates aquifer recharge, withdrawals by pumped wells, leakage through streambeds, and discharge to the ocean. The model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. Model results were compared with measured values of hydraulic head and ground-water discharge. Results of simulations indicate that the modeled ground-water system closely simulates actual aquifer conditions. Four hypothetical ground-water development alternatives were simulated to demonstrate the use of the model and to examine the effects on the ground-water system. Simulation of a 2-year period of no recharge and average pumping rates that occurred from 1980-85 resulted in water-level declines exceeding 5 feet throughout most of the aquifer and a decrease of 54 percent in average ground-water discharge to streams. In a second simulation, four wells in the northern part of the area were pumped at 10

  6. Sampling colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Backhus, Debera A.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Groher, Daniel M.; MacFarlane, John K.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that mobile colloids may affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. To determine the significance of this process, knowledge of both the total mobile load (dissolved + colloid-associated) and the dissolved concentration of a ground-water contaminant must be obtained. Additional information regarding mobile colloid characteristics and concentrations are required to predict accurately the fate and effects of contaminants at sites where significant quantities of colloids are found. To obtain this information, a sampling scheme has been designed and refined to collect mobile colloids while avoiding the inclusion of normally immobile subsurface and well-derived solids. The effectiveness of this sampling protocol was evaluated at a number of contaminated and pristine sites.The sampling results indicated that slow, prolonged pumping of ground water is much more effective at obtaining ground-water samples that represent in situ colloid populations than bailing. Bailed samples from a coal tar-contaminated site contained 10–100 times greater colloid concentrations and up to 750 times greater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations as were detected in slowly pumped samples. The sampling results also indicated that ground-water colloid concentrations should be monitored in the field to determine the adequacy of purging if colloid and colloid-associated contaminants are of interest. To avoid changes in the natural ground-water colloid population through precipitation or coagulation, in situ ground-water chemistry conditions must be preserved during sampling and storage. Samples collected for determination of the total mobile load of colloids and low-solubility contaminants must not be filtered because some mobile colloids are removed by this process. Finally, suggestions that mobile colloids are present in ground water at any particular site should be corroborated with auxiliary data, such as colloid levels in

  7. Ground-water resources of the Mattapoisett River Valley, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, J.C.; De Lima, Virginia

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals by municipal wells in the Mettapoisett River valley, Massachusetts, are expected to triple in the next two decades. State and local concern about the long-term impacts of these withdrawals on ground-water levels and streamflow made it necessary to assess the ground-water resources of the valley and to develop a digital ground-water-flow model for management purposes. Ten pumping scenarios, which represent the present and proposed withdrawals from the aquifer, were simulated using reduced recharge conditions. Under conditions simulating 1965 average annual recharge, predicted water levels in the aquifer are as much as 9 feet lower than average annual levels. At the highest withdrawal rates, the predicted drawdown in four wells exceeds the estimated available drawdown. Under conditions representative of the 7-day 10-year low flow of the river, predicted water levels decline as much as 19 feet. Simulated withdrawals in six scenarios use all of the available ground-water discharge. If this drought condition should occur and streamflow is not supplemented by surface water, the model results indicate that the river in the southern half of the valley will stop flowing under most pumping plans. (USGS)

  8. Proposed expansion of the City of Albuquerque/U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level monitoring network for the middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico, extending from Cochiti Lake on the north to San Acacia on the south, covers an area of about 3,060 square miles. Ground-water withdrawals in the basin are concentrated in and around the city of Albuquerque. Because of rapid increases in population and associated ground-water pumpage, a network of wells was established cooperatively by the City of and the U.S. Geological Survey between April 1982 and September 1983 to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. Expansion of this network has been identified as an essential element in plans to study the relation between surface water and ground water in the basin. An inventory of existing wells in the Albuquerque metropolitan area has brought together information on about 400 wells that either are being monitored for water levels or would be good candidates for monitoring. About 115 wells or well sites are proposed as additions to the current 128-well ground-water-level monitoring network for the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Despite the extensive network that would be created by the addition of the proposed existing wells, however, certain parts of the Albuquerque metropolitan area would remain without adequate coverage areally and/or with depth in the Santa Fe Group aquifer until the installation of the proposed new monitoring wells.

  9. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels From 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Potential Water-Supply Management Options in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; Watt, Martha K.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in four confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain within Water Supply Critical Area 1 have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated by the State in the late 1980s. The aquifers are the Wenonah-Mount Laurel, the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and Englishtown aquifer system. Because of increased water demand due to increased development in Monmouth, Ocean, and Middlesex Counties, five base and nine alternate management models were designed for the four aquifers to evaluate the effects resulting from potential reallocation of part of the Critical Area 1 reductions in withdrawals. The change in withdrawals and associated water-level changes in the aquifers for 1988-2003 are discussed. Generally, withdrawals decreased 25 to 30 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), and water levels increased 0 to 80 ft (feet). The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate ground-water flow and optimize withdrawals using the Ground-Water Management Process (GWM) for MODFLOW. Results of the model were used to evaluate the effects of several possible water-supply management options in order to provide the information to water managers. The optimization method, which provides a means to set constraints that support mandated hydrologic conditions, then determine the maximum withdrawals that meet the constraints, is a more cost-effective approach than simulating a range of withdrawals to determine the effects on the aquifer system. The optimization method is particularly beneficial for a regional-scale study of this kind because of the large number of wells to be evaluated. Before the model was run, a buffer analysis was done to define an area with no additional withdrawals that minimizes changes in simulated streamflow in aquifer outcrop areas and simulated movement of ground water toward the wells from areas of

  10. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  11. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  12. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality, Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Michigan, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.; Hoard, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water resource potential of Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Mich. was characterized on the basis of existing hydrogeologic data, water-level records, analyses of water samples, and interpretation of geophysical survey data. Eight ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace-metal composition. In addition, 10 direct current-resistivity soundings were collected throughout Chippewa and Coe Townships to identify potential freshwater in the aquifer system. The aquifer system includes complexly interbedded glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and basal-lodgment tills, which overlie Jurassic or Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. In parts of the township, freshwater is present in all geologic units, but in most areas saline water is encountered near the base of Pleistocene glacial deposits and in the Jurassic or Pennsylvanian bedrock. A near-surface sheet of relatively dense basal-lodgment till likely prevents, or substantially retards, significant direct recharge of ground water to glacial and bedrock aquifers in Chippewa and adjacent townships.Glacial sands and gravels form the principal aquifer for domestic wells (97.5 percent of wells in the township). The single community water supply in the township has wells screened in glacial deposits near the base of the glacial drift. Increased withdrawals of ground water in response to increasing demand has led to a slight decline in water quality from this supply. This water-quality decline is related primarily to an increase of dissolved sulfate, which is probably a function of well depth and dissolution of gypsum, a common mineral constituent in the Jurassic “red beds” , which form the uppermost bedrock unit throughout most of the township. One explanation for the increase in sulfate is upconing of saline water from bedrock sources, which may contain saline water.

  13. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  14. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  15. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Mundorff, Maurice John; Walker, Eugene H.

    1970-01-01

    -water rights within the study area. However, depletion of the underflow would eventually reduce the inflow to American Falls Reservoir, unless the depletion was offset by additional recharge. Total withdrawals of ground water for irrigation in 1962, principally in the Rexburg Bench, were estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet. About 10,000 acre-feet was withdrawn for domestic, municipal, and stock supplies. These withdrawals caused no significant decline in the water table. In the Ashton area, surface-water irrigation has caused water to be perched in basalt above the silicic volcanic rocks, and much of' this perched water contributes to streamflow. Some ground water can be pumped from the basalt for irrigation and other uses. If ground water were pumped for irrigation, the flow of Henrys Fork would be decreased by the amount of pumped water consumed by crops. Water pumped for nonconsumptive use would have little effect on streamflow. Ground-water prospects for irrigation in the Falls River area are not encouraging.

  16. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks or replicates, or samples for matrix spikes) were collected from approximately 26 percent of the wells, and the analyses of these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the quality of the environmental data was good, with low bias and low variability, and as a result, less than 0.1 percent of the analytes detected in ground-water samples were censored. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered (or, supplied) to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were reported at concentrations below their established health-based thresholds. VOCs, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds were detected in about 33 percent or less of the 42 SCRV grid wells. Concentrations of all detected organic constituents were below established health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in approximately 12 percent of the SCRV grid wells; all concentrations reported were below the NL-CA threshold. Additional constituents, including major ions, trace elements, and nutrients were collected at 26 wells (16 grid wells and 10 understanding wells) of the 53 wells sampled f

  19. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    productive water-bearing zones. A basement confining unit of older marine and volcanic rocks of low permeability underlies the basin and occurs at land surface in the Coast Range and western part of the Cascade Range. Most recharge in the basin is from infiltration of precipitation, and the spatial distribution of recharge mimics the distribution of precipitation, which increases with elevation. Basinwide annual mean recharge is estimated to be 22 inches. Rain and snowmelt easily recharge into the permeable High Cascade unit and discharge within the High Cascade area. Most recharge in the Coast Range and western part of the Cascade Range follows short flowpaths through the upper part of the low permeability material and discharges to streams within the mountains. Consequently, recharge in the Coast and Ranges is not available as lateral ground-water flow into the lowland, where most ground-water use occurs. Within the lowland, annual mean recharge is 16 inches and most recharge occurs from November to April, when rainfall is large and evapotranspiration is small. From May to October recharge is negligible because precipitation is small and evapotranspiration is large. Discharge of ground water is mainly to streams. Ground-water discharge is a relatively large component of flow in streams that drain the High Cascade unit and parts of the Portland Basin where permeable units are at the surface. In streams that do not head in the High Cascade area, streamflow is generally dominated by runoff of precipitation. Ground-water in the permeable units in the lowland discharges to the major streams where there is a good hydraulic connection between aquifers and streams. Ground-water discharge to smaller streams, which flow on the less permeable Willamette silt unit, is small and mostly from the Willamette silt unit. Most ground-water withdrawals occur within the lowland. Irrigation is the largest use of ground water, accounting for 240,000 acre feet of withdrawals, or 81 p

  20. Simulated changes in ground-water levels related to proposed development of Federal coal leases, San Juan Basin New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of coal-related ground-water withdrawals on potentiometric surfaces of aquifers in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, were estimated. A previously published steady-state finite-difference digital model was converted to a transient-state model by changing boundary conditions and adding storage coefficients. No calibration of the transient-state model was attempted. Predicted drawdowns with a minimum amount of coal development combined with other kinds of development were as great as 2,000 feet. As much as 300 feet of additional drawdown were simulated for the maximum amount of coal development. Drawdowns near pumping wells are not predicted. (USGS)

  1. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  2. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  3. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  4. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  5. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  6. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  7. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in Cedar Valley, Iron County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.

    2005-01-01

    sufficient to meet demand. Water levels in many areas are at or close to historic lows.In 2000, withdrawal from wells was estimated to be 36,000 acre-feet per year. About 4,000 acre-feet per year are estimated to discharge to evapotranspiration or as subsurface outflow. Prior to large-scale ground-water development, ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration and discharge to springs was much larger.Ground water along the eastern margin of the valley between Cedar City and Enoch is unsuitable for domestic use because of high dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations. The predominant ions of Ca and SO4 in this area indicate dissolution of gypsum in the Markagunt Plateau to the east. Data collected during this study were compared to historic data; there is no evidence to indicate deterioration in ground-water quality. The spatial distribution of ground water with high nitrate concentration does not appear to be migrating beyond its previously known extent. No single source can be identified as the cause for elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Low nitrogen-15 values north of Cedar City indicate a natural geologic source. Higher nitrogen-15 values toward the center of the basin and associated hydrologic data indicate probable recharge from waste-water effluent. Excess dissolved nitrogen gas and low nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water indicate that denitrification is occurring in some areas.A computer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate flow in the unconsolidated basin fill. The method of determining recharge from irrigation was changed during the calibration process to incorporate more areal and temporal variability. In general, the model accurately simulates water levels and water-level fluctuations and can be considered an adequate tool to help determine the valley-wide effects on water levels of additional ground-water withdrawals and changes in water use. The model was used to simulated water-level changes caused by projecting current

  8. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  9. U.S. Geological Survey ground-water studies in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of water supply in Illinois. The largest amount of ground*water withdrawal is in the northern one-third of the State where aquifers to a depth of about 1,500 feet below land surface contain large quantities of potable water. Approximately 74 percent of the public water-supply systems in Illinois use ground water to supply potable water to more than 5.5 million people. Ground-water withdrawals account for almost 25 percent of the total water withdrawn for public water supplies in Illinois. Many public water-supply systems in the Chicago area have recently changed from using ground water pumped from wells to using water delivered from Lake Michigan. The major issues related to ground water in Illinois are: Water- quality degradation or contamination from point and nonpoint sources, and Water availability, because of the lowering of ground-water levels in the bedrock aquifers in northeastern Illinois and elsewhere in the State where pumpage has exceeded aquifer recharge and the susceptibility of the limited surface-water supplies in central and southern Illinois to drought.

  10. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith, Jody L.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-ft in 1996 and 6,300 acre-ft in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by ET, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased.

  11. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner,S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith, J.LaRue; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-29

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-feet in 1996 and 6,300 acre-feet in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by E T, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased.

  12. Ground-Water Data for Georgia, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joiner, Charles N.; Peck, Michael F.; Reynolds, Mark S.; Stayton, Welby L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 144 wells and water-level measurements from an additional 617 wells in Georgia during 1988 provide the basic data for this report. Daily mean water-level hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes ln recharge and discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State during 1988. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1979-88. Maps showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for Hay 1988 and the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers for October 1988 also are presented. Annual mean water levels in Georgia generally were below those measured in 1987; water levels ranged from 6.9 feet higher to 7.3 feet lower. Record-low water levels were measured during the last half of 1988 in 18 wells tapping the crystalline rock aquifer, the Cretaceous rock aquifer system, the Midville aquifer system, and the Clayton, Upper Floridan, and upper Brunswick aquifers. These record lows were from 0.1 to 1.4 feet lower than the previous record lows. A prolonged drought resulted in decreased recharge to the aquifers and increased ground-water pumping, which caused water levels to decline. Water-quality samples collected periodically throughout Georgia are analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Maps showing chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in October 1988 in coastal Georgia and in the Savannah and Brunswick areas are presented. Periodic monitoring of water quality in the Savannah and Brunswick areas indicates that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan generally have remained stable.

  13. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  14. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    completed in semiconsolidated- and consolidated-rock aquifers, chiefly sandstone and limestone. Some wells withdraw water from volcanic rocks, igneous and metamorphic rocks, or fractured fine-grained sedimentary rocks, such as shale; however, wells completed in these types of rocks generally yield only small volumes of water. Most wells in the four-State area of Segment 8 are on privately owned land (fig. 2). Agriculture, primarily irrigation, is one of the largest uses of ground water. The irrigation generally is on lowlands close to streams (fig. 3). Lowlands within a few miles of major streams usually are irrigated with surface water that is diverted by gravity flow from the main stream or a reservoir and transported through a canal system. Surface water also is pumped to irrigate land that gravity systems cannot supply. In addition, ground water is pumped from large-capacity wells to supplement surface water during times of drought or during seasons of the year when surface water is in short supply. Ground water is the only source of water for irrigation in much of the segment. The thickness and permeability of aquifers in the area of Segment 8 vary considerably, as do yields of wells completed in the aquifers. Ground-water levels and artesian pressures (hydraulic head) have declined significantly in some places as a result of excessive withdrawals by wells. State governments have taken steps to control the declines by enacting programs that either limit the number of additional wells that can be completed in a particular aquifer or prevent further ground-water development altogether. The demand for water is directly related to the distribution of people. In 1990, Montana had a population of 799,065; North Dakota, 638,800; South Dakota, 696,004; and Wyoming, 453,588. The more densely populated areas are on lowlands near major streams. Many of the mountain, desert, and upland areas lack major population centers, particularly in Montana and Wyoming, where use

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Results from field blanks indicated contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Therefore, any comparisons of the results of this study to drinking-water standards only is for illustrative purposes and is not indicative of compliance or non-compliance to those standards. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water standards or thresholds. Six constituents? fluoride, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, gross-alpha radioactivity, and radon-222?were detected at concentrations higher than thresholds set for health-based regulatory purposes. Three additional constituents?pH, iron and manganese?were detected at concentrations above thresholds set for aesthetic concerns. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, were detected in less than one-third of the samples and generally at less than one one-hundredth of a health-based threshold.

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  18. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, collected, compiled, and summarized hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data were collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data collected from January through December 2005 are provided for ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert. Ground-water level, discharge, and withdrawal data collected by other agencies, or as part of other programs, are provided. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2005 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements; maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes; and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At seven boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2005 were slightly higher (0.4-2.7 feet) than the median water levels for 1992-93.

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Ohio River alluvial aquifer near Carrollton, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer near Carrollton, Kentucky, lies in a valley eroded by glacial meltwater that was later part filled with outwash sand and gravel deposits. The aquifer is unconfined, and ground water flows from the adjacent bedrock-valley wall toward the Ohio River and ground-water withdrawal wells. Ground-water-level and Ohio River stage data indicate the alluvial aquifer was at or near steady-state condition in November 1995. A two-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed to estimate the hydraulic properties, the rate of recharge, and the contributing areas to discharge boundaries for the Ohio River alluvial aquifer at Carrollton and the surrounding area. Results from previous investigations, available hydrogeologic data, and observations of water levels from area ground-water wells were compiled to conceptualize the ground-water-flow system and construct the numerical model. Ground water enters the modeled area by induced infiltration from the Ohio River and smaller streams, flow from the bedrock-valley wall, and infiltration of precipitation. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily through withdrawal wells and flow to the Ohio River. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in the stage of the Ohio River and conductance values for the riverbed material. A particle-tracking simulation was used to delineate recharge and discharge boundaries of the flow system and contributing areas for withdrawal wells, and to estimate time of travel through the flow system.

