Science.gov

Sample records for additional hardware cost

  1. Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The full complement of EDOMP investigations called for a broad spectrum of flight hardware ranging from commercial items, modified for spaceflight, to custom designed hardware made to meet the unique requirements of testing in the space environment. In addition, baseline data collection before and after spaceflight required numerous items of ground-based hardware. Two basic categories of ground-based hardware were used in EDOMP testing before and after flight: (1) hardware used for medical baseline testing and analysis, and (2) flight-like hardware used both for astronaut training and medical testing. To ensure post-landing data collection, hardware was required at both the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) landing sites. Items that were very large or sensitive to the rigors of shipping were housed permanently at the landing site test facilities. Therefore, multiple sets of hardware were required to adequately support the prime and backup landing sites plus the Johnson Space Center (JSC) laboratories. Development of flight hardware was a major element of the EDOMP. The challenges included obtaining or developing equipment that met the following criteria: (1) compact (small size and light weight), (2) battery-operated or requiring minimal spacecraft power, (3) sturdy enough to survive the rigors of spaceflight, (4) quiet enough to pass acoustics limitations, (5) shielded and filtered adequately to assure electromagnetic compatibility with spacecraft systems, (6) user-friendly in a microgravity environment, and (7) accurate and efficient operation to meet medical investigative requirements.

  2. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 5: Modification of existing hardware (COTS) versus new hardware build cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The JSC Life Sciences Project Division has been directly supporting NASA Headquarters, Life Sciences Division, in the preparation of data from JSC and ARC to assist in defining the Space Biology Initiative (SBI). GE Government Services and Horizon Aerospace have provided contract support for the development and integration of review data, reports, presentations, and detailed supporting data. An SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review at NASA Headquarters, Code B, has been scheduled for the June-July 1989 time period. In a previous NASA Headquarters review, NASA determined that additional supporting data would be beneficial to determine the potential advantages in modifying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware for some SBI hardware items. In order to meet the demands of program implementation planning with the definition review in late spring of 1989, the definition trade study analysis must be adjusted in scope and schedule to be complete for the SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review. The relative costs of modifying existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware is compared to fabricating new hardware. An historical basis for new build versus modifying COTS to meet current NMI specifications for manned space flight hardware is surveyed and identified. Selected SBI hardware are identified as potential candidates for off-the-shelf modification and statistical estimates on the relative cost of modifying COTS versus new build are provided.

  3. Weight and the Future of Space Flight Hardware Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Frank A.

    2003-01-01

    Weight has been used as the primary input variable for cost estimating almost as long as there have been parametric cost models. While there are good reasons for using weight, serious limitations exist. These limitations have been addressed by multi-variable equations and trend analysis in models such as NAFCOM, PRICE, and SEER; however, these models have not be able to address the significant time lags that can occur between the development of similar space flight hardware systems. These time lags make the cost analyst's job difficult because insufficient data exists to perform trend analysis, and the current set of parametric models are not well suited to accommodating process improvements in space flight hardware design, development, build and test. As a result, people of good faith can have serious disagreement over the cost for new systems. To address these shortcomings, new cost modeling approaches are needed. The most promising approach is process based (sometimes called activity) costing. Developing process based models will require a detailed understanding of the functions required to produce space flight hardware combined with innovative approaches to estimating the necessary resources. Particularly challenging will be the lack of data at the process level. One method for developing a model is to combine notional algorithms with a discrete event simulation and model changes to the total cost as perturbations to the program are introduced. Despite these challenges, the potential benefits are such that efforts should be focused on developing process based cost models.

  4. Estimating the cost of major ongoing cost plus hardware development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Approaches are developed for forecasting the cost of major hardware development programs while these programs are in the design and development C/D phase. Three approaches are developed: a schedule assessment technique for bottom-line summary cost estimation, a detailed cost estimation approach, and an intermediate cost element analysis procedure. The schedule assessment technique was developed using historical cost/schedule performance data.

  5. Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of soft-tissue versus hardware biceps tenodesis: is hardware tenodesis worth the cost?

    PubMed

    Elkousy, Hussein; Romero, Jose A; Edwards, T Bradley; Gartsman, Gary M; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the failure rate of soft-tissue versus hardware fixation of biceps tenodesis by ultrasound to determine if the expense of a hardware tenodesis technique is warranted. Seventy-two patients that underwent arthroscopic biceps tenodesis over a 3-year period were evaluated using postoperative ultrasonography and clinical examination. The tenodesis technique employed was either a soft-tissue technique with sutures or an interference screw technique using hardware based on surgeon preference. Patient age was 57.9 years on average with ultrasound and clinical examination done at an average of 9.3 months postoperatively. Thirty-one patients had a hardware technique and 41 a soft-tissue technique. Overall, 67.7% of biceps tenodesis done with hardware were intact, compared with 75.6% for the soft-tissue technique by ultrasound (P = .46). Clinical evaluation indicated that 80.7% of hardware techniques and 78% of soft-tissue techniques were intact. Average material cost to the hospital for the hardware technique was $514.32, compared with $32.05 for the soft-tissue technique. Biceps tenodesis success, as determined by clinical deformity and ultrasound, was not improved using hardware as compared to soft-tissue techniques. Soft-tissue techniques are equally efficacious and more cost effective than hardware techniques. PMID:24551861

  6. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  7. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  8. Hardware additions to microprocessor architecture aid software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    An address trap (breakpoint) mechanism and last-in-first-out (LIFO) address stack are suggested as two additions to the basic microprocessor architecture whose functions are solely to aid the programmer. These devices provide the programmer with the ability to specify address breakpoints and to trace program execution back through N instructions, where N is the depth of the stack. Both devices, plus interface logic and buffering, have been designed for an INTEL 8080-based system using approximately 25 integrated-circuit packages.

  9. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

  10. Clicker Hardware: How does it work? What does it cost?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubson, M.

    2004-05-01

    I will give a live demonstration of the electronic audience feedback system manufactured by H-ITT (details at www.h-itt.com), now widely used at U.Colorado at Boulder. Audience members will be given IR transmitters, ``clickers," and will be asked to vote on multiple-choice questions. Costs of installation and maintainance of the system, logistical problems of registering and tracking large numbers of clickers, and other start-up issues will be discussed. Finally, I'll compare two audience feedback systems: this high-tech, expensive clicker system and a cheap colored-card system. Supported by the Faculty Teaching Excellence Program (FTEP) at U.Colorado at Boulder.

  11. Recycling Flight Hardware Components and Systems to Reduce Next Generation Research Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Wlat

    2011-01-01

    With the recent 'new direction' put forth by President Obama identifying NASA's new focus in research rather than continuing on a path to return to the Moon and Mars, the focus of work at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) may be changing dramatically. Research opportunities within the micro-gravity community potentially stands at the threshold of resurgence when the new direction of the agency takes hold for the next generation of experimenters. This presentation defines a strategy for recycling flight experiment components or part numbers, in order to reduce research project costs, not just in component selection and fabrication, but in expediting qualification of hardware for flight. A key component of the strategy is effective communication of relevant flight hardware information and available flight hardware components to researchers, with the goal of 'short circuiting' the design process for flight experiments

  12. Low cost electrode development and performance in Ballard advanced stack hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hards, G.A.; Ralph, T.R.; Wilkinson, D.P.; Campbell, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Cost reduction is a critical requirement for the widespread commercial application of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Significant stack cost savings are available through materials cost reductions and the development of low cost, high volume, manufacturing processes. This paper summarizes progress made by Ballard Power Systems and Johnson Matthey in the development of lower cost stack component technology. Single cell performance in Ballard Mark V hardware, of membrane electrode assemblies (NEAs) employing volume manufactured electrodes with catalyst loadings below 1.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}, are comparable to current stack MEAs comprising unsupported platinum based catalysts with loadings of 8.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}. In the advanced stack hardware, under development for motive and utility applications, the low cost MEAs exhibit high performance and minimal voltage decays after over 3,000 hours of stack operation. Cell to cell reproducibility is excellent, highlighting the high consistency of product available from the manufacturing processes. The MEAs represent a significant progress in the commercialization of PEMFC systems. Incorporation of the technology in commercial prototype stacks is underway.

  13. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  14. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  15. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  16. A Soft Sell for Hardware: The Use of Microcomputer Technology for Cost Effective Special Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosemary; Ragghianti, Suzanne

    The role of the computer as manager of instruction in special education is discussed. In Part 1, basic computer terms are introduced under the major headings of data measurement, hardware, and software. Part 2 focuses on selection criteria for microcomputers. Suggestions for evaluating software are given in terms of ease of use, documentation,…

  17. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  19. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  20. Human wound photogrammetry with low-cost hardware based on automatic calibration of geometry and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Brandenburg, Vincent; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Photographic documentation and image-based wound assessment is frequently performed in medical diagnostics, patient care, and clinical research. To support quantitative assessment, photographic imaging is based on expensive and high-quality hardware and still needs appropriate registration and calibration. Using inexpensive consumer hardware such as smartphone-integrated cameras, calibration of geometry, color, and contrast is challenging. Some methods involve color calibration using a reference pattern such as a standard color card, which is located manually in the photographs. In this paper, we adopt the lattice detection algorithm by Park et al. from real world to medicine. At first, the algorithm extracts and clusters feature points according to their local intensity patterns. Groups of similar points are fed into a selection process, which tests for suitability as a lattice grid. The group which describes the largest probability of the meshes of a lattice is selected and from it a template for an initial lattice cell is extracted. Then, a Markov random field is modeled. Using the mean-shift belief propagation, the detection of the 2D lattice is solved iteratively as a spatial tracking problem. Least-squares geometric calibration of projective distortions and non-linear color calibration in RGB space is supported by 35 corner points of 24 color patches, respectively. The method is tested on 37 photographs taken from the German Calciphylaxis registry, where non-standardized photographic documentation is collected nationwide from all contributing trial sites. In all images, the reference card location is correctly identified. At least, 28 out of 35 lattice points were detected, outperforming the SIFT-based approach previously applied. Based on these coordinates, robust geometry and color registration is performed making the photographs comparable for quantitative analysis.

  1. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  2. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocation of indirect costs to sponsored research and development. (3) The cost of IR & D, including its proportionate share of indirect costs, is unallowable. (End of... are allowable as indirect costs. (3) B & P costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  3. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  4. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  5. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  6. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  7. Low-cost real-time hardware in the loop FCS performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifarelli, Salvatore; Magrini, Sandro

    1991-08-01

    The suggested system allows an exhaustive, very low cost evaluation of an optical, anti- aircraft fire control system (FCS) before doing tests on real targets. The reliability of the results is guaranteed by using a real FCS in the test loop. Furthermore, the test loop includes gunner, operating environment, target motion, and gun performance simulation. The testing equipment is founded on an 80386-based personal computer provided with I/O interfaces toward the external world and an image processing board to generate and move a synthesized target. All the devices (computer and add-on cards) are easily available on the market. This fact contributes to lowering the cost of the whole system. The interface between the man (the gunner) and the machine is not modified at all. A TV monitor is needed to display the aiming errors, i.e., the position of the synthesized target in the optics field of view. Therefore, aiming is done by moving the FCS in order to minimize the error shown on the monitor. The simulation program sends all the parameters it needs (i.e., laser range) to the real FCS. All the software was developed using high-level programming languages run in real-time. In particular ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language, by Mitchell and Gauthier Associates), and the FORTRAN were used to get some benefit from powerful graphics and data-logging tools. Moreover, C language routines were written to manage low-level interfaces and timing problems. The use of high-level languages allowed the reduction in the time spent developing the software.

  8. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  9. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  10. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  11. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific, cost and other data needed to support the bids, proposals and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  12. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Federal contracts, grants, and agreements, including the development of scientific, cost, and other data... method, they may be accepted if they are found to be reasonable and equitable. (4) B & P costs do...

  13. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  14. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  15. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  16. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  17. Using hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation to provide low-cost testing of TMD IR missile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Paone, Thad

    1998-07-01

    A greater awareness of and increased interest in the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) has been demonstrated at many levels within the Department of Defense (DoD) and all the Armed Services agencies in recent years. M&S application is regarded as a viable means of lowering the life cycle costs of theater missile defense (TMD) weapon system acquisition beginning with studies of new concepts of warfighting through user training and post-deployment support. The Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center (MRDEC) of the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) has an extensive history of applying all types of M&S to TMD weapon system development and has been a particularly strong advocate of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation for many years. Over the past 10 years MRDEC has developed specific and dedicated HWIL capabilities for TMD applications in both the infrared and radio frequency sensor domains. This paper provides an overview of the infrared-based TMD HWIL missile facility known as the Imaging Infrared System Simulation (I2RSS) which is used to support the Theater High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) missile system. This facility uses M&S to conduct daily THAAD HWIL missile simulations to support flight tests, missile/system development, independent verification and validation of weapon system embedded software and simulations, and missile/system performance against current and future threat environments. This paper describes the THAAD TMD HWIL role, process, major components, HWIL verification/validation, and daily HWIL support areas in terms of both missile and complete system.

  18. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  19. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  20. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  1. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  2. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  3. Modular hardware synthesis using an HDL. [Hardware Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covington, J. A.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    Although hardware description languages (HDL) are becoming more and more necessary to automated design systems, their application is complicated due to the difficulty in translating the HDL description into an implementable format, nonfamiliarity of hardware designers with high-level language programming, nonuniform design methodologies and the time and costs involved in transfering HDL design software. Digital design language (DDL) suffers from all of the above problems and in addition can only by synthesized on a complete system and not on its subparts, making it unsuitable for synthesis using standard modules or prefabricated chips such as those required in LSI or VLSI circuits. The present paper presents a method by which the DDL translator can be made to generate modular equations that will allow the system to be synthesized as an interconnection of lower-level modules. The method involves the introduction of a new language construct called a Module which provides for the separate translation of all equations bounded by it.

  4. Hardly Hardware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    In a never-ending search for new and inspirational still-life objects, the author discovered that home improvement retailers make great resources for art teachers. Hardware and building materials are inexpensive and have interesting and variable shapes. She especially liked the dryer-vent coils and the electrical conduit. These items can be…

  5. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  6. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  7. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  8. Hardware assisted hypervisor introspection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangyong; Yang, Yuexiang; Tang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce hypervisor introspection, an out-of-box way to monitor the execution of hypervisors. Similar to virtual machine introspection which has been proposed to protect virtual machines in an out-of-box way over the past decade, hypervisor introspection can be used to protect hypervisors which are the basis of cloud security. Virtual machine introspection tools are usually deployed either in hypervisor or in privileged virtual machines, which might also be compromised. By utilizing hardware support including nested virtualization, EPT protection and #BP, we are able to monitor all hypercalls belongs to the virtual machines of one hypervisor, include that of privileged virtual machine and even when the hypervisor is compromised. What's more, hypercall injection method is used to simulate hypercall-based attacks and evaluate the performance of our method. Experiment results show that our method can effectively detect hypercall-based attacks with some performance cost. Lastly, we discuss our furture approaches of reducing the performance cost and preventing the compromised hypervisor from detecting the existence of our introspector, in addition with some new scenarios to apply our hypervisor introspection system. PMID:27330913

  9. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  10. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  11. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  12. A novel low-cost open-hardware platform for monitoring soil water content and multiple soil-air-vegetation parameters.

    PubMed

    Bitella, Giovanni; Rossi, Roberta; Bochicchio, Rocco; Perniola, Michele; Amato, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency and number of sensors. The objective of this work was to design a low cost "open hardware" platform for multi-sensor measurements including water content at different depths, air and soil temperatures. The system is based on an open-source ARDUINO microcontroller-board, programmed in a simple integrated development environment (IDE). Low cost high-frequency dielectric probes were used in the platform and lab tested on three non-saline soils (ECe1: 2.5 < 0.1 mS/cm). Empirical calibration curves were subjected to cross-validation (leave-one-out method), and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) were respectively 0.09 for the overall model, 0.09 for the sandy soil, 0.07 for the clay loam and 0.08 for the sandy loam. The overall model (pooled soil data) fitted the data very well (R2 = 0.89) showing a high stability, being able to generate very similar RMSEs during training and validation (RMSE(training) = 2.63; RMSE(validation) = 2.61). Data recorded on the card were automatically sent to a remote server allowing repeated field-data quality checks. This work provides a framework for the replication and upgrading of a customized low cost platform, consistent with the open source approach whereby sharing information on equipment design and software facilitates the adoption and continuous improvement of existing technologies. PMID:25337742

  13. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening: a Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C; Suwantika, Auliya A; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-04-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in combination with cervical screening in the Netherlands. Most of the studies agree that vaccination in pre-sexual-activity periods of life is cost-effective. Based on published sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was found to be mainly driven by vaccine cost and discount rates. Fewer vaccine doses, inclusion of additional benefits of these vaccines to prevent HPV-related non-cervical cancers and vaccination of males to further reduce the burden of HPV-induced cancers are three relevant options suggested to be investigated in upcoming economic evaluations. PMID:25482311

  14. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael; Goforth, Monte; Chen, Yuan; Powell, Wes; Paulick, Paul; Vitalpur, Sharada; Buscher, Deborah; Wade, Ray; West, John; Redifer, Matt; Partridge, Harry; Sherman, Aaron; McCabe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Avionics Technology Roadmap takes an 80% approach to technology investment in spacecraft avionics. It delineates a suite of technologies covering foundational, component, and subsystem-levels, which directly support 80% of future NASA space mission needs. The roadmap eschews high cost, limited utility technologies in favor of lower cost, and broadly applicable technologies with high return on investment. The roadmap is also phased to support future NASA mission needs and desires, with a view towards creating an optimized investment portfolio that matures specific, high impact technologies on a schedule that matches optimum insertion points of these technologies into NASA missions. The roadmap looks out over 15+ years and covers some 114 technologies, 58 of which are targeted for TRL6 within 5 years, with 23 additional technologies to be at TRL6 by 2020. Of that number, only a few are recommended for near term investment: 1. Rad Hard High Performance Computing 2. Extreme temperature capable electronics and packaging 3. RFID/SAW-based spacecraft sensors and instruments 4. Lightweight, low power 2D displays suitable for crewed missions 5. Radiation tolerant Graphics Processing Unit to drive crew displays 6. Distributed/reconfigurable, extreme temperature and radiation tolerant, spacecraft sensor controller and sensor modules 7. Spacecraft to spacecraft, long link data communication protocols 8. High performance and extreme temperature capable C&DH subsystem In addition, the roadmap team recommends several other activities that it believes are necessary to advance avionics technology across NASA: center dot Engage the OCT roadmap teams to coordinate avionics technology advances and infusion into these roadmaps and their mission set center dot Charter a team to develop a set of use cases for future avionics capabilities in order to decouple this roadmap from specific missions center dot Partner with the Software Steering Committee to coordinate computing hardware

  15. NASA HUNCH Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Wagner, James; Phelps, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    What is NASA HUNCH? High School Students United with NASA to Create Hardware-HUNCH is an instructional partnership between NASA and educational institutions. This partnership benefits both NASA and students. NASA receives cost-effective hardware and soft goods, while students receive real-world hands-on experiences. The 2014-2015 was the 12th year of the HUNCH Program. NASA Glenn Research Center joined the program that already included the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center. The program included 76 schools in 24 states and NASA Glenn worked with the following five schools in the HUNCH Build to Print Hardware Program: Medina Career Center, Medina, OH; Cattaraugus Allegheny-BOCES, Olean, NY; Orleans Niagara-BOCES, Medina, NY; Apollo Career Center, Lima, OH; Romeo Engineering and Tech Center, Washington, MI. The schools built various parts of an International Space Station (ISS) middeck stowage locker and learned about manufacturing process and how best to build these components to NASA specifications. For the 2015-2016 school year the schools will be part of a larger group of schools building flight hardware consisting of 20 ISS middeck stowage lockers for the ISS Program. The HUNCH Program consists of: Build to Print Hardware; Build to Print Soft Goods; Design and Prototyping; Culinary Challenge; Implementation: Web Page and Video Production.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of additional catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    ENDEN, T.; RESCH, S.; WHITE, C.; WIK, H. S.; KLØW, N. E.; SANDSET, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Additional treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has recently been shown to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Objectives To estimate the cost effectiveness of additional CDT compared with standard treatment alone. Methods Using a Markov decision model, we compared the two treatment strategies in patients with a high proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a low risk of bleeding. The model captured the development of PTS, recurrent venous thromboembolism and treatment-related adverse events within a lifetime horizon and the perspective of a third-party payer. Uncertainty was assessed with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyzes. Model inputs from the CaVenT study included PTS development, major bleeding from CDT and utilities for post DVT states including PTS. The remaining clinical inputs were obtained from the literature. Costs obtained from the CaVenT study, hospital accounts and the literature are expressed in US dollars ($); effects in quality adjusted life years (QALY). Results In base case analyzes, additional CDT accumulated 32.31 QALYs compared with 31.68 QALYs after standard treatment alone. Direct medical costs were $64 709 for additional CDT and $51 866 for standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $20 429/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed model sensitivity to the clinical efficacy of both strategies, but the ICER remained < $55 000/QALY over the full range of all parameters. The probability that CDT is cost effective was 82% at a willingness to pay threshold of $50 000/QALY gained. Conclusions Additional CDT is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to the standard treatment for patients with a high proximal DVT and a low risk of bleeding. PMID:23452204

  17. Standard gas hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Stan

    1995-01-01

    The Sierra College Space Technology Program is currently building their third GAS payload in addition to a small satellite. The project is supported by an ARPA/TRP grant. One aspect of the grant is the design of standard hardware for Get Away Specials (GAS) payloads. A standard structure has been designed and work is progressing on a standard battery box and computer.

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  3. DCSP hardware maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Pazmino, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the necessary changes to be implemented on the hardware side of the DCSP database. DCSP is currently tracking hardware maintenance costs in six separate databases. The goal is to develop a system that combines all data and works off a single database. Some of the tasks that will be discussed in this paper include adding the capability for report generation, creating a help package and preparing a users guide, testing the executable file, and populating the new database with data taken from the old database. A brief description of the basic process used in developing the system will also be discussed. Conclusions about the future of the database and the delivery of the final product are then addressed, based on research and the desired use of the system.

  4. Removal of broken hardware.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; McElvany, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Despite advances in metallurgy, fatigue failure of hardware is common when a fracture fails to heal. Revision procedures can be difficult, usually requiring removal of intact or broken hardware. Several different methods may need to be attempted to successfully remove intact or broken hardware. Broken intramedullary nail cross-locking screws may be advanced out by impacting with a Steinmann pin. Broken open-section (Küntscher type) intramedullary nails may be removed using a hook. Closed-section cannulated intramedullary nails require additional techniques, such as the use of guidewires or commercially available extraction tools. Removal of broken solid nails requires use of a commercial ratchet grip extractor or a bone window to directly impact the broken segment. Screw extractors, trephines, and extraction bolts are useful for removing stripped or broken screws. Cold-welded screws and plates can complicate removal of locked implants and require the use of carbide drills or high-speed metal cutting tools. Hardware removal can be a time-consuming process, and no single technique is uniformly successful. PMID:18252842

  5. Optimizing breast cancer follow-up: diagnostic value and costs of additional routine breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Farrokh, Andre; Hille, Ursula; Hirschauer, Elke; Schmidt, Werner; Hillemanns, Peter; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    A total of 2,546,325 breast cancer survivors are estimated to live in the United States. The organized breast cancer follow-up programs do not generally include breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women. The purpose of our prospective study was to investigate the efficacy of breast ultrasound in detecting previously occult recurrences. A total of 735 eligible patients with a history of breast cancer were recruited. We assessed the same patient population before (routine follow-up program) and after (study follow-up program) the introduction of an additional ultrasound examination. In the routine follow-up program 245 of 735 patients (33.3% [95% confidence-interval (CI): 29.9-36.7]) had an ultrasound due to abnormal local or mammographic findings. 490 of 735 patients (66.7% [95% CI: 63.3-70.1]) were initially considered asymptomatic and received an additional ultrasound exclusively within the study follow-up program. All positive examination results were followed by accelerated core needle biopsy. The routine follow-up program led to a biopsy in 66 of 735 patients (9.0%) revealing a recurrent cancer in 27 cases (3.7%). The study follow-up program with the additional ultrasound led to another 21 biopsies raising the total number of patients who had to undergo a biopsy from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1) to 11.8% (95% CI: 9.5-14.2). Finally, we diagnosed a previously occult malignant lesion in an additional six patients following this protocol. Therefore, the rate of detected recurrences rose from 3.7% (95% CI: 2.3-5.0) in the routine follow-up program to 4.5% (95% CI: 3.0-6.0) in the study follow-up program (p = 0.041). Negative side effects were the additional costs (the costs per detected malignancy in the routine follow-up program were $2455.69; the costs for each additionally detected malignancy in the study follow-up program were $7580.30), the higher overall biopsy rate (9.0 vs. 11.8%) and the elevated benign biopsies rate (59.1% vs. 71.4%). Regarding these results, the

  6. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help fix a broken bone or to correct an abnormality in ... of pain or other problems related to the hardware, you may have surgery to remove the hardware. ...

  7. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds... circumstances of the construction process (i.e., cost overruns). If the Secretary is unable to fund the... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions...

  8. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds... circumstances of the construction process (i.e., cost overruns). If the Secretary is unable to fund the... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions...

  9. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  10. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  11. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  12. Space shuttle solid rocket booster cost-per-flight analysis technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A cost per flight computer model is described which considers: traffic model, component attrition, hardware useful life, turnaround time for refurbishment, manufacturing rates, learning curves on the time to perform tasks, cost improvement curves on quantity hardware buys, inflation, spares philosophy, long lead, hardware funding requirements, and other logistics and scheduling constraints. Additional uses of the model include assessing the cost per flight impact of changing major space shuttle program parameters and searching for opportunities to make cost effective management decisions.

  13. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  14. Open-source hardware for medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device. PMID:27158528

  15. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  16. Treatment alternatives for non-fuel-bearing hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Clark, L.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    This evaluation compared four alternatives for the treatment or processing of non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) to reduce its volume and prepare it for disposal. These treatment alternatives are: shredding; shredding and low pressure compaction; shredding and supercompaction; and melting. These alternatives are compared on the basis of system costs, waste form characteristics, and process considerations. The study recommends that melting and supercompaction alternatives be further considered and that additional testing be conducted for these two alternatives.

  17. Conceptual HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) scaleup design: Capital and operating costs: Part 5. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; Kerivan, D.; Hendrick, C.; Kosek, B.; Tackett, D.; Golightley, M.

    1988-12-01

    Hydrate addition at low temperature (or the HALT process) is a retrofit option for moderate SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in coal burning utility plants. This dry FGD process involves injecting calcium based dry hydrate particles into flue gas ducting downstream of the air preheater where the flue gas temperature is typically in the range of 280-325/degree/F. This report is comprised of the conceptual scaleup design of the HALT process to a 180 MW and a 500 MW coal fired utility station followed by detailed capital and operating cost estimates. A cost sensitivity analysis of major process variables for the 500 MW unit is also included. 1 fig.

  18. Hardware Controller DNA Synthesizer

    1995-07-27

    The program controls the operation of various hardware components of an automatic 12-channel parrallel oligosynthesizer. This involves accepting information regarding the DNA sequence to be generated and converting this into a series of instructions to I/O ports to actuate the appropriate hardware components. The design and function of the software is specific to a particular hardware platform and has no utility for controlling other configurations.

  19. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs. PMID:21279684

  20. A Novel Low-Cost Open-Hardware Platform for Monitoring Soil Water Content and Multiple Soil-Air-Vegetation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bitella, Giovanni; Rossi, Roberta; Bochicchio, Rocco; Perniola, Michele; Amato, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency and number of sensors. The objective of this work was to design a low cost “open hardware” platform for multi-sensor measurements including water content at different depths, air and soil temperatures. The system is based on an open-source ARDUINO microcontroller-board, programmed in a simple integrated development environment (IDE). Low cost high-frequency dielectric probes were used in the platform and lab tested on three non-saline soils (ECe1: 2.5 < 0.1 mS/cm). Empirical calibration curves were subjected to cross-validation (leave-one-out method), and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) were respectively 0.09 for the overall model, 0.09 for the sandy soil, 0.07 for the clay loam and 0.08 for the sandy loam. The overall model (pooled soil data) fitted the data very well (R2 = 0.89) showing a high stability, being able to generate very similar RMSEs during training and validation (RMSEtraining = 2.63; RMSEvalidation = 2.61). Data recorded on the card were automatically sent to a remote server allowing repeated field-data quality checks. This work provides a framework for the replication and upgrading of a customized low cost platform, consistent with the open source approach whereby sharing information on equipment design and software facilitates the adoption and continuous improvement of existing technologies. PMID:25337742

  1. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... as part of the Model Design PN, 77 FR 38804, June 29, 2012, of the possible significant economic...). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic...; Additional Discussion Topics in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal...