  20. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  1. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  2. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  3. Use of Microgravity to Assess the Effects of El Nino on Ground-Water Storage in Southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Pool, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The availability of ground water is of extreme importance in areas, such as southern Arizona, where it is the main supply for agricultural, industrial, or domestic purposes. Where ground-water use exceeds recharge, monitoring is critical for managing water supplies. Typically, monitoring has been done by measuring water levels in wells; however, this technique only partially describes ground-water conditions in a basin. A new application of geophysical technology is enabling U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists to measure changes in the amount of water in an aquifer using a network of microgravity stations. This technique enables a direct measurement of ground-water depletion and recharge. In Tucson, Arizona, residents have relied solely upon ground water for most of their needs since the 19th century. Water levels in some wells in the Tucson area have declined more than 200 ft in the past 50 years. Similar drops in water levels have occurred elsewhere in Arizona. In response to the overdrafting of ground water, the State of Arizona passed legislation designed to attain 'safe yield,' which is defined as a balance between ground-water withdrawals and annual recharge of aquifers. To monitor progress in complying with the legislation, ground-water withdrawals are measured and estimated, and annual recharge is estimated. The Tucson Basin and Avra Valley are two ground-water basins that form the Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA), which by State statute must attain 'safe yield' by the year 2025.

  4. Ground water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, Fred; Hofman, Walter

    1966-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be invited to attend this Irrigation Institute conference and to describe the Geological Survey's program of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley. The U.S. Geological Survey has been making water-resources studies in cooperation with the State of California and other agencies in California for more than 70 years. Three of the earliest Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers--numbers 17, 18, and 19--published in 1898 and 1899, describe "Irrigation near Bakersfield," "Irrigation near Fresno," and "Irrigation near Merced." However, the first Survey report on ground-water occurrence in the San Joaquin Valley was "Ground Water in the San Joaquin Valley," by Mendenhall and others. The fieldwork was done from 1905 to 1910, and the report was published in 1916 as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 398.The current series of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley was begun in 1952 as part of the California Department of Water Resources-U.S. Geological Survey cooperative water-resources program. The first report of this series is Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1469, "Ground-Water Conditions and Storage Capacity in the San Joaquin Valley." Other reports are Water-Supply Paper 1618, "Use of Ground-Water Reservoirs for Storage of Surface Water in the San Joaquin Valley;" Water-Supply Paper 1656, "Geology and Ground-Water Features of the Edison-Maricopa Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1360-G, "Ground- Water Conditions in the Mendota-Huron Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1457, "Ground-Water Conditions in the Avenal-McKittrick Area;" and an open-file report, "Geology, Hydrology, and Quality of Water in the Terra Bella-Lost Hills Area."In addition to the preceding published reports, ground-water studies currently are being made of the Kern Fan area, the Hanford- Visalia area, the Fresno area, the Merced area, and of the clays of Tulare Lake. Also, detailed studies of both shallow and deep subsidence in the southern part of

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow and evaluation of water-management alternatives in the upper Charles River basin, eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Walter, Donald A.; Eggleston, John R.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of drinking water for towns in the upper Charles River Basin, an area of 105 square miles in eastern Massachusetts that is undergoing rapid growth. The stratified-glacial aquifers in the basin are high yield, but also are thin, discontinuous, and in close hydraulic connection with streams, ponds, and wetlands. Water withdrawals averaged 10.1 million gallons per day in 1989?98 and are likely to increase in response to rapid growth. These withdrawals deplete streamflow and lower pond levels. A study was conducted to develop tools for evaluating water-management alternatives at the regional scale in the basin. Geologic and hydrologic data were compiled and collected to characterize the ground- and surface-water systems. Numerical flow modeling techniques were applied to evaluate the effects of increased withdrawals and altered recharge on ground-water levels, pond levels, and stream base flow. Simulation-optimization methods also were applied to test their efficacy for management of multiple water-supply and water-resource needs. Steady-state and transient ground-water-flow models were developed using the numerical modeling code MODFLOW-2000. The models were calibrated to 1989?98 average annual conditions of water withdrawals, water levels, and stream base flow. Model recharge rates were varied spatially, by land use, surficial geology, and septic-tank return flow. Recharge was changed during model calibration by means of parameter-estimation techniques to better match the estimated average annual base flow; area-weighted rates averaged 22.5 inches per year for the basin. Water withdrawals accounted for about 7 percent of total simulated flows through the stream-aquifer system and were about equal in magnitude to model-calculated rates of ground-water evapotranspiration from wetlands and ponds in aquifer areas. Water withdrawals as percentages of total flow varied spatially and temporally within an average year; maximum values were

  6. Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed. Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans. Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  8. Ground water in the Pullman area, Whitman County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Washburn, R.L.

    1963-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the ground-water resources of the Pullman area, Whitman County, Wash. The investigation war made in cooperation with the State of Washington, Department of Conservation, Division of Water Resources, to determine whether the 1959 rate of ground-water withdrawal exceeded the perennial yield of the developed aquifers, and if so, (1) whether additional aquifers could be developed in the area, and (2) whether the yield of the developed aquifers could be increased by artificial recharge. The Pullman area includes the agricultural district surrounding the city of Pullman, in southeastern Whitman County, and the western two-thirds of the Moscow-Pullman basin, which extends into Latah County, Idaho. The mapped area comprises shout 250 square miles. The area is in a region of smooth rolling hills formed by erosion of thick deposits of loess, which cover a dissected lava plain. The loess (Palouse formation of Pleistocene age) ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 150 feet. The underlying lava flows, part of the Columbia River basalt of Tertiary age, are nearly horizontal and form bluffs and low cliffs along the major streams. The total thickness of the basalt sequence in the area is not known, but it may be considerably greater than 1,000 feet beneath the city of Pullman. The basalt sequence is underlain by a basement mass of granite, granite gneiss, and quartzite, of pre-Tertiary age. The most productive aquifers in the area are in the Columbia River basalt. They consist of the permeable zones, commonly occurring at the tops of individual lava flows, which may contain ground water under either artesian or water-table conditions. Two such permeable zones have produced more than 95 percent of the ground water used in the Pullman area, or as much as 870 million gallons per year (1957). These two zones are hydraulically connected and lie at depths ranging from about 50 to 170 feet below the land surface at

  9. Bibliography of publications relating to ground water in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, R.V.

    1950-01-01

    In 1939, when it became necessary to curtail the work being carried on by the Works Progress Administration, cooperation was arranged between the Federal Ecological Survey and the State Water Commission to continue investigations relative to the over-development of ground-water supplies in the New Haven area. From time to time additional funds have been made available to meet growing demands by the State for data on its ground-water supplied and the present cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State Water Commission is a continuation of the original arrangement. It is estimated that about 14 per cont of the State has been covered by recent ground-water surveys and in addition some data are available for another 20 per cent of he State.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  11. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  12. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Sumison, C.T.; Herbert, L.R.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Sandberg, G.W.; Adams, D.B.

    1971-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 21), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1970. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1970 to spring 1971. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  13. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1967

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, C.H.; Price, Don; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Bolke, E.L.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 89), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1966. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1966 to spring 1967. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer.

  14. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, C.H.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 12), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1968. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1968 to spring 1969. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  15. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1970-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 22), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1969. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1969 to spring 1970. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, J.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Handy, A.H.; Cordova, R.M.; Feltis, R.D.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1966-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Water and Power Board and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the first two (Arnow and others, 1964, 1965), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some individual areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table slope is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1965. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1965 through spring 1966. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer.

  17. Ground-water resources of Cumberland County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, James G.

    1971-01-01

    Water use in Cumberland County varies and is highly seasonal, mainly because of increasing requirements for irrigation and the food processing industries in the county. In 1964 seasonal use ranged from 27 mgd in March to 145 mgd in August. This is much higher than withdrawals in neighboring Salem and Cape May Counties. In 1964 withdrawals in Cumberland County averaged about 51 mgd; almost all of this, 49.4 mgd, was from ground-water supplies. The total annual water use in 1964 according to type of use was: for public supply, 10.6 mgd; for industrial uses, 19.0 mgd; irrigation, 15.4 mgd; suburban, rural, residential, institutional, farm, and commercial, 5.9 mgd. 

  18. Ground-water hydrology of Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    The primary ground-water reservoir in Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas is in the unconsolidated basin fill and interbedded basalt. Recharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 70,000 acre-feet per year and was mostly by seepage from streams, canals, and unconsumed irrigation water and by infiltration of precipitation. Discharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 109,000 acre-feet and was mostly from springs, evapotranspiration, and wells.Water-level declines of more than 50 feet occurred in some areas between 1953 and 1980 because of less-than-normal precipitation and extensive pumping for irrigation. Water levels recovered most of these declines between 1983 and 1986 because of reduced withdrawals and record quantities of precipitation.The quality of ground water in the area west of Kanosh has deteriorated since large ground-water withdrawals began in about 1953. The cause of the deterioration probably is movement of poor quality water into the area from the southwest and possibly the west during periods of large ground-water withdrawals and recycling of irrigation water. The quality of water from some wells has improved since 1983, due to increased recharge and decreased withdrawals for irrigation.Water-level declines of m:>re than 80 feet in some parts of Pahvant Valley are projected if ground-water withdrawals continue for 20 years at the 1977 rate of about 96,000 acre-feet. Rises of as much as 58 feet and declines of as much as 47 feet are projected with withdrawals of 48,000 acre-feet per year for 20 years. The elimination of recharge from the Central Utah Canal is projected to cause water-level declines of up to 8 feet near the canal.

  19. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  20. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    public-supply wells in Clark County may be receiving a component of water that recharged in areas that are more conducive to contaminant entry. The aquifer sensitivity maps illustrate a critical deficiency in the DRASTIC methodology: the failure to account for the dynamics of the ground-water flow system. DRASTIC indices calculated for a particular location thus do not necessarily reflect the conditions of the ground-water resources at the recharge areas to that particular location. Each hydrogeologic unit was also mapped to highlight those areas that will eventually receive flow from recharge areas with on-site waste-disposal systems. Most public-supply wells in southern Clark County may eventually receive a component of water that was recharged from on-site waste-disposal systems.Traveltimes from particle tracking were used to estimate the minimum and maximum age of ground water within each model-grid cell. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-age dating of ground water from 51 wells was used to calibrate effective porosity values used for the particle- tracking program by comparison of ground-water ages determined through the use of the CFC-age dating with those calculated by the particle- tracking program. There was a 76 percent agreement in predicting the presence of modern water in the 51 wells as determined using CFCs and calculated by the particle-tracking program. Maps showing the age of ground water were prepared for all the hydrogeologic units. Areas with the youngest ground-water ages are expected to be at greatest risk for contamination from anthropogenic sources. Comparison of these maps with maps of public- supply wells in Clark County indicates that most of these wells may withdraw ground water that is, in part, less than 100 years old, and in many instances less than 10 years old. Results of the analysis showed that a single particle-tracking analysis simulating advective transport can be used to evaluate ground-water vulnerability for any part of a ground-wate

  1. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D Kirk

    2002-01-01

    Numerous aquifers worldwide carry soluble arsenic at concentrations greater than the World Health Organization--and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--recommended drinking water standard of 10 mg per liter. Sources include both natural (black shales, young sediments with low flushing rates, gold mineralization, and geothermal environments) and anthropogenic (mining activities, livestock feed additives, pesticides, and arsenic trioxide wastes and stockpiles). Increased solubility and mobility of arsenic is promoted by high pH (>8.5), competing oxyanions, and reducing conditions. In this Policy Forum, Nordstrom argues that human health risks from arsenic in ground water can be minimized by incorporating hydrogeochemical knowledge into water management decisions and by more careful monitoring for arsenic in geologically high-risk areas.

  2. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    ;Contents: Low-level uranium removed from ground water; Promising ion exchange technology seeks site for demonstration; Pervaporation membrane removes volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and Ground water sampling information available.

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Pennsauken Township and vicinity, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Watt, Martha K.

    2004-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is one of the primary sources of potable water in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, particularly in heavily developed areas along the Delaware River. In Pennsauken Township, Camden County, local drinking-water supplies from this aquifer system have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium at concentrations that exceed the New Jersey maximum contaminant level. In particular, ground water at the Puchack well field has been adversely affected to the point where, since 1984, water is no longer withdrawn from this well field for public supply. The area that contains the Puchack well field was added to the National Priorities List in 1998 as a Superfund site. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a reconnaissance study from 1996 to 1998 during which hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected and a ground-water-flow model was developed to describe the conditions in the aquifer system in the Pennsauken Township area. The current investigation by the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), is an extension of the previous study. Results of the current study can be applied to a Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study conducted at the Puchack well field Superfund site. The USGS study collected additional data on the hydrogeology and water-quality in the area. These data were incorporated into a refined model of the ground-water-flow system in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. A finite-difference model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and the advective transport of chromium-contaminated ground water in the aquifers of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the Pennsauken Township area. An 11-layer model was used to represent the complex hydrogeologic framework. The model was calibrated using steady-state water-level data from March 1998, April 1998, and April 2001. Water-level recovery during the shutdown of Puchack 1 during March to April 1998 was

  4. Hydrogeology of, and simulated ground-water flow in, the valley-fill aquifers of the upper Rockaway River basin, Morris County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Alison D.

    1993-01-01

    Public water supply in the Rockaway River valley depends almost entirely on ground water from wells in the valley-fill deposits. Ground-water withdrawals from these deposits in 1986 were about 9.1 million gallons per day. A steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to quantify the effects of ground-water withdrawals on water levels in the valley-fill aquifers and on ground-water discharge to the Rockaway River. The ground-water-flow model, which represents an aquifer system consisting of an unconfined and a confined aquifer separated by a discontinuous confining unit, was implemented to examine aquifer resonse to current and predicted ground-water withdrawals in areas of proposed well sites and the effect of increased ground-water withdrawals on ground-water discharge to the river. Ground-water flow to wells in the valley-fill aquifers is sustained by increased vertical flow between the two aquifers, the diversion of ground water that had discharged to the Rockaway River, and induced seepage resulting from pumping near the Rickaway River. If the rate of ground-water recharge decreases or if the rate of ground-water withdrawals from the valley-fill aquifers increases, ground-water discharge to the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir will decrease by an equivalent amount. The average annual base flow of the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir will meet the minimum passing flow requirement of 7 million gallons per day under conditions of average annual ground-water recharge, and increased ground-water withdrawals anticipated by the years 2000 and 2040. For anticipated increases in withdrawals to 11.5 million gallons per day by the the year 2000, and 14.6 million gallons per day by the year 2040, base flow to the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir may not be sufficient to meet the minimum required reservoir outflow during extended periods of decreased recharge, such as drought, as much as 5 and 11 percent of the time, respectively.

  5. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  6. Simulated changes in ground-water levels resulting from proposed phosphate mining, west-central Florida; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William Edward

    1977-01-01

    A digital model of two-dimensional ground-water flow was used to simulate projected changes in the Floridan aquifer potentiometric surface in 1985 and 2000, resulting from proposed ground-water developments by the phosphate mining industry in west-central Florida. The .model was calibrated under steady-state conditions to simulate the September 1975 potentiometric surface. Under one development plan, existing phosphate mines in Polk County would continue to withdraw ground water at 1975 rates, until phased out as the ore is depleted; no new mines would be introduced. Preliminary results indicate that under this plan, maximum simulated recovery of the potentiometric surface is 11.9 feet by 1985 and 36.5 feet by 2000. Under an alternative plan, all proposed mines in Polk, Hardee, DeSoto, Hillsborough and Manatee Counties would begin operations: in addition to the continuation and phasing out of existing mines. Preliminary results indicate that the potentiometric surface would generally recover in Polk County and decline elsewhere in the modeled area. Maximum simulated recovery is 4.5 feet by 1985 and 29.6 feet by 2000; maximum simulated drawdown is 15.1 feet by 1985 and feet by 2000. All results are preliminary and subject to revision as the investigation continues.

  7. FUNDAMENTALS OF GROUND-WATER MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling has been used at many hazardous waste sites with varying degrees of success. odels may be used throughout all phases of the site investigation and remediation processes. eveloping a better understanding of ground-water modeling...

  8. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  9. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  10. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  11. Ground water resources of Lee County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Donivan L.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of these factors, there are few locations in Lee County where the availability of ground water is not limited to some degree. The most common limitation is poor water quality, that is, highly mineralized ground water. Secondary limitations are generally related to poor distribution, small yields from some sources, and poor accessibility due to the great depths to adequate sources.

  12. Hydrogeology of, and ground-water flow in, a valley-fill and carbonate-rock aquifer system near Long Valley in the New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, R.S.; McAuley, S.D.; Barringer, J.L.; Gordon, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogeology of and ground-water flow in a valley-fill and carbonate-rock aquifer system were evaluated by using numerical-modeling techniques and geochemical interpretations to address concerns about the adequacy of the aquifer system to meet increasing demand for water. The study was conducted during 1987-90 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy. The effects of recent and anticipated ground-water withdrawals on water levels, stream base flows, and water budgets were estimated. Simulation results indicate that recent withdrawals of 4.7 million gallons per day have resulted in water-level declines of up to 35 feet. Under conditions of increases in withdrawals of 121 percent, water levels would decline up to an additional 28 feet. The magnitude of predicted average base-flow depletion, when compared with historic low flows, indicates that projected increases in withdrawals may substantially deplete seasonal low flow of Drakes Brook and South Branch Raritan River. Results of a water-budget analysis indicate that the sources of water to additional supply wells would include leakage from the overlying valley-fill aquifer and induced leakage of surface water into the aquifer system. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that human activities are affecting the quality of the ground water. With the exception of an elevated iron concentration in water from one well, concentrations of inorganic constituents in water from 75 wells did not exceed New Jersey primary or secondary drinking-water regulations. Volatile organic compounds were detected in water from several wells; in two samples, concentrations of specific compounds exceeded drinking-water regulations.

  13. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Douglas Basin area, Cochise County, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Larry J.; English, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Douglas basin area includes about 1,200 square miles in southeastern Arizona. The main use of ground water is for irrigation. For 1955-77, the estimated ground-water pumpage equaled or exceeded 50,000 acre-feet per year, and for 1966-77, the ground-water pumpage averaged about 109,000 acre-feet per year. Ground-water withdrawals have resulted in water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level (1966-78) and irrigated area; depth to water and altitude of the water level; and chemical quality of the water and well depth. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  14. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  15. Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1974-01-01

    streamflow downstream from pumping centers but generally will not result in streams going dry, provided the water is returned to the basin. Export of water from the basin will require careful consideration of the effects of such withdrawals on low streamflow. Export from the Pawcatuck basin of 27 million gallons per day, estimated to be available from ground-water reservoirs in the upper Pawcatuck basin, in addition to 37.5 million gallons per day available in the lower Pawcatuck basin, will markedly reduce low streamflow. The 90-percent duration flow of the Pawcatuck River at Westerly would be reduced from 75 million gallons per day to perhaps as little as 21 million gallons per day. The chemical quality of water from both the sand and gravel aquifer and associated streams is suitable for most purposes. The water is soft, slightly acidic, and typically has a dissolved-solids content of less than 75 milligrams per liter. Some treatment may be required locally for removal of iron and manganese to meet recommended standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water.

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Much additional ground water could be obtained from both the "Alta Loma" sand and the upper part of the Beaumont clay, especially in the northern and western parts of the county. Before large developments of supplies are planned, however, these areas should be explored by test drilling. The problems of well spacing and pumping rates should be thoroughly studied in order to determine the maximum development permitted by the ground-water supply. Current observations should be continued with special emphasis on the progress of salt-water encroachment.

  17. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  18. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  19. Ground water in Utah - A summary description of the resource and its related physical environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Arnow, Ted

    1985-01-01

    Ground water is one of Utah’s most extensive and valuable natural resources. Because of its widespread occurrence in both wet and dry areas, ground water has been, and is a major factor affecting economic growth and development of the State. In some areas, ground water is used to supplement streamflow for irrigation, public supply, and other uses. In other areas, it is the only water available for use. Many communities obtain their entire water supply from ground-water sources (wells and springs) as do numerous rural and suburban households throughout the State.The ground-water reservoirs of Utah contain tremendous quantities of water – many times more than the quantity stored in all the lakes (including Great Salt Lake) and the surface-water reservoirs of the State combined. Water that discharges from those underground reservoirs in seeps and springs is vital in sustaining the flow of streams during dry summer months and in providing the water needed to maintain important wetland habitats. Those same underground reservoirs also provide large quantities of water in carryover storage for use during prolonged droughts.The U.S. Geological survey, under cooperative programs with the Utah department of Natural resources and other Federal, State, and local agencies has been studying Utah’s ground-water resources since 1897. Much information has been gained during those studies about the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water; the withdrawal and use of the water; and the effects of withdrawal. This report summarizes that information in nontechnical language, which is designed for all readers. Readers interested in more detailed information about ground water in specific areas of Utah are referred to the reports listed by LaPray and Hamblin (1980).

  20. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Through December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Tne U.S. Geological Survey. in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site- Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes water-resource data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to document the historical and current condition of ground-water resources, to detect and document changes in those resources through time, and to allow assessments of ground-water resources during investigations to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground- water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Fiat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies or as part of other programs are included to further indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels and median annual ground-water withdrawals in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of a11 water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar year 1992. Data on ground-water quality are compared to established, proposed, or tentative primary and secondary drinking-water standards, and measures which exceeded those standards are listed for 18 sites. Detected organic compounds for which established, proposed, or tentative drinking-water standards exist also are listed.

  1. Response to Memorandum by Rowley and Dixon Regarding U.S. Geological Survey Report Titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mountains to evaluate effects caused by ground- water pumping in adjacent valleys. 7 Rowley and Dixon failed to recognize when they stated “Seepage tests...measurements: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92–144, 21 p. Sophocleous, Marious, 2000, From safe yield to sustainable development of water ...surface- water and ground- water quality , southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996–97: U.S. Geological Survey Water -Resources

  2. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Texas, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Texas by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: self-supplied irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, industrial and mining, and other (domestic, commercial, livestock). Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, and industrial and mining are illustrated in this report, although all data are tabulated.

  3. Ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River Basin, south-central Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow in the valley-fill in Panguitch Valley.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Brothers, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River basin, primarily of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifers, was studied from 1988 to 1989. Recharge to the valley-fill aquifers is mostly by seepage from surface-water sources. Changes in soil-moisture content am water levels were measured in Panguitch Valley both at a flood-irrigated and at a sprinkler-irrigated alfalfa field to quantify seepage from unconsumed irrigation water. Lag time between irrigation and water-level response decreased from 6 to 2 days in the flood-irrigated field as the soil-moisture content increased. Water levels measured in the sprinkler-irrigated field did not respond to irrigation. Discharge from the valley-fill aquifer to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley is about 53,570 acre-feet per year.Water levels measured in wells from 1951 to 1989 tend to fluctuate with the quantity of precipitation falling at higher elevations. Ground-water discharge to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley causes a general increase in the specific conductance of the river in a downstream direction.A three-layered ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in irrigation practices am increased ground-water withdrawals in Panguitch Valley. The establishment of initial conditions consisted of comparing simulated water levels and simulated gains and losses from the Sevier River and selected canals with values measured during the 1988 irrigation season. The model was calibrated by comparing water-level changes measured from 1961 to 1963 to simulated changes. A simulated change from flood to sprinkler irrigation resulted in a maximum decline in water level of 0.9 feet after the first year of change. Simulating additional discharge from wells resulted in drawdowns of about 20 feet after the first year of pumping.

  4. Submarine ground-water discharge: nutrient loading and nitrogen transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Crusius, John; Bratton, John F.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication of coastal waters due to nonpoint source land-derived nitrogen (N) loads is a worldwide phenomenon and perhaps the greatest agent of change altering coastal ecology (National Research Council, 2000; Howarth and others, 2000). Within the United States, a majority of estuaries have been determined to be moderately to severely impaired by eutrophication associated with increasing nutrient loads (Bricker and others, 1999). In coastal watersheds with soils of high hydraulic conductivity and permeable coastal sediments, ground water is a major route of transport of freshwater and its solutes from land to sea. Freshwater flowing downgradient from aquifers may either discharge from a seepage face near the intertidal zone, or flow directly into the sea as submarine ground-water discharge (SGD) (fig. 1). In the coastal aquifer, entrainment of saline pore water occurs prior to discharge, producing a gradient in ground-water salinity from land to sea, referred to as a subterranean estuary (Moore, 1999). In addition, processes including density-driven flow and tidal pumping create brackish and saline ground-water circulation. Hence, submarine ground-water discharge often consists of a substantial amount of recirculating seawater. Mixing of fresh and saline ground waters in the context of coastal sediments may alter the chemical composition of the discharging fluid. Depending on the biogeochemical setting, removal of fixed N due to processes leading to N2 (dinitrogen gas) production in the nearshore aquifer and subterranean estuary may significantly attenuate land-derived N loads; or, processes such as ion exchange and tidal pumping in the subterranean estuary may substantially accelerate the transport of both land-derived and sediment re-mineralized N to estuarine water columns. As emphasized by Burnett and others (2001, 2002), a fundamental problem in evaluating the importance of ground-water discharge in marine geochemical budgets is the difficulty of

  5. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  6. Simulation of selected ground-water pumping scenarios at Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    A regional MODFLOW ground-water flow model of parts of coastal Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina was used to evaluate the effects of current and hypothetical groundwater withdrawal, and the relative effects of pumping in specific areas on ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF), coastal Georgia. Simulation results for four steady-state pumping scenarios were compared to each other and to a Base Case condition. The Base Case represents year 2000 pumping rates throughout the model area, with the exception that permitted annual average pumping rates for the year 2005 were used for 26 production wells at Fort Stewart and HAAF. The four pumping scenarios focused on pumping increases at HAAF resulting from projected future demands and additional personnel stationed at the facility and on reductions in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenarios A and B simulate 1- and 2-million-gallon-perday (Mgal/d) increases, respectively, at HAAF. Simulated water-level change maps for these scenarios indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty Counties, Ga., and Beaufort and Jasper Counties, S.C., with maximum drawdowns from 0.5 to 4 feet (ft) for scenario A and 1 to 8 ft for Scenario B. For scenarios C and D, increases in pumping at HAAF were offset by decreases in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenario C represents a 1-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and a 1-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.4 to -4 ft. Scenario D represents a 2-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and 2-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.04 to -8 ft. The simulated water-level changes indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, Liberty, and McIntosh Counties, Ga., and Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S.C. In general, decreasing pumping at Fort Stewart by an equivalent amount to pumping increases at HAAF

  7. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  8. Ground-water program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1955-01-01

    Several recent years of drought have emphasized the importance of Alabama's ground-water supplies, a matter of concern to us all.  So far we have been blessed in Alabama with ample ground-water, although a combination of increased use, waste, pollution, and drought has brought about critical local water shortages.  These problems serve as a fair warning of what lies ahead if we do not take the necessary steps to obtan adequate knowledge of our ground-water resources.

  9. Ground water discharge and nitrate flux to the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Poreda, Robert J; Hunt, Andrew G; Carey, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples (37 to 186 m depth) from Baldwin County, Alabama, are used to define the hydrogeology of Gulf coastal aquifers and calculate the subsurface discharge of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico. The ground water flow and nitrate flux have been determined by linking ground water concentrations to 3H/3He and 4He age dates. The middle aquifer (A2) is an active flow system characterized by postnuclear tritium levels, moderate vertical velocities, and high nitrate concentrations. Ground water discharge could be an unaccounted source for nutrients in the coastal oceans. The aquifers annually discharge 1.1 +/- 0.01 x 10(8) moles of nitrate to the Gulf of Mexico, or 50% and 0.8% of the annual contributions from the Mobile-Alabama River System and the Mississippi River System, respectively. In southern Baldwin County, south of Loxley, increasing reliance on ground water in the deeper A3 aquifer requires accurate estimates of safe ground water withdrawal. This aquifer, partially confined by Pliocene clay above and Pensacola Clay below, is tritium dead and contains elevated 4He concentrations with no nitrate and estimated ground water ages from 100 to 7000 years. The isotopic composition and concentration of natural gas diffusing from the Pensacola Clay into the A3 aquifer aids in defining the deep ground water discharge. The highest 4He and CH4 concentrations are found only in the deepest sample (Gulf State Park), indicating that ground water flow into the Gulf of Mexico suppresses the natural gas plume. Using the shape of the CH4-He plume and the accumulation of 4He rate (2.2 +/- 0.8 microcc/kg/1000 years), we estimate the natural submarine discharge and the replenishment rate for the A3 aquifer.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  11. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    that the scientific management of this ground-water reservoir is the key to permanent irrigation agriculture in the Punjab. The West Pakistan Water .and Power Development Authority has prepared a long-range program for reclaiming the irrigated lands of the Punjab. The essential feature of this program is a proposed network of tubewells (drilled wells) located with an .average density of about one per square mile. Groundwater withdrawals will serve the dual purpose of helping to supply irrigation requirements and of providing subsurface drainage. Despite the feasibility and inherent advantages of tubewell reclamation methods, it is inevitable that just as the superposition of the canal system on the native environment caused undesirable side effects, large-scale ground-water withdrawals again will disturb the hydrologic regimen. The distribtution of withdrawals and maintenance of a favorable salt balance are two distinct, but related aspects of the ground-water budget that present potential hazards that must be considered in the design and management of the tubewell projects. The availability of ground water for irrigation diminishes from northeast to southwest, or downgradient along the doab (an area lying between two rivers) and is negligible in the centers of the lower parts of the doabs, where the ground water is too highly mineralized for use. Ground-water supplies must be developed in areas where they are available and it might become necessary, under a program of maximum exploitation of ground-water resources, to transfer supplies from outside sources to points of use in the lower parts of the doabs. Several factors inherent in the tubewell system will tend to depreciate the quality of ground water with time. Among these are the addition of salts leached from the soils, increased concentration of salts due .to repeated cycles of recirculation, and the possible lateral and upward encroachment of saline water in response to pumping. It is reasonably ce

  12. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  13. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  14. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  15. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  16. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  17. Studies on D-A-π-A structured porphyrin sensitizers with different additional electron-withdrawing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Futai; Wang, Xuexiang; Zhao, Yanming; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Bao; Feng, Yaqing

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of an additional acceptor to a typical donor-π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) type porphyrin sensitizer results in a D-A-π-A featured porphyrin. Two porphyrins containing an additional acceptor with different electron-withdrawing abilities such as 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline (DPQ) for LP-11 and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) for LP-12 between the porphyrin core and the anchoring group have been synthesized for use as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Compared to LP-11, LP-12 with the stronger electron-withdrawing additional acceptor BTD possesses better light harvesting properties with regard to red-shifted Q-band absorption and a broader IPCE spectrum, resulting in a greater short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) output. Interestingly, the steric hindrance of the DPQ group is favorable for suppressing dye aggregation, leading to a larger open-circuit voltage (Voc) value for LP-11-based cell. However, the loss in Voc of LP-12 is overcompensated by an improvement in Jsc. The optimized cell based on LP-12 achieves the better performance with a Jsc of 15.51 mA cm-2, a Voc of 674 mV, a fill factor (FF) of 0.7 and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.37% under standard AM 1.5 G irradiation. The findings provide a guidance for the future molecular design of highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers for use in DSCs.

  18. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Garrett, R.B.; Gerhart, E.C.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Dubois, S.K.; Emett, D.C.; Guhman, A.I.; Neff, L.J.; Sultz, L.G.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1979. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1979 to spring 1980. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  19. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Miller, L. L.; Butler, R.G.; Adams, D.B.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1972-01-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 19), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1971. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1971 to spring 1972. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  20. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Jibson, W.N.; Contratto, P. Kay; Mower, R.W.; Steiger, Judy I.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Emett, D.C.; Sumison, C.T.; Carroll, P.A.; Neff, L.J.; Sandberg, G.W.; Herbert, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report is the sixteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1978. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1978 to spring 1979. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  1. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Bjorklund, L.J.; McGreevy, L.J.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Miller, L. L.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.; Adams, D.B.

    1973-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 25), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1972 and for the 10-year period 1963-72. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the periods spring 1972 to spring 1973 and spring 1963 to spring 1973. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  2. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Jerry C.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Butler, R.G.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.

    1974-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 18), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1973. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1973 to spring 1974. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumison, C.T.; Jibson, W.N.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Bjorklund, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    This report is the thirteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1975. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1975 to spring 1976. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  4. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Jibson, W.N.; Herbert, L.R.; Mower, R.W.; Razem, A.C.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Emett, D.C.; Sumison, C.T.; Carroll, P.A.; DeGrand, M.J.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report is the fifteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see References, p. 13), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1977. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1977 to spring 1978. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  5. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.; Jibson, W.N.; Bolke, E.L.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.; Bjorklund, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    This report is the twelfth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1974. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1974 to spring 1975. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Jibson, W.N.; Mower, R.W.; Razem, A.C.; Cordova, R.M.; Jensen, V.L.; ReMillard, M.D.; Sandberg, G.W.; Sumison, C.T.; Herbert, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    This report is the fourteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 16), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1976. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1976 to spring 1977. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  8. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  9. Fundamentals of Ground-Water Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper presents an overview of the essential components of ground-water flow and contaminant transport modeling in saturated porous media. While fractured rocks and fractured porous rocks may behave like porous media with respect to many flow and...

  10. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  11. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  12. Section 10: Ground Water - Waste Characteristics & Targets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS Training. The waste characteristics factor category in the ground water pathway is made up of two components: the toxicity/mobility of the most hazardous substance associated with the site and the hazardous waste quantity at the site.

  13. Ground-water models cannot be validated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water models are embodiments of scientific hypotheses. As such, the models cannot be proven or validated, but only tested and invalidated. However, model testing and the evaluation of predictive errors lead to improved models and a better understanding of the problem at hand. In applying ground-water models to field problems, errors arise from conceptual deficiencies, numerical errors, and inadequate parameter estimation. Case histories of model applications to the Dakota Aquifer, South Dakota, to bedded salts in New Mexico, and to the upper Coachella Valley, California, illustrate that calibration produces a nonunique solution and that validation, per se, is a futile objective. Although models are definitely valuable tools for analyzing ground-water systems, their predictive accuracy is limited. The terms validation and verification are misleading and their use in ground-water science should be abandoned in favor of more meaningful model-assessment descriptors. ?? 1992.

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  15. Hydrogeology and ground-water flow in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer-system, west-central, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Ardis, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of pre- and postdevelopment water budgets for the regional model indicates that the increase in groundwater withdrawals has captured 20 percent of the water that would have naturally discharged to streams, and 30 percent of the natural discharge to springs after ground-water development. Induced recharge from streams to the ground-water system increased by 12 percent in the postdevelopment simulation compared to the predevelopment simulation.