  2. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  3. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, P.E.

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  4. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  5. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Design PN, 77 FR 38804, June 29, 2012, of the possible significant economic impact on a substantial... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... document, the Wireline Competition Bureau seeks public input on additional questions relating to...

  6. Safe to Fly: Certifying COTS Hardware for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichuk, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Providing hardware for the astronauts to use on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS) involves a certification process that entails evaluating hardware safety, weighing risks, providing mitigation, and verifying requirements. Upon completion of this certification process, the hardware is deemed safe to fly. This process from start to finish can be completed as quickly as 1 week or can take several years in length depending on the complexity of the hardware and whether the item is a unique custom design. One area of cost and schedule savings that NASA implements is buying Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) hardware and certifying it for human spaceflight as safe to fly. By utilizing commercial hardware, NASA saves time not having to develop, design and build the hardware from scratch, as well as a timesaving in the certification process. By utilizing COTS hardware, the current detailed certification process can be simplified which results in schedule savings. Cost savings is another important benefit of flying COTS hardware. Procuring COTS hardware for space use can be more economical than custom building the hardware. This paper will investigate the cost savings associated with certifying COTS hardware to NASA s standards rather than performing a custom build.

  7. Initial Hardware Development Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware development schedule for the Common Lunar Lander's (CLLs) tracking system is presented. Among the topics covered are the following: historical perspective, solution options, industry contacts, and the rationale for selection.

  8. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  9. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status. PMID:11543453

  10. GENI: Grid Hardware and Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-E’s GENI program, short for “Green Electricity Network Integration,” aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

  11. Hardware Testing and System Evaluation: Procedures to Evaluate Commodity Hardware for Production Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, J

    2004-02-27

    Without stable hardware any program will fail. The frustration and expense of supporting bad hardware can drain an organization, delay progress, and frustrate everyone involved. At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we have created a testing method that helps our group, SLAC Computer Services (SCS), weed out potentially bad hardware and purchase the best hardware at the best possible cost. Commodity hardware changes often, so new evaluations happen periodically each time we purchase systems and minor re-evaluations happen for revised systems for our clusters, about twice a year. This general framework helps SCS perform correct, efficient evaluations. This article outlines SCS's computer testing methods and our system acceptance criteria. We expanded the basic ideas to other evaluations such as storage, and we think the methods outlined in this article has helped us choose hardware that is much more stable and supportable than our previous purchases. We have found that commodity hardware ranges in quality, so systematic method and tools for hardware evaluation were necessary. This article is based on one instance of a hardware purchase, but the guidelines apply to the general problem of purchasing commodity computer systems for production computational work.

  12. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  13. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1998-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  14. Innovative Contamination Certification of Multi-Mission Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.; Montt, Kristina M.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1999-01-01

    Maintaining contamination certification of multi-mission flight hardware is an innovative approach to controlling mission costs. Methods for assessing ground induced degradation between missions have been employed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Project for the multi-mission (servicing) hardware. By maintaining the cleanliness of the hardware between missions, and by controlling the materials added to the hardware during modification and refurbishment both project funding for contamination recertification and schedule have been significantly reduced. These methods will be discussed and HST hardware data will be presented.

  15. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  16. Formation of gold nanostructures on copier paper surface for cost effective SERS active substrate - Effect of halide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmonda, Christa; Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the simple fabrication of an active substrate assisted by gold nanostructures (AuNS) for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using copier paper, which is a biodegradable and cost-effective material. As cellulose is the main component of paper, it can behave as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule for the synthesis of AuNS on the paper substrate. AuNS can be directly generated on the surface of the copier paper by addition of halides. The AuNS thus synthesized were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and XPS. In addition, the SERS effect of the AuNS-paper substrates synthesized by using various halides was investigated by using rhodamine 6G and melamine as probe molecules.

  17. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  18. The Hardware Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELECTRONIC Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Profiles 24 microcomputers used by educators in elementary and secondary schools, presenting information from manufacturers (price, memory, languages, keyboard, screen display, graphics, sound, color, networking, compatible machine) and teacher commentary. Four micro-guides dealing with understanding specifications, finding hardware reviews,…

  19. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  20. High-Speed Isolation Board for Flight Hardware Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Clifford K.; Goodpasture, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to provide a portable and cost-effective galvanic isolation between ground support equipment and flight hardware such that any unforeseen voltage differential between ground and power supplies is eliminated. An interface board was designed for use between the ground support equipment and the flight hardware that electrically isolates all input and output signals and faithfully reproduces them on each side of the interface. It utilizes highly integrated multi-channel isolating devices to minimize size and reduce assembly time. This single-board solution provides appropriate connector hardware and breakout of required flight signals to individual connectors as needed for various ground support equipment. The board utilizes multi-channel integrated circuits that contain transformer coupling, thereby allowing input and output signals to be isolated from one another while still providing high-fidelity reproduction of the signal up to 90 MHz. The board also takes in a single-voltage power supply input from the ground support equipment and in turn provides a transformer-derived isolated voltage supply to power the portion of the circuitry that is electrically connected to the flight hardware. Prior designs used expensive opto-isolated couplers that were required for each signal to isolate and were time-consuming to assemble. In addition, these earlier designs were bulky and required a 2U rack-mount enclosure. The new design is smaller than a piece of 8.5 11-in. (.22 28-mm) paper and can be easily hand-carried where needed. The flight hardware in question is based on a lineage of existing software-defined radios (SDRs) that utilize a common interface connector with many similar input-output signals present. There are currently four to five variations of this SDR, and more upcoming versions are planned based on the more recent design.

  1. Use of heat pipes in electronic hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular, multiple output power converter was developed in order to reduce costs of space hardware in future missions. The converter is of reduced size and weight, and utilizes advanced heat removal techniques, in the form of heat pipes which remove internally generated heat more effectively than conventional methods.

  2. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  3. Energy efficient engine low-pressure compressor component test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, C. J.; Halle, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical design description of the low pressure compressor component of the Energy Efficient Engine were used. The component was designed to meet the requirements of the Flight Propulsion System while maintaining a low cost approach in providing a low pressure compressor design for the Integrated Core/Low Spool test required in the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The resulting low pressure compressor component design meets or exceeds all design goals with the exception of surge margin. In addition, the expense of hardware fabrication for the Integrated Core/Low Spool test has been minimized through the use of existing minor part hardware.

  4. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  5. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  6. RRFC hardware operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the {sup 235}U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the {sup 235}U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics.

  7. Optical Properties of Nanosatellite Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Coker, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of very small satellites have been launched into space. These have been called nanosatellites (generally of a weight between 1 and 10 kg) or picosatellites (weight <1 kg). This also includes CubeSats, which are based on 10-cm cube units. With the addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (J-SSOD) to the International Space Station (ISS), CubeSats are easily cycled through the JEM airlock and deployed into space (fig. 1). The number of CubeSats launched since 2003 was approaching 100 at the time of publication, and the authors expect this trend in research to continue, particularly for high school and college flight experiments. Because these spacecraft are so small, there is usually no allowance for shielding or active heating or cooling of the avionics and other hardware. Parts that are usually ignored in the thermal analysis of larger spacecraft may contribute significantly to the heat load of a tiny satellite. In addition, many small satellites have commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. To reduce costs, many providers of COTS components do not include the optical and physical parameters necessary for accurate thermal analysis. Marshall Space Flight Center participated in the development and analysis of the Space Missile Defense Command-Operational Nanosatellite Effect (SMDC-ONE) and the Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) nanosatellites. These optical property measurements are documented here in hopes that they may benefit future nanosatellite and picosatellite programs and aid thermal analysis to ensure project goals are met, with the understanding that material properties may vary by vendor, batch, manufacturing process, and preflight handling. Where possible, complementary data are provided from ground simulations of the space environment and flight experiments, such as the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) series. NASA gives no recommendation

  8. Hardware Counter Multiplexing

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record various low-level events as software runs, but they can not record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  9. Mir hardware heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1995-01-01

    The heritage of the major Mir complex hardware elements is described. These elements include Soyuz-TM and Progress-M; the Kvant, Kvant 2, and Kristall modules; and the Mir base block. Configuration changes and major mission events of the Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and Mir multiport space stations are described in detail for the period 1977-1994. A comparative chronology of U.S. and Soviet/Russian manned spaceflight is also given for that period. The 68 illustrations include comparative scale drawings of U.S. and Russian spacecraft as well as sequential drawings depicting missions and mission events.

  10. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come. PMID:24357110

  11. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  12. Evaluating the Applicability of Heritage Flight Hardware in Orion Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia D.; Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in the overall NASA vision has resulted in further cost and schedule challenges for the Orion program. As a result, additional scrutiny has been focused on the use of new developments for hardware in the environmental control and life support systems. This paper will examine the Orion architecture as it is envisioned to support missions to the International Space Station and future exploration missions and determine what if any functions can be satisfied through the use of existing, heritage hardware designs. An initial evaluation of each component is included and where a heritage component was deemed likely further details are examined. Key technical parameters, mass, volume and vibration loads are a few of the specific items that are evaluated. Where heritage hardware has been identified that may be substituted in the Orion architecture a discussion of key requirement changes that may need to be made as well as recommendation to further evaluate applicability are noted.

  13. Evaluating the Applicability of Heritage Flight Hardware in Orion Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia D.; Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent changes in the overall NASA vision has resulted in further cost and schedule challenges for the Orion program. As a result, additional scrutiny has been focused on the use of new developments for hardware in the environmental control and life support systems. This paper will examine the Orion architecture as it is envisioned to support missions to the International Space Station and future exploration missions and determine what if any functions can be satisfied through the use of existing, heritage hardware designs. An initial evaluation of each component is included and where a heritage component was deemed likely further details are examined. Key technical parameters, mass, volume and vibration loads are a few of the specific items that are evaluated. Where heritage hardware has been identified that may be substituted in the Orion architecture a discussion of key requirement changes that may need to be made as well as recommendation to further evaluate applicability are noted.

  14. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  15. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

  16. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have

  17. Speed test results and hardware/software study of computational speed problem, appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The HP9845C is a desktop computer which is tested and evaluated for processing speed. A study was made to determine the availability and approximate cost of computers and/or hardware accessories necessary to meet the 20 ms sample period speed requirements. Additional requirements were that the control algorithm could be programmed in a high language and that the machine have sufficient storage to store the data from a complete experiment.

  18. Robustness in Digital Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Roger; Lightbody, Gaye

    The growth in electronics has probably been the equivalent of the Industrial Revolution in the past century in terms of how much it has transformed our daily lives. There is a great dependency on technology whether it is in the devices that control travel (e.g., in aircraft or cars), our entertainment and communication systems, or our interaction with money, which has been empowered by the onset of Internet shopping and banking. Despite this reliance, there is still a danger that at some stage devices will fail within the equipment's lifetime. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the factors causing failure and address possible measures to improve robustness in digital hardware technology and specifically chip technology, giving a long-term forecast that will not reassure the reader!

  19. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  20. First- and Second-Line Bevacizumab in Addition to Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A United States–Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H.; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is a standard of care for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Continuation of bevacizumab beyond progression is an accepted standard of care based on a 1.4-month increase in median overall survival observed in a randomized trial. No United States–based cost-effectiveness modeling analyses are currently available addressing the use of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in the first-line setting and when continued beyond progression from the perspective of US payers. Methods We developed two Markov models to compare the cost and effectiveness of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin with or without bevacizumab in the first-line treatment and subsequent fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan with or without bevacizumab in the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Model robustness was addressed by univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results Using bevacizumab in first-line therapy provided an additional 0.10 QALYs (0.14 life-years) at a cost of $59,361. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $571,240 per QALY. Continuing bevacizumab beyond progression provided an additional 0.11 QALYs (0.16 life-years) at a cost of $39,209. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $364,083 per QALY. In univariable sensitivity analyses, the variables with the greatest influence on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were bevacizumab cost, overall survival, and utility. Conclusion Bevacizumab provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in both the first- and second-line settings of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:25691669

  1. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Software Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Petrick, David J.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image processing application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms and re-configurable computing hardware technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP). It has been shown in [1] and [2] that this configuration can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft. However, since this technology is still maturing, intensive pre-hardware steps are necessary to achieve the benefits of hardware implementation. This paper describes these steps for the GOES-8 application, a software project developed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) (Trademark of Research Systems, Inc.) on a Workstation/UNIX platform. The solution involves converting the application to a PC/Windows/RC platform, selected mainly by the availability of low cost, adaptable high-speed RC hardware. In order for the hybrid system to run, the IDL software was modified to account for platform differences. It was interesting to examine the gains and losses in performance on the new platform, as well as unexpected observations before implementing hardware. After substantial pre-hardware optimization steps, the necessity of hardware implementation for bottleneck code in the PC environment became evident and solvable beginning with the methodology described in [1], [2], and implementing a novel methodology for this specific application [6]. The PC-RC interface bandwidth problem for the

  2. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  3. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  4. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  5. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  6. Overview of Computer Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidball, Charles S.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews development in electronics technology of digital computers, considering the binary number representation, miniaturization of electronic components, cost and space requirements of computers, ways in which computers are used, and types of computers appropriate for teaching computer literacy and demonstrating physiological simulation. (CS)

  7. Hardware Removal in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Allori, Alexander C.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Powers, David; Erdmann, Detlev; Hollenbeck, Scott T.; Levinson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation can be complicated by hardware exposure or infection. The literature often does not differentiate between these 2 entities; so for this study, we have considered all hardware exposures as hardware infections. Approximately 5% of adults with CMF trauma are thought to develop hardware infections. Management consists of either removing the hardware versus leaving it in situ. The optimal approach has not been investigated. Thus, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken and a resultant evidence-based approach to the treatment and management of CMF hardware infections was devised. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of journal articles was performed in parallel using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect electronic databases. Keywords and phrases used were maxillofacial injuries; facial bones; wounds and injuries; fracture fixation, internal; wound infection; and infection. Our search yielded 529 articles. To focus on CMF fractures with hardware infections, the full text of English-language articles was reviewed to identify articles focusing on the evaluation and management of infected hardware in CMF trauma. Each article’s reference list was manually reviewed and citation analysis performed to identify articles missed by the search strategy. There were 259 articles that met the full inclusion criteria and form the basis of this systematic review. The articles were rated based on the level of evidence. There were 81 grade II articles included in the meta-analysis. Result Our meta-analysis revealed that 7503 patients were treated with hardware for CMF fractures in the 81 grade II articles. Hardware infection occurred in 510 (6.8%) of these patients. Of those infections, hardware removal occurred in 264 (51.8%) patients; hardware was left in place in 166 (32.6%) patients; and in 80 (15.6%) cases

  8. CHeCS Commanding Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) commanding hardware. It includes information on the hardware status, commanding plan, and command training status with specific information the EV-CPDS 2 and 3, TEPC, MEC, and T2

  9. Systems engineering and integration: Cost estimation and benefits analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, ED; Fridge, Ernie; Hamaker, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation Avionics hardware and software cost has traditionally been estimated in Phase A and B using cost techniques which predict cost as a function of various cost predictive variables such as weight, lines of code, functions to be performed, quantities of test hardware, quantities of flight hardware, design and development heritage, complexity, etc. The output of such analyses has been life cycle costs, economic benefits and related data. The major objectives of Cost Estimation and Benefits analysis are twofold: (1) to play a role in the evaluation of potential new space transportation avionics technologies, and (2) to benefit from emerging technological innovations. Both aspects of cost estimation and technology are discussed here. The role of cost analysis in the evaluation of potential technologies should be one of offering additional quantitative and qualitative information to aid decision-making. The cost analyses process needs to be fully integrated into the design process in such a way that cost trades, optimizations and sensitivities are understood. Current hardware cost models tend to primarily use weights, functional specifications, quantities, design heritage and complexity as metrics to predict cost. Software models mostly use functionality, volume of code, heritage and complexity as cost descriptive variables. Basic research needs to be initiated to develop metrics more responsive to the trades which are required for future launch vehicle avionics systems. These would include cost estimating capabilities that are sensitive to technological innovations such as improved materials and fabrication processes, computer aided design and manufacturing, self checkout and many others. In addition to basic cost estimating improvements, the process must be sensitive to the fact that no cost estimate can be quoted without also quoting a confidence associated with the estimate. In order to achieve this, better cost risk evaluation techniques are

  10. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  11. Trends in computer hardware and software.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, F M

    1993-04-01

    Previously identified and current trends in the development of computer systems and in the use of computers for health care applications are reviewed. Trends identified in a 1982 article were increasing miniaturization and archival ability, increasing software costs, increasing software independence, user empowerment through new software technologies, shorter computer-system life cycles, and more rapid development and support of pharmaceutical services. Most of these trends continue today. Current trends in hardware and software include the increasing use of reduced instruction-set computing, migration to the UNIX operating system, the development of large software libraries, microprocessor-based smart terminals that allow remote validation of data, speech synthesis and recognition, application generators, fourth-generation languages, computer-aided software engineering, object-oriented technologies, and artificial intelligence. Current trends specific to pharmacy and hospitals are the withdrawal of vendors of hospital information systems from the pharmacy market, improved linkage of information systems within hospitals, and increased regulation by government. The computer industry and its products continue to undergo dynamic change. Software development continues to lag behind hardware, and its high cost is offsetting the savings provided by hardware. PMID:8470690

  12. Hardware-Efficient Monitoring of I/O Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.; Hall, Brendan; Paulitsch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this invention, command and monitor functionality is moved between the two independent pieces of hardware, in which one had been dedicated to command and the other had been dedicated to monitor, such that some command and some monitor functionality appears in each. The only constraint is that the monitor for signal cannot be in the same hardware as the command I/O it is monitoring. The splitting of the command outputs between independent pieces of hardware may require some communication between them, i.e. an intra-switch trunk line. This innovation reduces the amount of wasted hardware and allows the two independent pieces of hardware to be designed identically in order to save development costs.

  13. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  14. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  15. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  16. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  17. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  18. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  19. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  20. Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

    2008-01-01

    This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  1. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  2. Hardware cleanliness methodology and certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Thomas J.; Rawls, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Inadequacy of mass loss cleanliness criteria for selection of materials for contamination sensitive uses, and processing of flight hardware for contamination sensitive instruments is discussed. Materials selection for flight hardware is usually based on mass loss (ASTM E-595). However, flight hardware cleanliness (MIL 1246A) is a surface cleanliness assessment. It is possible for materials (e.g. Sil-Pad 2000) to pass ASTM E-595 and fail MIL 1246A class A by orders of magnitude. Conversely, it is possible for small amounts of nonconforming material (Huma-Seal conformal coating) to not present significant cleanliness problems to an optical flight instrument. Effective cleaning (precleaning, precision cleaning, and ultra cleaning) and cleanliness verification are essential for contamination sensitive flight instruments. Polish cleaning of hardware, e.g. vacuum baking for vacuum applications, and storage of clean hardware, e.g. laser optics, is discussed. Silicone materials present special concerns for use in space because of the rapid conversion of the outgassed residues to glass by solar ultraviolet radiation and/or atomic oxygen. Non ozone depleting solvent cleaning and institutional support for cleaning and certification are also discussed.

  3. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  4. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (13-35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4-8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  5. Cost-effectiveness of rituximab in addition to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dirk; Fischer, Kirsten; Kaiser, Peter; Eichhorst, Barbara; Walshe, Ronald; Reiser, Marcel; Kellermann, Lenka; Borsi, Lisa; Civello, Daniele; Mensch, Alexander; Bahlo, Jasmin; Hallek, Michael; Stock, Stephanie; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter

    2016-05-01

    The cost-effectiveness of rituximab in combination with fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was evaluated. Based on long-term clinical data (follow-up of 5.9 years) from the CLL8-trial, a Markov-model with three health states (Free from disease progression, Progressive disease, Death) was used to evaluate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and cost per life years gained (LYG) of R-FC from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI). The addition of rituximab to FC chemotherapy results in a gain of 1.1 quality-adjusted life-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of R-FC compared with FC was €17 979 per QALY (€15 773 per LYG). Results were robust in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. From the German SHI perspective, rituximab in combination with FC chemotherapy represents good value for first-line treatment of patients with CLL and compares favorably with chemotherapy alone. PMID:26584689

  6. Rethinking image registration on customizable hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, David; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Image registration is one of the most important tasks in image processing and is frequently one of the most computationally intensive. In cases where there is a high likelihood of finding the exact template in the search image, correlation-based methods predominate. Presumably this is because the computational complexity of a correlation operation can be reduced substantially by transforming the task into the frequency domain. Alternative methods such as minimum Sum of Squared Differences (minSSD) are not so tractable and are normally disfavored. This bias is justified when dealing with conventional computer processors since the operations must be conducted in an essentially sequential manner however we demonstrate it is normally unjustified when the processing is undertaken on customizable hardware such as FPGAs where tasks can be temporally and/or spatially parallelized. This is because the gate-based logic of an FPGA is better suited to the tasks of minSSD i.e. signed-addition hardware can be very cheaply implemented in FPGA fabric, and square operations are easily implemented via a look-up table. In contrast, correlationbased methods require extensive use of multiplier hardware which cannot be so cheaply implemented in the device. Even with modern DSP-oriented FPGAs which contain many "hard" multipliers we experience at least an order of magnitude increase in the number of minSSD hardware modules we can implement compared to cross-correlation modules. We demonstrate successful use and comparison of techniques within an FPGA for registration and correction of turbulence degraded images.

  7. Hardware Selection: A Nontechnical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiteka, Sebastian F.

    Presented in nontechnical language, this guide suggests criteria for the selection of three computer hardware essentials--a microcomputer, a monitor, and a printer. Factors to be considered in selecting the microcomputer are identified and discussed, including what the computer is to be used for, dealer support, software availability, modem…

  8. Police Communications: Humans and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannes, Estelle

    This volume presents an overview of police communications and analyzes the relationships between the people and hardware in the police system. Chapters discuss the development and use of such communication devices as the telegraph, telephone, and computers; the role of mass media, feedback, and communicative settings in human communication;…

  9. Microcomputer Hardware. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in microcomputer hardware is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  10. SNL/NM weapon hardware characterization process development report

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, E.W.; Chambers, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the process used by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico to characterize weapon hardware for disposition. The report describes the following basic steps: (1) the drawing search process and primary hazard identification; (2) the development of Disassembly Procedures (DPs), including demilitarization and sanitization requirements; (3) the generation of a ``disposal tree``; (4) generating RCRA waste disposal information; and (5) documenting the information. Additional data gathered during the characterization process supporting hardware grouping and recycle efforts is also discussed.

  11. INTEGRATED MONITORING HARDWARE DEVELOPMENTS AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    R. PARKER; J. HALBIG; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The hardware of the integrated monitoring system supports a family of instruments having a common internal architecture and firmware. Instruments can be easily configured from application-specific personality boards combined with common master-processor and high- and low-voltage power supply boards, and basic operating firmware. The instruments are designed to function autonomously to survive power and communication outages and to adapt to changing conditions. The personality boards allow measurement of gross gammas and neutrons, neutron coincidence and multiplicity, and gamma spectra. In addition, the Intelligent Local Node (ILON) provides a moderate-bandwidth network to tie together instruments, sensors, and computers.

  12. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  13. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling

    PubMed Central

    Düben, Peter D.; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V.; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz ‘96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models. PMID:24842031

  14. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    well as modifications needed to meet program requirements. Options are consolidated and the hardware development team reaches a hardware development decision point. Within budget and schedule constraints, the team must decide whether or not to complete the hardware as an in-house, subcontract with vendor, or commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) development. An in-house development indicates NASA personnel or a contractor builds the hardware at a NASA site. A subcontract development is completed off-site by a commercial company. A COTS item is a vendor product available by ordering a specific part number. The team evaluates the pros and cons of each development path. For example, in-bouse developments utilize existing corporate knowledge regarding bow to build equipment for use in space. However, technical expertise would be required to fully understand the medical equipment capabilities, such as for an ultrasound system. It may require additional time and funding to gain the expertise that commercially exists. The major benefit of subcontracting a hardware development is the product is delivered as an end-item and commercial expertise is utilized. On the other hand, NASA has limited control over schedule delays. The final option of COTS or modified COTS equipment is a compromise between in-house and subcontracts. A vendor product may exist that meets all functional requirements but req uires in-house modifications for successful operation in a space environment. The HRF utilizes equipment developed using all of the paths described: inhouse, subcontract, and modified COTS.

  15. Microbiologic assay of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the procedures used in the microbiological examination of space hardware. The general procedure for enumerating aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and spores is outlined. Culture media and temperature-time cycles used for incubation are reviewed, along with assay systems designed for the enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores. The special problems which are discussed are involved in the precise and accurate enumeration of microorganisms on surfaces and in the neutralization of viable organisms buried inside solid materials that could be released to a planet's surface if the solid should be fractured. Special attention is given to sampling procedures including also the indirect techniques of surface assays of space hardware such as those using detachable or fallout strips. Some data on comparative levels of microbial contamination on lunar and planetary spacecraft are presented.

  16. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-08-04

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester.

  17. Decoding: Codes and hardware implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The MST radars vary considerably from one installation to the next in the type of hardware, operating schedule and associated personnel. Most such systems do not have the computing power to decode in software when the decoding must be performed for each received pulse, as is required for certain sets of phase codes. These sets provide the best signal to sidelobe ratio when operating at the minimum band length allowed by the bandwidth of the transmitter. The development of the hardware phase decoder, and the applicability of each to decoding MST radar signals are discussed. A new design for a decoder which is very inexpensive to build, easy to add to an existing system and is capable of decoding on each received pulse using codes with a band length as short as one microsecond is presented.

  18. Hardware Fault Simulator for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, L. M.; Timoc, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Breadboarded circuit is faster and more thorough than software simulator. Elementary fault simulator for AND gate uses three gates and shaft register to simulate stuck-at-one or stuck-at-zero conditions at inputs and output. Experimental results showed hardware fault simulator for microprocessor gave faster results than software simulator, by two orders of magnitude, with one test being applied every 4 microseconds.

  19. Hunting for hardware changes in data centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho dos Santos, M.; Steers, I.; Szebenyi, I.; Xafi, A.; Barring, O.; Bonfillou, E.

    2012-12-01

    With many servers and server parts the environment of warehouse sized data centres is increasingly complex. Server life-cycle management and hardware failures are responsible for frequent changes that need to be managed. To manage these changes better a project codenamed “hardware hound” focusing on hardware failure trending and hardware inventory has been started at CERN. By creating and using a hardware oriented data set - the inventory - with detailed information on servers and their parts as well as tracking changes to this inventory, the project aims at, for example, being able to discover trends in hardware failure rates.

  20. Mini-O, simple Omega receiver hardware for user education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A problem with the Omega system is a lack of suitable low cost hardware for the small user community. A collection of do it yourself circuit modules are under development intended for use by educational institutions, small boat owners, aviation enthusiasts, and others who have some skills in fabricating their own electronic equipment. Applications of the hardware to time frequency standards measurements, signal propagation monitoring, and navigation experiments are presented. A family of Mini-O systems have been constructed varying from the simplest RF preamplifiers and narrowband filters front-ends, to sophisticated microcomputer interface adapters.

  1. Hardware description languages for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-10-01

    Systolic principles can be used to construct special purpose computer systems that achieve high throughput by exploiting algorithmic properties. These principles of regularity, localized communications, and parallel/pipelined execution nicely match the capabilities of integrated circuit technology. Hence, systolic arrays are an attractive method for building high-speed special-purpose hardware to rapidly solve sophisticated problems. However, the use of special-purpose hardware limits the applications base, making fixed costs such as those associated with system design much more critical. Although design costs are in part reduced by the very nature of systolic systems, further reduction can result from the use of automated design and descriptive tools. The design process stretches from the conception of the algorithm and its mapping onto an architecture down to the electronic implementation. In general, a good set of design tools allows the designer to describe, test, and trade off only those factors that are important at that particular point in the design process. A principle requirement in automating the design process is a formal notational mechanism that is capable of providing complete and unambiguous descriptions of the concepts being explored. This notational mechanism then provides a common basis for comparisons between alternate methods and an input mechanism to automated design tools. This thesis identifies the notational features that are necessary for the description of highly parallel, regular architectures such as systolic arrays. A set of language criteria is developed. A number of the more popular HDLs are evaluated using these criteria and their shortcomings noted. 65 references.