  16. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  17. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Herbert, L.R.; Bolke, E.L.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series are prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources and are designed to provide data to enable interested parties such as legislators, administrators, and planners to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others (see references, p. 105), contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. It also contains supplementary data that are related to ground-water use in some areas. In reports of this series, the inclusion of such supplementary data as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration is intended only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the calendar year 1967. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1967 to spring 1968. Included for the first time in this series of annual reports is a (1) summation of the withdrawal of water from wells in the 5 years 1963-67 (table 3) and (2) maps and discussions of water-level changes for the 5-year period 1963-68. Many of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Mattapoisett River aquifer, Plymouth County, Massachusetts; Executive summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Lima, Virginia; Olimpio, Julio C.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed increases in municipal pumpage in the Mattapoisett River valley will triple ground-water withdrawals in the next two decades. Because of State and local concern about the long-term effects of these withdrawals on ground-water levels and streamflow, a digital ground-water-flow model was developed to assist water-resource management. Ten development scenarios representing existing and proposed withdrawals were simulated using drought conditions. Under conditions simulating 1965, the driest year of record, predicted water levels in the aquifer are as much as 9 feet lower than average. Under severely dry conditions, simulating only enough recharge to keep the river flowing with no pumping, the predicted water levels are as much as 19 feet lower than average. During the greatest pumping demands, the predicted drawdown in five wells could cause well failure. Simulated pumping demands in six scenarios use all available ground-water discharge. Under severely dry conditions, it is predicted that the downstream half of the river will stop flowing under most pumping plans. (USGS)

  19. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  20. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  1. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  2. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  3. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray

    1974-01-01

    Because significant amounts of ground water are available, the opportunities for expanded and conjunctive use of ground water and surface water should be considered in regional plans for water development and conservation. The complexities of water management and the difficulties of achieving an integrated system of total water management will require additional technical information.

  4. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Because significant amounts of ground water are available, the opportunities for expanded and conjunctive use of ground water and surface water should be considered in regional plans for water development and conservation. The complexities of water management and the difficulties of achieving an integrated system of total-water management will require additional technical information.

  5. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of data and methods presented to evaluate ground-water availability, the Otter Tail and Pineland Sands surficial aquifers and Pelican River sand-plain aquifer have the greatest potential for additional development of ground-water resources in the study area.

  6. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  7. 40 CFR 141.405 - Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water systems. 141.405 Section 141.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.405 Reporting and recordkeeping for ground water systems. (a) Reporting. In addition to...

  8. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  9. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in the upper Arkansas River basin from Buena Vista to Salida, Colorado, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2005-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River Basin between Buena Vista and Salida, Colorado, is a downfaulted basin, the Buena Vista-Salida structural basin, located between the Sawatch and Mosquito Ranges. The primary aquifers in the Buena Vista-Salida structural basin consist of poorly consolidated to unconsolidated Quaternary-age alluvial and glacial deposits and Tertiary-age basin-fill deposits. Maximum thickness of the alluvial, glacial, and basin-fill deposits is about 5,000 feet, but 95 percent of the water-supply wells in Chaffee County are no more than 300 feet deep. Hydrologic conditions in the 149-square mile study area are described on the basis of hydrologic and geologic data compiled and collected during September 2000 through September 2003. The principal aquifers described in this report are the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers. An estimated 3,443 wells pumped about 690 to 1,240 acre-feet for domestic and household use in Chaffee County during 2003. By 2030, projected increases in the population of Chaffee County, Colorado, may require use of an additional 4,000 to 5,000 wells to supply an additional 800 to 1,800 acre-feet per year of ground water for domestic and household supply. The estimated specific yield of the upper 300 feet of the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers ranged from about 0.02 to 0.2. Current (2003) and projected (2030) ground-water withdrawals by domestic and household wells are less than 1 percent of the estimated 472,000 acre-feet of drainable ground water in the upper 300 feet of the subsurface. Locally, little water is available in the upper 300 feet. In densely populated areas, well interference could result in decreased water levels and well yields, which may require deepening or replacement of wells. Infiltration of surface water diverted for irrigation and from losing streams is the primary source of ground-water recharge in the semiarid basin. Ground-water levels in the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers vary seasonally

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium.

  11. Ground water in north Monterey County, California, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Present ground-water demands exceed long-term recharge throughout much of North Monterey County in the shallow Quaternary deposits--principally the upper part of the Aromas Sand--and the overlying alluvium. Recharge occurs largely from local precipitation, although small quantities of potable ground water from outside areas also recharge these aquifers. Water levels in the Pajaro and Salinas River valleys north and south of the study area are lower than most of the intervening area, and recharge from the east is blocked by faults and impervious rock. Ocean water moves in from the west to replace depleted freshwater storage in the upper part of the Aromas Sand, alluvium, and terrace deposits. The North County area was divided into subareas to estimate pumpage demands and to evaluate ground-water yields. Pumpage near the granitic ridge, an area of limited storage, nearly matches local recharge. West of the granitic ridge, pumpage exceeds available recharge but draws upon a large storage potential. Deeper units than those now tapped by wells in the Aromas Sand and the underlying Purisima Formation may have substantial water-bearing potential for additional ground-water development. Extensive development of water from these formations might be limited, however, by the remoteness of the recharge source and by the proximity to the ocean. (USGS)

  12. Studies examine contaminants: Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in ground water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kymm K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water provides approximately 40 percent of the nation’s public water supply, and the total percentage of withdrawals for irrigation has increased from 23 percent in 1950 to 42 percent in 2000. Ground water also is a major contributor to flow in many streams and rivers in the United States and has a substantial influence on river and wetland habitats for plants and animals. Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in the environment recently have been documented to be of global concern with a variety of sources and source pathways.

  13. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Clark, David W.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Guttormson, Kevin; Elizondo, Melanie S.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    This is the twenty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1983. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1983 to the spring of 1984. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  14. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Guttormson, Kevin; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    This is the twentieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1982. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for spring 1982 to spring 1983 and spring 1963 to spring 1983. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  15. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, D.A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Seiler, R.L.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Burden, Carole B.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is the nineteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1981. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the periiod spring 1981 to spring 1982. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, Donald A.; Clark, David W.; Pyper, George; Burden, Carole B.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Sether, B.A.; Eckenwiler, M.R.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    This is the twenty-second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing ground-water level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1984. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1984 to the spring of 1985. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  17. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in Peninsular Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in peninsular Florida was used to (1) test and refine the conceptual understanding of the regional ground-water flow system; (2) develop a data base to support subregional ground-water flow modeling; and (3) evaluate effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on ground-water levels. The four-layer model was based on the computer code MODFLOW-96, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The top layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system as a source-sink layer. The second layer simulates the intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida and the intermediate confining unit where it is present. The third and fourth layers simulate the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, respectively. Steady-state ground-water flow conditions were approximated for time-averaged hydrologic conditions from August 1993 through July 1994 (1993-94). This period was selected based on data from Upper Floridan a quifer wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 5,000-foot cells, with 210 columns and 300 rows.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  19. Effects of irrigation pumping on the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, Marcel P.

    1981-01-01

    Flow in the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana, was simulated in a quasi-three-dimensional model in a study of irrigation use of ground water in the two counties. The ground-water system consists of three aquifers: (1) a surficial coarse sand aquifer known as the Kankakee aquifer, (2) a limestone and dolomite bedrock aquifer, and (3) a sand and gravel bedrock valley aquifer. Irrigation pumping, derived primarily from the bedrock, was estimated to be 34.8 million gallons per day during peak irrigation in 1977. Acreage irrigated with ground water is estimated to be 6,200 acres. A series of model experiments was used to estimate the effects of irrigation pumping on ground-water levels and streamflow. Model analysis indicates that a major factor controlling drawdown due to pumping in the bedrock aquifer are the variations in thickness and in vertical hydraulic conductivity in a semiconfining unit overlying the bedrock. Streamflow was not significantly reduced by hypothetical withdrawals of 12.6 million gallons per day from the bedrock aquifer and 10.3 million gallons per day in the Kankakee aquifer. Simulation of water-level recovery after irrigation pumping indicated that a 5-year period of alternating between increasing pumping and recovery will not cause serious problems of residual drawdown or ground-water mining. 

  20. The role of ground water in generating streamflow in headwater areas and in maintaining base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The volume and sustainability of streamflow from headwaters to downstream reaches commonly depend on contributions from ground water. Streams that begin in extensive aquifers generally have a stable point of origin and substantial discharge in their headwaters. In contrast, streams that begin as discharge from rocks or sediments having low permeability have a point of origin that moves up and down the channel seasonally, have small incipient discharge, and commonly go dry. Nearly all streams need to have some contribution from ground water in order to provide reliable habitat for aquatic organisms. Natural processes and human activities can have a substantial effect on the flow of streams between their headwaters and downstream reaches. Streams lose water to ground water when and where their head is higher than the contiguous water table. Although very common in arid regions, loss of stream water to ground water also is relatively common in humid regions. Evaporation, as well as transpiration from riparian vegetation, causing ground-water levels to decline also can cause loss of stream water. Human withdrawal of ground water commonly causes streamflow to decline, and in some regions has caused streams to cease flowing. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  1. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet

  2. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - User Guide to Modularization Concepts and the Ground-Water Flow Process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Banta, Edward R.; Hill, Mary C.; McDonald, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    MODFLOW is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. Although MODFLOW was designed to be easily enhanced, the design was oriented toward additions to the ground-water flow equation. Frequently there is a need to solve additional equations; for example, transport equations and equations for estimating parameter values that produce the closest match between model-calculated heads and flows and measured values. This report documents a new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW-2000, which is designed to accommodate the solution of equations in addition to the ground-water flow equation. This report is a user's manual. It contains an overview of the old and added design concepts, documents one new package, and contains input instructions for using the model to solve the ground-water flow equation.

  3. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  4. Chemical quality of ground water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Gay, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Cape Cod is a 440 square mile hook-shaped peninsula which extends 40 miles into the Atlantic. Freshwater in Pleistocene sand and gravel deposits is the source of supply for nearly 100 municipal and thousands of private domestic wells. Most ground water on Cape Cod is of good chemical quality for drinking and other uses. It is characteristically low in dissolved solids and is soft. In 90 percent of the samples analyzed, dissolved solids were less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and pH was less than 7.0. Highway deicing salt, sea-water flooding due to storms , and saltwater intrusion due to ground-water withdrawal are sources of sodium chloride contamination. Chloride concentrations have increased from 20 to 140 mg/l, owing to saltwater intrusion at Provincetown 's wells in Truro. In Yarmouth, contaminated ground water near a salt-storage area contained as much as 1,800 mg/l chloride. Heavy metals, insecticides, and herbicides were not found at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's recommended limits for public drinking-water supplies, but iron and manganese in some samples exceeded those limits. Ninety percent of 84 samples analyzed for nitrate reported as nitrogen contained less than 1.3 mg/l and 80 percent contained 0.5 mg/l or less of nitrate as nitrogen. Water containing nitrogen in excess of 0.5 mg/l has probably been affected by municipal or domestic sewage or fertilizer, and water with less than this amount may have been affected by them. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  6. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Support Centersthat were established under the Technical Support Project (TSP). The GWTSC provides technical support on issues related to groundwater. Specifically, the GWTSC provides technical support to U.S. EPA and State regulators for issues and problems related to:1. subsurface contamination (contaminants in ground water, soils and sediments),2. cross-media transfer (movement of contaminants from the subsurface to other media such as surface water or air), and3. restoration of impacted ecosystems.The GWTSC works with Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other decision makers to solve specific problems at Superfund, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Brownfields sites, and ecosystem restoration sites. The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Suppo

  7. Arsenic in ground water of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Lico, Michael S.; Hughes, Jennifer L.

    1988-01-01

    Natural occurrences of ground water with moderate (10 to 50 micrograms per liter) to high (greater than 50 micrograms per liter) concentrations of arsenic are common throughout much of the Western United States. High concentrations of arsenic are generally associated with one of four geochemical environments: (1) basin-fill deposits of alluvial-lacustrine origin, particularly in semiarid areas, (2) volcanic deposits, (3) geothermal systems, and (4) uranium and gold-mining areas. These findings are based on an extensive literature review, compilation of unpublished reports and data, and the review of data bases containing more than 7,000 analyses of ground-water samples for arsenic. In the first two environments, arsenic appears to be associated with sediments derived, in part, from volcanic rocks of intermediate to acidic composition. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in water from volcanic aquifers in the same regions, however, may be low (less than 10 micrograms per liter). Solid phases (minerals, amorphous solids, and sedimentary organic matter) that supply the dissolved arsenic have not been identified in most areas. Alluvial and lacustrine sedimentary deposits appear to be an important source of arsenic in volcanic areas (such as Lane County, Oregon) and in areas underlain by basin-fill deposits (such as Carson Desert in Nevada and the Tulare Lake basin in California). Mobilization of arsenic in sedimentary aquifers may be, in part, a result of changes in the geochemical environment due to agricultural irrigation. In the deeper subsurface, elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with compaction caused by groundwater withdrawals.

  8. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  9. EPA GROUND WATER ISSUE: Ground Water Sample Preservation at ISCO Sites – Recommended Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground water contaminants into harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contai...

  10. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1998 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1998 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  11. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.; Blackburn, D.K.; McSwain, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  12. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Pacific Northwest region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, Bruce L.

    1979-01-01

    Management opportunities in the region include: (1) Development of new supplies and additional uses of ground water; (2) protection and enhancement of water quality; (3) reduction of waterlogging; (4) energy development from some ground-water reservoirs; (5) improving access to the ground water; (6) increased use of underground space for storage and disposal; and (7) greater use of advanced management and conservation techniques. Conjunctive use of surface and ground water to provide greater available supplies probably is the most promising water-management opportunity. However, if the full potential of the ground-water resources is to be realized, important constraints, including present water-right structures and serious deficiencies in information, must be overcome.

  13. Effects of climatic extremes on ground water in western Utah, 1930-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic extremes affect ground-water levels and quality in the basins of western Utah. The five droughts since 1930: 1930-36, 1953-65, 1974-78, 1988-93, and 1999-2004—resulted in much-less-than-average recharge, and the pronounced wet period of 1982-86 resulted in much-greater-than-average recharge. Decreased recharge lowered the ground-water level, and increased recharge raised it. These changes were largest in recharge areas—in discharge areas the water level is relatively constant and the primary effect is a change in the discharge area—smaller during a drought and larger during a pronounced wet period.The largest part of water-level change during climatic extremes, however, is not a result of changes in recharge but is related to changes in ground-water withdrawal. During a drought withdrawals increase to satisfy increased demand for ground water, especially in irrigated areas, and water levels decline. During a pronounced wet period, withdrawals decrease because of less demand and water levels rise. The amount of water-level change in representative observation wells in a basin is generally proportional to the basin’s withdrawal. In undeveloped Tule Valley, water-level changes related to climatic extremes during 1981-2005 are less than 2 feet. In Snake Valley (small withdrawal), Tooele Valley (moderate withdrawal), and Pahvant Valley (large withdrawal), water-level declines in representative wells from 1985-86 to 2005 were 13.4, 23.8, and 63.8 feet, respectively.Ground-water quality is also affected by climatic extremes. In six irrigated areas in western Utah, water-level decline during drought has induced flow of water with large dissolved-solids concentrations toward areas of pumping, increasing the dissolved-solids concentrations in water sampled from observation wells. During the 1982-86 wet period, increased recharge resulted in a later decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations in three basins.

  14. Ground water in Tooele Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.S.; Keller, O.A.

    1970-01-01

    This short report was written by condensing parts of a technical report on the ground water in Tooele Valley, which was prepared as part of a cooperative program between the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the U. S. Geological Survey to study water in Utah. If you would like to read the more detailed technical report, write for a copy of the Utah State Engineer Technical Publication 12, “Reevaluation of the ground-water resources of Tooele Valley, Utah” by J. S. Gates. Copies can be obtained free of charge from the Division of Water Rights, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

  15. Microbiology of potable water and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the microbiology of potable water and ground water is presented. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) and alternate disinfection practices to reduce trihalomethane. Results of studies utilizing GAC columns are reported as well as studies evaluating ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloromines. Virus removal efficiencies were compared with several disinfectants. Ground water studies demonstrate that biological contaminants can travel large distances underground without substantial attenuation by aquifer material.(KRM)

  16. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Importance of ground-water resources.—The importance of Kansas' ground-water resources may be emphasized from various viewpoints and in different ways. More than three-fourths of the public water supplies of Kansas are obtained from wells. In 1939, only 60 out of 375 municipal water supplies in Kansas, which is 16 percent, utilized surface waters. If the water wells of the cities and those located on all privately owned land in the state were suddenly destroyed, making it necessary to go to streams, springs, lakes (which are almost all artificial), and ponds for water supply domestic, stock, and industrial use, there would be almost incalculable difficulty and expense. If one could not go to springs, or dig new wells, or use any surface water derived from underground flow, much of Kansas would become uninhabitable.  These suggested conditions seem absurd, but they emphasize our dependence on ground-water resources. Fromm a quantitative standpoint, ground-water supplies existent in Kansas far outweigh surface waters that are present in the state at any one time. No exact figures for such comparison can be given, but, taking 384 square miles as the total surface water area of the state and estimating an average water depth of five feet, the computed volume of surface waters is found to be 1/100th of that of the conservatively estimated ground-water storage in Kansas. The latter takes account only of potable fresh water and is based on an assumed mean thickness of ten feet of reservoir having an effective porosity of twenty percent. It is to be remembered, however, that most of the surface water is run-off, which soon leaves the state, stream valleys being replenished from rainfall and flow from ground-water reservoirs. Most of the ground-water supplies, on the other hand, have existed for many years with almost no appreciable movement--in fact, it is reasonably certain that some well water drawn from beneath the surface of Kansas in 1940 represents rainfall in

  17. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  18. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  19. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Anderson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Present deficiencies in the ground-water information base are obvious limiting factors to ground-water development in Alaska. There is a need to extend the ground-water data-collection network and to pursue special research into the quantitative aspects of ground-water hydrology in cold regions, particularly the continuous permafrost zone.