  2. Development and characteristics of the hardware for Skylab experiment S015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirolf, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Details are given regarding the hardware for the Skylab S015 experiment, which was designed to detect the effects of zero gravity on cell growth rates. Experience gained in hardware-related considerations is presented for use of researchers concerned with future research of this type and further study of the S015 results. Brief descriptions are given of the experiment hardware, the hardware configuration for the critical design review, the major configuration changes, the final configuration, and the postflight review and analysis. An appendix describes pertinent documentation, film, and hardware that are available to qualified researchers; sources for additional or special information are given.

  3. A novel visual hardware behavioral language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xueqin; Cheng, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Most hardware behavioral languages just use texts to describe the behavior of the desired hardware design. This is inconvenient for VLSI designers who enjoy using the schematic approach. The proposed visual hardware behavioral language has the ability to graphically express design information using visual parallel models (blocks), visual sequential models (processes) and visual data flow graphs (which consist of primitive operational icons, control icons, and Data and Synchro links). Thus, the proposed visual hardware behavioral language can not only specify hardware concurrent and sequential functionality, but can also visually expose parallelism, sequentiality, and disjointness (mutually exclusive operations) for the hardware designers. That would make the hardware designers capture the design ideas easily and explicitly using this visual hardware behavioral language.

  4. Yeast hydrolysate as a low-cost additive to serum-free medium for the production of human thrombopoietin in suspension cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y H; Lim, S W; Chung, J Y; Lee, G M

    2004-02-01

    To enhance the performance of a serum-free medium (SFM) for human thrombopoietin (hTPO) production in suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, several low-cost hydrolysates such as yeast hydrolysate (YH), soy hydrolysate, wheat gluten hydrolysate and rice hydrolysate were tested as medium additives. Among various hydrolysates tested, the positive effect of YH on hTPO production was most significant. When 5 g l(-1) YH was added to SFM, the maximum hTPO concentration in batch culture was 40.41 microg ml(-1), which is 11.5 times higher than that in SFM without YH supplementation. This enhanced hTPO production in YH-supplemented SFM was obtained by the combined effect of enhanced q(hTPO) (the specific rate of hTPO production). The supplementation of YH in SFM increased q(hTPO) by 294% and extended culture longevity by >2 days if the culture was terminated at a cell viability of 50%. Furthermore, cell viability throughout the culture using YH-supplemented SFM was higher than that using any other hydrolysate-supplemented SFM tested, thereby minimizing degradation of hTPO susceptible to proteolytic degradation. In addition, YH supplementation did not affect in vivo biological activity of hTPO. Taken together, the results obtained demonstrate the potential of YH as a medium additive for hTPO production in serum-free suspension cultures of rCHO cells. PMID:12856163

  5. Hardware and software reliability estimation using simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swern, Frederic L.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation technique is used to explore the validation of both hardware and software. It was concluded that simulation is a viable means for validating both hardware and software and associating a reliability number with each. This is useful in determining the overall probability of system failure of an embedded processor unit, and improving both the code and the hardware where necessary to meet reliability requirements. The methodologies were proved using some simple programs, and simple hardware models.

  6. Evaluation of next generation hardware for lithography processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Nafus, K.; Marumoto, H.; Kosugi, H.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; Wang, S.

    2010-04-01

    This work is the summary of improvements in processing capability implemented and tested on the LITHIUS ProTM -i / TWINSCANTM XT:1950Hi litho cluster installed at ASML's development clean room at Veldhoven, the Netherlands. Process performance with regards to CD uniformity (CDU) and defectivity are investigated to confirm adherence to ITRS roadmaps specifications. Specifically, imaging capabilities are tested for 40nm line 80nm pitch with the new bake plate hardware for below hp 3Xnm generation. For defectivity, the combination of Coater/Developer defect reduction hardware with the novel immersion hood design will be tested. For CDU improvements, the enhanced Post Exposure Bake (PEB) plate hardware was verified versus performance of the previous technology plate. Additionally, after the PEB improvement, a remaining across wafer signature was reduced with an optimized develop process. The total CDU budget was analyzed and compared to previous results. Finally the optimized process was applied to a non top coat resist process. For defectivity improvements, the effectiveness of ASML's new immersion hood and TEL's defect reduction hardware were evaluated. The new immersion hood performance was optimal on very hydrophobic materials, which requires optimization of the track hardware and process. The high contact angle materials could be shown to be successfully processed by using TEL's Advanced Defect Reduction (ADR) for residues related to the high contact angle and optimized bevel cut strategy with new bevel rinse hardware. Finally all the optimized processes were combined to obtain defect counts on a highly hydrophobic resist well within manufacturing specifications.

  7. Hardware design to accelerate PNG encoder for binary mask compression on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachouri, Rostom; Akil, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is a lossless compression method for real-world pictures. Since its specification, it continues to attract the interest of the image processing community. Indeed, PNG is an extensible file format for portable and well-compressed storage of raster images. In addition, it supports all of Black and White (binary mask), grayscale, indexed-color, and truecolor images. Within the framework of the Demat+ project which intend to propose a complete solution for storage and retrieval of scanned documents, we address in this paper a hardware design to accelerate the PNG encoder for binary mask compression on FPGA. For this, an optimized architecture is proposed as part of an hybrid software and hardware co-operating system. For its evaluation, the new designed PNG IP has been implemented on the ALTERA Arria II GX EP2AGX125EF35" FPGA. The experimental results show a good match between the achieved compression ratio, the computational cost and the used hardware resources.

  8. Automated Hardware-Identification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr.; Roxby, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    "Compressed symbology" emerging technology involving one- and two-dimensional arrays of surface depressions to form optically readable dots. Patterns more durable and denser than common bar codes. Convey identification data in binary form and read by optoelectric sensors. Computers and compressed-symbology engraving machines they control constitute subsystems of "paperless" hardware-tracking and -identification systems coordinating flows of both identifying information and identified parts themselves, along with ancillary information like work orders. Modifications of software expected to accelerate marking operations, eliminate need for trial or practice marking, and reduce incidence of errors.

  9. Fundamental Hardware Design in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The development of Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) has introduced programming as a primary tool in the development of digital circuits. This work attempts to create a generic verification environment in which designs can be specified and verified using the Prototype Verification System (PVS). This is accomplished by providing library support for general hardware constructs. The environment is intended for use with any PLD and any PLD programming language. The goal of the environment is to allow the easy translation of digital designs to PVS and provide sufficient support to make verification possible without a great deal of effort.

  10. X-15 Hardware Design Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Harrison A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Historical events in the development of the X-15 hardware design are presented. Some of the topics covered include: (1) drivers that led to the development of the X-15; (2) X-15 space research objectives; (3) original performance targets; (4) the X-15 typical mission; (5) X-15 dimensions and weight; (5) the propulsion system; (6) X-15 development milestones; (7) engineering and manufacturing challenges; (8) the X-15 structure; (9) ballistic flight control; (10) landing gear; (11) nose gear; and (12) an X-15 program recap.

  11. Door Hardware and Installations; Carpentry: 901894.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in the selection, preparation, and installation of hardware for door assemblies. The course is divided into five blocks of instruction (introduction to doors and hardware, door hardware, exterior doors and jambs, interior doors and jambs, and a quinmester post-test) totaling…

  12. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardware. 1509.7 Section 1509.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall...

  13. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any hardware accessible to a child within the crib the possibility of the...

  14. Evaluating Interactive Video: Software and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorge, Dennis H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses selection criteria for evaluating software and hardware used in interactive video based on experiences from the Purdue Academic Learning Opportunity System Project at Purdue University. Highlights include checklists for evaluating software and selecting hardware, including peripheral equipment; videodisc players; hardware compatibility;…

  15. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Petrick, David J.; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates and telemetry product complexity have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image data processing and color picture generation application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The proposed solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms, and reconfigurable computing hardware (RC) technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processors (DSP). It has been shown that this approach can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft.

  16. Providing Self-Healing Ability for Wireless Sensor Node by Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Gao, Shang; Tong, Yao; Yang, Weiwei

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received tremendous attention over the past ten years. In engineering applications of WSNs, a number of sensor nodes are usually spread across some specific geographical area. Some of these nodes have to work in harsh environments. Dependability of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is very important for its successful applications in the engineering area. In ordinary research, when a node has a failure, it is usually discarded and the network is reorganized to ensure the normal operation of the WSN. Using appropriate WSN re-organization methods, though the sensor networks can be reorganized, this causes additional maintenance costs and sometimes still decreases the function of the networks. In those situations where the sensor networks cannot be reorganized, the performance of the whole WSN will surely be degraded. In order to ensure the reliable and low cost operation of WSNs, a method to develop a wireless sensor node with self-healing ability based on reconfigurable hardware is proposed in this paper. Two self-healing WSN node realization paradigms based on reconfigurable hardware are presented, including a redundancy-based self-healing paradigm and a whole FPAA/FPGA based self-healing paradigm. The nodes designed with the self-healing ability can dynamically change their node configurations to repair the nodes' hardware failures. To demonstrate these two paradigms, a strain sensor node is adopted as an illustration to show the concepts. Two strain WSN sensor nodes with self-healing ability are developed respectively according to the proposed self-healing paradigms. Evaluation experiments on self-healing ability and power consumption are performed. Experimental results show that the developed nodes can self-diagnose the failures and recover to a normal state automatically. The research presented can improve the robustness of WSNs and reduce the maintenance cost of WSNs in engineering applications. PMID:23202176

  17. Advanced flight hardware for organic separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Weber, John T.

    1997-01-01

    Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning (ATPP) is a unique separation technique which allows purification and classification of biological materials. SHOT has employed the ATPP process in separation equipment developed for both space and ground applications. Initial equipment development and research focused on the ORganic SEParation (ORSEP) space flight experiments that were performed on suborbital rockets and the shuttle. ADvanced SEParations (ADSEP) technology was developed as the next generation of ORSEP equipment through a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Under the SBIR contract, a marketing study was conducted, indicating a growing commercial market exists among biotechnology firms for ADSEP equipment and associated flight research and development services. SHOT is preparing to begin manufacturing and marketing laboratory versions of the ADSEP hardware for the ground-based market. In addition, through a self-financed SBIR Phase III effort, SHOT fabricated and integrated the ADSEP flight hardware for a commercially-driven flight experiment as the initial step in marketing space processing services. The ADSEP ground-based and microgravity research is expected to play a vital role in developing important new biomedical and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Cooling tower hardware corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1983-01-31

    The data presented in this report are interim results of a continuing investigation into the corrosion resistance of metals in the environment of a large cooling tower. Some of the significant observations are as follows: the corrosion of susceptible metals occurs most rapidly in the warm fog conditions between the deck and mist filters; the application of stainless steel must be made on the basis of alloy chemistry and processing history. Some corrosion resistant alloys may develop cracking problems after improper heat treating or welding; combinations of aluminum bronze, stainless steel, and silicon bronze hardware were not susceptible to galvanic corrosion; the service life of structural steel is extended by coal tar epoxy coatings; aluminum coatings appear to protect structural steel on the tower deck and below the distribution nozzles. The corrosion of cooling tower hardware can be easily controlled through the use of 316 stainless steel and silicon bronze. The use of other materials which exhibit general resistance should be specified only after they have been tested in the form of structural assemblies such as weldments and bolted joints in each of the different tower zones.

  19. Electronic processing and control system with programmable hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalaj, Leon (Inventor); Fang, Wai-Chi (Inventor); Newell, Michael A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A computer system with reprogrammable hardware allowing dynamically allocating hardware resources for different functions and adaptability for different processors and different operating platforms. All hardware resources are physically partitioned into system-user hardware and application-user hardware depending on the specific operation requirements. A reprogrammable interface preferably interconnects the system-user hardware and application-user hardware.

  20. Product Assurance for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Mike

    1995-01-01

    This report contains information about the tasks I have completed and the valuable experience I have gained at NASA. The report is divided into two different sections followed by a program summary sheet. The first section describes the two reports I have completed for the Office of Mission Assurance (OMA). I describe the approach and the resources and facilities used to complete each report. The second section describes my experience working in the Receipt Inspection/Quality Assurance Lab (RI/QA). The first report described is a Product Assurance Plan for the Gas Permeable Polymer Materials (GPPM) mission. The purpose of the Product Assurance Plan is to define the various requirements which are to be met through completion of the GPPM mission. The GPPM experiment is a space payload which will be flown in the shuttle's SPACEHAB module. The experiment will use microgravity to enable production of complex polymeric gas permeable materials. The second report described in the first section is a Fracture Analysis for the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP). The Fracture Analysis report is a summary of the fracture control classifications for all structural elements of the MEEP. The MEEP hardware consists of four experiment carriers, each of which contains an experiment container holding a passive experiment. The MEEP hardware will be attached to the cargo bay of the space shuttle. It will be transferred by Extravehicular Activity and mounted on the Mir space station. The second section of this report describes my experiences in the RVQA lab. I listed the different equipment I used at the lab and their functions. I described the extensive inspection process that must be completed for spaceflight hardware. Included, at the end of this section, are pictures of most of the equipment used in the lab. There is a summary sheet located at the end of this report. It briefly describes the valuable experience I have gained at NASA this summer and what I will be able to take

  1. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  2. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  3. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  4. Computer and information technology: hardware.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D

    1998-02-01

    Computers open the door to an ever-expanding arena of knowledge and technology. Most nurses practicing in perianesthesia setting were educated before the computer era, and many fear computers and the associated technology. Frequently, the greatest difficulty is finding the resources and knowing what questions to ask. The following is the first in a series of articles on computers and information technology. This article discusses computer hardware to get the novice started or the experienced user upgraded to access new technologies and the Internet. Future articles will discuss start up and usual software applications, getting up to speed on the information superhighway, and other technologies that will broaden our knowledge and expand our personal and professional world. PMID:9543967

  5. Compressive sensing image sensors-hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mohammadreza; Deen, M Jamal; Shirani, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The compressive sensing (CS) paradigm uses simultaneous sensing and compression to provide an efficient image acquisition technique. The main advantages of the CS method include high resolution imaging using low resolution sensor arrays and faster image acquisition. Since the imaging philosophy in CS imagers is different from conventional imaging systems, new physical structures have been developed for cameras that use the CS technique. In this paper, a review of different hardware implementations of CS encoding in optical and electrical domains is presented. Considering the recent advances in CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technologies and the feasibility of performing on-chip signal processing, important practical issues in the implementation of CS in CMOS sensors are emphasized. In addition, the CS coding for video capture is discussed. PMID:23584123

  6. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of... operating budget. At the HA's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  7. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of... operating budget. At the HA's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  8. 24 CFR 908.108 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... computer hardware or software, or both, the cost of contracting for those services, or the cost of... operating budget. At the HA's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes: analysis of the ADDITION-UK cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Wilson, E C F; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Cost–utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in 69 UK general practices. Unit treatment costs and utility decrement data were taken from published literature. Accumulated costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using ADDITION-UK data from 1 to 5 years (short-term analysis, n = 1024); trial data were extrapolated to 30 years using the UKPDS outcomes model (version 1.3) (long-term analysis; n = 999). All costs were transformed to the UK 2009/10 price level. Results Adjusted incremental costs to the NHS were £285, £935, £1190 and £1745 over a 1-, 5-, 10- and 30-year time horizon, respectively (discounted at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, – 0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250, falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Conclusion Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the UK. The intervention may be cost-effective if it can be delivered at reduced cost. PMID:25661661

  10. Space Transportatioin System (STS) propellant scavenging system study. Volume 3: Cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentally, the volumes of the oxidizer and fuel propellant scavenged from the orbiter and external tank determine the size and weight of the scavenging system. The optimization of system dimensions and weights is stimulated by the requirement to minimize the use of partial length of the orbiter payload bay. Thus, the cost estimates begin with weights established for the optimum design. Both the design, development, test, and evaluation and theoretical first unit hardware production costs are estimated from parametric cost weight scaling relations for four subsystems. For cryogenic propellants, the widely differing characteristics of the oxidizer and the fuel lead to two separate tank subsystems, in addition to the electrical and instrumentation subsystems. Hardwares costs also involve quantity, as an independent variable, since the number of production scavenging systems is not firm. For storable propellants, since the tankage volume of the oxidizer and fuel are equal, the hardware production costs for developing these systems are lower than for cryogenic propellants.

  11. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-32 (STS-57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-11-01

    This document is the final report for the postflight assessment of the RSRM-32 (STS-57) flight set. This report presents the disassembly evaluations performed at the Thiokol facilities in Utah and is a continuation of the evaluations performed at KSC (TWR-64239). The PEEP for this assessment is outlined in TWR-50051, Revision B. The PEEP defines the requirements for evaluating RSRM hardware. Special hardware issues pertaining to this flight set requiring additional or modified assessment are outlined in TWR-64237. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's which are included in Appendix A. Observations were compared against limits defined in the PEEP. Any observation that was categorized as reportable or had no defined limits was documented on a preliminary PFAR by the assessment engineers. Preliminary PFAR's were reviewed by the Thiokol SPAT Executive Board to determine if elevation to PFAR's was required.

  12. Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  13. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  14. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-32 (STS-57)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the postflight assessment of the RSRM-32 (STS-57) flight set. This report presents the disassembly evaluations performed at the Thiokol facilities in Utah and is a continuation of the evaluations performed at KSC (TWR-64239). The PEEP for this assessment is outlined in TWR-50051, Revision B. The PEEP defines the requirements for evaluating RSRM hardware. Special hardware issues pertaining to this flight set requiring additional or modified assessment are outlined in TWR-64237. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's which are included in Appendix A. Observations were compared against limits defined in the PEEP. Any observation that was categorized as reportable or had no defined limits was documented on a preliminary PFAR by the assessment engineers. Preliminary PFAR's were reviewed by the Thiokol SPAT Executive Board to determine if elevation to PFAR's was required.

  15. Color science demonstration kit from open source hardware and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollers, Michael W.

    2014-09-01

    Color science is perhaps the most universally tangible discipline within the optical sciences for people of all ages. Excepting a small and relatively well-understood minority, we can see that the world around us consists of a multitude of colors; yet, describing the "what", "why", and "how" of these colors is not an easy task, especially without some sort of equally colorful visual aids. While static displays (e.g., poster boards, etc.) serve their purpose, there is a growing trend, aided by the recent permeation of small interactive devices into our society, for interactive and immersive learning. However, for the uninitiated, designing software and hardware for this purpose may not be within the purview of all optical scientists and engineers. Enter open source. Open source "anything" are those tools and designs -- hardware or software -- that are available and free to use, often without any restrictive licensing. Open source software may be familiar to some, but the open source hardware movement is relatively new. These are electronic circuit board designs that are provided for free and can be implemented in physical hardware by anyone. This movement has led to the availability of some relatively inexpensive, but quite capable, computing power for the creation of small devices. This paper will showcase the design and implementation of the software and hardware that was used to create an interactive demonstration kit for color. Its purpose is to introduce and demonstrate the concepts of color spectra, additive color, color rendering, and metamers.

  16. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-15

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10{sup 6} voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  17. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  18. Final postflight hardware evaluation report RSRM-28 (STS-53)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrett, William David, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-28 (STS-53) RSRM flight set is presented. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A through C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64215), represents a summary of the RSRM-28 hardware evaluation. The as-flown hardware configuration is documented in TWR-63638. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1989. The RSRM-28 flight set disassembly evaluations described were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on July 15, 1993. Additional time was required to perform the evaluation of the stiffener rings per special issue 4.1.5.2 because of the washout schedule. The release of this report was after completion of all special issues per program management direction. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable team and tracked through the PFAR system.

  19. Cost Modeling for low-cost planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Eric; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Rosenberg, Leigh

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the JPL parametric cost models used to estimate flight science spacecrafts and instruments. This material will emphasize the cost model approaches to estimate low-cost flight hardware, sensors, and instrumentation, and to perform cost-risk assessments. This presentation will also discuss JPL approaches to perform cost modeling and the methodologies and analyses used to capture low-cost vs. key cost drivers.

  20. Hardware Implementation of Singular Value Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Swanirbhar; Shaw, Anil Kumar; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a useful decomposition technique which has important role in various engineering fields such as image compression, watermarking, signal processing, and numerous others. SVD does not involve convolution operation, which make it more suitable for hardware implementation, unlike the most popular transforms. This paper reviews the various methods of hardware implementation for SVD computation. This paper also studies the time complexity and hardware complexity in various methods of SVD computation.

  1. Electronic hardware implementations of neutral networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Moopenn, A.; Lambe, John; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines some of the present work on the development of electronic neural network hardware. In particular, the investigations currently under way at JPL on neural network hardware implementations based on custom VLSI technology, novel thin film materials, and an analog-digital hybrid architecture are reviewed. The availability of such hardware will greatly benefit and enhance the present intense research effort on the potential computational capabilities of highly parallel systems based on neural network models.

  2. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    Fiber Optic Technology is being developed for aircraft and offers benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. Thr fiber optic systems have high bandwidths that exceeds all of the new aircraft design requirements and exceptional electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. Additionally, fiber optic systems have been installed in production aircraft proving design feasiblity.

  3. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  4. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass onmore » to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.« less

  5. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass on to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.

  6. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  7. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  8. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  9. Scaling Retro-Commissioning to Small Commercial Buildings: A Turnkey Automated Hardware-Software Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guanjing; Granderson, J.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, small commercial buildings represent 51% of total floor space of all commercial buildings and consume nearly 3 quadrillion Btu (3.2 quintillion joule) of site energy annually, presenting an enormous opportunity for energy savings. Retro-commissioning (RCx), the process through which professional energy service providers identify and correct operational problems, has proven to be a cost-effective means to achieve median energy savings of 16%. However, retro-commissioning is not typically conducted at scale throughout the commercial stock. Very few small commercial buildings are retro-commissioned because utility expenses are relatively modest, margins are tighter, and capital for improvements is limited. In addition, small buildings do not have in-house staff with the expertise to identify improvement opportunities. In response, a turnkey hardware-software solution was developed to enable cost-effective, monitoring-based RCx of small commercial buildings. This highly tailored solution enables non-commissioning providers to identify energy and comfort problems, as well as associated cost impacts and remedies. It also facilitates scale by offering energy service providers the means to streamline their existing processes and reduce costs by more than half. The turnkey RCx sensor suitcase consists of two primary components: a suitcase of sensors for short-term building data collection that guides users through the process of deploying and retrieving their data and a software application that automates analysis of sensor data, identifies problems and generates recommendations. This paper presents the design and testing of prototype models, including descriptions of the hardware design, analysis algorithms, performance testing, and plans for dissemination.

  10. Solar array shuttle flight experiment - hardware development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V.; Hill, H.C.; Young, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and ground testing of a large area, light-weight, flexible substrate developmental solar array wing that has been built for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-31352) and of the supporting structure and data acquisition system (DAS) which, with the wing will be flown in the shuttle as an experiment in 1984. The experiment will verify the dynamics, thermodynamic, and electrical performance predictions of the array wing and will demonstrate the structural capability of the array wing for Orbiter launch and re-entry environments. The accomodation of the Shuttle payload requirements has resulted in several array wing and operation modifications since the ground demonstration of the array wing in the technology development program. The experiment hardware verification program was designed to minimize costs and risk of experiment performance degradation while maintaining shuttle and crew safety. The previous full-scale wing hardware tests included an extension mast water table test and wing testing for random vibration, thermal vacuum, and acoustic environments. The results of these tests were used to define wing design modifications and to scope the test program for the experiment hardware. The experiment hardware acceptance test program will be completed in October 1982.

  11. Measuring Auroral and Arctic Ozone Using Student Made Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, M.

    2015-12-01

    This project is twofold to test the feasibility of student made hardware and teach students more about atmospheric instrumentation by providing students with education and materials, instructing them in design and building of hardware, and testing the hardware against commercial models in terms of weight, cost, and features. The Gaseous Compounds team of the University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP) selected the parts and the students of the team are assembling the payload. The payload will launch on a latex balloon in Houston and Fairbanks, Alaska. The instrument will gather data on the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere as well as a meteorological profile of the atmosphere. The students plan to have the instrument collect and transmit data on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone, as well as temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. The data will also be stored on an SD card as a backup in case transmission fails. These payloads will fly at night and day to get an accurate vertical profile of the atmosphere and these results will be tested against the results of commercial hardware with the same capabilities.

  12. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  13. Survey of software and hardware VLC architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Chad E.

    1994-05-01

    In implementation of hybrid compression algorithms, the Huffman or Modified Huffman codec can consume a significant portion of silicon real-estate or CPU cycles. To reduce this cost, several schemes have been published that take advantage of one or more inherent properties of the variable length code tables. This paper examines some of these properties and their corresponding architectural components which can be pieced together to form custom hybrids suited to specific applications. Hardware architectural classifications include: serial and parallel Trees, Content Addressable Memory, Programmable Logic Arrays, and parallel comparators schemes that resemble flash A/D architectures. Assessment criteria include: bit rate vs. symbolic rate performance, clock cycle ratios, latencies, pre-buffering and post- buffering, codebook and source channel statistical dependencies, encoder and decoder circuitry sharing, pre-processing of codebooks, critical path, register use in software, breakdown between memory and logical operators, custom vs. standard cells, and code word order. Finally, the performance and size of current industrial implementations for specific application (JPEG, MPEG) are summarized.

  14. Hardware and Software Integration to Support Real-Time Space Link Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawski, Robert; Bhasin, Kul; Bittner, David; Sweet, Aaron; Coulter, Rachel; Schwab, Devin

    2012-01-01

    Prior to operational use, communications hardware and software must be thoroughly tested and verified. In space-link communications, field testing equipment can be prohibitively expensive and cannot test to non-ideal situations. In this paper, we show how software and hardware emulation tools can be used to accurately model the characteristics of a satellite communication channel in a lab environment. We describe some of the challenges associated with developing an emulation lab and present results to demonstrate the channel modeling. We then show how network emulation software can be used to extend a hardware emulation model without requiring additional network and channel simulation hardware.

  15. Speed challenge: a case for hardware implementation in soft-computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Stoica, A.; Duong, T.; Keymeulen, D.; Zebulum, R.; Thomas, T.; Thakoor, A.

    2000-01-01

    For over a decade, JPL has been actively involved in soft computing research on theory, architecture, applications, and electronics hardware. The driving force in all our research activities, in addition to the potential enabling technology promise, has been creation of a niche that imparts orders of magnitude speed advantage by implementation in parallel processing hardware with algorithms made especially suitable for hardware implementation. We review our work on neural networks, fuzzy logic, and evolvable hardware with selected application examples requiring real time response capabilities.

  16. Hardware and Software Integration to Support Real-Time Space-Link Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawski, Robert; Bhasin, Kul; Bittner, David

    2012-01-01

    Prior to operational use, communications hardware and software must be thoroughly tested and verified. In space-link communications, field testing equipment can be prohibitively expensive and cannot test to non-ideal situations. In this paper, we show how software and hardware emulation tools can be used to accurately model the characteristics of a satellite communication channel in a lab environment. We describe some of the challenges associated with developing an emulation lab and present results to demonstrate the channel modeling. We then show how network emulation software can be used to extend a hardware emulation model without requiring additional network and channel simulation hardware.

  17. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  18. Computer hardware description languages - A tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces hardware description languages (HDL) as useful tools for hardware design and documentation. The capabilities and limitations of HDLs are discussed along with the guidelines needed in selecting an appropriate HDL. The directions for future work are provided and attention is given to the implementation of HDLs in microcomputers.

  19. Tinker's Toys: Lessons from Bank Street: Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Bank Street Laboratory (a set of hardware/software tools for measuring temperature, light, and sound) consists of a board that plugs into Apple microcomputers, cabling, software, and six probes. Discusses the laboratory's hardware, including the analog-to-digital converter, multiplier chip, and modular connectors. Circuit diagrams of components…

  20. Properly Matching Microcomputer Hardware, Software Minimizes "Glitches."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredenburg, Philip B.

    1986-01-01

    Microcomputer systems for school districts are best obtained by selecting the software, and matching it with hardware. Discusses criteria for software and hardware, monitors, input/output devices, backup devices, and printers. Components of two basic microcomputer systems for the business office are proposed. (MLF)

  1. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack J.; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized.

  2. 16 CFR 1508.6 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardware. 1508.6 Section 1508.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.6 Hardware. (a) A crib shall be designed and constructed in a manner...

  3. 16 CFR 1509.7 - Hardware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.7 Hardware. (a) The hardware in a non-full-size baby crib shall be... abuse. (b) Non-full-size baby cribs shall incorporate locking or latching devices for dropsides or... non-full-size baby crib....

  4. Dynamic testing of docking system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorland, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive dynamic testing was conducted to verify the flight readiness of the Apollo docking hardware. Testing was performed on a unique six degree-of-freedom motion simulator controlled by a computer that calculated the associated spacecraft motions. The test system and the results obtained by subjecting flight-type docking hardware to actual impact loads and resultant spacecraft dynamics are described.

  5. A Survey of Display Hardware and Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Jesse H., Jr.; And Others

    Reported are two papers which deal with the fundamentals of display hardware and software in computer systems. The first report presents the basic principles of display hardware in terms of image generation from buffers presumed to be loaded and controlled by a digital computer. The concepts surrounding the electrostatic tube, the electromagnetic…

  6. Hardware verification at Computational Logic, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop C.; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) hardware verification; (2) Boyer-Moore logic; (3) core RISC; (4) the FM8502 fabrication, implementation specification, and pinout; (5) hardware description language; (6) arithmetic logic generator; (7) near term expected results; (8) present trends; (9) future directions; (10) collaborations and technology transfer; and (11) technology enablers.

  7. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  8. Research on bottlenecks of RAID controller hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhihu; Chen, Jie; Hu, Huaixiang

    2008-12-01

    RAID systems provide both improved capacity and performance as compared to single disk by striping data to multiple disks, and improve reliability efficiently by redundancy techniques, now RAID becomes key storage device for massive storage system. There are two ways to implement the RAID system: the first is to implement as a software subsystem under PC platform, the second is to implement as a hardware controller. The second one is more common. We have designed and implemented a RAID hardware controller, which called DSDM-FC2000. This paper discusses three kinds of bottlenecks of the DSDM-FC2000 RAID hardware controller: PCI transmission bottleneck, memory access bottleneck and CPU computation bottleneck, and then presents an optimized hardware XOR algorithm which can improve the RAID performance efficiently. Finally this paper gives some advises on designing new generation RAID controller hardware.

  9. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  10. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  11. GSTAMIDS ground-penetrating radar: hardware description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sower, Gary D.; Eberly, John; Christy, Ed

    2001-10-01

    The Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) is now in the Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) Block 0 phase for USA CECOM. The Mine Detection Subsystem (MDS) presently utilizes three different sensor technologies to detect buried anti-tank (AT) land mines; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI), and passive infrared (IR). The GSTAMIDS hardware and software architectures are designed so that other technologies can readily be incorporated when and if they prove viable. Each sensor suite is designed to detect the buried mines and to discriminate against various clutter and background objects. Sensor data fusion of the outputs of the individual sensor suites then enhances the detection probability while reducing the false alarm rate from clutter objects. The metal detector is an essential tool for buried mine detection, as metal land mines still account for a large percentage of land mines. Technologies such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR or QR) are presently being developed to detect or confirm the presence of explosive material in buried land mines, particularly the so-called plastic mines; unfortunately, the radio frequency signals required cannot penetrate into a metal land mine. The limitation of the metal detector is not in detection of the metal mines, but in the additional detection of metal clutter. A metal detector has been developed using singular value decomposition (SVD) extraction techniques to discriminate the mines from the clutter, thereby greatly reducing false alarm rates. This mine detector is designed to characterize the impulse response function of the metal objects, based on a parametric three-pole model of the response, and to use pattern recognition to determine the match of the responses to known mines. In addition to discrimination against clutter, the system can also generally tell one mine type from another. This paper describes the PMI sensor suite hardware and its physical incorporation

  12. Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mathew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Larchev, Gregory; Bellows, Peter; Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO) project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. These tools leverage an established FPGA design environment and focus primarily on space effects mitigation and power optimization. The project is creating software to automatically test and evaluate the single-event-upsets (SEUs) sensitivities of an FPGA design and insert mitigation techniques. Extensions into the tool suite will also allow evolvable algorithm techniques to reconfigure around single-event-latchup (SEL) events. In the power domain, tools are being created for dynamic power visualiization and optimization. Thus, this technology seeks to enable the use of Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit, via an integrated design tool-suite aiming to reduce risk, cost, and design time of multimission reconfigurable space processors using SRAM-based FPGAs.

  13. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  14. Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01

    Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D

  15. Hardware design document for the Infrasound Prototype for a CTBT IMS station

    SciTech Connect

    Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Hardware Design Document (HDD) describes the various hardware components used in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype and their interrelationships. It divides the infrasound prototype into hardware configurations items (HWCIs). The HDD uses techniques such as block diagrams and parts lists to present this information. The level of detail provided in the following sections should be sufficient to allow potential users to procure and install the infrasound system. Infrasonic monitoring is a low cost, robust, and effective technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. Low frequencies from explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors.

  16. Application of innovative rendering techniques for the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Thomas P.

    2003-09-01

    A revolution is underway within commercial PC video graphics, driven mainly by the 3-D gaming community and its demands for customizable lighting effects and realistic, visually appealing, 3-D rendering. This revolution is bringing about a configurable transformation and lighting (T&L) engine within modern PC video graphics hardware. The results of these technological advancements will profoundly impact the way computer-based rendering is done. Although PC graphics hardware continues to change rapidly, it has evolved to the point where it can be made to address most of the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) scene generation demands which historically could be accomplished only on costly graphics workstations. With the ability to control how operations are performed within the hardware rendering process, it is possible to implement customized per-pixel spatial and lighting effects. To illustrate how these capabilities can be applied to solve certain HWIL scene generation problems. A graphics hardware approach will be implemented to demonstrate a method of achieving increased monochrome intensity resolution and a user-defined spatial distortion. There is great potential in modern graphics hardware. The limits are becoming less a function of the hardware capabilities and more a function of the ability of engineers and scientists to exploit the functionality of this rapidly advancing hardware rendering technology.

  17. A new hardware-efficient algorithm and reconfigurable architecture for image contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Wen-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Contrast enhancement is crucial when generating high quality images for image processing applications, such as digital image or video photography, liquid crystal display processing, and medical image analysis. In order to achieve real-time performance for high-definition video applications, it is necessary to design efficient contrast enhancement hardware architecture to meet the needs of real-time processing. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm which can be implemented effectively for hardware design. In order to be considered for hardware implementation, approximation techniques are proposed to reduce these complex computations during performance of the contrast enhancement algorithm. The proposed hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm achieves good image quality by measuring the results of qualitative and quantitative analyzes. To decrease hardware cost and improve hardware utilization for real-time performance, a reduction in circuit area is proposed through use of parameter-controlled reconfigurable architecture. The experiment results show that the proposed hardware-oriented contrast enhancement algorithm can provide an average frame rate of 48.23 frames/s at high definition resolution 1920 × 1080. PMID:25148665

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  20. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  1. Rapid space hardware development through computer-automated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.S.; Ruud, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    FORTE, the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events small satellite designed and built by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories, is scheduled for launch in August, 1997. In the spirit of {open_quotes}better, cheaper, faster{close_quotes} satellites, the RF experiment hardware (receiver and trigger sub-systems) necessitated rapid prototype testing and characterization in the development of space-flight components. This was accomplished with the assembly of engineering model hardware prior to construction of flight hardware and the design of component-specific, PC-based software control libraries. Using the LabVIEW{reg_sign} graphical programming language, together with off-the-shelf PC digital I/O and GPIB interface cards, hardware control and complete automation of test equipment was possible from one PC. Because the receiver and trigger sub-systems employed complex functions for signal discrimination and transient detection, thorough validation of all functions and illumination of any faults were priorities. These methods were successful in accelerating the development and characterization of space-flight components prior to integration and allowed more complete data to be gathered than could have been accomplished without automation. Additionally, automated control of input signal sources was carried over from bench-level to system-level with the use of networked Linux workstation utilizing a GPIB interface.

  2. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Cabral, B.K.; Foran, J.

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially-designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture-mapping hardware, such as that on the Silicon Graphics Reality Engine (TM), shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in this case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. The techniques can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  3. Hardware-in-the-loop tow missile system simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.S.; Wootton, J.R.; Hobson, G.L.; Holder, D.L.

    1993-07-06

    A missile system simulator is described for use in training people for target acquisition, missile launch, and missile guidance under simulated battlefield conditions comprising: simulating means for producing a digital signal representing a simulated battlefield environment including at least one target movable therewithin, the simulating means generating an infrared map representing the field-of-view and the target; interface means for converting said digital signals to an infrared image; missile system hardware including the missile acquisition, tracking, and guidance portions thereof, said hardware sensing the infrared image to determine the location of the target in a field-of-view; and, image means for generating an infrared image of a missile launched at the target and guided thereto, the image means imposing the missile image onto the field-of-view for the missile hardware to acquire the image of the missile in addition to that of the target, and to generate guidance signals to guide the missile image to the target image, wherein the interfacing means is responsive to a guidance signal from the hardware to simulate, in real-time, the response of the missile to the guidance signal, the image means including a blackbody, laser means for irradiating the blackbody to heat it to a temperature at which it emits infrared radiation, and optic means for integrating the radiant image produced by heating the blackbody into the infrared map.

  4. Tomographic image reconstruction and rendering with texture-mapping hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Stephen G.; Cabral, Brian K.; Foran, Jim

    1994-07-01

    The image reconstruction problem, also known as the inverse Radon transform, for x-ray computed tomography (CT) is found in numerous applications in medicine and industry. The most common algorithm used in these cases is filtered backprojection (FBP), which, while a simple procedure, is time-consuming for large images on any type of computational engine. Specially designed, dedicated parallel processors are commonly used in medical CT scanners, whose results are then passed to a graphics workstation for rendering and analysis. However, a fast direct FBP algorithm can be implemented on modern texture-mapping hardware in current high-end workstation platforms. This is done by casting the FBP algorithm as an image warping operation with summing. Texture- mapping hardware, such as that on the silicon Graphics Reality Engine, shows around 600 times speedup of backprojection over a CPU-based implementation (a 100 Mhz R4400 in our case). This technique has the further advantages of flexibility and rapid programming. In addition, the same hardware can be used for both image reconstruction and for volumetric rendering. Our technique can also be used to accelerate iterative reconstruction algorithms. The hardware architecture also allows more complex operations than straight-ray backprojection if they are required, including fan-beam, cone-beam, and curved ray paths, with little or no speed penalties.

  5. Advances in SPECT and PET Hardware.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Piotr J; Pan, Tinsu; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant recent advances in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) hardware. Novel collimator designs, such as multi-pinhole and locally focusing collimators arranged in geometries that are optimized for cardiac imaging have been implemented to reduce imaging time and radiation dose. These new collimators have been coupled with solid state photon detectors to further improve image quality and reduce scanner size. The new SPECT scanners demonstrate up to a 7-fold increase in photon sensitivity and up to 2 times improvement in image resolution. Although PET scanners are used primarily for oncological imaging, cardiac imaging can benefit from the improved PET sensitivity of 3D systems without inter-plane septa and implementation of the time-of-flight reconstruction. Additionally, resolution recovery techniques are now implemented by all major PET vendors. These new methods improve image contrast, image resolution, and reduce image noise. Simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid systems have been developed. Solid state detectors with avalanche photodiodes or digital silicon photomultipliers have also been utilized in PET. These new detectors allow improved image resolution, higher count rate, as well as a reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic MR fields. PMID:25721706

  6. A processor for MPEG decoder SOC: a software/hardware co-design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guojun; Yao, Qingdong; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Zhidi; Li, Fuping

    2005-03-01

    Media processing such as real-time compression and decompression of video signal is now expected to be the driving force in the evolution of media processor. In this paper, a hardware and software co-design approach is introduced for a 32-bit media processor: MediaDsp3201 (briefly, MD32), which is realized in 0.18μm TSMC, 200MHz and can achieve 200 million multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations per second. In our design, we have emerged RISC and DSP into one processor (RISC/DSP). Based on the analysis of inherent characteristics of video processing algorithms, media enhancement instructions are adopted into MD32"instruction set. The media extension instructions are physically realized in the processor core, and improves video processing performance effectively with negligible additional hardware cost (2.7%). Considering the high complexity of the operation for media instructions, technology named scalable super pipeline is used to resolve problem of the time delay of pipeline stage (mainly EX stage). Simulation results show that our method can reduce more than 31% and 23% instructions for IDCT compared to MMX and SSE"s implementation and 40% for MC compared to MMX"s implementation.

  7. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  8. Mobile consultant: evaluation of additional services.

    PubMed

    Banitsas, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Pantelis; Tachakra, Sapal; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2007-01-01

    As the need for mobility in the medical world increases, newer systems and applications came to light; many of them based on wireless and mobile networks. PDA based systems were presented in the past, capable of videoconferencing and transmitting high quality images between a roaming consultant and a fixed point in the hospital. These systems not only had desirable characteristics but also incorporated additional services that were found of value: paging, Voice over IP calling, Internet, email, intranet, patient record update, etc This paper presents an engineering and clinical evaluation of those additional services based on both objective and subjective criteria. It concludes that such complementary services can be desirable as they increase personnel mobility, utilize the hospital resources more efficiently while at the same time increase productivity and decrease the cost of hardware and communications. PMID:18002803

  9. Programmable hardware for reconfigurable computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen

    1996-10-01

    In 1945 the work of J. von Neumann and H. Goldstein created the principal architecture for electronic computation that has now lasted fifty years. Nevertheless alternative architectures have been created that have computational capability, for special tasks, far beyond that feasible with von Neumann machines. The emergence of high capacity programmable logic devices has made the realization of these architectures practical. The original ENIAC and EDVAC machines were conceived to solve special mathematical problems that were far from today's concept of 'killer applications.' In a similar vein programmable hardware computation is being used today to solve unique mathematical problems. Our programmable hardware activity is focused on the research and development of novel computational systems based upon the reconfigurability of our programmable logic devices. We explore our programmable logic architectures and their implications for programmable hardware. One programmable hardware board implementation is detailed.

  10. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and DoD Communication Interface Unit (CIU) communication system design, hardware specifications, and interfaces were evaluated to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communication and data handling equipment and the Orbiter network communication equipment.

  11. Evolvable, reconfigurable hardware for future space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Thakoor, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper overviews Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology, examining its potential for enhancing survivability and flexibility of future space systems. EHW refers to selfconfiguration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms. Evolvable Hardware can maintain existing functionality in the presence of faults and degradations due to aging, temperature and radiation. It can also configure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. The paper illustrates hardware evolution in silicon using a JPL-designed programmable device reconfigurable at transistor level as the platform and a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The experiments demonstrate functional recovery from faults as well as from degradation at extreme temperatures indicating the possibility of expanding the operational range of extreme electronics through evolved circuit solutions.

  12. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  13. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs. PMID:22037977

  14. IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

    2008-10-09

    This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

  15. Development of robotics facility docking test hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T. E.; Winkler, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    Design and fabricate test hardware for NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are reported. A docking device conceptually developed was fabricated, and two docking targets which provide high and low mass docking loads were required and were represented by an aft 61.0 cm section of a Hubble space telescope (ST) mockup and an upgrading of an existing multimission modular spacecraft (MSS) mockup respectively. A test plan is developed for testing the hardware.

  16. Towards composition of verified hardware devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

  17. New Ways Of Doing Business (NWODB) cost quantification analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Rosmait, Russell L.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of designing, producing, and operating typical aerospace flight hardware is necessarily more expensive than most other human endeavors. Because of the more stringent environment of space, hardware designed to operate there will probably always be more expensive than similar hardware which is designed for less taxing environments. It is the thesis of this study that there are very significant improvements that can be made in the cost of aerospace flight hardware.

  18. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  19. Overlapped checkpointing with hardware assist

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Christopher J; Nunez, James A; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to handling the demanding I/O workload incurred during checkpoint writes encountered in High Performance Computing. Prior efforts to improve performance have been primarily bound by mechanical limitations of the hard drive. Our research surpasses this limitation by providing a method to: (1) write checkpoint data to a high-speed, non-volatile buffer, and (2) asynchronously write this data to permanent storage while resuming computation. This removes the hard drive from the critical data path because our I/O node based buffers isolate the compute nodes from the storage servers. This solution is feasible because of industry declines in cost for high-capacity, non-volatile storage technologies. Testing was conducted on a small-scale cluster to prove the design, and then scaled at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results show a definitive speedup factor for select workloads over writing directly to a typical global parallel file system; the Panasas ActiveScale File System.

  20. A comprehensive comparison of spectral scatterometry hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensing, Kevin; Stirton, Broc; Starnes, Brian; Synoradzki, Joseph; Swain, Bryan; Lane, Lawrence

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, three different types of spectral scatterometry hardware are compared using Timbre Technologies' Optical Digital Profiler (ODP) as a common software platform. The hardware under consideration includes a spectroscopic reflectometer (R), polarizing spectroscopic reflectometer (RP) and a spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE). Four advanced lithographic applications are evaluated-two from Spansion's 110-nm Flash memory technology line, and two from AMD's 90-nm logic process. ODP models are developed and optimized for each application and each type of hardware. Results include static and dynamic repeatability, throughput, correlation to incumbent metrology and correlation to cross-section. For each application, the authors also attempt to determine the level of model complexity supported by each hardware type, with special attention paid to the relative sensitivity of each system to changes in critical dimension (CD) and resist profile. The results generally indicate that the SE is the most sensitive hardware type while the R is the most stable. The RP occupies some form of middle ground on both counts. These generalizations are largely application dependent and clear differentiations do not always exist. Selecting the right spectral scatterometry hardware, therefore, is a function of one"s application complexity and control objectives.

  1. Dense Depth Map Reconstruction Using Special Purpose Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distante, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Stella, E.; Attolico, G.

    1989-02-01

    The advancements in machine vision technology have been substantial in recent years with the introduction of faster processors and the improvements in sensor technology. A depth map can be obtained with both direct and indirect methods. The first ones recover depth directly from ranging devices. The second ones recover 3-D information by means of shape from xxx and stereopsis. Our idea consists of integration of information from two different source: local shading analysis and stereo vision. At present this alternate method has been tested with satisfactory results on conventional hardware but it's impracticable for computing time. The use of advanced parallel hardware is surely suitable to achieve the real time response, but it is not justified for some application fields (where response time is not very critical) because of its cost. An alternate choice can fall on low-cost and simple architectures that allow a configuration to achieve the required speed/cost ratio for a particular vision application by using a combination of standard modules. In this paper our method for depth recover is analyzed in order to enhance the critical steps for computing time. They are expressed in terms of computation suitable for standard and special purpose modules.

  2. Symptomatic Hardware Removal After First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kyle S; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Hyer, Christopher F; Thompson, John

    2016-01-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity with proximal instability creates pain and deformity in the forefoot. First tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis is performed to reduce the intermetatarsal angle and stabilize the joint. Dorsomedial locking plate fixation with adjunctive lag screw fixation is used because of its superior construct strength and healing rate. Despite this, questions remain regarding whether this hardware is more prominent and more likely to need removal. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic hardware at the first tarsometatarsal joint and to determine the incidence of hardware removal resulting from prominence and/or discomfort. A review of 165 medical records of consecutive patients who had undergone first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with plate fixation was conducted. The outcome of interest was the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal in patients with clinical union. The mean age was 55 (range 18.4 to 78.8) years. The mean follow-up duration was 65.9 ± 34.0 (range 7.0 to 369.0) weeks. In our cohort, 25 patients (15.2%) had undergone hardware removed because of pain and irritation. Of these patients, 18 (72.0%) had a locking plate and lag screw removed, and 7 (28.0%) had crossing lag screws removed. The fixation of a first tarsometatarsal joint fusion poses a difficult situation owing to minimal soft tissue coverage and the inherent need for robust fixation to promote fusion. Hardware can become prominent postoperatively and can become painful and/or induce cutaneous compromise. The results of the present observational investigation imply that surgeons can reasonably inform patients that the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal after first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis is approximately 15% within a median duration of 9.0 months after surgery. PMID:26215552

  3. Efficient hardware implementation of the lightweight block encryption algorithm LEA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

  4. Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Lightweight Block Encryption Algorithm LEA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donggeon; Kim, Dong-Chan; Kwon, Daesung; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, due to the advent of resource-constrained trends, such as smartphones and smart devices, the computing environment is changing. Because our daily life is deeply intertwined with ubiquitous networks, the importance of security is growing. A lightweight encryption algorithm is essential for secure communication between these kinds of resource-constrained devices, and many researchers have been investigating this field. Recently, a lightweight block cipher called LEA was proposed. LEA was originally targeted for efficient implementation on microprocessors, as it is fast when implemented in software and furthermore, it has a small memory footprint. To reflect on recent technology, all required calculations utilize 32-bit wide operations. In addition, the algorithm is comprised of not complex S-Box-like structures but simple Addition, Rotation, and XOR operations. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report on a comprehensive hardware implementation of LEA. We present various hardware structures and their implementation results according to key sizes. Even though LEA was originally targeted at software efficiency, it also shows high efficiency when implemented as hardware. PMID:24406859

  5. LADAR scene projector for hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Michael C.; Naumann, Charles B.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Snyder, Donald R.

    2002-07-01

    Future types of direct detection LADAR seekers will employ focal plane arrays in their receivers. Existing LADAR scene projection technology cannot meet the needs of testing these types of seekers in a Hardware-in-the-Loop environment. It is desired that the simulated LADAR return signals generated by the projection hardware be representative of the complex targets and background of a real LADAR image. A LADAR scene projector has been developed that is capable of meeting these demanding test needs. It can project scenes of simulated 2D LADAR return signals without scanning. In addition, each pixel in the projection can be represented by a 'complex' optical waveform, which can be delivered with sub-nanosecond precision. Finally, the modular nature of the projector allows it to be configured to operate at different wavelengths. This paper describes the LADAR Scene Projector and its full capabilities.

  6. Web tools to monitor and debug DAQ hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene Desavouret; Jerzy M. Nogiec

    2003-06-04

    A web-based toolkit to monitor and diagnose data acquisition hardware has been developed. It allows for remote testing, monitoring, and control of VxWorks data acquisition computers and associated instrumentation using the HTTP protocol and a web browser. This solution provides concurrent and platform independent access, supplementary to the standard single-user rlogin mechanism. The toolkit is based on a specialized web server, and allows remote access and execution of select system commands and tasks, execution of test procedures, and provides remote monitoring of computer system resources and connected hardware. Various DAQ components such as multiplexers, digital I/O boards, analog to digital converters, or current sources can be accessed and diagnosed remotely in a uniform and well-organized manner. Additionally, the toolkit application supports user authentication and is able to enforce specified access restrictions.

  7. Restructuring a software based MPEG-4 video decoder for short latency hardware acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutellier, Jani; Silvén, Olli; Erdelyi, Tamas

    2007-02-01

    The multimedia capabilities of emerging high-end battery powered mobile devices rely on monolithic hardware accelerators with long latencies to minimize interrupt and software overheads. When compared to pure software implementations, monolithic hardware accelerator solutions need an order of magnitude less power. However, they are rather inflexible and difficult to modify to provide support for multiple coding standards. A more flexible alternative is to employ finer grained short latency accelerators that implement the individual coding functions. Unfortunately, with this approach the software overheads can become very high, if interrupts are used for synchronizing the software and hardware. Preferably, the cost of hardware accelerator interfacing should be at the same level with software functions. In this paper we study the benefits attainable from such an approach. As a case study we restructure a MPEG-4 video decoder in a manner that enables the simultaneous decoding of multiple bit streams using short latency hardware accelerators. The approach takes multiple video bit streams as input and produces a multiplexed stream that is used to control the hardware accelerators without interrupts. The decoding processes of each stream can be considered as threads that share the same hardware resources. Software simulations predict that the energy efficiency of the approach would be significantly better than for a pure software implementation.

  8. Real-time demonstration hardware for enhanced DPCM video compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Marcopoli, Vincent R.

    The lack of available wideband digital links as well as the complexity of implementation of bandwidth efficient digital video CODECs (encoder/decoder) has worked to keep the cost of digital television transmission too high to compete with analog methods. Terrestrial and satellite video service providers, however, are now recognizing the potential gains that digital video compression offers and are proposing to incorporate compression systems to increase the number of available program channels. NASA is similarly recognizing the benefits of and trend toward digital video compression techniques for transmission of high quality video from space and therefore, has developed a digital television bandwidth compression algorithm to process standard National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) composite color television signals. The algorithm is based on differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), but additionally utilizes a non-adaptive predictor, non-uniform quantizer and multilevel Huffman coder to reduce the data rate substantially below that achievable with straight DPCM. The non-adaptive predictor and multilevel Huffman coder combine to set this technique apart from other DPCM encoding algorithms. All processing is done on a intra-field basis to prevent motion degradation and minimize hardware complexity. Computer simulations have shown the algorithm will produce broadcast quality reconstructed video at an average transmission rate of 1.8 bits/pixel. Hardware implementation of the DPCM circuit, non-adaptive predictor and non-uniform quantizer has been completed, providing realtime demonstration of the image quality at full video rates. Video sampling/reconstruction circuits have also been constructed to accomplish the analog video processing necessary for the real-time demonstration. Performance results for the completed hardware compare favorably with simulation results. Hardware implementation of the multilevel Huffman encoder/decoder is currently under development

  9. Real-time demonstration hardware for enhanced DPCM video compression algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, Thomas P.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Marcopoli, Vincent R.

    1992-01-01

    The lack of available wideband digital links as well as the complexity of implementation of bandwidth efficient digital video CODECs (encoder/decoder) has worked to keep the cost of digital television transmission too high to compete with analog methods. Terrestrial and satellite video service providers, however, are now recognizing the potential gains that digital video compression offers and are proposing to incorporate compression systems to increase the number of available program channels. NASA is similarly recognizing the benefits of and trend toward digital video compression techniques for transmission of high quality video from space and therefore, has developed a digital television bandwidth compression algorithm to process standard National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) composite color television signals. The algorithm is based on differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), but additionally utilizes a non-adaptive predictor, non-uniform quantizer and multilevel Huffman coder to reduce the data rate substantially below that achievable with straight DPCM. The non-adaptive predictor and multilevel Huffman coder combine to set this technique apart from other DPCM encoding algorithms. All processing is done on a intra-field basis to prevent motion degradation and minimize hardware complexity. Computer simulations have shown the algorithm will produce broadcast quality reconstructed video at an average transmission rate of 1.8 bits/pixel. Hardware implementation of the DPCM circuit, non-adaptive predictor and non-uniform quantizer has been completed, providing realtime demonstration of the image quality at full video rates. Video sampling/reconstruction circuits have also been constructed to accomplish the analog video processing necessary for the real-time demonstration. Performance results for the completed hardware compare favorably with simulation results. Hardware implementation of the multilevel Huffman encoder/decoder is currently under development

  10. A Primer for Telemetry Interfacing in Accordance with NASA Standards Using Low Cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2016-03-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry (TM) stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a TM interface (TMIF) for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. Low power consumption and high speed FPGAs are available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products and can be used to develop the main component of the TMIF. Then, only a small amount of additional hardware is required for signal buffering and level translating. This paper also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated TM chain in the small laboratory setting using FPGAs and COTS specialized data acquisition products.

  11. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  12. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  13. A computational approach to high-resolution imaging of the living human retina without hardware adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Adie, Steven G.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution imaging of the living human retina by computationally correcting highorder ocular aberrations. These corrections are performed post-acquisition and without the need for a deformable mirror or wavefront sensor that are commonly employed in hardware adaptive optics (HAO) systems. With the introduction of HAO to ophthalmic imaging, high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of the living human retina has become possible. The combination of a deformable mirror, wavefront sensor, and supporting hardware/software, though, can more than double the cost of the underlying imaging modality, in addition to significantly increasing the system complexity and sensitivity to misalignment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows 3-D imaging in addition to naturally providing the complex optical field of backscattered light. This is unlike a scanning laser ophthalmoscope which measures only the intensity of the backscattered light. Previously, our group has demonstrated the utility of a technique called computational adaptive optics (CAO) which utilizes the complex field measured with OCT to computationally correct for optical aberrations in a manner similar to HAO. Until now, CAO has been applied to ex vivo imaging and in vivo skin imaging. Here, we demonstrate in vivo imaging of cone photoreceptors using CAO. Additional practical considerations such as imaging speed, and stability are discussed.

  14. Access flight hardware design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, John F.; Tutterow, Robin D.

    1987-01-01

    Several items were found to be of immense value in the design and development of the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) hardware. The early availability of mock-up and engineering test hardware helped to develop the concept and prove the feasibility of the experiment. The extensive neutral buoyancy testing was invaluable in developing the procedures and timelines, proving that the hardware functioned as intended, and effectively trained the astronauts. The early involvement of the crew systems/astronaut personnel was extremely beneficial in shaping the design to meet the EVA compatibility requirements. Also, the early definition of coupled loads and on-orbit dynamic responses can not be overemphasized due to the relative uncertainty in the magnitude of these loads and their impact on the design.