  20. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  1. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  2. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  3. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  4. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  5. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  7. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  8. Evaluation of the ground-water flow model for northern Utah Valley, Utah, updated to conditions through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This report evaluates the performance of a numerical model of the ground-water system in northern Utah Valley, Utah, that originally simulated ground-water conditions during 1947-1980 and was updated to include conditions estimated for 1981-2002. Estimates of annual recharge to the ground-water system and discharge from wells in the area were added to the original ground-water flow model of the area.The files used in the original transient-state model of the ground-water flow system in northern Utah Valley were imported into MODFLOW-96, an updated version of MODFLOW. The main model input files modified as part of this effort were the well and recharge files. Discharge from pumping wells in northern Utah Valley was estimated on an annual basis for 1981-2002. Although the amount of average annual withdrawals from wells has not changed much since the previous study, there have been changes in the distribution of well discharge in the area. Discharge estimates for flowing wells during 1981-2002 were assumed to be the same as those used in the last stress period of the original model because of a lack of new data. Variations in annual recharge were assumed to be proportional to changes in total surface-water inflow to northern Utah Valley. Recharge specified in the model during the additional stress periods varied from 255,000 acre-feet in 1986 to 137,000 acre-feet in 1992.The ability of the updated transient-state model to match hydrologic conditions determined for 1981-2002 was evaluated by comparing water-level changes measured in wells to those computed by the model. Water-level measurements made in February, March, or April were available for 39 wells in the modeled area during all or part of 1981-2003. In most cases, the magnitude and direction of annual water-level change from 1981 to 2002 simulated by the updated model reasonably matched the measured change. The greater-than-normal precipitation that occurred during 1982-84 resulted in period-of-record high

  9. Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    distribution of direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds, but still provided a reasonable match to the hydrologic data available for model calibration. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions of watershed areas and ground-water discharge to the salt ponds, additional hydrogeologic data would be required to constrain the model input parameters that have the greatest effect on the simulation results.

  10. Occurrence of microbial indicators in various ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Shadix, L.C.; Newport, B.S.; Crout, S.R.; Lieberman, R.J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) have been collaborating in an ongoing study to research the application of molecular biology techniques versus conventional techniques for monitoring and consequently to obtain ground water microbial occurrence data. The bacterial assays described below were performed during the course of the USEPA/AWWARF study in addition to enteric virus, bacteriophage and Legionella assays to provide occurrence information and also to investigate the potential use of fecal indicator organisms as surrogates for enteric viruses. This paper presents occurrence data obtained for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), fecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) bacteria from samples collected at thirty public ground water supplies.

  11. Ground-water control of evaporite deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of ground-water outflow to inflow (flux ratio) in hydrologically open basins is as important in determining the mineralogy and thicknesses of evaporite deposits as the solute composition of the inflow water. Attainment of steady state flux ratios permits large thicknesses of two or three minerals to form rather than thin veneers of many minerals. -from Authors

  12. IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. n an attemp...

  13. Ground Water Flow No Longer A Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.; Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    Examined are the physical characteristics of ground water movement. Some potential pollution problems are identified. Models are used to explain mathematical and hydraulic principles of flow toward a pumping well and an effluent stream, flow around and through lenticular beds, and effects of pumping on the water table. (Author/MR)

  14. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  15. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  16. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  17. Trace metal concentrations in shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelewski, L.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Armstrong, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metal clean sampling and analysis techniques were used to examine the temporal patterns or Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in shallow ground water, and the relationships between metal concentrations in ground water and in a hydrologically connected river. Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in ground water ranged from 0.07 to 4.6 ng L-1, 0.07 to 3.10 ??g L-1, and 0.17 to 2.18 ??g L-1, respectively. There was no apparent seasonal pattern in any of the metal concentrations. Filtrable Hg, Cu, and Zn concentrations in the North Branch of the Milwaukee River ranged from below the detection limit to 2.65 ng Hg L-1, 0.51 to 4.30 ??g Cu L-1, and 0.34 to 2.33 ??g Zn L-1. Thus, metal concentrations in ground water were sufficiently high to account for a substantial fraction of the filtrable trace metal concentration in the river. Metal concentrations in the soil ranged from 8 to 86 ng Hg g-1, 10 to 39 ??g Cu g-1, and 15 to 84 ??g Zn g-1. Distribution coefficients, KD, in the aquifer were 7900, 22,000, and 23,000 L kg-1 for Hg, Cu, and Zn, respectively. These values were three to 40 times smaller than KD values observed in the Milwaukee River for suspended particulate matter.

  18. Ground Water Sampling for Metal Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Superfund cleanup ractices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on...

  19. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  20. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  1. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  2. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  3. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  4. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Ahtanum Valley, Yakima County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1962-01-01

    , variations in the flow of irrigation ditches and in rates of water application, variations in local precipitation, and seasonal differences in withdrawals from wells. Annual fluctuations of levels generally are less than 10 feet except in localities of heavy pumping. Periodic measurements of water levels in two observation wells in the area indicate, locally at least, a persistent decline in artesian pressures in confined basalt aquifers, although the record is too short to show whether withdrawal by pumping has reached, or is nearing, an optimum balance with recharge. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation, by infiltration from streams, and by ground-water underflow into the area. Ground water is discharged by seepage to streams, by evapotranspiration, by springs and seeps at the land surface, and, artificially, by withdrawal from wells. It is estimated that the seepage discharge to the Yakima River from the area studied may range from about 20,000 to 25,000 acre-feet per year. The consumptive waste of ground water by phreatophytes probably exceeds 4,000 acre-feet per year and may represent a large reclaimable source of water in the area. The annual withdrawal of ground water from wells in the area for domestic, industrial, irrigation, public, and stock supplies is estimated to be 6,300 acre-feet. The chemical quality of the ground water generally is satisfactory for most purposes, although the water from many wells is harder than is desirable for domestic use.

  6. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Yarbrough, John A.; Burden, Carole B.; Garrett, R.B.; Emett, D.C.; Thiros, Susan A.; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W

    1988-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1987. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1987 to the spring of 1988. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Bischoff, D.A.; Smith, Melanie E.; Gerhart, E.C.; Steiger, Judy I.; Appel, Cynthia L.; Jensen, V.L.; Enright, Michael; Allen, David; Emett, D.C.; Sandberg, G.W.; Beard, R.C.; Sultz, L.G.; Eckenwiler, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-table configuration are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1980. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1980 to spring 1981. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  8. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Jensen, V.L.; Wilberg, Dale E.; Burden, Carole B.; Garrett, R.B.; Emett, D.C.; Duncanson, Susan; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W; Herbert, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This is the twenty-third in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1985. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described from the spring of 1985 to the spring of 1986. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilberg, Dale E.; Smith, G.J.; Roark, D. Michael; Lambert, Patrick M.; Jensen, V.L.; Cordy, Gail E.; Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Emett, D.C.; Thiros, Susan A.; Sandberg, G.W.; Puchta, R.W; Herbert, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a Series of annual reports that describe ground-water Conditions in Utah. Reports in the series, prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well Construction, ground-water withdrawals from wells, Water-level changes, and related changes in precipitation and streamflow. Supplementary data such as graphs showing chemical quality of Water and maps showing water-level contours are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.The report includes individual discussions of Selected major areas of ground-water development in the State for the calendar year 1986. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for spring 1986 to spring 1987. Much of the data used in the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Rights, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  10. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples

  11. Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North

  12. Development and use of a mathematical model of the San Bernardino Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardt, William F.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Part of the San Bernardino urbanized area in California overlies formerly swampy lands with a history of flowing wells. This area , upgradient from and adjacent to the San Jacinto fault, contains a zone in an alluvial ground-water basin that is under artesian pressure. Since 1945, withdrawals have exceeded recharge and caused head declines of more than 100 feet. Artificial recharge of imported water in the upgradient areas may cause ground-water levels to rise, which could cause abandoned but unplugged wells to resume flowing. If so, structures could be damaged. A two-layer Galerkin finite-element digital model was used for predicting the rate and extent of the rise in water levels from 1975 to 2000. Six hydrologic conditions were modeled for the basin. Artificial recharge of one-half entitlement and full entitlement from the California Aqueduct were each coupled with low, average, and high natural recharge to the basin. According to model predictions, the greatest water level rises will be along the San Bernardino front. This area encompasses the artificial recharge sites and also has a thick section of unsaturated sediments for storing ground water. The formerly swampy lands between Warm Creek and the Santa Ana River adjacent to the San Jacinto fault have little additional storage capacity, and water levels could rise to the land surface as early as 1983 under maximum recharge conditions and 1970-74 average pumping conditions. If pumping rates are reduced in the Warm Creek area, water levels may rise to land surface prior to the dates predicted by the model, regardless of the artificial-recharge program. (USGS)

  13. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the lower Santa Cruz area, Pinal, Pima, and Maricopa Counties, Arizona, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; English, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The lower Santa Cruz area includes about 5,400 square miles in south-central Arizona and is the second largest agricultural area in the State. The area depends mainly on ground water for irrigation, and in 1976 about 966,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped from the area. As a result of the large-scale long-term withdrawal of ground water, water levels have declined , and the direction of ground-water flow has changed. Since 1923 , declines of nearly 500 feet have occurred near Stanfield. Information shown on the maps (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, specific conductance, fluoride concentration, change in water level (1923-77), and land use. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. User interface for ground-water modeling: Arcview extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsou, M.-S.; Whittemore, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation for ground-water modeling often involves handling large input and output data sets. A geographic information system (GIS) provides an integrated platform to manage, analyze, and display disparate data and can greatly facilitate modeling efforts in data compilation, model calibration, and display of model parameters and results. Furthermore, GIS can be used to generate information for decision making through spatial overlay and processing of model results. Arc View is the most widely used Windows-based GIS software that provides a robust user-friendly interface to facilitate data handling and display. An extension is an add-on program to Arc View that provides additional specialized functions. An Arc View interface for the ground-water flow and transport models MODFLOW and MT3D was built as an extension for facilitating modeling. The extension includes preprocessing of spatially distributed (point, line, and polygon) data for model input and postprocessing of model output. An object database is used for linking user dialogs and model input files. The Arc View interface utilizes the capabilities of the 3D Analyst extension. Models can be automatically calibrated through the Arc View interface by external linking to such programs as PEST. The efficient pre- and postprocessing capabilities and calibration link were demonstrated for ground-water modeling in southwest Kansas.

  15. Ground water currents: Developments in innovative ground water treatment, issue No. 13, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    ;Contents: Ground Water Remediation Center; A solution to bioremediation`s soil plugging; Bioremediation video; VISITT 4.0 update; Update on ZENON pervaporation; and Site search-NAPL contaminated site wanted.

  16. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geolgical Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  17. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1999. Data collected prior to 1999 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-99. At two water-supply wells median water levels for calendar year 1999 were unchanged from their respective baseline periods. At a nearby observation well, the 1999 median water level was slightly lower (0.1 foot) than its baseline period. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1999 were slightly higher (0.2 foot to 1.6 feet) than for their respective baseline periods.

  18. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    LaCamera, R.J.; Locke, G.L.

    1997-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1996. Data collected prior to 1996 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992--96. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1996 were slightly lower (0.3 to 0.4 foot) than for the respective baseline periods. At four other wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1996 were unchanged, slightly lower (0.2 foot), and slightly higher (0.2 and 0.7 foot) than for the respective baseline periods.

  19. SELECTED GROUND-WATER DATA FRO YUCCA MOUNTAIN REGION, SOUTHERN NEVADA AND EASTERN CALIFORNIA, THROUGH DECEMBER 1998

    SciTech Connect

    C.G. Groat

    2000-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  20. Hydrogeology of, and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow In, the Pohatcong Valley, Warren County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.; Gordon, Alison D.

    2007-01-01

    ), chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and tritium-helium age-dating techniques range from 0 to 27 years, with a median age of 6 years. Land-surface and ground-water water budgets were calculated, yielding an estimated rate of direct recharge tothe surficial aquifer of about 23 in/yr, and an estimated net recharge to the ground-water system within the area underlain by carbonate rock (11.4 mi2) of 29 in/yr (10 in/yr over the entire 33.3 mi2 basin). A finite-difference, numerical model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Pohatcong Valley. The four-layer model encompasses the entire carbonate-rock part of the valley. The carbonate-rock aquifer was modeled as horizontally anisotropic, with the direction of maximum transmissivity aligned with the longitudinal axis of the valley. All lateral boundaries are no-flow boundaries. Recharge was applied uniformly to the topmost active layer with additional recharge added near the lateral boundaries to represent infiltration of runoff from adjacent crystalline-rock areas. The model was calibrated to June 2001 water levels in wells completed in the carbonate-rock aquifer, August 2000 stream base-flow measurements, and the approximate ground-water age. The ground-water-flow model was constructed in part to test possible site contamination remediation alternatives. Four previously determined ground-water remediation alternatives (GW1, GW2, GW3, and GW4) were simulated. For GW1, the no-action alternative, simulated pathlines originating in the tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) source areas within the Ground-Water Contamination Site end at Pohatcong Creek near the confluence with Shabbecong Creek, although some particles went deeper in the aquifer system and ultimately discharge to Pohatcong Creek about 10 miles downvalley in Pohatcong Township. Remediation alternatives GW2, GW3, and GW4 include ground-water withdrawal, treatment, and reinjection. The design for GW2 includes wells in the TCE and PCE source areas that wit

  1. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  2. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of the lower Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, James M.; Lazorchick, George J.

    1988-01-01

    than the corresponding averages for the other lithologies. The Cumberland Valley carbonate rocks have the greatest gaining-stream leakage coefficient--about 43 feet per day. The specific yields are 0.035, 0.020, 0.020, and 0.007 for the carbonate, Paleozoic sedimentary, crystalline, and Triassic sedimentary units, respectively. The calibrated model was used to simulate the effects of a ground-water withdrawal of 1 inch per year on water-table altitudes and average annual base flows in the modeled area. The overall effect is least for the carbonate units and greatest for the Triassic sedimentary units. The model also was used to simulate a standardized potential yield for each unit by assuming that the maximum acceptable consequence of a hypothetical withdrawal scheme is an ultimate 50-percent reduction in average annual base flow. Based on this, the potential yield for the modeled area is 891 million gallons per day. The Cumberland Valley carbonate rocks have the greatest potential yield--0.47 million gallons per day per square mile. The carbonate units have the greatest average potential yield, followed by the Paleozoic sedimentary, crystalline, and Triassic sedimentary units. About 90 percent of the eventual decline in water-table altitudes and the eventual reduction in average annual base flows occurs within 5 years of the implementation of the hypothetical withdrawal scheme. Nearly all of the ground water withdrawn is derived from reduced discharge to streams. The calibrated model can be used to estimate the impacts of ground-water development schemes on regional ground-water levels and base flows of streams, it cannot be used to simulate local cones of depression or local base-flow changes. The reliability of the model is a function of its approximation of the physical characteristics of the ground-water flow system, the two calibrations, various simplifying assumptions, and the lack of calibration under ground-water withdrawal conditions, it ca

  3. Evaluation of the ground-water resources of parts of Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, J.M.; Lazorchick, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Secondary openings in bedrock are the avenues for virtually all ground-water flow in a 626-sqare-mile area in Lancaster and Berks Counties, Pennsylvania. The number, size, and interconnection of secondary openings are functions of lithology, depth, and topography. Ground water actively circulates to depths of 150 to 300 feet below land surface. Total average annual ground-water recharge for the area is 388 million gallons per day, most of which discharges to streams from local, unconfined flow systems. A digital ground-water flow model was developed to simulate unconfined flow under several different recharge and withdrawal scenarios. On the basis of lithologic and hydrologic differences, the modeled area was sub-divided into 22 hydrogeologic units. A finite-difference grid with rectangular blocks, each 2,015 by 2,332 feet, was used. The model was calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state calibration was used to determine hydraulic conductivities and stream leakage coefficients and the transient calibration was used to determine specific yields. The 22 hydrogeologic units fall into four general lithologies: Carbonate rocks, metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Triassic sedimentary rocks. Average hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 8.8 feet per day in carbonate units to about .5 feet per day in metamorphic units. The Stonehenge Formation (limestone) has the greatest average hydraulic conductivity--85.2 feet per day in carbonate units to about 0.11 feet per day in the greatest gaining-strem leakage coefficient--16.81 feet per day. Specific yield ranges from 0.06 to 0.09 in carbonate units, and is 0.02 to 0.015, and 0.012 in metamorphic, Paleozoic sedimentary, and Triassic sedimentary units, respectively. Transient simulations were made to determine the effects of four different combinations of natural and artificial stresses. Natural aquifer conditions (no ground-water withdrawals) and actual aquifer conditions

  4. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  5. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  6. Ground-water data for Michigan, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available the records of water levels in principal aquifers of the State through 1976 and to compile related data, such as records of ground-water pumpage. Also included in the report are data on municipal, public, and industrial water-supply facilities. Records of water levels in areas of heavy pumpage and in areas where changes are principally due to natural influences are illustrated or tabulated to allow comparison between these types of water-level fluctuations. Water levels and related data provide a record for the evaluation of available ground-water supplies. The long-term records serve as a framework to which short-term records may be related. This report is written for persons, municipalities, industries, institutions, consultants, drillers, and hydrologists interested in the groundwater resources of the State.

  7. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 7, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    , generally in areas of privately owned land (fig. 1). In many places, deeper wells produce water from underlying volcanic rocks, usually basalt. Most irrigation (fig. 2) is on lowlands next to streams and on adjacent terraces. Generally, lowlands within a few miles of a main stream are irrigated with surface water diverted by gravity flow from the main stream or a reservoir and distributed through a system of canals and ditches. In some areas, water is pumped to irrigate lands farther from the stream at a higher altitude. Along the Snake and Columbia Rivers, large pumping systems withdraw billions of gallons of water per day from the rivers to irrigate adjacent uplands that are more than 500 feet higher than the rivers. Elsewhere, irrigation water is obtained from large-capacity wells, where depth to water might exceed 500 feet below land surface. Aquifers in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, as in most other States, differ considerably in thickness and permeability, and well yields differ accordingly. Ground-water levels in a few areas have declined as a result of withdrawals by wells. State governments have taken steps to alleviate declines in some areas by enacting programs that either limit the number of additional wells that can be completed in a particular aquifer (Ground-Water Management Area) or prevent further ground-water development (Critical Ground-Water Area). Segment 7 includes some of the driest parts of the Nation, as well as some of the wettest. Average annual precipitation (1951-80) ranges from less than 10 inches in arid parts of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to more than 80 inches in the western parts of Oregon and Washington (fig. 3). Most storms generally move eastward through the area. The eastward-moving air absorbs the moisture that evaporates from the Pacific Ocean. As this air encounters the fronts of mountain ranges, it rises, cools, and condenses. Accordingly, the western sides of the mountain ranges receive the most precipitation.