  15. Regolith simulant preparation methods for hardware testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouache, Thibault P.; Brunskill, Christopher; Scott, Gregory P.; Gao, Yang; Coste, Pierre; Gourinat, Yves

    2010-12-01

    To qualify hardware for space flight, great care is taken to replicate the environment encountered in space. Emphasis is focused on presenting the hardware with the most extreme conditions it might encounter during its mission lifetime. The same care should be taken when regolith simulants are prepared to test space system performance. Indeed, the manner a granular material is prepared can have a very high influence on its mechanical properties and on the performance of the system interacting with it. Three regolith simulant preparation methods have been tested and are presented here (rain, pour, vibrate). They should enable researchers and hardware developers to test their prototypes in controlled and repeatable conditions. The pour and vibrate techniques are robust but only allow reaching a given relative density. The rain technique allows reaching a variety of relative densities but can be less robust if manually controlled.

  16. Acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware for large accelerator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.

    1995-09-06

    Credible and effective communications prove to be the major challenge in the acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware. Technical competence is necessary but not sufficient. The authors must effectively communicate with management, sponsoring agencies, project organizations, service groups, staff and with vendors. Most of Deming`s 14 quality assurance tenants relate to creating an enlightened environment of good communications. All projects progress along six distinct, closely coupled, dynamic phases. All six phases are in a state of perpetual change. These phases and their elements are discussed, with emphasis given to the acquisition phase and its related vocabulary. Large projects require great clarity and rigor as poor communications can be costly. For rigor to be cost effective, it can`t be pedantic. Clarity thrives best in a low-risk, team environment.

  17. Inexact hardware and the trade between precision and performance in earth system modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düben, Peter D.; Jeffress, Stephen; Palmer, Tim N.

    2015-04-01

    We study the use of inexact hardware in numerical weather and climate models. Inexact hardware is promising a reduction of computational cost and power consumption of supercomputers and could be a shortcut to higher resolution forecasts with higher forecast accuracy and exa-scale supercomputing. However, simulations with inexact hardware show numerical errors, such as rounding errors or bit flips. In cooperations with groups in computing science, we studied different approaches to inexact hardware that include the use of stochastic processors: the applied voltage in computing hardware is reduced to save power, but bit flips are possible, the use of pruned hardware: parts of the floating-point unit that are either hardly used or do not influence significant bits are removed, the use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs): An FPGA is a programmable hardware that allows flexible floating-point precision, and the use of inexact memory within simulations of numerical models for weather and climate predictions. Results show that numerical precision can be reduced significantly within simulations of the three dimensional atmosphere with no significant increase in model errors. If computational cost is reduced due to the use of inexact hardware, the possible increase in resolution will allow a stronger reduction of model errors compared to the increase of model errors due to reduced precision. We treat different parts of atmospheric models with customized computational accuracy to reflect inherent uncertainties. Planetary scale waves are more predictable and less uncertain than meso-scale waves. For small-scale dynamics, diffusion, parametrisation schemes, and sub-grid-scale variability cause large inherent uncertainties. An approach of scale separation that calculates the dynamics of expensive small scales with low numerical precision and the dynamics of large scales with high precision has proved to be very efficient.

  18. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  19. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  20. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  1. Pressure Sensor Calibration using VIPA Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, Reynold; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Forrester, Joel B.; Hayes, James C.; Lidey, Lance S.

    2008-10-08

    The VIPA hardware uses a series of modules to control the system. One of the modules that the VIPA hardware uses is a 16-bit analog input module. The main purpose of this module is to read in a voltage. The inputs of these modules are connected directly to the voltage outputs of all the pressure sensors in the system. Because the sensors have different pressure and voltage output ranges, it is necessary to calibrate and scale the sensors so that the values make sense to the operator of the system.

  2. A Web-based Hardware Configuration Tracking System for Herschel-PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanautgaerden, J.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.

    2006-07-01

    An important problem in the development of data reduction systems for astronomical instrumentation is to keep track of changes in the hardware configuration: change of filters, optical elements, detector arrays, control software, etc... Data reduction pipelines need to access different calibration tables for data acquired before and after such hardware changes. In the case of space instrumentation, different qualification models are manufactured and tested on ground. Access to information on the hardware configuration changes for the different models is an additional requirement on robust data reduction pipelines for these projects.

  3. Cost Is Not Everything.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Russell T.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of survey of 21 smaller to medium-sized (50,000-200,000 volumes) libraries which was conducted to determine factors used to make selection decisions in purchase of automated turnkey systems from established vendors. Factors examined include costs, software, hardware, and vendors for parts A (actual experience) and B (hypothetical…

  4. Expendable vs reusable propulsion systems cost sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Dodd, Glenn R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the key trade studies that must be considered when studying any new space transportation hardware is whether to go reusable or expendable. An analysis is presented here for such a trade relative to a proposed Liquid Rocket Booster which is being studied at MSFC. The assumptions or inputs to the trade were developed and integrated into a model that compares the Life-Cycle Costs of both a reusable LRB and an expendable LRB. Sensitivities were run by varying the input variables to see their effect on total cost. In addition a Monte-Carlo simulation was run to determine the amount of cost risk that may be involved in a decision to reuse or expend.

  5. Correctness properties for iterated hardware structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1993-01-01

    Iterated structures occur frequently in hardware. This paper describes properties required of mathematical relations that can be implemented iteratively and demonstrates the use of these properties on a generalized class of adders. This work provides a theoretical basis for the correct synthesis of iterated arithmetic structures.

  6. Management of SSME hardware life utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauschke, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical and probabilistic reliability methodologies were developed for the determination of hardware life limits for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Both methodologies require that a mathematical reliability model of the engine (system) performance be developed as a function of the reliabilities of the components and parts. The system reliability model should be developed from the Failute Modes and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List. The statistical reliability methodology establishes hardware life limits directly from the failure distributions of the components and parts obtained from statistically-designed testing. The probabilistic reliability methodology establishes hardware life limits from a decision analysis methodology which incorporates the component/part reliabilities obtained from a probabilistic structural analysis, a calibrated maintenance program, inspection techniques, and fabrication procedures. Probilistic structural analysis is recommended as a tool to prioritize upgrading of the components and parts. The Weibull probability distribution is presently being investigated by NASA/MSFC to characterize the failure distribution of the SSME hardware from a limited data base of failures.

  7. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  8. Super Heavy-Duty Door Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the new generation of durable school-door hardware and innovations that can resist everyday abuse. Concluding comments address cross-corridor door innovations that can help doorways more easily accommodate the passage of oversized items, and classroom door locking systems. (GR)

  9. Image Interpolation With Dedicated Digital Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R.; Wagner, G.; Simons, D.; Coulson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm for interpolating two-dimensional image data to change picture-element spacing implemented in dedicated digital hardware for high-speed execution. System interpolates 100 times as fast as generalpurpose computer. Image resampling occurs first along one image axis and then along other, using two interpolation devices implemented in series.

  10. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  11. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  12. Postflight hardware evaluation (RSRM-29, STS-54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    This document is the final report for the Clearfield disassembly evaluation and a continuation of the KSC postflight assessment for the RSRM-29 flight set. All observed hardware conditions were documented on PFOR's and are included in Appendices A, B, and C. Appendices D and E contain the measurements and safety factor data for the nozzle and insulation components. This report, along with the KSC Ten-Day Postflight Hardware Evaluation Report (TWR-64221), represents a summary of the RSRM-29 hardware evaluation. Disassembly evaluation photograph numbers are logged in TWA-1990. The RSRM-29 flight set disassembly evaluations described in this document were performed at the RSRM Refurbishment Facility in Clearfield, Utah. The final factory joint demate occurred on September 9, 1993. Detailed evaluations were performed in accordance with the Clearfield PEEP, TWR-50051, Revision A. All observations were compared against limits that are also defined in the PEEP. These limits outline the criteria for categorizing the observations as acceptable, reportable, or critical. Hardware conditions that were unexpected and/or determined to be reportable or critical were evaluated by the applicable CPT and tracked through the PFAR system.

  13. Support for Diagnosis of Custom Computer Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molock, Dwaine S.

    2008-01-01

    The Coldfire SDN Diagnostics software is a flexible means of exercising, testing, and debugging custom computer hardware. The software is a set of routines that, collectively, serve as a common software interface through which one can gain access to various parts of the hardware under test and/or cause the hardware to perform various functions. The routines can be used to construct tests to exercise, and verify the operation of, various processors and hardware interfaces. More specifically, the software can be used to gain access to memory, to execute timer delays, to configure interrupts, and configure processor cache, floating-point, and direct-memory-access units. The software is designed to be used on diverse NASA projects, and can be customized for use with different processors and interfaces. The routines are supported, regardless of the architecture of a processor that one seeks to diagnose. The present version of the software is configured for Coldfire processors on the Subsystem Data Node processor boards of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. There is also support for the software with respect to Mongoose V, RAD750, and PPC405 processors or their equivalents.

  14. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  15. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called “buses”. The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute “programs”. A Pentium® 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration. PMID:21042437

  16. Formal hardware verification of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.

  17. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-08-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called "buses". The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute "programs". A Pentium(®) 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration. PMID:21042437

  18. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  19. Electrical Safety for Human Space Flight Payload Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnells, James A.

    2010-09-01

    Human Space Flight payload hardware designs must address both mission success and safety requirements for flight on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station(ISS), or International Partner(IP) Launch Vehicles. Flight hardware generally can be considered either Government Furnished Equipment(GFE) or Payload hardware, although some Commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) hardware is also flown. In this case we will use the payload flight hardware system safety perspective, which closely resembles the GFE system safety process with a few exceptions. Why is Human space flight hardware treated differently than ground hardware? The key reason flight hardware is treated more conservatively than ground hardware is the relative impact to crew and vehicle, and the relative inability to provide immediate recovery of a disabled space vehicle or crewmember on-orbit. One aspect of safe payload flight hardware design is Electrical Power Systems(EPS), including the safe design and operations of electrical power systems for payloads.

  20. A Common Approach for the Certifying of International Space Station (ISS) Basic Hardware for Ground Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul D.; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In order to support the International Space Station, as well as any future long term human missions, vast amounts of logistical-type hardware is required to be processed through the various launch sites. This category consists of such hardware as spare parts, replacement items, and upgraded hardware. The category also includes samples for experiments and consumables. One attribute that all these items have is they are generally non-hazardous, at least to ground personnel. Even though the items are non-hazardous, launch site ground safety has a responsibility for the protection of personnel, the flight hardware, and launch site resources. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the safety organization must have knowledge of the hardware and its operations. Conversely, the hardware providers are entitled to a process that is commensurate with the hazard. Additionally, a common system should be in place that is flexible enough to account for the requirements at all launch sites, so that, the hardware provider need only complete one process for ground safety regardless of the launch site.

  1. The Hidden Costs of Owning a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Before purchasing computer hardware, individuals must consider the costs associated with the setup and operation of a microcomputer system. Included among the initial costs of purchasing a computer are the costs of the computer, one or more disk drives, a monitor, and a printer as well as the costs of such optional peripheral devices as a plotter…

  2. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  3. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOEpatents

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  4. Hardware for Accelerating N-Modular Redundant Systems for High-Reliability Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, Carl, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware unit has been designed that reduces the cost, in terms of performance and power consumption, for implementing N-modular redundancy (NMR) in a multiprocessor device. The innovation monitors transactions to memory, and calculates a form of sumcheck on-the-fly, thereby relieving the processors of calculating the sumcheck in software

  5. Design Considerations in Development of Minicomputer-Based Computer Aided Instructional Hardware Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, C. H.

    A minicomputer-based computer-assisted instructional (CAI) system was designed at the University of Texas Medical Branch in an attempt to lower both the excessive hardware costs and the inordinate amount of time required for the preparation of each hour of instructional material associated with traditional CAI systems. A prototype system with an…

  6. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  7. Demonstration of Datacenter Automation Software and Hardware (DASH) at the California Franchise Tax Board

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-12-18

    Control software and wireless sensors designed for closed-loop, monitoring and control of IT equipment's inlet air temperatures in datacenters were evaluated and tested while other datacenter cooling best practices were implemented. The controls software and hardware along with each best practice were installed sequentially and evaluated using a measurement and verification procedure between each measure. The results show that the overall project eliminates 475,239 kWh per year, which is 21.3percent of the baseline energy consumption of the data center. The total project, including the best practices will save $42,772 per year and cost $134,057 yielding a simple payback of 3.1 years. However, the control system alone eliminates 59.6percent of the baseline energy used to move air in the datacenter and 13.6percent of the baseline cooling energy, which is 15.2percent of the baseline energy consumption (see Project Approach, Task 1, below, for additional information) while keeping temperatures substantially within the limits recommended by ASHRAE. Savings attributed to the control system are $30,564 per year with a cost $56,824 for a simple payback of 1.9 years.

  8. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, P. Alan; Murphy, David M.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the 'array level' and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  9. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.A.; Murphy, D.M.; Piszczor, M.F.; Allen, D.M. |

    1995-10-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the `array level` and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  10. An update on SCARLET hardware development and flight programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. Alan; Murphy, David M.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1995-10-01

    Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) is one of the first practical photovoltaic concentrator array technologies that offers a number of benefits for space applications (i.e. high array efficiency, protection from space radiation effects, a relatively light weight system, minimized plasma interactions, etc.) The line-focus concentrator concept, however, also offers two very important advantages: (1) low-cost mass production potential of the lens material; and (2) relaxation of precise array tracking requirements to only a single axis. These benefits offer unique capabilities to both commercial and government spacecraft users, specifically those interested in high radiation missions, such as MEO orbits, and electric-powered propulsion LEO-to-GEO orbit raising applications. SCARLET is an aggressive hardware development and flight validation program sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and NASA Lewis Research Center. Its intent is to bring technology to the level of performance and validation necessary for use by various government and commercial programs. The first phase of the SCARLET program culminated with the design, development and fabrication of a small concentrator array for flight on the METEOR satellite. This hardware will be the first in-space demonstration of concentrator technology at the 'array level' and will provide valuable in-orbit performance measurements. The METEOR satellite is currently planned for a September/October 1995 launch. The next phase of the program is the development of large array for use by one of the NASA New Millenium Program missions. This hardware will incorporate a number of the significant improvements over the basic METEOR design. This presentation will address the basic SCARLET technology, examine its benefits to users, and describe the expected improvements for future missions.

  11. The Total Cost of Ownership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2000-01-01

    Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided. (GR)

  12. Codem: software/hardware codesign for embedded multicore systems supporting hardware services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Nedjah, Nadia; Wang, Aili

    2015-01-01

    Efficient software/hardware codesign is posing significant challenges to embedded systems. This paper proposes Codem, a software/hardware codesign flow for embedded systems, which models both processors and Intellectual Property (IP) cores as services. Tasks are regarded as abstract instructions which can be scheduled to IP cores for parallel execution automatically. In order to guide the hardware implementations of the hot spot functions, this paper incorporates a novel hot spot-based profiling technique to observe the hot spot functions while the application is being simulated. Furthermore, based on the hot spot of various applications, an adaptive mapping algorithm is presented to partition the application into multiple software/hardware tasks. We test the profiling-based design flow with classic Sort applications. Experimental results demonstrate that Codem can efficiently help researchers to identify the hot spots, and also outline a new direction to combine profiling techniques with state-of-the-art reconfigurable computing platforms for specific task acceleration.

  13. FFT and cone-beam CT reconstruction on graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Després, Philippe; Sun, Mingshan; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Prevrhal, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for general purpose calculations. Their pipelined architecture can be exploited to accelerate various parallelizable algorithms. Medical imaging applications are inherently well suited to benefit from the development of GPU-based computational platforms. We evaluate in this work the potential of GPUs to improve the execution speed of two common medical imaging tasks, namely Fourier transforms and tomographic reconstructions. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was GPU-implemented and compared, in terms of execution speed, to two popular CPU-based FFT routines. Similarly, the Feldkamp, David and Kress (FDK) algorithm for cone-beam tomographic reconstruction was implemented on the GPU and its performance compared to a CPU version. Different reconstruction strategies were employed to assess the performance of various GPU memory layouts. For the specific hardware used, GPU implementations of the FFT were up to 20 times faster than their CPU counterparts, but slower than highly optimized CPU versions of the algorithm. Tomographic reconstructions were faster on the GPU by a factor up to 30, allowing 256 3 voxel reconstructions of 256 projections in about 20 seconds. Overall, GPUs are an attractive alternative to other imaging-dedicated computing hardware like application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in terms of cost, simplicity and versatility. With the development of simpler language extensions and programming interfaces, GPUs are likely to become essential tools in medical imaging.

  14. Testing of hardware implementation of infrared image enhancing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; PiÄ tkowski, T.; Trzaskawka, P.; Kastek, M.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The interpretation of IR images depends on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Skills and experience of an observer itself are also of great importance. The solution to improve the effectiveness of observation is utilization of algorithm of image enhancing capable to improve the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. The paper presents results of testing the hardware implementation of IR image enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Main issue in hardware implementation of complex procedures for image enhancing algorithms is high computational cost. As a result implementation of complex algorithms using general purpose processors and software usually does not bring satisfactory results. Because of high efficiency requirements and the need of parallel operation, the ALTERA's EP2C35F672 FPGA device was used. It provides sufficient processing speed combined with relatively low power consumption. A digital image processing and control module was designed and constructed around two main integrated circuits: a FPGA device and a microcontroller. Programmable FPGA device performs image data processing operations which requires considerable computing power. It also generates the control signals for array readout, performs NUC correction and bad pixel mapping, generates the control signals for display module and finally executes complex image processing algorithms. Implemented adaptive algorithm is based on plateau histogram equalization. Tests were performed on real IR images of different types of objects registered in different spectral bands. The simulations and laboratory experiments proved the correct operation of the designed system in executing the sophisticated image enhancement.

  15. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STATUS OF QCDOC.

    SciTech Connect

    BOYLE,P.A.; CHEN,D.; CHRIST,N.H.; PETROV.K.; ET AL.

    2003-07-15

    QCDOC is a massively parallel supercomputer whose processing nodes are based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This ASIC was custom-designed so that crucial lattice QCD kernels achieve an overall sustained performance of 50% on machines with several 10,000 nodes. This strong scalability, together with low power consumption and a price/performance ratio of $1 per sustained MFlops, enable QCDOC to attack the most demanding lattice QCD problems. The first ASICs became available in June of 2003, and the testing performed so far has shown all systems functioning according to specification. We review the hardware and software status of QCDOC and present performance figures obtained in real hardware as well as in simulation.

  16. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  17. Design guidelines for robotically serviceable hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    Research being conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center into the development of guidelines for the design of robotically serviceable spaceflight hardware is described. A mock-up was built based on an existing spaceflight system demonstrating how these guidelines can be applied to actual hardware. The report examines the basic servicing philosophy being studied and how this philosophy is reflected in the formulation of design guidelines for robotic servicing. A description of the mock-up is presented with emphasis on the design features that make it robot friendly. Three robotic servicing schemes fulfilling the design guidelines were developed for the mock-up. These servicing schemes are examined as to how their implementation was affected by the constraints of the spacecraft system on which the mock-up is based.

  18. [Consequences of uncritical indication assessment for hardware removal].

    PubMed

    Liska, F; Neu, J

    2014-07-01

    A 43-year-old woman sustained a severe ankle dislocation with distal fibular fracture in a domestic accident. This was initially treated with external fixation for 3 weeks. In addition to distal fibular fracture treatment using a fixed-angle locking plate system, a vacuum-assisted wound closure of the medial und lateral malleolus had to be performed due to a persisting difficult soft tissue situation with swelling and necrosis of the medial malleolus. Subsequently, after prolonged wound healing the soft tissue defect over the distal fibula could be covered with a split skin graft and the external fixation was removed. Implant removal was performed 2 years after primary treatment - following radiologically confirmed consolidation of the fracture. Intraoperatively, an iatrogenic oblique fracture of the fibula occurred due to a cold welded screw in the plate, which had to be treated with lag screws. In the further course, there was renewed extensive wound healing with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The patient filed a complaint for the iatrogenic fibular fracture during hardware removal and also criticized the insufficient wound closure which led to an impairment of wound healing. The expert opinion of the arbitration board ascertained a medical malpractice in terms of indications. Due to the already prolonged course after the primary osteosynthesis hardware removal was not recommended. In addition, the surgical technique that led to the iatrogenic fracture was criticized. The arbitration board furthermore concluded that with a pre-existing osteoarthritis of the ankle, hardware removal was not indicated. In a critical wound situation implant removal would only be indicated with simultaneous treatment of the osteoarthritis of the ankle. By means of a critical indication assessment the patient should have been advised to leave the plate in place and the complicated course with iatrogenic fracture and severely delayed wound healing could

  19. Hardware Implementation of Serially Concatenated PPM Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Barsoum, Maged; Cheng, Michael; Nakashima, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A prototype decoder for a serially concatenated pulse position modulation (SCPPM) code has been implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). At the time of this reporting, this is the first known hardware SCPPM decoder. The SCPPM coding scheme, conceived for free-space optical communications with both deep-space and terrestrial applications in mind, is an improvement of several dB over the conventional Reed-Solomon PPM scheme. The design of the FPGA SCPPM decoder is based on a turbo decoding algorithm that requires relatively low computational complexity while delivering error-rate performance within approximately 1 dB of channel capacity. The SCPPM encoder consists of an outer convolutional encoder, an interleaver, an accumulator, and an inner modulation encoder (more precisely, a mapping of bits to PPM symbols). Each code is describable by a trellis (a finite directed graph). The SCPPM decoder consists of an inner soft-in-soft-out (SISO) module, a de-interleaver, an outer SISO module, and an interleaver connected in a loop (see figure). Each SISO module applies the Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm to compute a-posteriori bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) from apriori LLRs by traversing the code trellis in forward and backward directions. The SISO modules iteratively refine the LLRs by passing the estimates between one another much like the working of a turbine engine. Extrinsic information (the difference between the a-posteriori and a-priori LLRs) is exchanged rather than the a-posteriori LLRs to minimize undesired feedback. All computations are performed in the logarithmic domain, wherein multiplications are translated into additions, thereby reducing complexity and sensitivity to fixed-point implementation roundoff errors. To lower the required memory for storing channel likelihood data and the amounts of data transfer between the decoder and the receiver, one can discard the majority of channel likelihoods, using only the remainder in

  20. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

  1. Hardware-Independent Proofs of Numerical Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldo, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi Minh Tuyen

    2010-01-01

    On recent architectures, a numerical program may give different answers depending on the execution hardware and the compilation. Our goal is to formally prove properties about numerical programs that are true for multiple architectures and compilers. We propose an approach that states the rounding error of each floating-point computation whatever the environment. This approach is implemented in the Frama-C platform for static analysis of C code. Small case studies using this approach are entirely and automatically proved

  2. Hardware demonstration of flexible beam control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment employing a pinned-free flexible beam has been constructed to demonstrate and verify several facets of the control of flexible structures. The desired features of the experiment are to demonstrate active shape control, active dynamic control, adaptive control, various control law design approaches, and associated hardware requirements and mechanization difficulties. This paper contains the analytical work performed in support of the facility development, the final design specifications, control law synthesis, and some preliminary results.

  3. Testing Microshutter Arrays Using Commercial FPGA Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapchun, David

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing micro-shutter arrays for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These micro-shutter arrays allow NIRspec to do Multi Object Spectroscopy, a key part of the mission. Each array consists of 62414 individual 100 x 200 micron shutters. These shutters are magnetically opened and held electrostatically. Individual shutters are then programmatically closed using a simple row/column addressing technique. A common approach to provide these data/clock patterns is to use a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Such devices require complex VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) programming and custom electronic hardware. Due to JWST's rapid schedule on the development of the micro-shutters, rapid changes were required to the FPGA code to facilitate new approaches being discovered to optimize the array performance. Such rapid changes simply could not be made using conventional VHDL programming. Subsequently, National Instruments introduced an FPGA product that could be programmed through a Labview interface. Because Labview programming is considerably easier than VHDL programming, this method was adopted and brought success. The software/hardware allowed the rapid change the FPGA code and timely results of new micro-shutter array performance data. As a result, numerous labor hours and money to the project were conserved.

  4. Reconfigurable Hardware Adapts to Changing Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A new class of computing architectures and processing systems, which use reconfigurable hardware, is creating a revolutionary approach to implementing future spacecraft systems. With the increasing complexity of electronic components, engineers must design next-generation spacecraft systems with new technologies in both hardware and software. Derivation Systems, Inc., of Carlsbad, California, has been working through NASA s Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program to develop key technologies in reconfigurable computing and Intellectual Property (IP) soft cores. Founded in 1993, Derivation Systems has received several SBIR contracts from NASA s Langley Research Center and the U.S. Department of Defense Air Force Research Laboratories in support of its mission to develop hardware and software for high-assurance systems. Through these contracts, Derivation Systems began developing leading-edge technology in formal verification, embedded Java, and reconfigurable computing for its PF3100, Derivational Reasoning System (DRS ), FormalCORE IP, FormalCORE PCI/32, FormalCORE DES, and LavaCORE Configurable Java Processor, which are designed for greater flexibility and security on all space missions.

  5. "Greenbook Algorithms and Hardware Needs Analysis"

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Oehmen, Chris S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2007-01-09

    "This document describes the algorithms, and hardware balance requirements needed to enable the solution of real scientific problems in the DOE core mission areas of environmental and subsurface chemistry, computational and systems biology, and climate science. The MSCF scientific drivers have been outlined in the Greenbook, which is available online at http://mscf.emsl.pnl.gov/docs/greenbook_for_web.pdf . Historically, the primary science driver has been the chemical and the molecular dynamics of the biological science area, whereas the remaining applications in the biological and environmental systems science areas have been occupying a smaller segment of the available hardware resources. To go from science drivers to hardware balance requirements, the major applications were identified. Major applications on the MSCF resources are low- to high-accuracy electronic structure methods, molecular dynamics, regional climate modeling, subsurface transport, and computational biology. The algorithms of these applications were analyzed to identify the computational kernels in both sequential and parallel execution. This analysis shows that a balanced architecture is needed with respect to processor speed, peak flop rate, peak integer operation rate, and memory hierarchy, interprocessor communication, and disk access and storage. A single architecture can satisfy the needs of all of the science areas, although some areas may take greater advantage of certain aspects of the architecture. "

  6. 24 CFR 208.112 - Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formatted data, including either the purchase and maintenance of computer hardware or software, or both, the... requirements. (c) The source of funds for the purchase of hardware or software, or contracting for services for... increases. (b) At the owner's option, the cost of the computer software may include service contracts...

  7. Method for run time hardware code profiling for algorithm acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matev, Vladimir; de la Torre, Eduardo; Riesgo, Teresa

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we propose a method for run time profiling of applications on instruction level by analysis of loops. Instead of looking for coarse grain blocks we concentrate on fine grain but still costly blocks in terms of execution times. Most code profiling is done in software by introducing code into the application under profile witch has time overhead, while in this work data for the position of a loop, loop body, size and number of executions is stored and analysed using a small non intrusive hardware block. The paper describes the system mapping to runtime reconfigurable systems. The fine grain code detector block synthesis results and its functionality verification are also presented in the paper. To demonstrate the concept MediaBench multimedia benchmark running on the chosen development platform is used.

  8. Volume rendering using parallel algebraic logic (PAL) hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzheng; Shi, Hongchi; Coffield, Patrick C.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of a volume graphics rendering algorithm using shift-restoration operations on parallel algebraic logic (PAL) image processor. The algorithm is a parallel ray casting algorithm. In order to eliminate shading artifacts caused by inaccurate estimation of surface normal vectors, we use gray level volume instead of binary volume, and apply a low pass filter to smooth the volume object surfaces. By transforming the volume to an intermediate coordinate system to which there is a simple mapping from the object coordinate system, we solve the data redistribution problem caused by nonregular data access patterns in volume rendering. It has been proved very effective in reducing the data communication cost of the rendering algorithm on the PAL hardware.

  9. Hardware/Software Expansion of Display Terminal and CPU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, B. R.

    1986-01-01

    IBM PC coupling used to expand capabilities of expensive specialpurpose system. IBM PC was interfaced to Tektronix CP1151 computer through teletype port of Tektronix 4010-1 computer display terminal. Electronic interface built to provide isolation, level shifting, and signal inversion between IBM PC RS-232 port and 4010-1 terminal teletype port. Modifications to 4010-1 terminal made to increase teletype rate from 110 to 9,600 baud. Software for both computers developed to give control of DPO system to IBM PC and provide data/program file exchange between two computers. Coupling demonstrates utilization of low-cost microcomputer hardware and software to expand capabilities of expensive special-purpose computer systems.

  10. A modular suite of hardware enabling spaceflight cell culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, Alexander; Klaus, David M.; Stodieck, Louis S.