  8. Ground-water reconnaissance of American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Daniel Arthur

    1963-01-01

    The principal islands of American Samoa are Tutuila, Aunuu, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u, which have a total area of about 72 square miles and a population of about 20,000. The mean annual rainfall is 150 to 200 inches. The islands are volcanic in origin and are composed of lava flows, dikes, tuff. and breccia, and minor amounts of talus, alluvium, and calcareous sand and gravel. Tutuila is a complex island formed of rocks erupted from five volcanoes. Aunuu is a tuff cone. Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u are composed largely of thin-bedded lava flows. Much of the rock of Tutuila has low permeability, and most of the ground water is in high-level reservoirs that discharge at numerous small springs and seeps. The flow from a few springs and seeps is collected in short tunnels or in basins for village supply, but most villages obtain their water from streams. A large supply of basal ground water may underlie the Tafuna-Leone plain at about sea level in permeable lava flows. Small basal supplies may be in alluvial fill at the mouths of large valleys. Aunuu has small quantities of basal water in beach deposits of calcareous sand and gravel. Minor amounts of high-level ground-water flow from springs and seeps on Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The generally permeable lava flows in the three islands contain substantial amounts of basal ground water that can be developed in coastal areas in wells dug to about sea level.

  9. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1988-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  10. Ground water and the rural homeowner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    As the salesmen sang in the musical The Music Man, "You gotta know the territory." This saying is also true when planning to buy or build a house. Learn as much as possible about the land, the water supply, and the septic system of the house before buying or building. Do not just look at the construction aspects or the beauty of the home and surroundings. Be sure to consider the environmental conditions around and beneath the site as well. Try to visit the site under adverse conditions, such as during heavy rain or meltwater runoff, to observe the drainage characteristics, particularly the condition of the basement. Many of the conditions discussed in this book, such as lowered well-water levels, flooded basements, and contamination from septic systems, are so common that rural families often have to deal with one or more of them. The purpose of this book is to awaken an interest in ground water and an awareness of where it is available, how it moves, how people can adjust to its patterns to avoid problems, and how it can be protected and used wisely. This booklet provides both present and prospective rural homeowners, particularly those in the glaciated northern parts of the United States, with a basic but comprehensive description of ground water. It also presents problems one may expect to encounter with ground water and some solutions or suggestions for help with these problems.

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  12. Simulation of changes in water levels and ground-water flow in response to water-use alternatives in the Mud Lake area, eastern Snake River plain, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Water users rely on surface and ground water to irrigate crops and maintain wildlife refuges in the 2,200-square-mile Mud Lake study area. Water managers need the ability to evaluate the effects of water-use changes on the future supply of surface and ground water. A five-layer, three-dimensional, finite-difference, numerical ground-water flow model, calibrated to assumed 1980 steady-state hydrologic conditions, was used to evaluate potential effects of seven water-use alternatives on ground-water levels and on losses from and gains to streams and lakes. The model was used to simulate steady-state water levels and ground-water flow for average 1980-90 hydrologic conditions and for seven water-use alternatives that represented changes from average 1980-90 conditions. Five alternatives represented reduced withdrawals from five different sets of wells, the sixth represented increased withdrawals in areas that could potentially support additional irrigation development, and the seventh represented reduced recharge in part of the study area where change from subirrigation to sprinkler irrigation is taking place. Simulated results from each alternative were compared with results for average 1980-90 conditions. Among the five water-use alternatives in which withdrawals from wells were reduced, simulated water levels were 0.1 to 40 feet higher than average 1980-90 conditions. Simulated stream and lake losses were as much as 4,700 acre-feet less and simulated gains were as much as 19,000 acre-feet greater in response to simulated water-level rises. Simulated underflow into the study area was as much as 8,200 acre-feet less and simulated underflow out of the study area was as much as 91,000 acre-feet greater. Simulated water-level declines were as great as 15 feet for the sixth alternative (increased withdrawals) and 10 feet for the seventh (reduced recharge). Simulated stream and lake losses were as much as 5,700 acre-feet greater and simulated gains were as much as 37

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUND WATER EXTRACTION SYSTEMS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common process for remediating contaminated ground water is extraction and treatment. Data from 19 ongoing and completed ground water extraction systems were collected and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this process in achieving cleanup concentration goals for...

  14. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  15. Simulated effects of development on regional ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Amleto A.; Pope, Daryll A.

    1995-05-01

    Stream flow in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey is primarily controlled by ground-water discharge. Ground-water flow in a 400 square mile area (1035 km 2) of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system (PRMA) in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey was simulated to examine development effects on water resources. Simulations showed that historical development caused significant capture of regional ground-water discharge to streams and wetlands. The Cretaceous PRMA primarily is composed of fine to coarse sand, clays and silts which form the Upper and Middle aquifers and their confining units. The aquifer outcrops are the principal areas of recharge and discharge for the regional flow system and have many traversing streams and surface-water bodies. A quasi-three-dimensional numerical model that incorporated ground-water/surface-water interactions and boundary flows from a larger regional model was used to represent the PRMA. To evaluate the influence of ground-water development on interactions in different areas, hydrogeologically similar and contiguous model stream cells were aggregated as 'stream zones'. The model representation of surface-water and ground-water interaction was limited in the areas of confining unit outcrops and because of this, simulated ground-water discharge could not be directly compared with base flow. Significant differences in simulated ground-water and surface-water interactions between the predevelopment and developed system, include; (1) redistribution of recharge and discharge areas; (2) reduced ground-water discharge to streams. In predevelopment, the primary discharge for the Upper and Middle aquifers is to low-lying streams and wetlands; in the developed system, the primary discharge is to ground-water withdrawals. Development reduces simulated ground-water discharge to streams in the Upper Aquifer from 61.4 to 10% of the Upper Aquifer hydrologic budget (28.9%, if impounded stream flow is included). Ground-water discharge to streams

  16. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of Cortland, Trumbull County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, G.J.; Wright, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The city of Cortland lies on the southeast ern shoreline of the 12.3-square-mile Mosquito Creek Lake in Trumbull County, Ohio. Cortland relies upon public wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone for potable water. The Cussewago Sandstone, the principal aquifer in the study area, is a subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake; the unit dips gently towards the southeast. Thickness of the Cussewago Sandstone ranges from less than 20 feet in south-central Bazetta Township to 152 feet in Cortland. The Bedford Shale overlies and confines the Cussewago Sandstone and separates it hydraulically from the Berea Sandstone. The Bedford Shale and Berea Sandstone are not a prolific source of ground water. In places, the Bedford Shale was completely eroded away prior to deposition of the Berea Sandstone. Where the Bedford Shale is absent, such as at the City of Cortland North Well Field, the Berea Sandstone and Cussewago Sandstone are likely in hydraulic connection. Throughout most of the study area, the Cussewago Sandstone is a confined aquifer. Ground-water flow is to the east and southeast. Pumping at both Cortland well fields has created cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. These cones of depression cause a local reversal in ground-water flow immediately east of both well fields. The absence of detectable concentrations of tritium in water samples from wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone at Cortland indicates that ground water predates the atmospheric nuclear testing of the 1950's. Ground water requires about 60 to 110 years to flow from the Cussewago Sandstone subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake to the Cortland public-supply wells. A comparison of aquifer storage and pumpage in the study area shows that the Cussewago Sandstone receives adequate recharge to support current withdrawals by Cortland public-supply wells. In the immediate vicinity of Cortland- between Route 305 and the Bazetta-Mecca Town ship line and between the

  17. Memorandum describing the geology and ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Simpsonville, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, E.G.

    1955-01-01

    The study of the hydrology in the vicinity of Simpsonville was undertaken as a part of the ground-water investigations in cooperation with the Maryland Department of Geology, Mines and Water Resources. It provides ground-water data in addition to those already available, as a basis for a decision by the Maryland Water Resources Commission in regard to the application of an industrial laboratory to appropriate 200,000 gallons of ground water a day at a site about half a mile northwest of Simpsonville (approximately 12 miles southwest of Baltimore). Also, it supplements existing information on the occurrence of ground water in crystalline rocks of the type underlying the site, which are widespread in the Piedmont of Maryland and other States.

  18. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  19. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  20. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  1. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  2. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  3. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  4. An Integrated Modeling Approach for use in Regional Ground-Water-Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackelberg, P. E.; Kauffman, L. J.; Ayers, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Multivariate regression models developed from shallow-ground-water-quality data and explanatory variables that characterize hydrogeology and contaminant loading within a specified distance of well sites can be coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor to assess current and future distributions of contaminants in surficial aquifer systems. The regression models permit current contaminant-loading signatures in the shallow-ground-water system to be estimated on a regional scale from the distribution of explanatory variables. Flow-simulation and particle-tracking results quantify the rate and path of ground-water movement through the aquifer system under current and projected water-use alternatives. By estimating the time required for water to move along specified flow paths, particle tracking allows the rate of advective transport of contaminants throughout the aquifer system to be predicted. This integration of regression and simulation models provides information that is needed to address water-management issues critical to the sustainability of the resource. This integrated modeling approach was applied to a 400-square-mile study area near Glassboro, New Jersey, where a rapidly increasing population and restrictions on withdrawals from deeper, confined aquifers have caused residents to rely increasingly on the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system for domestic and public supply. Nitrate-concentration data from 78 shallow monitoring wells were used to develop multivariate linear regression models that were used to predict the concentration of nitrate in aquifer recharge across the study area. The predictive regression models were coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor. Results of the integrated modeling approach (1) delineate those areas in which concentrations of nitrate in aquifer recharge are expected to be greatest; (2

  5. Electrical-analog analysis of ground-water depletion in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, T.W.

    1968-01-01

    The Salt River Valley and the lower Santa Cruz River basin are the two largest agricultural areas in Arizona. The extensive use of ground water for irrigation has resulted in the need for a thorough appraisal of the present and future ground-water resources. The ground-water reservoir provides 80 percent (3.2 million acre-feet) of the total annual water supply. The amount of water pumped greatly exceeds the rate at which the ground-water supply is being replenished and has resulted in water-level declines of as much as 20 feet per year in some places. The depletion problem is of economic importance because ground water will become more expensive as pumping lifts increase and well yields decrease. The use of electrical-analog modeling techniques has made it possible to predict future ground-water levels under conditions of continued withdrawal in excess of the rate of replenishment. The electrical system is a representation of the hydrologic system: resistors and capacitors represent transmissibility and storage coefficients. The analogy between the two systems is accepted when the data obtained from the model closely match the field data in this instance, measured water-level change since 1923. The prediction of future water-table conditions is accomplished by a simple extension of the pumping trends to determine the resultant effect on the regional water levels. The results of this study indicate the probable depths to water in central Arizona in 1974 and 1984 if the aquifer characteristics are accurately modeled and if withdrawal of ground water continues at the same rate and under the tame areal distribution as existed between 1958 and 1964. The greatest depths to water in 1984 will be more than 700 feet near Stanfield and more than 650 feet in Deer Valley and northeast of Gilbert. South of Eloy and northwest of Litchfield Park, a static water level of more than 550 feet is predicted. The total water-level decline in the 20-year period 1964-84 at the deepest

  6. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  7. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  8. Ground water exfiltration in a river oxbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suck, M.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of the exchange between ground water and surface water in a river oxbow. Implementation and evaluation of the study site are based upon a conceptual model, in which exfiltration into the oxbow and mainly into the adjacent river Spree are supposed as major transport processes. A clogging mud layer in the oxbow with its low hydraulic conductivity controls exfiltration and is the highest hydraulic resistance in the considered aquatic system. The measurement of temperature depth profiles within that layer was one of the methods applied to measure groundwater exfiltration. Because of the different groundwater and surface water temperatures there are temperature differences between the upper and lower boundary of the mud layer. Depending on the extent of ground water exfiltration that depth profile is more or less curved. By adaptation of an analytical solution to the plotted temperature depth profiles the flux rates were calculated. A supplementary method to measure exfiltration, the seepage meter, is used for direct measurements of the flux rates. With that method the ground water flux which passes a defined cross section of the sediment-water boundary is collected. The evaluation of the results yields higher exfiltration rates for the temperature depth profiles than for the seepage meters. For the seepage meters the results show only a part of the actual flux rates because of several error sources. Despite those errors the comparison of the results from both methods shows a similar flux pattern with strong small-scale heterogeneities. At scales of few meters the measured flux rates fluctuate more than an order of magnitude. The flux rates near the bank are frequently higher than in the middle of the oxbow. However, the flux rates are controlled by the thickness of the clogging mud layer, its hydraulic conductivity, its heterogeneity and the water table differences between surface water and adjacent aquifer.

  9. Simulated effects of pumping irrigation wells on ground-water levels in western Saginaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Success of agriculture in many areas of Michigan relies on withdrawal of large quantities of ground water for irrigation. In some areas of the State, water-level declines associated with large ground-water withdrawals may adversely affect nearby residential wells. Residential wells in several areas of Saginaw County, in Michigan's east-central Lower Peninsula, recently went dry shortly after irrigation of crop lands commenced; many of these wells also went dry during last year's agricultural cycle (summer 2000). In September 2000, residential wells that had been dry returned to function after cessation of pumping from large-capacity irrigation wells. To evaluate possible effects of groundwater withdrawals from irrigation wells on residential wells, the U.S. Geological Survey used hydrogeologic data including aquifer tests, water-level records, geologic logs, and numerical models to determine whether water-level declines and the withdrawal of ground water for agricultural irrigation are related. Numerical simulations based on representative irrigation well pumping volumes and a 3-month irrigation period indicate water-level declines that range from 5.3 to 20 feet, 2.8 to 12 feet and 1.7 to 6.9 feet at distances of about 0.5, 1.5 and 3 miles from irrigation wells, respectively. Residential wells that are equipped with shallow jet pumps and that are within 0.5 miles of irrigation wells would likely experience reduced yield or loss of yield during peak periods of irrigation. The actual 1 extent that irrigation pumping cause reduced function of residential wells, however, cannot be fully predicted on the basis of the data analyzed because many _other factors may be adversely affecting the yield of residential wells.

  10. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  11. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  12. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  13. Selected Ground-Water Data of Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985-93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3-2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  14. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992–2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985–93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3–2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  15. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.; Locke, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1995. Data collected prior to 1995 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-95. Compared with baseline periods for the seven wells, median water levels for calendar year 1995 were slightly lower (0.1 to 0.2 foot) at two principal water-supply wells and one observation well nearest to those supply wells, slightly higher (0.2 to 0.5 foot) at three other wells in Jackass Flats, and unchanged at the seventh well.

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of Goshen County, Wyoming; Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.R.; Visher, F.N.; Littleton, R.T.; Durum, W.H.

    1957-01-01

    Goshen County, which has an area of 2,186 square miles, lies in southeastern Wyoming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the county by determining the character, thickness, and extent of the waterbearing materials; the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the ground water; and the possibility of developing additional ground water. The rocks exposed in the area are sedimentary and range in age from Precambrian to Recent. A map that shows the areas of outcrop and a generalized section that summarizes the age, thickness, physical character, and water supply of these formations are included in the report. Owing to the great depths at which they lie beneath most of the county, the formations older than the Lance formation of Late Cretaceous age are not discussed in detail. The Lance formation, of Late Cretaceous age, which consists mainly of beds of fine-grained sandstone and shale, has a maximum thickness of about 1,400 feet. It yields water, which usually is under artesian pressure, to a large number of domestic and stock wells in the south-central part of the county. Tertiary rocks in the area include the Chadron and Brule formations of Oligocene age, the Arikaree formation of Miocene age, and channel deposits of Pliocene age. The Chadron formation is made up of two distinct units: a lower unit of highly variegated fluviatile deposits that has been found only in the report area; and an upper unit that is typical of the formation as it occurs in adjacent areas. The lower unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 95 feet, is not known to yield water to wells, but its coarse-grained channel deposits probably would yield small quantities of water to wells. The upper unit, which ranges in thickness from a knife edge to about 150 feet, yields sufficient quantities of water for domestic and stock uses from channel deposits of sandstone under artesian pressure. The Brule formation, which is mainly a

  17. Ground-water conditions in southern Utah Valley and Goshen Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    The investigation of ground-water conditions in southern Utah Valley and Goshen Valley, Utah, was made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, to investigate the water resources of the State. The purposes of the investigation were to (1) determine the occurrence, recharge, discharge, movement, storage, chemical quality, and availability of ground water; (2) appraise the effects of increased withdrawal of water from wells; and (3) evaluate the effect of the Central Utah Project on the ground-water reservoir and the water supply of Utah Lake.This report presents a description of the aquifer system in the two valleys, a detailed description of the ground-water resources, and conclusions about potential development and its effect on the hydrologic conditions in the valleys. Two supplementary reports are products of the investigation. A basic-data release (Cordova, 1969) contains most of the basic data collected for the investigation, including well characteristics, drillers' logs, water levels, pumpage from wells, chemical analyses of ground and surface waters, and discharge of selected springs, drains, and streams. An interpretive report (Cordova and Mower, 1967) contains the results of a large-scale aquifer test in southern Utah Valley.