    2004-01-01

    BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Research Partnership Center (RPC), has developed and operated various middeck payloads launched on 23 shuttle missions since 1991 in support of commercial space biotechnology projects. Modular cell culture systems are contained within the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) suite of flight-qualified hardware, compatible with Space Shuttle, SPACEHAB, Spacelab and International Space Station (ISS) EXPRESS Rack interfaces. As part of the CGBA family, the Isothermal Containment Module (ICM) incubator provides thermal control, data acquisition and experiment manipulation capabilities, including accelerometer launch detection for automated activation and thermal profiling for culture incubation and sample preservation. The ICM can accommodate up to 8 individually controlled temperature zones. Command and telemetry capabilities allow real-time downlink of data and video permitting remote payload operation and ground control synchronization. Individual cell culture experiments can be accommodated in a variety of devices ranging from 'microgravity test tubes' or standard 100 mm Petri dishes, to complex, fed-batch bioreactors with automated culture feeding, waste removal and multiple sample draws. Up to 3 levels of containment can be achieved for chemical fixative addition, and passive gas exchange can be provided through hydrophobic membranes. Many additional options exist for designing customized hardware depending on specific science requirements.

  11. Space Station Freedom electrical power system hardware commonality with the United States Polar Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieker, Lorra L.; Haraburda, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has adopted the policy to achieve the maximum practical level of commonality for the Space Station Freedom program in order to significantly reduce life cycle costs. Commonality means using identical or similar hardware/software for meeting common sets of functionally similar requirements. Information on how the concept of commonality is being implemented with respect to electric power system hardware for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Polar Platform is presented. Included is a historical account of the candidate common items which have the potential to serve the same power system functions on both Freedom and the Polar Platform.

  12. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  13. Solid rocket motor cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  14. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  15. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  16. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM SOUTHEAST FACING NORTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  17. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM NORTHEAST FACING SOUTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  18. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. “Storage drive” is a term describing a “memory” hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. “Drive interfaces” connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular “input/output devices” used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The “bus” is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. “Ports” are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ‘ever increasing’ digital future. PMID:21423895

  19. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, A

    2010-11-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. "Storage drive" is a term describing a "memory" hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. "Drive interfaces" connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular "input/output devices" used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The "bus" is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. "Ports" are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the 'ever increasing' digital future. PMID:21423895

  20. Open Source Hardware for DIY Environmental Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hicks, S. D.; Damiano, S. G.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Arduino open source electronics platform has been very popular within the DIY (Do It Yourself) community for several years, and it is now providing environmental science researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. Here we present the designs for our latest series of custom Arduino-based dataloggers, which include wireless communication options like self-meshing radio networks and cellular phone modules. The main Arduino board uses a custom interface board to connect to various research-grade sensors to take readings of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and conductivity, soil moisture, solar radiation, and other parameters. Sensors with SDI-12 communications can be directly interfaced to the logger using our open Arduino-SDI-12 software library (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12). Different deployment options are shown, like rugged enclosures to house the loggers and rigs for mounting the sensors in both fresh water and marine environments. After the data has been collected and transmitted by the logger, the data is received by a mySQL-PHP stack running on a web server that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Once there, the data can be visualized on web pages or served though REST requests and Water One Flow (WOF) services. Since one of the main benefits of using open source hardware is the easy collaboration between users, we are introducing a new web platform for discussion and sharing of ideas and plans for hardware and software designs used with DIY environmental sensors and data loggers.

  1. Summary of materials and hardware performance on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Pippin, Gary; Teichman, Lou

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of materials and experiment support hardware were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Postflight testing has determined the effects of the almost 6 years of low-earth orbit (LEO) exposure on this hardware. An overview of the results are presented. Hardware discussed includes adhesives, fasteners, lubricants, data storage systems, solar cells, seals, and the LDEF structure. Lessons learned from the testing and analysis of LDEF hardware is also presented.

  2. Hardware implementation and characterization of a low density parity check (LDPC) decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoup, Ryan

    2006-08-01

    The hardware implementation of a low complexity Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) decoder is described. The design of the LDPC decoder optimized on minimizing the amount of hardware resources necessary for implementation. In addition to implementation details, design tradeoffs considered in the development of the LDPC decoder are discussed. The intended application of the LDPC decoder is a nonlinear satellite communications channel. The nonlinearities and communications signal perturbations include Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), phase noise, phase imbalance, and a model satellite high power amplifier nonlinearity. The LDPC decoder performance is then characterized in the satellite channel.

  3. Evaluation of RSRM case hardware fretting concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swauger, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Fretting corrosion was first noted on Shuttle flight STS-26. This flight was the first usage of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The occurrence of fretting has since been observed on both the field and factory joints of the RSRM. Fretting is a form of corrosion that occurs at the interface between contacting, highly loaded, metal surfaces when exposed to slight relative vibratory motions. The engineering effort performed to evaluate the effect of fretting on the RSRM case hardware is summarized. Based on the results of this evaluation, several conclusions were made concerning flight safety. Also, recommendations were made concerning trending the effects of multiple generations of fretting damage.

  4. Configuration management for hardware-software codesign

    SciTech Connect

    Kobialka, H.U.; Gnedina, A.; Wilberg, J.

    1996-12-31

    Configuration Management (CM) has a long tradition in the area of software development. In other areas CM is still more a promise than a product to be used. During HW/SW codesign a large design space has to be explored in order to find the optimal combination of software and hardware. This is an optimization process where many variants (> 1000) and associated analysis results have to be maintained for later exploration. Each variant consists of hundreds of files. This paper describes the CM requirements we encountered when introducing CM in a HW/SW codesign project. CM support for HW/SW codesign has been implemented in the ADDD development environment.

  5. Workmanship Challenges for NASA Mission Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several challenges in workmanship for NASA mission hardware development. Several standards for NASA workmanship exist, that are required for all programs, projects, contracts and subcontracts. These Standards contain our best known methods for avoiding past assembly problems and defects. These best practices may not be available if suppliers are used who are not compliant with them. Compliance includes having certified operators and inspectors. Some examples of problems that have occured from the lack of requirements flow-down to contractors are reviewed. The presentation contains a detailed example of the challenge in regards to The Packaging "Design" Dilemma.

  6. FORTE hardware-in-loop simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, K.K.; Murray, H.S.; Moore, T.K.

    1997-12-01

    Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is a small, low Earth orbit satellite scheduled for launch in August 1997. FORTE is a momentum-biased, gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. This paper describes the use of a hardware-in-loop simulator, developed by Ithaco Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in performing FORTE mission simulations. Scenarios studied include separation, acquisition on orbit, control system parameter sensitivity studies, sensor noise simulations, antenna deployment and momentum desaturation. Use of the simulator to refine control algorithms and sequences is also described.

  7. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  8. SuperCDMS Cold Hardware Design

    SciTech Connect

    Al Kenany, S.; Rolla, Julie A.; Godfrey, Gary; Brink, Paul L.; Seitz, Dennis N.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Huber, Martin E.; Hines, Bruce A.; Irwin, Kent D.; /NIST, Boulder

    2012-06-13

    We discuss the current design of the cold hardware and cold electronics to be used in the upcoming SuperCDMS Soudan deployment. Engineering challenges associated with such concerns as thermal isolation, microphonics, radiopurity, and power dissipation are discussed, along with identifying the design changes necessary for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs ultrapure 1-inch thick, 3-inch diameter germanium crystals operating below 50 mK in a dilution cryostat. These detectors give an ionization and phonon signal, which gives us rejection capabilities regarding background events versus dark matter signals.

  9. Efficient Multiplication of Polynomials on Graphics Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeliyanenko, Pavel

    We present the algorithm to multiply univariate polynomials with integer coefficients efficiently using the Number Theoretic transform (NTT) on Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The same approach can be used to multiply large integers encoded as polynomials. Our algorithm exploits fused multiply-add capabilities of the graphics hardware. NTT multiplications are executed in parallel for a set of distinct primes followed by reconstruction using the Chinese Remainder theorem (CRT) on the GPU. Our benchmarking experiences show the NTT multiplication performance up to 77 GMul/s. We compared our approach with CPU-based implementations of polynomial and large integer multiplication provided by NTL and GMP libraries.

  10. A building block for hardware belief networks.

    PubMed

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  11. Reconfigurable Hardware for Compressing Hyperspectral Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Namkung, Jeffrey; Villapando, Carlos; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, Matthew; Xie, Hua

    2010-01-01

    High-speed, low-power, reconfigurable electronic hardware has been developed to implement ICER-3D, an algorithm for compressing hyperspectral-image data. The algorithm and parts thereof have been the topics of several NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images (NPO-43239) and ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software (NPO-43238), which appear elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As described in more detail in those articles, the algorithm includes three main subalgorithms: one for computing wavelet transforms, one for context modeling, and one for entropy encoding. For the purpose of designing the hardware, these subalgorithms are treated as modules to be implemented efficiently in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The design takes advantage of industry- standard, commercially available FPGAs. The implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex II pro architecture, which has embedded PowerPC processor cores with flexible on-chip bus architecture. It incorporates an efficient parallel and pipelined architecture to compress the three-dimensional image data. The design provides for internal buffering to minimize intensive input/output operations while making efficient use of offchip memory. The design is scalable in that the subalgorithms are implemented as independent hardware modules that can be combined in parallel to increase throughput. The on-chip processor manages the overall operation of the compression system, including execution of the top-level control functions as well as scheduling, initiating, and monitoring processes. The design prototype has been demonstrated to be capable of compressing hyperspectral data at a rate of 4.5 megasamples per second at a conservative clock frequency of 50 MHz, with a potential for substantially greater throughput at a higher clock frequency. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 6.5 W. The reconfigurability (by means of reprogramming) of

  12. A building block for hardware belief networks

    PubMed Central

    Behin-Aein, Behtash; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Belief networks represent a powerful approach to problems involving probabilistic inference, but much of the work in this area is software based utilizing standard deterministic hardware based on the transistor which provides the gain and directionality needed to interconnect billions of them into useful networks. This paper proposes a transistor like device that could provide an analogous building block for probabilistic networks. We present two proof-of-concept examples of belief networks, one reciprocal and one non-reciprocal, implemented using the proposed device which is simulated using experimentally benchmarked models. PMID:27443521

  13. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The DOD and NASA inertial upper stage communication system design, hardware specifications and interfaces were analyzed to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communications equipment (Payload Interrogator, Payload Signal Processors, Communications Interface Unit, and the Orbiter operational communications equipment (the S-Band and Ku-band systems). Topics covered include (1) IUS/shuttle Orbiter communications interface definition; (2) Orbiter avionics equipment serving the IUS; (3) IUS communication equipment; (4) IUS/shuttle Orbiter RF links; (5) STDN/TDRS S-band related activities; and (6) communication interface unit/Orbiter interface issues. A test requirement plan overview is included.

  14. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  15. Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bij, E.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.; Cattin, M.; Gousiou, E.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Boccardi, A.; Voumard, N.; Penacoba, G.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an `Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

  16. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Report is made of the cost analysis of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystems and two water electrolysis subsystems, namely, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte. The four oxygen recovery systems were quantitatively evaluated. System characteristics, including process flows, performance, and physical characteristics were also analyzed. Additionally, the status of development of each of the systems considered and the required advance technology efforts required to bring conceptual and/or pre-prototype hardware to an operational prototype status were defined. Intimate knowledge of the operations, development status, and capabilities of the systems to meet space mission requirements were found to be essential in establishing the cost estimating relationships for advanced life support systems.

  17. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2015-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a SimulinkR library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  18. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2014-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a Simulink(R) library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  19. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia Mae; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2014-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (40,000 pound force thrust) (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a Simulink (R) library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL

  20. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  1. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-09-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  2. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  3. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  4. Verification Challenges of Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    within the respective volumes. In addition, because this is a dynamic facility with a moving test bed, direct line-of-sight may not be available at all times between the measurement sensors and the tracking targets. Finally, the feedback data from the active test bed along with the two external measurement systems must be synchronized to allow for data correlation. To ensure the desired accuracy and resolution of these systems, calibration of the systems must be performed regularly. New innovations in sensor technology itself are periodically incorporated into the facility s overall measurement scheme. In addressing the challenges of the measurement systems, the facility is able to provide essential position and orientation data to verify the dynamic performance of space flight hardware.

  5. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  6. 34 CFR 643.30 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rented space is not owned by the grantee. (f) Purchase of computer hardware, computer software, or other... allowable costs? The cost principles that apply to the Talent Search program are in 34 CFR part 74,...

  7. Health Maintenance System (HMS) Hardware Research, Design, and Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences division (SLSD) concentrates on optimizing a crew member's health. Developments are translated into innovative engineering solutions, research growth, and community awareness. This internship incorporates all those areas by targeting various projects. The main project focuses on integrating clinical and biomedical engineering principles to design, develop, and test new medical kits scheduled for launch in the Spring of 2011. Additionally, items will be tagged with Radio Frequency Interference Devices (RFID) to keep track of the inventory. The tags will then be tested to optimize Radio Frequency feed and feed placement. Research growth will occur with ground based experiments designed to measure calcium encrusted deposits in the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will assess the urine calcium levels with Portable Clinical Blood Analyzer (PCBA) technology. If effective then a model for urine calcium will be developed and expanded to microgravity environments. To support collaboration amongst the subdivisions of SLSD the architecture of the Crew Healthcare Systems (CHeCS) SharePoint site has been redesigned for maximum efficiency. Community collaboration has also been established with the University of Southern California, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hardware disbursements will transpire within these communities to support planetary surface exploration and to serve as an educational tool demonstrating how ground based medicine influenced the technological development of space hardware.

  8. A Novel Framework for Effective Preemptive Hardware Multitasking on FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    Modern FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), such as Xilinx Virtex-4, have the capability of changing their contents dynamically and partially, allowing implementation of such concepts as a HW (hardware) task. Similarly to its software counterpart, the HW task shares time-multiplexed resources with other HW tasks. To support preemptive multitasking in such systems, additional context saving and restoring mechanisms must be built practically from scratch. This paper presents an efficient method for hardware task preemption which is suitable for tasks containing both Flip-Flops and memory elements. Our solution consists of an offline tool for analyzing and manipulating bitstreams, used at the design time, as well as an embedded system framework. The framework contains a DMA-based (Direct Memory Access), instruction-driven reconfiguration/readback controller and a developed lightweight bus facilitating management of HW tasks. The whole system has been implemented on top of the Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA and showed promising results for a variety of HW tasks.

  9. HSCT Sector Combustor Hardware Modifications for Improved Combustor Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart C.; Heberling, Paul V.; Moertle, George E.

    2005-01-01

    An alternative to the stepped-dome design for the lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor has been developed. The new design uses the same premixer types as the stepped-dome design: integrated mixer flameholder (IMFH) tubes and a cyclone swirler pilot. The IMFH fuel system has been taken to a new level of development. Although the IMFH fuel system design developed in this Task is not intended to be engine-like hardware, it does have certain characteristics of engine hardware, including separate fuel circuits for each of the fuel stages. The four main stage fuel circuits are integrated into a single system which can be withdrawn from the combustor as a unit. Additionally, two new types of liner cooling have been designed. The resulting lean blowout data was found to correlate well with the Lefebvre parameter. As expected, CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were shown to have an approximately linear relationship, even though some scatter was present in the data, and the CO versus flame temperature data showed the typical cupped shape. Finally, the NOx emissions data was shown to agree well with a previously developed correlation based on emissions data from Configuration 3 tests performed at GEAE. The design variations of the cyclone swirler pilot that were investigated in this study did not significantly change the NOx emissions from the baseline design (GEAE Configuration 3) at supersonic cruise conditions.

  10. International Neutral Buoyancy Simulation of Space Station Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lisa C.; Shields, Nicholas Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) Neutral Buoyancy Simulation was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator facility during April and May 1992. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate hardware design and operations for the ISPR and U.S. Lab system racks under simulated conditions of microgravity. The ISPR NBS was conducted by an international simulation team including representatives from Boeing, NASA, NASDA, and ESA. Hardware for the ISPR NBS was provided by Boeing, Alenia, ESA, and MSFC. NASDA and its contractors MEH and IHI provided experienced in-tank participants and technical observers who were present for the duration of the simulation. The ISPR NBS was the first Space Station simulation involving NASA, NASDA and ESA. In addition to bringing together technical representatives from around the world, the ISPR NBS included test subjects who are some of the most experienced U.S. and European astronauts. Eight general areas of investigation were addressed during the ISPR NBS, including: utility panel interfaces, rack tilt down, standoff access, wall access behind the rack, rack removal and installation, rack translation, multiple rack operations, and restraints and mobility aids. This paper focuses on aspects of simulation planning, conduct, and reporting that pertain to specifically to the international involvement of the activity.

  11. Enhancing the Performance of Assisted Execution Runtime Systems through Hardware/Software Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Unsal, Osman; Cristal, Adrian; Valero, Mateo

    2012-06-01

    To meet the expected performance, future exascale systems will require programmers to increase the level of parallelism of their applications. Novel programming models simplify parallel programming at the cost of increasing runtime overheard. Assisted execution models have the potential of reducing this overhead but they generally also reduce processor utilization. We propose an integrated hardware/software solution that automatically partition hardware resources between application and auxiliary threads. Each system level performs well-defined tasks efficiently: 1) the runtime system is enriched with a mechanism that automatically detects computing power requirements of running threads and drives the hardware actuators; 2) the hardware enforces dynamic resource partitioning; 3) the operating system provides an efficient interface between the runtime system and the hardware resource allocation mechanism. As a test case, we apply this adaptive approach to STM2, an software transactional memory system that implements the assisted execution model. We evaluate the proposed adaptive solution on an IBMPOWER7 system using Eigenbench and STAMP benchmark suite. Results show that our approach performs equal or better than the original STM2 and achieves up to 65% and 86% performance improvement for Eigenbench and STAMP applications, respectively.

  12. Resource efficiency of hardware extensions of a 4-issue VLIW processor for elliptic curve cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungeblut, T.; Puttmann, C.; Dreesen, R.; Porrmann, M.; Thies, M.; Rückert, U.; Kastens, U.

    2010-12-01

    The secure transmission of data plays a significant role in today's information era. Especially in the area of public-key-cryptography methods, which are based on elliptic curves (ECC), gain more and more importance. Compared to asymmetric algorithms, like RSA, ECC can be used with shorter key lengths, while achieving an equal level of security. The performance of ECC-algorithms can be increased significantly by adding application specific hardware extensions. Due to their fine grained parallelism, VLIW-processors are well suited for the execution of ECC algorithms. In this work, we extended the fourfold parallel CoreVA-VLIW-architecture by several hardware accelerators to increase the resource efficiency of the overall system. For the design-space exploration we use a dual design flow, which is based on the automatic generation of a complete C-compiler based tool chain from a central processor specification. Using the hardware accelerators the performance of the scalar multiplication on binary fields can be increased by the factor of 29. The energy consumption can be reduced by up to 90%. The extended processor hardware was mapped on a current 65 nm low-power standard-cell-technology. The chip area of the CoreVA-VLIW-architecture is 0.24 mm2 at a power consumption of 29 mW/MHz. The performance gain is analyzed in respect to the increased hardware costs, as chip area or power consumption.

  13. CASIS Fact Sheet: Hardware and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Michael R.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Vencore is a proven information solutions, engineering, and analytics company that helps our customers solve their most complex challenges. For more than 40 years, we have designed, developed and delivered mission-critical solutions as our customers' trusted partner. The Engineering Services Contract, or ESC, provides engineering and design services to the NASA organizations engaged in development of new technologies at the Kennedy Space Center. Vencore is the ESC prime contractor, with teammates that include Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Sierra Lobo, Nelson Engineering, EASi, and Craig Technologies. The Vencore team designs and develops systems and equipment to be used for the processing of space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and payloads. We perform flight systems engineering for spaceflight hardware and software; develop technologies that serve NASA's mission requirements and operations needs for the future. Our Flight Payload Support (FPS) team at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides engineering, development, and certification services as well as payload integration and management services to NASA and commercial customers. Our main objective is to assist principal investigators (PIs) integrate their science experiments into payload hardware for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), commercial spacecraft, suborbital vehicles, parabolic flight aircrafts, and ground-based studies. Vencore's FPS team is AS9100 certified and a recognized implementation partner for the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS

  14. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  15. A very low-cost system for capturing 3D motion scans with color and texture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a technique for capturing 3D motion scans using hardware that can be constructed for approximately $5,000 in cost. This hardware-software solution, in addition to capturing the movement of the physical structures also captures color and texture data. The scanner configuration developed at the University of North Dakota is sufficient in size for capturing scans of a group of humans. Scanning starts with synchronization and then requires modeling of each frame. For some applications linking structural elements from frame-to-frame may also be required. The efficacy of this scanning approach is discussed and prospective applications for it are considered.

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  18. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  19. Structuring Formal Control Systems Specifications for Reuse: Surviving Hardware Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Erickson, Debra M.

    2000-01-01

    Formal capture and analysis of the required behavior of control systems have many advantages. For instance, it encourages rigorous requirements analysis, the required behavior is unambiguously defined, and we can assure that various safety properties are satisfied. Formal modeling is, however, a costly and time consuming process and if one could reuse the formal models over a family of products, significant cost savings would be realized. In an ongoing project we are investigating how to structure state-based models to achieve a high level of reusability within product families. In this paper we discuss a high-level structure of requirements models that achieves reusability of the desired control behavior across varying hardware platforms in a product family. The structuring approach is demonstrated through a case study in the mobile robotics domain where the desired robot behavior is reused on two diverse platforms-one commercial mobile platform and one build in-house. We use our language RSML (-e) to capture the control behavior for reuse and our tool NIMBUS to demonstrate how the formal specification can be validated and used as a prototype on the two platforms.

  20. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  1. Total Cost of Ownership: Key Infrastructure Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Denny G.

    2001-01-01

    Many school districts have planned only for upfront software and hardware costs (one-quarter of "real" costs). This article examines major cost components of client-server computing, discusses TCO (total cost of ownership) as a tool for managing investment in technology, and considers how to leverage cost-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  2. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  3. Design and fabrication of an autonomous rendezvous and docking sensor using off-the-shelf hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Gary E.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed and tested an engineering model of an automated rendezvous and docking sensor system composed of a video camera ringed with laser diodes at two wavelengths and a standard remote manipulator system target that has been modified with retro-reflective tape and 830 and 780 mm optical filters. TRW has provided additional engineering analysis, design, and manufacturing support, resulting in a robust, low cost, automated rendezvous and docking sensor design. We have addressed the issue of space qualification using off-the-shelf hardware components. We have also addressed the performance problems of increased signal to noise ratio, increased range, increased frame rate, graceful degradation through component redundancy, and improved range calibration. Next year, we will build a breadboard of this sensor. The phenomenology of the background scene of a target vehicle as viewed against earth and space backgrounds under various lighting conditions will be simulated using the TRW Dynamic Scene Generator Facility (DSGF). Solar illumination angles of the target vehicle and candidate docking target ranging from eclipse to full sun will be explored. The sensor will be transportable for testing at the MSFC Flight Robotics Laboratory (EB24) using the Dynamic Overhead Telerobotic Simulator (DOTS).

  4. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  5. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 2: Prototype utilization in the development of space biology hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Wood, H. J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to define the factors which space flight hardware developers and planners should consider when determining: (1) the number of hardware units required to support program; (2) design level of the units; and (3) most efficient means of utilization of the units. The analysis considered technology risk, maintainability, reliability, and safety design requirements for achieving the delivery of highest quality flight hardware. Relative cost impacts of the utilization of prototyping were identified. The development of Space Biology Initiative research hardware will involve intertwined hardware/software activities. Experience has shown that software development can be an expensive portion of a system design program. While software prototyping could imply the development of a significantly different end item, an operational system prototype must be considered to be a combination of software and hardware. Hundreds of factors were identified that could be considered in determining the quantity and types of prototypes that should be constructed. In developing the decision models, these factors were combined and reduced by approximately ten-to-one in order to develop a manageable structure based on the major determining factors. The Baseline SBI hardware list of Appendix D was examined and reviewed in detail; however, from the facts available it was impossible to identify the exact types and quantities of prototypes required for each of these items. Although the factors that must be considered could be enumerated for each of these pieces of equipment, the exact status and state of development of the equipment is variable and uncertain at this time.

  6. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  7. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  8. Hardware development for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Cheung, W. S.; Gill, D.; Hacker, R.; Keiser, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), also known as the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, will test two fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by precise measurement of the precessions of nearly perfect gyroscopes in earth orbit. This endeavor embodies state-of-the-art technologies in many fields, including gyroscope fabrication and readout, cryogenics, superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision optics and alignment methods, and satellite control systems. These technologies are necessary to enable measurement of the predicted precession rates to the milliarcsecond/year level, and to reduce to 'near zero' all non-General Relativistic torques on the gyroscopes. This paper provides a brief overview of the experiment followed by descriptions of several specific hardware items with highlights on progress to date and plans for future development and tests.

  9. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  10. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  11. VST hydrostatic bearing system control hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, C.; Schipani, P.; Mancini, D.; D'Orsi, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Hydrostatic Bearing System (HBS) control hardware of the VST (VLT Survey Telescope), a 2.6 m. class Alt-Az telescope in installation phase at Cerro Paranal in Northern Chile, at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site, is aimed at controlling all the devices present in the HBS pumping station and at monitoring the pressure values in the different points of the plant. The HBS control system is based mainly on a Local Control Unit (LCU) mounted in the HBS control cabinet and connected to the plant by means of proper I/Fs. A distributed pressure and temperature acquisition system, based on General Purpose (GP) acquisition boards, is also present. A local interlock chain and related enabling signal for the Azimuth Axis interlock chain have been implemented to avoid fault propagation in case of lack of delivery pressure. In the present paper all technical details concerning the control and monitoring of the HBS subsystem are given.

  12. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-04-05

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module.

  13. Fuzzy Control Hardware for Segmented Mirror Phasing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a possible implementation of a control model developed to phase a system of segmented mirrors, with a PAMELA configuration, using analog fuzzy hardware. Presently, the model is designed for piston control only, but with the foresight that the parameters of tip and tilt will be integrated eventually. The proposed controller uses analog circuits to exhibit a voltage-mode singleton fuzzifier, a mixed-mode inference engine, and a current-mode defuzzifier. The inference engine exhibits multiplication circuits that perform the algebraic product composition through the use of operational transconductance amplifiers rather than the typical min-max circuits. Additionally, the knowledge base, containing exemplar data gained a priori through simulation, interacts via a digital interface.

  14. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  15. Environmental testing for new SOFIA flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.

    2014-07-01

    New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.

  16. Utilizing Emerging Hardware for Multiphysics Simulation Through Implicit High-Order Finite Element Methods With Tensor Product Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.; Ahmadia, A.; Knepley, M. G.; Smith, B.

    2011-12-01

    The cost of memory, especially memory bandwidth, is becoming increasingly expensive on modern high performance computing architectures including GPUs and multi-core systems. In contrast, floating point operations are relatively inexpensive when they can be vectorized (e.g. thread blocks on a GPU or vector registers on a CPU). This relative cost of memory to flops will continue to become even more pronounced due to fundamental issues of power utilization, therefore it is important to rethink algorithms to effectively utilize hardware. Commonly used methods for implicit solves with finite element methods involve assembly of a sparse matrix. Unfortunately, sparse matrix kernels have an arithmetic intensity (ratio of flops to bytes of memory movement) that is orders of magnitude less than that delivered by modern hardware, causing the floating point units to be massively under-utilized. The ``free flops'' can be effectively utilized by higher order methods which deliver improved accuracy for the same number of degrees of freedom. Effective use of high order methods require eschewing assembled data structures for matrix storage in exchange for unassembled representations. The resulting computation reduces to small dense tensor-product operations and indepedent ``physics'' kernels at each quadrature point, both of which are amenable to vectorization and capable of delivering a high fraction of peak performance. To reduce the effort required to implement new physics (e.g. constitutive relations and additional fields), retain code verifiability, and experiment with different vectorization strategies and solver algorithms, we express the continuum equations in Python and use automatic differentiation, symbolic methods, and code generation techniques to create vectorized kernels for residual evaluation, Jacobian storage, Jacobian application, and adjoints for each block of the system. The performance and effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated for free-surface Stokes

  17. Cascade Error Projection: A Learning Algorithm for Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Daud, Taher

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we workout a detailed mathematical analysis for a new learning algorithm termed Cascade Error Projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters. Furthermore, CEP learning algorithm is operated only on one layer, whereas the other set of weights can be calculated deterministically. In association with the dynamical stepsize change concept to convert the weight update from infinite space into a finite space, the relation between the current stepsize and the previous energy level is also given and the estimation procedure for optimal stepsize is used for validation of our proposed technique. The weight values of zero are used for starting the learning for every layer, and a single hidden unit is applied instead of using a pool of candidate hidden units similar to cascade correlation scheme. Therefore, simplicity in hardware implementation is also obtained. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to select from other methods (such as the conjugate gradient descent or the Newton's second order) one of which will be a good candidate for the learning technique. The choice of learning technique depends on the constraints of the problem (e.g., speed, performance, and hardware implementation); one technique may be more suitable than others. Moreover, for a discrete weight space, the theoretical analysis presents the capability of learning with limited weight quantization. Finally, 5- to 8-bit parity and chaotic time series prediction problems are investigated; the simulation results demonstrate that 4-bit or more weight quantization is sufficient for learning neural network using CEP. In addition, it is demonstrated that this technique is able to compensate for less bit weight resolution by incorporating additional hidden units. However, generation result may suffer somewhat with lower bit weight quantization.