  18. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  19. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  20. Ground-water hydrology of the Mormon Island Crane Meadows Wildlife Area near Grand Island, Hall County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Platte River in south-central Nebraska flows generally eastward in a broad, flat valley. The river banks and many areas adjacent to the river support thick stands of cottonwood and willow trees. Brush, grass, pasture land, and cultivated fields occupy most of the remaining area. This is the habitat for many types of wildlife that live in the area or stop over in the area during annual migrations. Both sandhill cranes and whooping cranes are part of the annual migration. There is concern that water-management changes, such as surface-water diversions or ground-water withdrawals for irrigation, may alter the hydrologic environment of the wetland areas and be harmful to the wildlife habitat. In order to determine what affect changes in water management might have on ground-water levels in the wetland areas, detailed data were collected from Crane Meadows Wildlife Area, which is on an island in the Platte River near Grand Island, Nebr. Ground-water levels beneath the island respond to changes in river stage, to recharge from snowmelt and precipitation, and to evapotranspiration by riparian vegetation and from areas where the water table is close to the land surface. The data show that ground-water levels respond rapidly to changes in river stage--usually within 24 hours for distances up to 2,500 feet from the edge of the river. Thus changes in river stage due to changes in surface-water diversions will not have a long-term effect on ground-water levels. Changes in ground-water withdrawals will have the double effect of changing ground-water levels due to changes in drawdown and due to changes in river stage caused by the effects of pumping on river flow. These effects will develop slowly and be long lasting. (USGS)

  1. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  2. Three-dimensional digital-computer model of the principal ground-water reservoir of the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in part of the Sevier Desert, Utah was modeled using a three-dimensional finite-difference model. The model was calibrated by comparing computed and observed water-level measurements in 1952, simulating results of aquifer tests, and simulating ground-water withdrawals during 1952-81 and comparing computed water-level changes during 1952-82 to observed changes. The results indicate the model is capable of predicting future water-level changes. The report includes a complete listing of the model data for the 1952-82 simulation. (USGS)

  3. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  4. The ground-water system in southeastern Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.; Borchert, William B.

    1972-01-01

    Increased development of irrigation wells in southeastern Laramie County, Wyo., has caused concern about the quantity of water available. Ground water from approximately 230 large-capacity wells is used to irrigate most of the 18,165 acres under irrigation. The purpose of this study is to provide more knowledge about the character of the aquifers, quantity of water in storage, rate of withdrawal, and the effect of withdrawals on streamflow. The area studied consists of about 400 square miles in southeastern Laramie County in the extreme southeast corner of Wyoming. The White River Formation of Oligocene age and alluvium of Quaternary age are the principal aquifers. The White River Formation is made up primarily of clay, silt, and fine sand. Secondary permeability in the White River Formation accounts for it being an important aquifer. The alluvium, which Includes terrace and flood-plain deposits, consists of sand and gravel that contain some lenses of silt and clay. Existence of secondary permeability in the White River Formation has been accepted for some time although the nature of the secondary permeability has been disputed. Examination of downhole conditions with a television camera during this study revealed openings in the formation that appeared to be similar to tubes or caverns. The openings were of various sizes and shapes but only a few appeared to be associated with fracturing. Solution activity in the formation probably is an important factor in the development of secondary permeability. The study area was divided into the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area and the Carpenter area. Ground-water movement in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area is generally eastward into Nebraska; in the Carpenter area, movement is generally southward into Colorado. Pumpage from large-capacity wells in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area was estimated to be about 21,790 acre-feet in 1971. Water levels exhibited a declining trend annually in some areas during the period of record. Data indicate that

  5. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  6. Ground-water situation in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, R.C.

    1951-01-01

    The water that occurs beneath the land surface follows definite and well-known rules of hydraulics, the same as water on the surface. However, ground water must be studied by methods, some of which are unique to that type of water occurrence, in order to evaluate the part it plays in the over-all water scheme.Water that falls on the land surface as rain or snow and water that rests upon the surface may in places pass laterally or downward through the pores of the earth materials. There it may take one or more of a variety of paths before again flowing out on the surface or being expelled to the atmosphere by evaporation and by the transpiration of plants. Water so diverted underground is delayed or diverted from its course toward the sea and that digression results in many services of prime importance to mankind. Underground, the water generally exceeds in total quantity the water present on the land surface at any one time.The discussion of ground water can be clarified somewhat by a description of the major parts or phases of the normal path of water underground.

  7. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  8. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  9. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  10. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1994 through September 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1994 through September 1996, with a focus on data from July through September 1996 (third quarter of 1996). A complete database of ground-water withdrawals and chloride-concentration records since 1985 is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Total rainfall for the period July through September 1996 was 8.94 inches, which is 60 percent less than the mean rainfall of 22.23 inches for the period July through September. July and August are part of the annual dry season, while September is the start of the annual wet season. Ground-water withdrawal during July through September 1996 averaged 1,038,300 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1995 averaged 888,500 gallons per day. Ground-water withdrawals have steadily increased since about April 1995. At the end of September 1996, the chloride concentration of water from the elevated tanks at Cantonment and Air Operations were 68 and 150 milligrams per liter, respectively. The chloride concentration from all five production areas increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, and started the upward trend in about April 1995. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations also increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, with the largest increases from water in the deepest monitoring wells. Chloride concentrations have not been at this level since the dry season of 1994. A fuel-pipeline leak at Air Operations in May 1991 decreased total islandwide withdrawals by 15 percent. This lost pumping capacity is being offset by increased pumpage at Cantonment. Six wells do not contribute to the water supply because they are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by a program of ground-water withdrawal and injection.

  11. A digital model for simulation of ground-water hydrology in the Houston area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Walter R.; Carr, Jerry E.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents the construction and calibration of a digital model for the simulation of hydrologic conditions in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston area of southeastern Texas. The model is a five-layer finite-difference model, with a grid pattern of 63 x 67 nodes representing an area of 27,000 square miles, for simulation of three- dimensional ground-water flow. The hydrologic properties and processes modeled were ground-water withdrawals, transmissivities, storage coefficients of the aquifers and clays, quantity of water derived from storage in the clays, and vertical hydraulic conductivity and vertical leakage. The model, which simulates water-level declines, changes in storage in the clay layers, and land-surface subsidence, was calibrated by use of historical records from 1890 to 1975. It is very sensitive to variations in transmissivities and to variations in water-table and artesian storage. It is less sensitive to variations in clay storage.

  12. Developing a state water plan: Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted; Butler, R.G.; Mower, R.W.; Holman, N.B.; Cordova, R.M.; Carpenter, C.H.; Bjorklund, L.J.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.; Sandberg, G.W.

    1965-01-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. It includes individual discussions of the most important areas of ground-water withdrawal in the State for the claendar year of 1964. Water-level fluctuations, however, are described for the period spring 1964 through spring 1965.The report was prepared cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Water and Power Board. Many of the data used in the preparation of the report were collected by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. Some of the data for the number of wells constructed during 1964 were prepared by digital computer from the Utah Resources Information System data bank, University of Utah, using records that were compiled from the files of the Utah State Engineer.

  13. Ground-Water Resources of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Meriana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Saipan has an area of 48 mi2 and is the largest of the 14 islands in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). The island is formed by volcanic rocks overlain by younger limestones. The island is situated in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15?12'N and longitude 145?45'E, about 3,740 mi west-southwest of Honolulu and midway between Japan and New Guinea (fig. 1). The climate on Saipan is classified as tropical marine with an average temperature of 80?F. The natural beauty of the island and surrounding waters are the basis for a growing tourist-based economy. The resulting rapid development and increases in resident and tourist populations have added stresses to the island's limited water supplies. Freshwater resources on Saipan are not readily observable because, aside from the abundant rainfall, most freshwater occurs as ground water. Fresh ground water is found in aquifers composed mainly of fragmental limestones. About 90 percent of the municipal water supply comes from 140 shallow wells that withdraw about 11 Mgal/d. The chloride concentration of water withdrawn from production wells ranges from less than 100 mg/L for wells in the Akgak and Capital Hill well fields, to over 2,000 mg/L from wells in the Puerto Rico, Maui IV, and Marpi Quarry well fields. The chloride concentrations and rates of ground-water production are not currently adequate for providing island residents with a potable 24-hour water supply and future demands are expected to be higher. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island, and water resources on tropical islands in general, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative program with the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation (CUC). The objective of the program, initiated in 1989, is to assess the ground-water resources of Saipan and to make hydrologic information available to the CUC in support of their ongoing efforts to improve the quality and quantity of the municipal water

  14. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  15. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Santa Barbara-Montecito area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1968-01-01

    continued withdrawal by pumping, the quantity of ground water in storage in the Santa Barbara area had decreased to 178,000 acre-feet. Because of a reduction in pumpage, there was little change in storage in the Montecito area between 1959 and 1964. Deep percolation of rain, seepage from streams, and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks are the main sources of recharge to the ground-water reservoir in the Santa Barbara-Montecito area. The most important discharge is by pumping.The long-term perennial yield of the ground-water reservoir of the Santa Barbara area is estimated to be 1,700-2,000 acre-feet. Present data are insufficient to accurately determine the perennial yield of the reservoir in the Montecito area, but it is estimated to be about 2,500 acre-feet. Most ground water in the Santa Barbara-Montecito area is suitable for general use. However, ground water in some of the consolidated rocks and in the shallow unconsolidated deposits adjacent to the coast is too saline for most uses. Seawater intrusion has occurred in the Santa Barbara area and the western part of the Montecito area. The intrusion, however, is limited to the upper part of the nearshore shallow alluvial deposits and contaminates only wells which were constructed without a near-surface seal.

  16. Simulation of projected water demand and ground-water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw-McShan aquifers in Union County, Mississippi, 2010 through 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Strom, E.W.; Burt, D.E.; Mallory, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water from the Eutaw-McShan and the Coffee Sand aquifers is the major source of supply for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes in Union County, Mississippi. Unbiased, scientifically sound data and assessments are needed to assist agencies in better understanding and managing available water resources as continuing development and growth places more stress on available resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, conducted an investigation using water-demand and ground-water models to evaluate the effect of future water demand on groundwater levels. Data collected for the 12 public-supply facilities and the self-supplied commercial and industrial facilities in Union County were used to construct water-demand models. The estimates of water demand to year 2050 were then input to a ground-water model based on the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference computer code, MODFLOW. Total ground-water withdrawals for Union County in 1998 were estimated as 2.85 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of that amount, municipal withdrawals were 2.55 Mgal/d with about 1.50 Mgal/d (59 percent) delivered to residential users. Nonmunicipal withdrawals were 0.296 Mgal/d. About 80 percent (2.27 Mgal/d) of the total ground-water withdrawal is produced from the Eutaw-McShan aquifer and about 13 percent (0.371 Mgal/d) from the Coffee Sand aquifer. Between normal- and high-growth conditions, total water demand could increase from 72 to 131 percent (2.9 Mgal/d in 1998 to 6.7 Mgal/d in year 2050) with municipal demand increasing from 77 to 146 percent (2.6 to 6.4 Mgal/d). Increased pumping to meet the demand for water was simulated to determine the effect on water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw- McShan aquifers. Under baseline-growth conditions, increased water use by year 2050 could result in an additional 65 feet of drawdown in the New Albany area below year 2000 water levels in the Coffee Sand aquifer and about 120 feet of

  17. MODFLOW-2005 : the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model--the ground-water flow process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents MODFLOW-2005, which is a new version of the finite-difference ground-water model commonly called MODFLOW. Ground-water flow is simulated using a block-centered finite-difference approach. Layers can be simulated as confined or unconfined. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapotranspiration, drains, and rivers, also can be simulated. The report includes detailed explanations of physical and mathematical concepts on which the model is based, an explanation of how those concepts are incorporated in the modular structure of the computer program, instructions for using the model, and details of the computer code. The modular structure consists of a MAIN Program and a series of highly independent subroutines. The subroutines are grouped into 'packages.' Each package deals with a specific feature of the hydrologic system that is to be simulated, such as flow from rivers or flow into drains, or with a specific method of solving the set of simultaneous equations resulting from the finite-difference method. Several solution methods are incorporated, including the Preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient method. The division of the program into packages permits the user to examine specific hydrologic features of the model independently. This also facilitates development of additional capabilities because new packages can be added to the program without modifying the existing packages. The input and output systems of the computer program also are designed to permit maximum flexibility. The program is designed to allow other capabilities, such as transport and optimization, to be incorporated, but this report is limited to describing the ground-water flow capability. The program is written in Fortran 90 and will run without modification on most computers that have a Fortran 90 compiler.

  18. Ground water in the Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, J.E.; Worts, George Frank

    1951-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of interpretive reports on the water resources of the major valleys of Santa Barbara County, Calif., prepared by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Santa Barbara County. The first three reports described the other major valleys in the county: the south-coast basins, Goleta and Carpinteria, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez River valleys. This report deals with the Cuyama Valley in the northeastern part of the county and adjoining parts of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and Ventura Counties. It includes estimates of natural discharge, pumpage, and yield of ground water, and all data on water levels, well records, and water quality that were available up to June 1946.

  19. Heterogeneity and thermal modeling of ground water.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Heat transport in aquifers is becoming an increasingly important topic due to recent growth in the use of ground water in thermal applications. However, the effect of heterogeneity on heat transport in aquifers has yet to be examined in the same detail as it has been for solute transport, and it is unclear what effect this may have on our ability to create accurate models. This study examines this issue through stochastic modeling using the geostatistics for two aquifers with low and high degrees of heterogeneity. The results indicate that there is considerable uncertainty in the distribution of heat associated with injection of warm water into an aquifer. Heterogeneity in the permeability field was also found to slightly reduce the ability to recover this introduced heat at a later time. These simulations also reveal that hydrodynamic macrodispersion is an important consideration in some heat flow problems.

  20. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  1. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  2. Ground-water conditions in artesian aquifers in Brown County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drescher, William James

    1953-01-01

    The principal water-bearing rocks underlying Brown County, Wis., are thick sandstone units of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Other aquifers include limestone and dolomite of Ordovician age, dolomite of Silurian age, and sands and gravel of Pleistocene and Recent age. Underlying the water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age which contain little or no water. Ground water is the source of all public and most private and industrial supplies in. the county. Several of the large industries use large quantities of surface water also. Most of the water is pumped from wells that penetrate the Cambrian sandstones where the water occurs under artesian conditions. From 1886, when the first deep well was drilled, to 1949, the pumpage in the county increased to an average of about 5 million gallons a day (mgd) in 1939 and to about 10 mgd in 1949. The piezometric level, which was about 100 feet above the land surface in 1886, was about 300 feet below the land surface in 1949. About 200 feet of this decline took place after 1938. The water-level-measurement program begun in 1946 shows that yearly fluctuations of water levels in observation wells range from less than 1 foot to about 90 feet, the fluctuations being larger at the center of the heavily pumped area. The highest water levels occur in the winter or spring and the lowest in the summer near the end of the season of maximum withdrawal. Coefficients of transmissibility and storage for the sandstones were obtained by making controlled pumping tests at Green Bay and De Pere. The coefficients were verified by comparing computed water-level declines and rates of withdrawal with actual ones. The computed values were within I0 percent of the actual values. Probable declines of water levels by 1960 were computed, using the same coefficients of transmissibility and storage, and assuming three different conditions of pumping. The additional decline in water level will be 15 to 150 feet in the center of the

  3. Hydrogeology and effects of landfills on ground-water quality, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality were evaluated near five land-fills along a 5-mile segment of the Scioto River valley south of Columbus, Ohio. Heterogenous surficial deposits o sand, gravel, and till up to 160 feet thick are hydraulically connected to the underlying Devonian limestone, the landfills and Scioto River, which has been leveed with 12 to 35 feet of refuse. Ground-water withdrawals caused a maximum 21-foot decline in ground-water levels from 1979 to 1982. The study reach of Scioto River within the influence of ground-water pumping is a losing stream, except for s small segment adjacent to one landfill. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference in ground-water quality between wells upgradient of landfills, down-gradient of landfills, and wells penetrating refuse. Elevated specific conductance and concentrations of total dissolved solids, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and dissolved organic carbon in water from wells downgradient from and penetrating landfills indicate leachate production and migration is occurring. Analysis of bed-material samples from Scioto River and Scioto Big Run revealed concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from 220 to 9,440 micograms per kilogram of sediment (?g/kg) and concentrations of toxic metals ranging from 1 to 720 ?g/kg. Samples from an upstream control station on Scioto River contained no organic compounds and lower concentrations of metals (ranging from 1 to 260 ?g/kg). Because of multiple land uses within the study area, organic compounds recovered from the streamed sediments cannot be attributed to any single source. The generation of hydrogen sulfide and methane gases, presence of a zone of increased hardness, elevated concentrations of common ionic species, and dominance of ammonia over other nitrogen species indicate that leachate is being produced and its migrating from four landfills and the river levee. Based on hydraulic relationships between ground water and surface water, it is highly

  4. Ground-water resources of the Clatsop Plains sand-dune area, Clatsop County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1970-01-01

    Although the average annual precipitation of the Clatsop Plains is 78.5 inches, the area is not without problems of water supply. The Clatsop Plains area ix underlain by Tertiary bedrock of low permeability that stores and yields small quantities of ground water, which may be of poor chemical quality. This Tertiary bedrock furnishes only minor ground-water discharge to maintain the base flow of streams. The flow of rivers and creeks, normally abundant during the wet season, decreases greatly during the dry summer months. The lowlands are overlain by extensive deposits of dune and beach sand. The dune sand is permeable and can absorb and store, as fresh water, a large percentage of the annual precipitation. In the central part of the dune area, the saturated thickness of the sand ranges from 95 to more than 150 feet. Most of the ground water in the sand discharges to the ocean through beach-line seeps and underflow. Much of the water now being discharged to the ocean could be recovered by pumping from properly located, designed, and constructed wells. Three test wells drilled as part of this study are capable of yielding 100 gallons per minute although they are equipped with only short lengths of well screen. It is estimated that 2,500 acre-feet of ground water per year per square mile of area may be available for withdrawal in the 10 square mile area that is most favorable for development. The water from the dune sand is soft to moderately hard, has a low chloride concentration, and is of generally good chemical quality; however, at places it is weakly acidic and contains sufficient dissolved iron to make iron removal necessary for some uses. Ground water from shallow depths beneath a few swampy low-lying areas is brown and contains excessive concentrations of iron.