  18. Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Cecil, Jim; Lewis, Brandon L.; Molina Fraticelli, Jose C.; Clark, James P.

    2015-01-01

    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload,1 providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cm cu and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high delta v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature ( less than100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum

  19. Survey of hardware supported by the Control System at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.J.; Nawrocki, G.J.

    1993-12-31

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) has been under development at Los Alamos and Argonne National Laboratories for over six years. A wide variety of instrumentation is now supported. This presentation will give an overview of the types of hardware and subsystems which are currently supported and will discuss future plans for addressing additional hardware requirements at the APS. Supported systems to be discussed include: motion control, vacuum pump control and system monitoring, standard laboratory instrumentation (ADCs, DVMs, pulse generators, etc.), image processing, discrete binary and analog I/O, and standard temperature, pressure and flow monitoring.

  20. Study of the adaptability of existing hardware designs to a Pioneer Saturn/Uranus probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic concept of designing a scientific entry probe for the expected range of environments at Saturn or Uranus and making the probe compatible with the interface constraints of the Pioneer spacecraft was investigated for launches in the early 1980's. It was found that the amount of hardware commonality between that used in the Pioneer Venus program and that for the Saturn/Uranus probe was approximately 85%. It is recommended that additional development studies be conducted to improve the hardware definitions of the probe design for the following: heat shield, battery, nose cap jettisoning, and thermal control insulation.

  1. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  2. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  3. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  4. Agile hardware and software systems engineering for critical military space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Philip M.; Knuth, Andrew A.; Krueger, Robert O.; Garrison-Darrin, Margaret A.

    2012-06-01

    The Multi Mission Bus Demonstrator (MBD) is a successful demonstration of agile program management and system engineering in a high risk technology application where utilizing and implementing new, untraditional development strategies were necessary. MBD produced two fully functioning spacecraft for a military/DOD application in a record breaking time frame and at dramatically reduced costs. This paper discloses the adaptation and application of concepts developed in agile software engineering to hardware product and system development for critical military applications. This challenging spacecraft did not use existing key technology (heritage hardware) and created a large paradigm shift from traditional spacecraft development. The insertion of new technologies and methods in space hardware has long been a problem due to long build times, the desire to use heritage hardware, and lack of effective process. The role of momentum in the innovative process can be exploited to tackle ongoing technology disruptions and allowing risk interactions to be mitigated in a disciplined manner. Examples of how these concepts were used during the MBD program will be delineated. Maintaining project momentum was essential to assess the constant non recurring technological challenges which needed to be retired rapidly from the engineering risk liens. Development never slowed due to tactical assessment of the hardware with the adoption of the SCRUM technique. We adapted this concept as a representation of mitigation of technical risk while allowing for design freeze later in the program's development cycle. By using Agile Systems Engineering and Management techniques which enabled decisive action, the product development momentum effectively was used to produce two novel space vehicles in a fraction of time with dramatically reduced cost.

  5. Data Applicability of Heritage and New Hardware for Launch Vehicle System Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al Hassan Mohammad; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Many launch vehicle systems are designed and developed using heritage and new hardware. In most cases, the heritage hardware undergoes modifications to fit new functional system requirements, impacting the failure rates and, ultimately, the reliability data. New hardware, which lacks historical data, is often compared to like systems when estimating failure rates. Some qualification of applicability for the data source to the current system should be made. Accurately characterizing the reliability data applicability and quality under these circumstances is crucial to developing model estimations that support confident decisions on design changes and trade studies. This presentation will demonstrate a data-source classification method that ranks reliability data according to applicability and quality criteria to a new launch vehicle. This method accounts for similarities/dissimilarities in source and applicability, as well as operating environments like vibrations, acoustic regime, and shock. This classification approach will be followed by uncertainty-importance routines to assess the need for additional data to reduce uncertainty.

  6. Mechanically verified hardware implementing an 8-bit parallel IO Byzantine agreement processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. Strother

    1992-01-01

    Consider a network of four processors that use the Oral Messages (Byzantine Generals) Algorithm of Pease, Shostak, and Lamport to achieve agreement in the presence of faults. Bevier and Young have published a functional description of a single processor that, when interconnected appropriately with three identical others, implements this network under the assumption that the four processors step in synchrony. By formalizing the original Pease, et al work, Bevier and Young mechanically proved that such a network achieves fault tolerance. We develop, formalize, and discuss a hardware design that has been mechanically proven to implement their processor. In particular, we formally define mapping functions from the abstract state space of the Bevier-Young processor to a concrete state space of a hardware module and state a theorem that expresses the claim that the hardware correctly implements the processor. We briefly discuss the Brock-Hunt Formal Hardware Description Language which permits designs both to be proved correct with the Boyer-Moore theorem prover and to be expressed in a commercially supported hardware description language for additional electrical analysis and layout. We briefly describe our implementation.

  7. Toward Evolvable Hardware Chips: Experiments with a Programmable Transistor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Evolvable Hardware is reconfigurable hardware that self-configures under the control of an evolutionary algorithm. We search for a hardware configuration can be performed using software models or, faster and more accurate, directly in reconfigurable hardware. Several experiments have demonstrated the possibility to automatically synthesize both digital and analog circuits. The paper introduces an approach to automated synthesis of CMOS circuits, based on evolution on a Programmable Transistor Array (PTA). The approach is illustrated with a software experiment showing evolutionary synthesis of a circuit with a desired DC characteristic. A hardware implementation of a test PTA chip is then described, and the same evolutionary experiment is performed on the chip demonstrating circuit synthesis/self-configuration directly in hardware.

  8. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  9. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer - A low cost computer suitable for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, T. J.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Previous space flight computers have been costly in terms of both hardware and software. The Ruggedized STD Bus Microcomputer is based on the commercial Mostek/Pro-Log STD Bus. Ruggedized PC cards can be based on commercial cards from more than 60 manufacturers, reducing hardware cost and design time. Software costs are minimized by using standard 8-bit microprocessors and by debugging code using commercial versions of the ruggedized flight boards while the flight hardware is being fabricated.

  10. Cost and benefit of satellite shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Carsten; Oswald, Michael; Stabroth, Sebastian; Alwes, Detlef; Vörsmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Recent simulations of the future development of the space debris environment revealed that the number of hypervelocity impacts on satellite surfaces will increase. Impacts of space debris particles and micrometeoroids can damage satellites. This can cause operational anomalies or even the loss of a satellite mission. The loss of a satellite reduces its expected operational lifetime. Thus, financial investments cannot be amortized completely. In this paper the cost of hypervelocity impacts on satellites is estimated. A risk analysis is performed by combining the probability of a penetration with the failure probability of the satellite. The goal of this work is to combine the risk of particle impacts with a cost analysis. The probability of a satellite failure is estimated by combining the probability of a penetration with a vulnerability model. The failure probability is weighted with the mission cost of a satellite. This results in a probability of loss of amortization. The amortization loss is used as estimation for the damage cost due to hypervelocity impacts. In this way it is possible to associate impacts with cost. The cost model is used to analyze selected reference missions. This analysis considers the influence of shielding measures on the mission cost. An important result is the estimation of the failure probability for different satellite wall designs including shielding. Shielding requires a modification of the satellite wall. This can result in an increasing complexity of the wall or an increasing mass. As a consequence, the hardware cost increase. To identify suitable shielding measures and to justify the additional financial investments, it is necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of such measures and to demonstrate their benefit.

  11. 18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL INTERIOR DOOR AND HARDWARE A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  12. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  13. A Partial Access Mechanism on a Register for Low-Cost Embedded Multimedia ASIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ha-Young; Cho, Min-Young; Hur, Won; Lee, Yong-Surk

    In this letter, we propose a partial access mechanism to be used on a register file for low-cost embedded multimedia processor architecture. In the embedded system, supporting the SIMD operations is a burden because of the wide SIMD register file and its execution unit. So a new architecture is proposed to increase the performance of SIMD operations with minimal additional hardware overhead. To evaluate the performance and hardware overhead, this architecture is adopted to an embedded multimedia processor and simulated with five DSP benchmarks. The simulation results indicate that the performance is increased by 38% and the total area is increased by 13.4%. The proposed partial access mechanism may be useful for low-cost embedded multimedia ASIP.

  14. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Zhang, Mingjun; Kretly, Luiz C.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  15. Employing ISRU Models to Improve Hardware Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    An analytical model for hydrogen reduction of regolith was used to investigate the effects of several key variables on the energy and mass performance of reactors for a lunar in-situ resource utilization oxygen production plant. Reactor geometry, reaction time, number of reactors, heat recuperation, heat loss, and operating pressure were all studied to guide hardware designers who are developing future prototype reactors. The effects of heat recuperation where the incoming regolith is pre-heated by the hot spent regolith before transfer was also investigated for the first time. In general, longer reaction times per batch provide a lower overall energy, but also result in larger and heavier reactors. Three reactors with long heat-up times results in similar energy requirements as a two-reactor system with all other parameters the same. Three reactors with heat recuperation results in energy reductions of 20 to 40 percent compared to a three-reactor system with no heat recuperation. Increasing operating pressure can provide similar energy reductions as heat recuperation for the same reaction times.

  16. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103, is given a black light inspection. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  17. Hubble (HST) hardware is inspected in PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, a worker gives a black light inspection to part of the servicing equipment for the third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (SM-3A), STS-103. The hardware is undergoing final testing and integration of payload elements. Mission STS-103 is a 'call-up' due to the need to replace portions of the Hubble's pointing system, the gyros, which have begun to fail. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. The gyroscopes allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will not only replace gyroscopes, it will also replace a Fine Guidance Sensor and an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. The scheduled launch date in October is under review.

  18. Hardware platform for multiple mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzhuber, Otto; Dolinsky, D.

    2004-12-01

    This work is concerned with software and communications architectures that might facilitate the operation of several mobile robots. The vehicles should be remotely piloted or tele-operated via a wireless link between the operator and the vehicles. The wireless link will carry control commands from the operator to the vehicle, telemetry data from the vehicle back to the operator and frequently also a real-time video stream from an on board camera. For autonomous driving the link will carry commands and data between the vehicles. For this purpose we have developed a hardware platform which consists of a powerful microprocessor, different sensors, stereo- camera and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for communication. The adoption of IEEE802.11 standard for the physical and access layer protocols allow a straightforward integration with the internet protocols TCP/IP. For the inspection of the environment the robots are equipped with a wide variety of sensors like ultrasonic, infrared proximity sensors and a small inertial measurement unit. Stereo cameras give the feasibility of the detection of obstacles, measurement of distance and creation of a map of the room.

  19. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  20. Evolving hardware as model of enzyme evolution.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Beltra, R

    2001-06-01

    Organism growth and survival is based on thousands of enzymes organized in networks. The motivation to understand how a large number of enzymes evolved so fast inside cells may be relevant to explaining the origin and maintenance of life on Earth. This paper presents electronic circuits called 'electronic enzymes' that model the catalytic function performed by biological enzymes. Electronic enzymes are the hardware realization of enzymes defined as molecular automata with a finite number of internal conformational states and a set of Boolean operators modelling the active groups of the active site. One of the main features of electronic enzymes is the possibility of evolution finding the proper active site by means of a genetic algorithm yielding a metabolic ring or k-cycle that bears a resemblance to Krebs (k=7) or Calvin (k=4) cycles present in organisms. The simulations are consistent with those results obtained in vitro evolving enzymes based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as with the general view that suggests the main role of recombination during enzyme evolution. The proposed methodology shows how molecular automata with evolvable features that model enzymes or other processing molecules provide an experimental framework for simulation of the principles governing metabolic pathways evolution and self-organization. PMID:11448522

  1. Loads and Structural Dynamics Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish requirements relating to the loads and structural dynamics technical discipline for NASA and commercial spaceflight launch vehicle and spacecraft hardware. Requirements are defined for the development of structural design loads and recommendations regarding methodologies and practices for the conduct of load analyses are provided. As such, this document represents an implementation of NASA STD-5002. Requirements are also defined for structural mathematical model development and verification to ensure sufficient accuracy of predicted responses. Finally, requirements for model/data delivery and exchange are specified to facilitate interactions between Launch Vehicle Providers (LVPs), Spacecraft Providers (SCPs), and the NASA Technical Authority (TA) providing insight/oversight and serving in the Independent Verification and Validation role. In addition to the analysis-related requirements described above, a set of requirements are established concerning coupling phenomena or other interaction between structural dynamics and aerodynamic environments or control or propulsion system elements. Such requirements may reasonably be considered structure or control system design criteria, since good engineering practice dictates consideration of and/or elimination of the identified conditions in the development of those subsystems. The requirements are included here, however, to ensure that such considerations are captured in the design space for launch vehicles (LV), spacecraft (SC) and the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). The requirements in this document are focused on analyses to be performed to develop data needed to support structural verification. As described in JSC 65828, Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, implementation of the structural verification requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each

  2. Spares Management : Optimizing Hardware Usage for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulbrandsen, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    The complexity of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), combined with mounting requirements to reduce operations costs have increased demands for accurate tracking, maintenance, and projections of SSME assets. The SSME Logistics Team is developing an integrated asset management process. This PC-based tool provides a user-friendly asset database for daily decision making, plus a variable-input hardware usage simulation with complex logic yielding output that addresses essential asset management issues. Cycle times on critical tasks are significantly reduced. Associated costs have decreased as asset data quality and decision-making capability has increased.

  3. Big Science, Small-Budget Space Experiment Package Aka MISSE-5: A Hardware And Software Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael; Greer, Lawrence; Flatico, Joseph; Jenkins, Phillip; Spina, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Conducting space experiments with small budgets is a fact of life for many design groups with low-visibility science programs. One major consequence is that specialized space grade electronic components are often too costly to incorporate into the design. Radiation mitigation now becomes more complex as a result of being restricted to the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. Unique hardware and software design techniques are required to succeed in producing a viable instrument suited for use in space. This paper highlights some of the design challenges and associated solutions encountered in the production of a highly capable, low cost space experiment package.

  4. Real-time range generation for ladar hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Coker, Charles F.

    1996-05-01

    Real-time closed loop simulation of LADAR seekers in a hardware-in-the-loop facility can reduce program risk and cost. This paper discusses an implementation of real-time range imagery generated in a synthetic environment at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the Loop facility at Eglin AFB, for the stimulation of LADAR seekers and algorithms. The computer hardware platform used was a Silicon Graphics Incorporated Onyx Reality Engine. This computer contains graphics hardware, and is optimized for generating visible or infrared imagery in real-time. A by-produce of the rendering process, in the form of a depth buffer, is generated from all objects in view during its rendering process. The depth buffer is an array of integer values that contributes to the proper rendering of overlapping objects and can be converted to range values using a mathematical formula. This paper presents an optimized software approach to the generation of the scenes, calculation of the range values, and outputting the range data for a LADAR seeker.

  5. Hardware and software for prototyping industrial vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Daley, Michael W.; Griffiths, Eric C.

    1994-10-01

    A simple, low-cost device is described, which the authors have developed for prototyping industrial machine vision systems. The unit provides facilities for controlling the following devices, via a single serial (RS232) port, connected to a host computer: (a) Twelve ON/OFF mains devices (lamps, laser stripe generator, pattern projector, etc) (b) Four ON/OFF pneumatic valves (These are mounted on board the hardware module.) (c) One 8-way video multiplexor (d) Six programmable-speed serial (RS232) communication ports (e) Six opto- isolated 8-way parallel I/O ports. Using this unit, it is possible for software, running on the host computer and which contains only the most rudimentary I/O facilities, to operate a range of electro- mechanical devices. For example, a HyperCard program can switch lamps and pneumatic air lines ON/OFF, control the movements of an (X,Y,(theta) )-table and select different video cameras. These electro-mechanical devices form part of a flexible inspection cell, which the authors have built recently. This cell is being used to study the inspection of low-volume batch products, without the need for detailed instructions. The interface module has also been used to connect an image processing package, based on the Prolog programming language, to a gantry robot. This system plays dominoes against a human opponent.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Memory reduction through higher level language hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerner, H.; Gellman, L.

    1972-01-01

    Application of large scale integration in computers to reduce size and manufacturing costs and to produce improvements in logic function is discussed. Use of FORTRAN 4 as computer language for this purpose is described. Effectiveness of method in storing information is illustrated.

  8. Introducing students to digital geological mapping: A workflow based on cheap hardware and free software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrabec, Marko; Dolžan, Erazem

    2016-04-01

    The undergraduate field course in Geological Mapping at the University of Ljubljana involves 20-40 students per year, which precludes the use of specialized rugged digital field equipment as the costs would be way beyond the capabilities of the Department. A different mapping area is selected each year with the aim to provide typical conditions that a professional geologist might encounter when doing fieldwork in Slovenia, which includes rugged relief, dense tree cover, and moderately-well- to poorly-exposed bedrock due to vegetation and urbanization. It is therefore mandatory that the digital tools and workflows are combined with classical methods of fieldwork, since, for example, full-time precise GNSS positioning is not viable under such circumstances. Additionally, due to the prevailing combination of complex geological structure with generally poor exposure, students cannot be expected to produce line (vector) maps of geological contacts on the go, so there is no need for such functionality in hardware and software that we use in the field. Our workflow therefore still relies on paper base maps, but is strongly complemented with digital tools to provide robust positioning, track recording, and acquisition of various point-based data. Primary field hardware are students' Android-based smartphones and optionally tablets. For our purposes, the built-in GNSS chips provide adequate positioning precision most of the time, particularly if they are GLONASS-capable. We use Oruxmaps, a powerful free offline map viewer for the Android platform, which facilitates the use of custom-made geopositioned maps. For digital base maps, which we prepare in free Windows QGIS software, we use scanned topographic maps provided by the National Geodetic Authority, but also other maps such as aerial imagery, processed Digital Elevation Models, scans of existing geological maps, etc. Point data, like important outcrop locations or structural measurements, are entered into Oruxmaps as

  9. Developing a Decision Support System: The Software and Hardware Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the available software and hardware tools that can be used to develop a decision support system implemented on microcomputers. Activities that should be supported by software are discussed, including data entry, data coding, finding and combining data, and data compatibility. Hardware considerations include speed, storage…

  10. Teaching Robotics Software with the Open Hardware Mobile Manipulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vona, M.; Shekar, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The "open hardware mobile manipulator" (OHMM) is a new open platform with a unique combination of features for teaching robotics software and algorithms. On-board low- and high-level processors support real-time embedded programming and motor control, as well as higher-level coding with contemporary libraries. Full hardware designs and…

  11. The hardware and software support for the MRSP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, D.

    The Muenster Redshift Project (MRSP) described by Horstmann (1988) and Schuecker (1988) relies on an arrangement of hardware and software which is referred to as the Astronomical Data Analysis System. In this paper the hardware is briefly introduced and the support software GAME is discussed.

  12. Decisions, Decisions, Decisions: Help in Choosing Microcomputer Software and Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, W. Jean; Fredenburg, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography, prepared with the information specialist, end-user, and administrator in mind, presents citations to 167 journal articles that provide concrete comparisons of commercially-available microcomputer software packages and hardware equipment. An index divided into software and hardware sections with references to type of comparison…

  13. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  14. Analysis and simulation of the MAST (COFS-1 flight hardware)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Horner, Garnett C.; Bailey, James P.

    1986-11-01

    In-house analysis work in support of the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program is being performed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The work involves evaluation of the proposed design configuration, controller design as well as actuator dynamic modeling, and MAST/actuator dynamic simulation of excitation and damping. A complete finite element model of the MAST has been developed. This finite element model has been incorporated into an optimization procedure which minimizes total mass while maintaining modal coupling. Results show an increase in the total mass due to additional constraints (namely, the diagonal frequency constraint) imposed on the baseline design. A valid actuator dynamic model is presented and a complete test sequence of the proposed flight experiment is demonstrated. The actuator dynamic model is successfully used for damping and the stroke limitations for first mode excitation are demonstrated. Plans are to incorporate additional design variables and constraints into the optimization procedure (such as actuator location) and explore alternative formulations of the objective function. A different actuator dynamic model to include hardware limitations will be investigated.

  15. Analysis and simulation of the MAST (COFS-1 flight hardware)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Walsh, Joanne L.; Horner, Garnett C.; Bailey, James P.

    1986-01-01

    In-house analysis work in support of the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program is being performed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The work involves evaluation of the proposed design configuration, controller design as well as actuator dynamic modeling, and MAST/actuator dynamic simulation of excitation and damping. A complete finite element model of the MAST has been developed. This finite element model has been incorporated into an optimization procedure which minimizes total mass while maintaining modal coupling. Results show an increase in the total mass due to additional constraints (namely, the diagonal frequency constraint) imposed on the baseline design. A valid actuator dynamic model is presented and a complete test sequence of the proposed flight experiment is demonstrated. The actuator dynamic model is successfully used for damping and the stroke limitations for first mode excitation are demonstrated. Plans are to incorporate additional design variables and constraints into the optimization procedure (such as actuator location) and explore alternative formulations of the objective function. A different actuator dynamic model to include hardware limitations will be investigated.

  16. Status and availability of FCC hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romriell, G. K.

    1973-01-01

    The source availability of FCC and/or FCC connectors was surveyed. The results for the following areas are presented: (1) cost of FCC versus standard round cable, (2) qualification status, (3) size of wire available in FCC, (4) availability of hermetic connectors for FCC, (5) conversion from flat cable to round cable and visa versa, (6) availability of shielded flat cable for RF usage, (7) termination techniques, and (8) repair techniques.

  17. Hardware efficient monitoring of input/output signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R. (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Paulitsch, Michael (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A communication device comprises first and second circuits to implement a plurality of ports via which the communicative device is operable to communicate over a plurality of communication channels. For each of the plurality of ports, the communication device comprises: command hardware that includes a first transmitter to transmit data over a respective one of the plurality of channels and a first receiver to receive data from the respective one of the plurality of channels; and monitor hardware that includes a second receiver coupled to the first transmitter and a third receiver coupled to the respective one of the plurality of channels. The first circuit comprises the command hardware for a first subset of the plurality of ports. The second circuit comprises the monitor hardware for the first subset of the plurality of ports and the command hardware for a second subset of the plurality of ports.

  18. VME rollback hardware for time warp multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, Michael J.; Buzzell, Calvin A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the research effort is to develop and demonstrate innovative hardware to implement specific rollback and timing functions required for efficient queue management and precision timekeeping in multiprocessor discrete event simulations. The previously completed phase 1 effort demonstrated the technical feasibility of building hardware modules which eliminate the state saving overhead of the Time Warp paradigm used in distributed simulations on multiprocessor systems. The current phase 2 effort will build multiple pre-production rollback hardware modules integrated with a network of Sun workstations, and the integrated system will be tested by executing a Time Warp simulation. The rollback hardware will be designed to interface with the greatest number of multiprocessor systems possible. The authors believe that the rollback hardware will provide for significant speedup of large scale discrete event simulation problems and allow multiprocessors using Time Warp to dramatically increase performance.

  19. Cut Costs with Thin Client Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Patrick H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how school districts can considerably increase the number of administrative computers in their districts without a corresponding increase in costs by using the "Thin Client" component of the Total Cost of Ownership (TCC) model. TCC and Thin Client are described, including its software and hardware components. An example of a Thin Client…

  20. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware based on an extrapolation of past hardware development experience. Major items of costs within water recovery systems were identified and related to physical and/or performance criteria. Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced water recovery systems. The results of the study are expected to assist NASA in long-range planning and allocation of resources in a cost effective manner in support of earth orbital programs. This report deals with the cost analysis of the five leading water reclamation systems, namely: (1) RITE waste management-water system, (2) reverse osmosis system, (3) multifiltration system, (4) vapor compression system, and (5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  1. Software algorithm and hardware design for real-time implementation of new spectral estimator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Real-time spectral analyzers can be difficult to implement for PC computer-based systems because of the potential for high computational cost, and algorithm complexity. In this work a new spectral estimator (NSE) is developed for real-time analysis, and compared with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Method Clinical data in the form of 216 fractionated atrial electrogram sequences were used as inputs. The sample rate for acquisition was 977 Hz, or approximately 1 millisecond between digital samples. Real-time NSE power spectra were generated for 16,384 consecutive data points. The same data sequences were used for spectral calculation using a radix-2 implementation of the DFT. The NSE algorithm was also developed for implementation as a real-time spectral analyzer electronic circuit board. Results The average interval for a single real-time spectral calculation in software was 3.29 μs for NSE versus 504.5 μs for DFT. Thus for real-time spectral analysis, the NSE algorithm is approximately 150× faster than the DFT. Over a 1 millisecond sampling period, the NSE algorithm had the capability to spectrally analyze a maximum of 303 data channels, while the DFT algorithm could only analyze a single channel. Moreover, for the 8 second sequences, the NSE spectral resolution in the 3-12 Hz range was 0.037 Hz while the DFT spectral resolution was only 0.122 Hz. The NSE was also found to be implementable as a standalone spectral analyzer board using approximately 26 integrated circuits at a cost of approximately $500. The software files used for analysis are included as a supplement, please see the Additional files 1 and 2. Conclusions The NSE real-time algorithm has low computational cost and complexity, and is implementable in both software and hardware for 1 millisecond updates of multichannel spectra. The algorithm may be helpful to guide radiofrequency catheter ablation in real time. PMID:24886214

  2. Kedalion: NASA's Adaptable and Agile Hardware/Software Integration and Test Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangieri, Mark L.; Vice, Jason

    2011-01-01

    NASA fs Kedalion engineering analysis lab at Johnson Space Center is on the forefront of validating and using many contemporary avionics hardware/software development and integration techniques, which represent new paradigms to heritage NASA culture. Kedalion has validated many of the Orion hardware/software engineering techniques borrowed from the adjacent commercial aircraft avionics solution space, with the intention to build upon such techniques to better align with today fs aerospace market. Using agile techniques, commercial products, early rapid prototyping, in-house expertise and tools, and customer collaboration, Kedalion has demonstrated that cost effective contemporary paradigms hold the promise to serve future NASA endeavors within a diverse range of system domains. Kedalion provides a readily adaptable solution for medium/large scale integration projects. The Kedalion lab is currently serving as an in-line resource for the project and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program.

  3. Development of a Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) Simulator for Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Momentum Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohee; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Jong-Woo; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator to simulate attitude control of spacecraft using momentum wheels is developed. The simulator consists of a spherical air bearing system allowing rotation and tilt in all three axes, three momentum wheels for actuation, and an AHRS (Attitude Heading Reference System). The simulator processes various types of data in PC104 and wirelessly communicates with a host PC using TCP/IP protocol. A simple low-cost momentum wheel assembly set and its drive electronics are also developed. Several experiments are performed to test the performance of the momentum wheels. For the control performance test of the simulator, a PID controller is implemented. The results of experimental demonstrations confirm the feasibility and validity of the Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator developed in the current study.