  5. Ground water resources of southeastern Oakland County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferris, J.G.; Burt, E.M.; Stramel, G.J.; Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1954-01-01

    bedrock is covered by glacial drift which ranges in thickness from 25 to more than 350 feet. The drift increases in thickness from southeast to northwest, but considerable relief on the underlying bedrock surface greatly modifies this trend. Extensive moraines, till plains, lake plains, and gravel outwash plains cover the area. In the northwestern third of the area an extensive upland of gravel plains is dotted with lakes ranging from a few feet to more than 100 feet in depth.Precipitation is the perennial source of all water in this area, whether on the surface of underground. The average annual rainfall on the nine-townships is equivalent to a continuous supply of 450 m.g.d. or  9 times the combined annual withdrawal from all wells in the area.About 53 percent of the area is drained by the Clinton River, 44 percent by the River Rouge, and the remaining 3 percent by the Huron River. Less than one-third of the annual precipitation reappears as surface discharge from the watersheds of this area.About two-thirds of the annual precipitation on the area is lost by evaporation from water and land surfaces and by transpirations from vegetative cover. A substantial part of this large annual water loss is from the many lakes and other exposed water surfaces and from contiguous lands where the depth to the water table is slight. Average annual water losses by evapotranspiration are equivalent to about 280 m.g.d. or nearly 6 times the combined withdrawal from all ground-water supplies in the area.The principal aquifers are the alluvial deposits bordering streams and the buried outwash deposits which represent alluvial fills in preglacial or interglacial stream channels. Intensive well developments in the urban areas have greatly lowered ground-water levels in the buried outwash deposits, have brought localized problems of declining well yield, and have induced migration of mineralized waters from the underlying consolidated formations. During 1952, withdrawals of ground water in

  6. Simulating ground water-lake interactions: approaches and insights.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Haitjema, Henk M; Krohelski, James T; Feinstein, Daniel T

    2003-01-01

    Approaches for modeling lake-ground water interactions have evolved significantly from early simulations that used fixed lake stages specified as constant head to sophisticated LAK packages for MODFLOW. Although model input can be complex, the LAK package capabilities and output are superior to methods that rely on a fixed lake stage and compare well to other simple methods where lake stage can be calculated. Regardless of the approach, guidelines presented here for model grid size, location of three-dimensional flow, and extent of vertical capture can facilitate the construction of appropriately detailed models that simulate important lake-ground water interactions without adding unnecessary complexity. In addition to MODFLOW approaches, lake simulation has been formulated in terms of analytic elements. The analytic element lake package had acceptable agreement with a published LAKI problem, even though there were differences in the total lake conductance and number of layers used in the two models. The grid size used in the original LAKI problem, however, violated a grid size guideline presented in this paper. Grid sensitivity analyses demonstrated that an appreciable discrepancy in the distribution of stream and lake flux was related to the large grid size used in the original LAKI problem. This artifact is expected regardless of MODFLOW LAK package used. When the grid size was reduced, a finite-difference formulation approached the analytic element results. These insights and guidelines can help ensure that the proper lake simulation tool is being selected and applied.

  7. Simulating ground water-lake interactions: Approaches and insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Haitjema, H.M.; Krohelski, J.T.; Feinstein, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Approaches for modeling lake-ground water interactions have evolved significantly from early simulations that used fixed lake stages specified as constant head to sophisticated LAK packages for MODFLOW. Although model input can be complex, the LAK package capabilities and output are superior to methods that rely on a fixed lake stage and compare well to other simple methods where lake stage can be calculated. Regardless of the approach, guidelines presented here for model grid size, location of three-dimensional flow, and extent of vertical capture can facilitate the construction of appropriately detailed models that simulate important lake-ground water interactions without adding unnecessary complexity. In addition to MODFLOW approaches, lake simulation has been formulated in terms of analytic elements. The analytic element lake package had acceptable agreement with a published LAK1 problem, even though there were differences in the total lake conductance and number of layers used in the two models. The grid size used in the original LAK1 problem, however, violated a grid size guideline presented in this paper. Grid sensitivity analyses demonstrated that an appreciable discrepancy in the distribution of stream and lake flux was related to the large grid size used in the original LAK1 problem. This artifact is expected regardless of MODFLOW LAK package used. When the grid size was reduced, a finite-difference formulation approached the analytic element results. These insights and guidelines can help ensure that the proper lake simulation tool is being selected and applied.

  8. The ground water ammonium sorption onto Croatian and Serbian clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Siljeg, Mario; Foglar, Lucija; Kukucka, Miroslav

    2010-06-15

    The removal of ammonium from the Valpovo region ground water (VGW) with the use of natural clinoptilolite samples from the Donje Jesenje deposit (Croatia) and the Zlatokop deposit in Vranjska Banja (Serbia) was studied. The natural Serbian (SZ) and Croatian zeolites (CZ) were transformed to the Na-form (Na-CZ and Na-SZ) in order to increase the exchange capacity of zeolite. The CZ and SZ theoretic ammonium sorption capacities were 24.24 mg NH(4)(+)/g CZ and 32.55 mg NH(4)(+)/g SZ, respectively. The application of natural and Na-form of clinoptilolite for efficient removal of ammonium ions from VGW was further investigated. For that purpose, the four "filter guard" vessels filled with zeolite samples were set in parallel in the ground water purification pilot plant. The complete ammonium removal, with the use of SZ and Na-SZ was achieved during 20 h. After having observed saturation of clinoptilolite, the samples were regenerated with the use of 2 mol/L NaCl, and reused for determination of ammonium sorption efficiency. The regenerated samples showed to be still very efficient for NH(4)(+) removal and, in addition, the SZ was shown as superior for ammonium removal in comparison to the CZ.

  9. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  10. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  11. Preliminary report on ground water in the Michaud Flats Project, Power County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.W.; Nace, Raymond L.; Deutsch, Morris

    1952-01-01

    The Michaud Flats Project area, as here described, includes about 65 square miles in central Power County, south of the Snake River in the southeastern Snake River Plain of Idaho. The principal town and commercial center of the area is American Falls. The immediate purpose of work in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey was to investigate the possibility of developing substantial quantities of ground water for irrigating high and outlying lands in the proposed Michaud Flats Project area of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Initial findings are sufficiently favorable to warrant comprehensive further investigation. Advanced study would assist proper utilization of ground-water resources and would aid ultimate evaluation of total water resources available in the area. About 10,000 acres of low-lying lands in the Michaud Flats project could be irrigated with water from the Snake River under a low-line distribution system involving a maximum pumping lift of about 200 feet above the river. An additional larger area of high and outlying lands is suitable for irrigation with water pumped from wells. If sufficient ground water is economically available, the expense of constructing and operating a costly highline distribution system for surface water could be saved. Reconnaissance of the ground-water geology of the area disclosed surface outcrops of late Cenozoic sedimentary, pyroclastic, and volcanic rocks. Well logs and test borings show that similar materials are present beneath the land surface in the zone of saturation. Ground water occurs under perched, unconfined, and confined (artesian) conditions, but the aquifers have not been adequately explored. Existing irrigation wells, 300 feet or less in depth, yield several hundred to 1,400 gallons of water a minute, with pumping drawdowns of 6 to 50 feet, and perhaps more. A few wells have been pumped out at rates of less than 800 gallons a minute. Scientific well-construction and development methods would lead to more

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  14. STATE WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM: GROUND WATER RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, James S.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper updates a review of the accomplishments of the State Water Resources Research Program in ground water contamination research. The aim is to assess the progress made towards understanding the mechanisms of ground water contamination and based on this understanding, to suggest procedures for the prevention and control of ground water contamination. The following research areas are covered: (1) mechanisms of organic contaminant transport in the subsurface environment; (2) bacterial and viral contamination of ground water from landfills and septic tank systems; (3) fate and persistence of pesticides in the subsurface; (4) leachability and transport of ground water pollutants from coal production and utilization; and (5) pollution of ground water from mineral mining activities.

  15. An Online Interactive Map Service for Displaying Ground-Water Conditions in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the availability of the nation's ground-water supplies is of critical importance to planners and water managers. The general public also has an interest in understanding the status of ground-water conditions, especially in the semi-arid Southwestern United States where much of the water used by municipalities and agriculture comes from the subsurface. Unlike surface-water indicators such as stage or discharge, ground-water conditions may be more difficult to assess and present. Individual well observations may only represent conditions in a limited area surrounding the well and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well measurement interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many years, depending on recharge, soil properties and depth to the water table. This lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions combined with differing time scales of water-level changes makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. In this report, we describe a publicly-available online interactive map service that presents several different layers of ground-water-conditions information for the alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona (http://montezuma.wr.usgs.gov/website/azgwconditions/). These data layers include wells experiencing water-level decline, wells experiencing water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, change in water level since predevelopment and change in storage since predevelopment. Recent pumpage totals and projected population numbers are also provided for ground-water basins and counties in the region of the Lower Colorado River in Arizona along with a bibliography

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  17. Present and proposed ground-water-level program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamik, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A statewide observation-well program was designed for Maine. Three networks were designed to provide reliable data to describe the effects of natural and manmade stress on water levels in the State. They are a climatic-effects network, a terrain-effects network, and a local-effects network. Review of the 32 observation wells in the current program showed that only 17 wells should be retained. Each of these wells was assigned to one of the three types of networks. Fourteen wells were deactivated because of reliability problems and one was deactivated because it provided redundant data. The installation of seven additional wells in climatic-effects network is the highest priority of the proposed program. The next priority is to install 22 additional wells in the terrain-effects network. Implementation of local-effects network sites will be responsive to increases in ground-water usage and the data needs of water-resources managers. (USGS)

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow and evaluation of water-management alternatives in the Assabet River Basin, Eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-supply withdrawals and wastewater disposal in the Assabet River Basin in eastern Massachusetts alter the flow and water quality in the basin. Wastewater discharges and stream-flow depletion from ground-water withdrawals adversely affect water quality in the Assabet River, especially during low-flow months (late summer) and in headwater areas. Streamflow depletion also contributes to loss of aquatic habitat in tributaries to the river. In 19972001, water-supply withdrawals averaged 9.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Wastewater discharges to the Assabet River averaged 11 Mgal/d and included about 5.4 Mgal/d that originated from sources outside of the basin. The effects of current (2004) and future withdrawals and discharges on water resources in the basin were investigated in this study. Steady-state and transient ground-water-flow models were developed, by using MODFLOW-2000, to simulate flow in the surficial glacial deposits and underlying crystalline bedrock in the basin. The transient model simulated the average annual cycle at dynamic equilibrium in monthly intervals. The models were calibrated to 19972001 conditions of water withdrawals, wastewater discharges, water levels, and nonstorm streamflow (base flow plus wastewater discharges). Total flow through the simulated hydrologic system averaged 195 Mgal/d annually. Recharge from precipitation and ground-water discharge to streams were the dominant inflow and outflow, respectively. Evapotranspiration of ground water from wetlands and non-wetland areas also were important losses from the hydrologic system. Water-supply withdrawals and infiltration to sewers averaged 5 and 1.3 percent, respectively, of total annual out-flows and were larger components (12 percent in September) of the hydrologic system during low-flow months. Water budgets for individual tributary and main stem subbasins identified areas, such as the Fort Meadow Brook and the Assabet Main Stem Upper subbasins, where flows resulting from

  19. The role of ground water in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eberhard; Xu, Yongxin

    2010-01-01

    Although water resources managers speak of a water crisis in Africa, the management of ground water has to date not featured strongly in national and regional African water agendas. Examination of the physical environment of the continent and, in particular, the water resources in relation to the socioeconomic landscape and regional development challenges makes it clear that widely occurring, albeit largely low-yielding, ground water resources will be crucial in the achievement of water security and development. Ground water is important primarily in domestic water and sanitation services, but also for other local productive needs like community gardens, stock watering, and brick-making, all essential to secure a basic livelihood and thus to alleviate poverty. Despite the importance of small-scale farming in Africa, there is little information on the present and potential role of ground water in agriculture. In contrast to its socioeconomic and ecological importance, ground water has remained a poorly understood and managed resource. Widespread contamination of ground water resources is occurring, and the important environmental services of ground water are neglected. There appear to be critical shortcomings in the organizational framework and the building of institutional capacity for ground water. Addressing this challenge will require a much clearer understanding and articulation of ground water's role and contribution to national and regional development objectives and an integrated management framework, with top-down facilitation of local actions.

  20. Progress in ground-water protection and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Since issuing EPA's 'Ground-Water Protection Strategy' in 1984, the Agency has made significant strides in the protection of ground-water resources, both in implementing the ground-water related statutory authorities and in developing new EPA initiatives and activities. States also have made great progress in developing their own ground-water protection strategies and wellhead protection programs. Despite the progress already made in the protection and restoration of ground water, as documented in the report, much remains to be done--especially with respect to preventing pollution of ground-water resources. On July 18, 1989, a ground-water task force with the primary goal to develop a strategy for the direction EPA will take in ground-water protection. The strategy will incorporate recommendations and initiatives to ensure effective and consistent decision-making in all Agency actions affecting the resource, guide us as we deal with future ground-water issues, and assure that a clean and safe source of water will be available to all Americans and to the ecological systems on which we depend.

  1. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  2. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  3. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  5. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing residential development since in the 1960s has lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water in parts of the 247 square mile study area near La Pine, Oregon. Denitrification is the dominant nitrate-removal process that occurs in suboxic ground water, and suboxic ground water serves as a barrier to transport of most nitrate in the aquifer. Oxic ground water, on the other hand, represents a potential pathway for nitrate transport from terrestrial recharge areas to the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers. The effects of present and potential future discharge of ground-water nitrate into the nitrogen-limited Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers are not known. However, additions of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited rivers can lead to increases in primary productivity which, in turn, can increase the magnitudes of dissolved oxygen and pH swings in river water. An understanding of the distribution of oxic ground water in the near-river environment could facilitate understanding the vulnerability of these rivers and could be a useful tool for management of these rivers. In this study, transects of temporary wells were installed in sub-river sediments beneath the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers near La Pine to characterize near-river reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions near the ends of ground-water flow paths. Samples from transects installed near the center of the riparian zone or flood plain were consistently suboxic. Where transects were near edges of riparian zones, most ground-water samples also were suboxic. Oxic ground water (other than hyporheic water) was uncommon, and was only detected near the outside edge of some meander bends. This pattern of occurrence likely reflects geochemical controls throughout the aquifer as well as geochemical processes in the microbiologically active riparian zone near the end of ground-water flow paths. Younger, typically less reduced ground water generally enters near-river environments through

  6. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  7. Ground-water geology of the Gonaives Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1950-01-01

    marked by a water table. The depth to the water table beneath the alluvial lowland of the plain ranges from less than one meter to about 20 meters. In most places in the plain the depth to water is less that 15 meters. Where present in the zone of saturation the coarse, well-sorted sand and gravel beds of the alluvium will probably yield moderate to large supplies of water to wells and infiltration galleries. The individual yields of existing wells range from a few liters to about 60 liters per second. The most favorable part of the plain for ground-water prospecting and development lies 5 to 10 kilometers northeast of Gonaives. In this area yields of 10 to 50 liters per second could be obtained from the alluvium in simple wells drilled to depths of about 35 to 45 meters. Additional information on the yield and physical character of aquifers in the alluvium would be provided by test wells drilled to depths of 40 to 60 meters.

  8. Denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Hwang, H.-H.; Johnson, T.M.; Sanford, R.A.; Beaumont, W.C.; Holm, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonpoint-source pollution of surface water by N is considered a major cause of hypoxia. Because Corn Belt watersheds have been identified as major sources of N in the Mississippi River basin, the fate and transport of N from midwestern agricultural watersheds have received considerable interest. The fate and transport of N in the shallow ground water of these watersheds still needs additional research. Our purpose was to estimate denitrification in the shallow ground water of a tile-drained, Corn Belt watershed with fine-grained soils. Over a 3-yr period, N was monitored in the surface and ground water of an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. A significant amount of N was transported past the tile drains and into shallow ground water. The ground water nitrate was isotopically heavier than tile drain nitrate, which can be explained by denitrification in the subsurface. Denitrifying bacteria were found at depths to 10 m throughout the watershed. Laboratory and push-pull tests showed that a significant fraction of nitrate could be denitrified rapidly. We estimated that the N denitrified in shallow ground water was equivalent to 0.3 to 6.4% of the applied N or 9 to 27% of N exported via surface water. These estimates varied by water year and peaked in a year of normal precipitation after 2 yr of below average precipitation. Three years of monitoring data indicate that shallow ground water in watersheds with fine-grained soils may be a significant N sink compared with N exported via surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  9. Availability of ground water in parts of the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinwiddie, George A.; Motts, Ward Sundt

    1964-01-01

    The need for additional water has increased in recent years on the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations in west-central New Mexico because the population and per capita use of water have increased; the tribes also desire water for light industry, for more modern schools, and to increase their irrigation program. Many wells have been drilled in the area, but most have been disappointing because of small yields and poor chemical quality of the water. The topography in the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations is controlled primarily by the regional and local dip of alternating beds of sandstone and shale and by the igneous complex of Mount Taylor. The entrenched alluvial valley along the Rio San Jose, which traverses the area, ranges in width from about 0.4 mile to about 2 miles. The climate is characterized by scant rainfall, which occurs mainly in summer, low relative humidity, and large daily fluctuations of temperature. Most of the surface water enters the area through the Rio San Jose. The average annual streamflow past the gaging station Rio San Jose near Grants, N. Mex. is about 4,000 acre-feet. Tributaries to the Rio San Jose within the area probably contribute about 1,000 acre-feet per year. At the present time, most of the surface water is used for irrigation. Ground water is obtained from consolidated sedimentary rocks that range in age from Triassic to Cretaceous, and from unconsolidated alluvium of Quaternary age. The principal aquifers are the Dakota Sandstone, the Tres Hermanos Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and the alluvium. The Dakota Sandstone yields 5 to 50 gpm (gallons per minute) of water to domestic and stock wells. The Tres Hermanos sandstone Member generally yields 5 to 20 gpm of