  4. The Art of Space Flight Exercise Hardware: Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahom M.

    2004-01-01

    The design of space flight exercise hardware depends on experience with crew health maintenance in a microgravity environment, history in development of flight-quality exercise hardware, and a foundation for certifying proper project management and design methodology. Developed over the past 40 years, the expertise in designing exercise countermeasures hardware at the Johnson Space Center stems from these three aspects of design. The medical community has steadily pursued an understanding of physiological changes in humans in a weightless environment and methods of counteracting negative effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system. The effects of weightlessness extend to the pulmonary and neurovestibular system as well with conditions ranging from motion sickness to loss of bone density. Results have shown losses in water weight and muscle mass in antigravity muscle groups. With the support of university-based research groups and partner space agencies, NASA has identified exercise to be the primary countermeasure for long-duration space flight. The history of exercise hardware began during the Apollo Era and leads directly to the present hardware on the International Space Station. Under the classifications of aerobic and resistive exercise, there is a clear line of development from the early devices to the countermeasures hardware used today. In support of all engineering projects, the engineering directorate has created a structured framework for project management. Engineers have identified standards and "best practices" to promote efficient and elegant design of space exercise hardware. The quality of space exercise hardware depends on how well hardware requirements are justified by exercise performance guidelines and crew health indicators. When considering the microgravity environment of the device, designers must consider performance of hardware separately from the combined human-in-hardware system. Astronauts are the caretakers of the hardware

  5. Low-Cost Composite Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Busick, D.N.; Wilson, M.S.

    1998-11-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCS) are under widespread development to produce electrical power for a variety of stationary and transportation applications. To date, the bipolar plate remains the most problematic and costly component of PEFC stacks (1). In addition to meeting cost constraints, bipolar plates must possess a host of other properties, the most important of which are listed in Table 1. The most commonly used material for single cell testing is machined graphite, which is expensive and costly to machine. The brittle nature of graphite also precludes the use of thin components for reducing stack size and weight, which is particularly important for transportation applications. Other stack designs consider the use of metal hardware such as stainless steel (2,3). But a number of disadvantages are associated with stainless steel, including high density, high cost of machining, and possible corrosion in the fuel cell environment. In light of these difficulties, much of the recent work on fuel cell bipolar plate materials has concentrated on graphite/polymer composites (4--8). Composite materials offer the potential advantages of lower cost, lower weight, and greater ease of manufacture than traditional graphite and metal plates. For instance, flow fields can be molded directly into these composites, thereby eliminating the costly and difficult machining step required for graphite or metal hardware.

  6. Issues Related to Large Flight Hardware Acoustic Qualification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Perry, Douglas C.; Kern, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of acoustical testing volumes generated by reverberant chambers or a circle of loudspeakers with and without large flight hardware within the testing volume are significantly different. The parameters attributing to these differences are normally not accounted for through analysis or acoustic tests prior to the qualification testing without the test hardware present. In most cases the control microphones are kept at least 2-ft away from hardware surfaces, chamber walls, and speaker surfaces to minimize the impact of the hardware in controlling the sound field. However, the acoustic absorption and radiation of sound by hardware surfaces may significantly alter the sound pressure field controlled within the chamber/speaker volume to a given specification. These parameters often result in an acoustic field that may provide under/over testing scenarios for flight hardware. In this paper the acoustic absorption by hardware surfaces will be discussed in some detail. A simple model is provided to account for some of the observations made from Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft that recently underwent acoustic qualification tests in a reverberant chamber.

  7. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  8. Openstage: A Low-Cost Motorized Microscope Stage with Sub-Micron Positioning Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert A. A.; Eifert, Robert W.; Turner, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in intracellular calcium sensors and other fluorophores has promoted the widespread adoption of functional optical imaging in the life sciences. Home-built multiphoton microscopes are easy to build, highly customizable, and cost effective. For many imaging applications a 3-axis motorized stage is critical, but commercially available motorization hardware (motorized translators, controller boxes, etc) are often very expensive. Furthermore, the firmware on commercial motor controllers cannot easily be altered and is not usually designed with a microscope stage in mind. Here we describe an open-source motorization solution that is simple to construct, yet far cheaper and more customizable than commercial offerings. The cost of the controller and motorization hardware are under $1000. Hardware costs are kept low by replacing linear actuators with high quality stepper motors. Electronics are assembled from commonly available hobby components, which are easy to work with. Here we describe assembly of the system and quantify the positioning accuracy of all three axes. We obtain positioning repeatability of the order of in X/Y and in Z. A hand-held control-pad allows the user to direct stage motion precisely over a wide range of speeds ( to ), rapidly store and return to different locations, and execute “jumps” of a fixed size. In addition, the system can be controlled from a PC serial port. Our “OpenStage” controller is sufficiently flexible that it could be used to drive other devices, such as micro-manipulators, with minimal modifications. PMID:24586468

  9. Comparison of leading parallel NAS file systems on commodity hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, R; Fitzgerald, K; Gary, M; Stearman, D M

    2010-11-08

    High performance computing has experienced tremendous gains in system performance over the past 20 years. Unfortunately other system capabilities, such as file I/O, have not grown commensurately. In this activity, we present the results of our tests of two leading file systems (GPFS and Lustre) on the same physical hardware. This hardware is the standard commodity storage solution in use at LLNL and, while much smaller in size, is intended to enable us to learn about differences between the two systems in terms of performance, ease of use and resilience. This work represents the first hardware consistent study of the two leading file systems that the authors are aware of.

  10. Hardware-based JPEG 2000 video coding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchter, Arthur R.; Uhl, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a hardware based low complexity JPEG 2000 video coding system. The hardware system is based on a software simulation system, where temporal redundancy is exploited by coding of differential frames which are arranged in an adaptive GOP structure whereby the GOP structure itself is determined by statistical analysis of differential frames. We present a hardware video coding architecture which applies this inter-frame coding system to a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The system consists mainly of a microprocessor (ADSP-BF533 Blackfin Processor) and a JPEG 2000 chip (ADV202).

  11. Translating network models to parallel hardware in NEURON

    PubMed Central

    Hines, M.L.; Carnevale, N.T.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing complexity of network models poses a growing computational burden. At the same time, computational neuroscientists are finding it easier to access parallel hardware, such as multiprocessor personal computers, workstation clusters, and massively parallel supercomputers. The practical question is how to move a working network model from a single processor to parallel hardware. Here we show how to make this transition for models implemented with NEURON, in such a way that the final result will run and produce numerically identical results on either serial or parallel hardware. This allows users to develop and debug models on readily available local resources, then run their code without modification on a parallel supercomputer. PMID:17997162

  12. A fast, programmable hardware architecture for spaceborne SAR processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. R.; Cumming, I. G.; Lim, J.; Wedding, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The launch of spaceborne SARs during the 1980's is discussed. The satellite SARs require high quality and high throughput ground processors. Compression ratios in range and azimuth of greater than 500 and 150 respectively lead to frequency domain processing and data computation rates in excess of 2000 million real operations per second for C-band SARs under consideration. Various hardware architectures are examined and two promising candidates and proceeds to recommend a fast, programmable hardware architecture for spaceborne SAR processing are selected. Modularity and programmability are introduced as desirable attributes for the purpose of HTSP hardware selection.

  13. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  14. Acceleration of Meshfree Radial Point Interpolation Method on Graphics Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Susumu

    2008-09-01

    This article describes a parallel computational technique to accelerate radial point interpolation method (RPIM)-based meshfree method using graphics hardware. RPIM is one of the meshfree partial differential equation solvers that do not require the mesh structure of the analysis targets. In this paper, a technique for accelerating RPIM using graphics hardware is presented. In the method, the computation process is divided into small processes suitable for processing on the parallel architecture of the graphics hardware in a single instruction multiple data manner.

  15. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 1: Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Tower, John T.; Hunka, George W.; Vansant, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The hardware design, system architecture, and its integration and interface with the rest of the Telerobot Demonstrator System are discussed.

  16. Concurrent logic programming as a hardware description tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dotan, Y.; Arazi, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of developing hardware description languages (HDL's) based on the principles of logic programming. The specific logic programming language used to demonstrate this possibility is Flat Concurrent Prolog (FCP). It is shown explicitly how FCP naturally satisfies the commonly accepted fundamental requirements of a hardware description language. It is then demonstrated how FCP overcomes known disadvantages of the highly acclaimed VHDL. Some other parallel logic programming languages beside FCP are also presented briefly and the possibility of using them for hardware description is discussed.

  17. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hany A M; Alkabani, Yousra; Selim, Gamal M I

    2014-07-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security. PMID:25685518

  18. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  19. FPGA implementation of VXIbus interface hardware.

    PubMed

    Mehta, K; Rajesh, V A; Veeraswamy, S

    1993-01-01

    The HP E1399A development card is a B-size, register based device that can be used to simplify the development of simple, custom VXIbus instruments. The E1399A provides interface logic that buffers a 16-bit bidirectional data bus and performs other functions required by the VXIbus standard. However, the amount of interface logic required is high enough to substantially reduce the breadboard area that is available to the user. This paper reports on evaluation of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology to the implementation of the VXIbus interface circuitry. Using FPGAs (Xilinx), all the logic of the E1399A can be fit into at most two low cost gate array packages with an attendant savings in board space. This results in a reliable design that provides the interface between the VXIbus and the user's custom circuitry. PMID:8329634

  20. Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

    During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (g-levels from 0.01-g to 2-g) for direct comparisons between μg and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glove☐ for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation

  1. Real-time high speed generator system emulation with hardware-in-the-loop application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroupe, Nicholas

    that will emulate and reproduce these voltages on real hardware. The output of the inverter is then connected with the rest of the test bed and can consist of a variety of distributed system topologies for many testing scenarios. The idea is that the distributed power system under test in hardware can also integrate real generator system dynamics without physically involving an actual generator system. The benefits of successful generator system emulation are vast and lead to much more detailed system studies without the draw backs of needing physical generator units. Some of these advantages are safety, reduced costs, and the ability of scaling while still preserving the appropriate system dynamics. This thesis will introduce the ideas behind generator emulation and explain the process and necessary steps to obtaining such an objective. It will also demonstrate real results and verification of numerical values in real-time. The final goal of this thesis is to introduce this new idea and show that it is in fact obtainable and can prove to be a highly useful tool in the simulation and verification of distributed power systems.

  2. Cost-effective ultrasound PACS solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have been quite successful at the University of Florida in the areas of CT, MR, and nuclear medicine. In each case, although we have not always been able to provide the optimal level of performance, we have been able to solve a problem and the systems are used extensively. Ultrasound images are required in a number of locations and the multiformat camera print capability was no longer adequate for the growing volume in the ultrasound section. Although we were certain we could successfully implement PACS for ultrasound, new forces in health care dictate that we justify our system in terms of cost. We analyzed the feasibility of a PACS solution for ultrasound and designed a system that meets our needs and is cost effective. We evaluated the ultrasound operation in terms of image acquisition patterns and throughput requirements. An inventory of existing and PACS equipment was made to determine the feasibility of interfacing the two systems. Commercial systems were evaluated for functionality and cost and a system was designed to meet our needs. The only way to achieve our goal of installing a cost effective ultrasound PACS was to eliminate film and use the cost savings to offset the cost of new equipment and development. We designed a system that could be produced using inexpensive components and existing hardware and software to meet our needs. A commercial vendor was chosen to provide the ultrasound acquisition. The Radiology Information System interface used at the University provides the necessary data to build a DICOM header, and an existing DICOM server routes the images to the appropriate workstations, archives, and printers. Additional storage is added to an existing archive to accommodate the ultrasound images and two existing workstations are evaluated for use in ultrasound.

  3. Distributed execution of recovery blocks - An approach for uniform treatment of hardware and software faults in real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. H.; Welch, Howard O.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of distributed execution of recovery blocks is examined as an approach for uniform treatment of hardware and software faults. A useful characteristic of the approach is the relatively small time cost it requires. The approach is thus suitable for incorporation into real-time computer systems. A specific formulation of the approach that is aimed at minimizing the recovery time is presented, called the distributed recovery block (DRB) scheme. The DRB scheme is capable of effecting forward recovery while handling both hardware and software faults in a uniform manner. An approach to incorporating the capability for multiprocessing scheme is also discussed. Two experiments aimed at testing the execution efficiency of the scheme in real-time applications have been conducted on two different multimicrocomputer networks. The results clearly indicate the feasibility of achieving tolerance of hardware and software faults in a broad range of real-time computer systems by use of the schemes for distributed execution of recovery blocks.

  4. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 3: System costs. Appendix A: Program direct costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Individualized program direct costs for each satellite program are presented. This breakdown provides the activity level dependent costs for each satellite program. The activity level dependent costs, or, more simply, program direct costs, are comprised of the total payload costs (as these costs are strictly program dependent) and the direct launch vehicle costs. Only those incremental launch vehicle costs associated directly with the satellite program are considered. For expendable launch vehicles the direct costs include the vehicle investment hardware costs and the launch operations costs. For the reusable STS vehicles the direct costs include only the launch operations, recovery operations, command and control, vehicle maintenance, and propellant support. The costs associated with amortization of reusable vehicle investment, RDT&E range support, etc., are not included.

  5. 33. Detail, typical door hardware, door from front parlor to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Detail, typical door hardware, door from front parlor to entrance hall; view to south; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Warner Hutton House, 13495 Sousa Lane, Saratoga, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. OpenMM: A Hardware Independent Framework for Molecular Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    The wide diversity of computer architectures today requires a new approach to software development. OpenMM is a framework for molecular mechanics simulations, allowing a single program to run efficiently on a variety of hardware platforms. PMID:26146490

  7. Hierarchical image-based rendering using texture mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    1999-01-15

    Multi-layered depth images containing color and normal information for subobjects in a hierarchical scene model are precomputed with standard z-buffer hardware for six orthogonal views. These are adaptively selected according to the proximity of the viewpoint, and combined using hardware texture mapping to create ''reprojected'' output images for new viewpoints. (If a subobject is too close to the viewpoint, the polygons in the original model are rendered.) Specific z-ranges are selected from the textures with the hardware alpha test to give accurate 3D reprojection. The OpenGL color matrix is used to transform the precomputed normals into their orientations in the final view, for hardware shading.

  8. Hardware problems encountered in solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, M.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous problems in the design, production, installation, and operation of solar energy systems are discussed. Described are hardware problems, which range from simple to obscure and complex, and their resolution.

  9. View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of tooling for forging marine hardware in blacksmith shop, east side of building 57. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. A versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Pablo A; Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique M

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of a versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces (BCI). The aim of this work is to produce a small, autonomous and configurable BCI platform adaptable to the user's needs. PMID:21096891

  11. Hardware acceleration of image recognition through a visual cortex model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Kenneth L.; Taha, Tarek M.; Vutsinas, Christopher N.

    2008-09-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have led to the development of several new models describing the processes in the neocortex. These models excel at cognitive applications such as image analysis and movement control. This paper presents a hardware architecture to speed up image content recognition through a recently proposed model of the visual cortex. The system is based on a set of parallel computation nodes implemented in an FPGA. The design was optimized for hardware by reducing the data storage requirements, and removing the need for multiplies and divides. The reconfigurable logic hardware implementation running at 121 MHz provided a speedup of 148 times over a 2 GHz AMD Opteron processor. The results indicate the feasibility of specialized hardware to accelerate larger biological scale implementations of the model.

  12. Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

    2013-08-20

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

  13. Human-machine interface hardware: The next decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to understand where human-machine interface hardware is headed, it is important to understand where we are today, how we got there, and what our goals for the future are. As computers become more capable, faster, and programs become more sophisticated, it becomes apparent that the interface hardware is the key to an exciting future in computing. How can a user interact and control a seemingly limitless array of parameters effectively? Today, the answer is most often a limitless array of controls. The link between these controls and human sensory motor capabilities does not utilize existing human capabilities to their full extent. Interface hardware for teleoperation and virtual environments is now facing a crossroad in design. Therefore, we as developers need to explore how the combination of interface hardware, human capabilities, and user experience can be blended to get the best performance today and in the future.

  14. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  15. Reliability techniques for combined hardware and software systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M. A.; Tran, P. Y.; Goddard, P. L.

    1992-02-01

    Techniques were developed for reliability prediction, allocation, growth and demonstration testing of systems that contain both hardware and software. The techniques are compatible with existing hardware reliability concepts, standards and procedures. A draft DOD-HDBK containing the various reliability techniques was also prepared as a part of this study effort. It is intended that the study results and handbook will form the basis for an approved DOD Handbook on software reliability assessment.

  16. The aerospace energy systems laboratory: Hardware and software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneil-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    For many years NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility has employed automation in the servicing of flight critical aircraft batteries. Recently a major upgrade to Dryden's computerized Battery Systems Laboratory was initiated to incorporate distributed processing and a centralized database. The new facility, called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL), is being mechanized with iAPX86 and iAPX286 hardware running iRMX86. The hardware configuration and software structure for the AESL are described.

  17. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The performance of these evolved controllers is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller.

  18. STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams Trains Using Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  19. Hardware Evolution of Closed-Loop Controller Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David; Ferguson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Poster presentation will outline on-going efforts at NASA, MSFC to employ various Evolvable Hardware experimental platforms in the evolution of digital and analog circuitry for application to automatic control. Included will be information concerning the application of commercially available hardware and software along with the use of the JPL developed FPTA2 integrated circuit and supporting JPL developed software. Results to date will be presented.

  20. 34 CFR 644.30 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hardware, computer software, or other equipment for student development, project administration, and... program are in 34 CFR part 74, subpart Q. Allowable costs include the following if they are...

  1. 34 CFR 647.30 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... internships during the summer. (d) Purchase of computer hardware, computer software, or other equipment for... covered by 34 CFR part 74, may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a...

  2. 34 CFR 647.30 - What are allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... covered by 34 CFR part 74, may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a McNair... internships during the summer. (d) Purchase, lease, or rental of computer hardware, software, and...

  3. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  4. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  5. Automated Hardware Design via Evolutionary Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the application of evolutionary search to the process of automated engineering design. Evolutionary search techniques involve the simulation of Darwinian mechanisms by computer algorithms. In recent years, such techniques have attracted much attention because they are able to tackle a wide variety of difficult problems and frequently produce acceptable solutions. The results obtained are usually functional, often surprising, and typically "messy" because the algorithms are told to concentrate on the overriding objective and not elegance or simplicity. advantages. First, faster design cycles translate into time and, hence, cost savings. Second, automated design techniques can be made to scale well and hence better deal with increasing amounts of design complexity. Third, design quality can increase because design properties can be specified a priori. For example, size and weight specifications of a device, smaller and lighter than the best known design, might be optimized by the automated design technique. The domain of electronic circuit design is an advantageous platform in which to study automated design techniques because it is a rich design space that is well understood, permitting human-created designs to be compared to machine- generated designs. developed for circuit design was to automatically produce high-level integrated electronic circuit designs whose properties permit physical implementation in silicon. This process entailed designing an effective evolutionary algorithm and solving a difficult multiobjective optimization problem. FY 99 saw many accomplishments in this effort.

  6. Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Hardware Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic guidance, navigation and control (GNC) concepts, examines the Command and Service Module (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM) GNC organization and discusses the primary GNC and the CSM Stabilization and Control System (SCS), as well as other CSM-specific hardware. The LM Abort Guidance System (AGS), Control Electronics System (CES) and other LM-specific hardware are also addressed. Three subsystems exist on each vehicle: the computer subsystem (CSS), the inertial subsystem (ISS) and the optical subsystem (OSS). The CSS and ISS are almost identical between CSM and LM and each is designed to operate independently. CSM SCS hardware are highlighted, including translation control, rotation controls, gyro assemblies, a gyro display coupler and flight director attitude indicators. The LM AGS hardware are also highlighted and include the abort electronics assembly and the abort sensor assembly; while the LM CES hardware includes the attitude controller assembly, thrust/translation controller assemblies and the ascent engine arming assemble. Other common hardware including the Orbital Rate Display - Earth and Lunar (ORDEAL) and the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), a docking aid, are also highlighted.

  7. On Convergence of Development Costs and Cost Models for Complex Spaceflight Instrument Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar D.; Kasa, Robert L.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Brown, Tammy; Vootukuru, Madhavi

    2008-01-01

    Development costs of a few recent spaceflight instrument electrical and electronics subsystems have diverged from respective heritage cost model predictions. The cost models used are Grass Roots, Price-H and Parametric Model. These cost models originated in the military and industry around 1970 and were successfully adopted and patched by NASA on a mission-by-mission basis for years. However, the complexity of new instruments recently changed rapidly by orders of magnitude. This is most obvious in the complexity of representative spaceflight instrument electronics' data system. It is now required to perform intermediate processing of digitized data apart from conventional processing of science phenomenon signals from multiple detectors. This involves on-board instrument formatting of computational operands from row data for example, images), multi-million operations per second on large volumes of data in reconfigurable hardware (in addition to processing on a general purpose imbedded or standalone instrument flight computer), as well as making decisions for on-board system adaptation and resource reconfiguration. The instrument data system is now tasked to perform more functions, such as forming packets and instrument-level data compression of more than one data stream, which are traditionally performed by the spacecraft command and data handling system. It is furthermore required that the electronics box for new complex instruments is developed for one-digit watt power consumption, small size and that it is light-weight, and delivers super-computing capabilities. The conflict between the actual development cost of newer complex instruments and its electronics components' heritage cost model predictions seems to be irreconcilable. This conflict and an approach to its resolution are addressed in this paper by determining the complexity parameters, complexity index, and their use in enhanced cost model.

  8. Hardware system of X-wave generator with simple driving pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Li, Yaqin; Xiao, Feng; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The limited diffraction beams such as X-wave have the properties of larger depth of field. Thus, it has the potential to generate ultra-high frame rate ultrasound images. However, in practice, the real-time generation of X-wave ultrasonic field requires complex and high-cost system, especially the precise and specific voltage time distribution part for the excitation of each distinct array element. In order to simplify the hardware realization of X-wave, based on the previous works, X-wave excitation signals were decomposed and expressed as the superposition of a group of simple driving pulses, such as rectangular and triangular waves. The hardware system for the X-wave generator was also designed. The generator consists of a computer for communication with the circuit, universal serial bus (USB) based micro-controller unit (MCU) for data transmission, field programmable gate array (FPGA) based Direct Digital Synthesizer(DDS), 12-bit digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and a two stage amplifier.The hardware simulation results show that the designed system can generate the waveforms at different radius approximating the theoretical X-wave excitations with a maximum error of 0.49% triggered by the quantification of amplitude data.

  9. Real-time infrared scene generation software for I2RSS hardware in the loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Patrick V.; Cosby, David S.; Buford, James A., Jr.; Bunfield, Dennis H.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the current research and development of advanced scene generation technology for integration into the I2RSS - Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) facilities at the US Army AMRDEC at Redstone Arsenal, AL. A real-time dynamic infra-red (IR) scene generator has been developed in support of a high altitude scenario leveraging COTS hardware and open source software. The Multi-Spectral Mode Scene Generator (MMSG) is an extensible software architecture that is powerful yet flexible. The I2RSS scene generator has implemented dynamic signature by integrating the signature prediction codes along with Open Source Software, COTS hardware along with custom built interfaces. A modular, plug-in framework has been developed that supports rapid reconfiguration to permit the use of a variety of state data input sources, geometric model formats, and signature and material databases. The platform independent software yields a cost-effective upgrade path to integrate best-of-breed graphics and system architectures.

  10. Space Station Freedom electrical power system hardware commonality with the United States Polar Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieker, Lorra L.; Haraburda, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Information is presented on how the concept of commonality is being implemented with respect to electric power system hardware for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Polar Platform. Included is a historical account of the candidate common items which have the potential to serve the same power system functions on both Freedom and the Polar Platform. The Space Station program and objectives are described, focusing on the test and development responsibilities. The program definition and preliminary design phase and the design and development phase are discussed. The goal of this work is to reduce the program cost.

  11. Thermal control evaluation of a Shuttle Orbiter solar observatory using Skylab ATM backup hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Class, C. R.; Presta, G.; Trucks, H.

    1975-01-01

    A study under the sponsorship of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) established the feasibility to utilize the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) backup hardware for early low cost Shuttle Orbiter solar observation missions. A solar inertial attitude and a seven-day, full sun exposure were baselined. As a portion of the study, a series of thermal control evaluations were performed to resolve the problems caused by the relocation of the ATM to the Shuttle Orbiter bay and resulting configuration changes. Thermal control requirements, problems, the use of solar shields, Spacelab supplied fluid cooling and component placement are discussed.

  12. A proposal for modeling real hardware, weather and marine conditions for underwater sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vicente; Blanc, Sara; Perles, Angel; Serrano, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Network simulators are useful for researching protocol performance, appraising new hardware capabilities and evaluating real application scenarios. However, these tasks can only be achieved when using accurate models and real parameters that enable the extraction of trustworthy results and conclusions. This paper presents an underwater wireless sensor network ecosystem for the ns-3 simulator. This ecosystem is composed of a new energy-harvesting model and a low-cost, low-power underwater wake-up modem model that, alongside existing models, enables the performance of accurate simulations by providing real weather and marine conditions from the location where the real application is to be deployed. PMID:23748171

  13. Review of Maxillofacial Hardware Complications and Indications for Salvage.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Rosa, Jonatan; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Factor, Stephanie H; Taub, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    From 2002 to 2006, more than 117,000 facial fractures were recorded in the U.S. National Trauma Database. These fractures are commonly treated with open reduction and internal fixation. While in place, the hardware facilitates successful bony union. However, when postoperative complications occur, the plates may require removal before bony union. Indications for salvage versus removal of the maxillofacial hardware are not well defined. A literature review was performed to identify instances when hardware may be salvaged. Articles considered for inclusion were found in the PubMed and Web of Science databases in August 2014 with the keywords maxillofacial trauma AND hardware complications OR indications for hardware removal. Included studies looked at human patients with only facial trauma and miniplate fixation, and presented data on complications and/or hardware removal. Fifteen articles were included. None were clinical trials. Complication data were presented by patient, fractures, and/or plate without consistency. The data described 1,075 fractures, 2,961 patients, and 2,592 plates, nonexclusive. Complication rates varied from 6 to 8% by fracture and 6 to 13% by patient. When their data were combined, 50% of complications were treated with plate removal; this was consistent across the mandible, midface, and upper face. All complications caused by loosening, nonunion, broken hardware, and severe/prolonged pain were treated with removal. Some complications caused by exposures, deformities, and infections were treated with salvage. Exposed plates were treated with flaps, plates with deformities were treated with secondary procedures including hardware revision, and hardware infections were treated with antibiotics alone or in conjunction with soft-tissue debridement and/or tooth extraction. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating hardware removal versus salvage are lacking. Some postoperative complications caused by exposure, deformity, and/or infection may be

  14. Taking the "Total Cost of Ownership" Concept to the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Sara

    2001-01-01

    Suggests school leaders must understand the total cost of ownership (TOC)-all of the costs involved with installing, operating, and maintaining computers-if they are going to use them to full advantage and cost-effectively. Discusses the major components of TCO after initial hardware investment (professional development, software, support, and…

  15. Useful Life Prediction for Payload Carrier Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arieh, David

    2002-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has been identified for use through 2020. Payload carrier systems will be needed to support missions through the same time frame. To support the future decision making process with reliable systems, it is necessary to analyze design integrity, identify possible sources of undesirable risk and recognize required upgrades for carrier systems. This project analyzed the information available regarding the carriers and developed the probability of becoming obsolete under different scenarios. In addition, this project resulted in a plan for an improved information system that will improve monitoring and control of the various carriers. The information collected throughout this project is presented in this report as process flow, historical records, and statistical analysis.

  16. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  17. Does the implementation of hardware need software? A longitudinal study on fluoride-removal filter use in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Ina L; Huber, Alexandra C; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-11-19

    Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of technology designed to provide safe and healthy water is dependent on the degree of its use. In addition to providing safe water "hardware" (i.e., new infrastructure or equipment) to populations at risk, it might be necessary to also provide suitable "software" programs (behavior change strategies) to support use. A longitudinal survey was conducted in rural Ethiopia following the distribution of fluoride-removal household filters. Three intervention groups were evaluated. Group 1 only received the hardware, i.e., the fluoride-removal filter. Groups 2 and 3 also received software in the form of two evidence-based psychological interventions: a planning and social prompts intervention and an educational workshop with pledging. Group 2 received both software interventions, and Group 3 only received the educational workshop. The effects of the hardware and software on behavior and thus filter use were analyzed along with specific psychological factors. The results showed that the provision of the hardware alone (the fluoride-removal filter) was not enough to ensure sufficient use of the equipment. The addition of a software component in the form of psychological interventions increased filter use up to 80%. An increase in filter use was measured following each intervention resulting in the health-risk being minimized. We conclude that it is necessary that the implementation of hardware of this nature is accompanied by evidence-based intervention software. PMID:24117367

  18. Space station systems analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 5: Cost and schedule data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost estimates for the space station systems analysis were recorded. Space construction base costs and characteristics were cited as well as mission hardware costs and characteristics. Also delineated were cost ground rules, the program schedule, and a detail cost estimate and funding distribution.

  19. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

  20. The NUCLARR databank: Human reliability and hardware failure data for the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.

    1993-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was developed to provide human reliability and hardware failure data to analysts in the nuclear power industry. This IBM-compatible databank is contained on a set of floppy diskettes which include data files and a menu-driven system for locating, reviewing, sorting, and retrieving the data. NUCLARR contains over 2500 individual data records, drawn from more, than 60 sources. The system is upgraded annually, to include additional human error and hardware component failure data and programming enhancements (i.e., increased user-friendliness). NUCLARR is available from the NRC through project staff at the INEL.