Science.gov

Sample records for additional hazard due

  1. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  2. Pollution due to hazardous glass waste.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Pollution resulting from hazardous glass (HG) is widespread across the globe, both in terms of quantity and associated health risks. In waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and fluorescent lamp glass, mercury and lead are present as the major pollutants. The current review discusses the issues related to quantity and associated risk from the pollutant present in HG and proposes the chemical, biological, thermal, hybrid, and nanotechniques for its management. The hybrid is one of the upcoming research models involving the compatible combination of two or more techniques for better and efficient remediation. Thermal mercury desorption starts at 100 °C but for efficient removal, the temperature should be >460 °C. Involvement of solar energy for this purpose makes the research more viable and ecofriendly. Nanoparticles such as Fe, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ag, and WS2 alone or with its formulation can immobilize heavy metals present in HG by involving a redox mechanism. Straight-line equation from year-wise sale can provide future sale data in comparison with lifespan which gives future pollutant approximation. Waste compact fluorescent lamps units projected for the year 2015 is 9,300,000,000 units and can emit nearly 9,300 kg of mercury. On the other hand, CRT monitors have been continuously replaced by more improved versions like liquid crystal display and plasma display panel resulting in the production of more waste. Worldwide CRT production was 83,300,000 units in 2002 and can approximately release 83,000 metric tons of lead. PMID:24281678

  3. Pollution due to hazardous glass waste.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Pooja

    2014-02-01

    Pollution resulting from hazardous glass (HG) is widespread across the globe, both in terms of quantity and associated health risks. In waste cathode ray tube (CRT) and fluorescent lamp glass, mercury and lead are present as the major pollutants. The current review discusses the issues related to quantity and associated risk from the pollutant present in HG and proposes the chemical, biological, thermal, hybrid, and nanotechniques for its management. The hybrid is one of the upcoming research models involving the compatible combination of two or more techniques for better and efficient remediation. Thermal mercury desorption starts at 100 °C but for efficient removal, the temperature should be >460 °C. Involvement of solar energy for this purpose makes the research more viable and ecofriendly. Nanoparticles such as Fe, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ag, and WS2 alone or with its formulation can immobilize heavy metals present in HG by involving a redox mechanism. Straight-line equation from year-wise sale can provide future sale data in comparison with lifespan which gives future pollutant approximation. Waste compact fluorescent lamps units projected for the year 2015 is 9,300,000,000 units and can emit nearly 9,300 kg of mercury. On the other hand, CRT monitors have been continuously replaced by more improved versions like liquid crystal display and plasma display panel resulting in the production of more waste. Worldwide CRT production was 83,300,000 units in 2002 and can approximately release 83,000 metric tons of lead.

  4. Surface tension increment due to solute addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Wei Lun; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Lin, Shi-Yow; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2004-03-01

    Addition of solute into solvent may lead to an increase in surface tension, such as salt in water and water in alcohol, due to solute depletion at the interface. The repulsion of the solute from the interface may originate from electrostatic forces or solute-solvent attraction. On the basis of the square-well model for the interface-solute interaction, we derive the surface tension increment Δγ by both canonical and grand-canonical routes (Gibbs adsorption isotherm) for a spherical droplet. The surface tension is increased linearly with the bulk concentration of the solute cb and the interaction range λ. The theoretical results are consistent with those obtained by experiments and Monte Carlo simulations up to a few molarity. For weak repulsion, the increment is internal energy driven. When the repulsion is large enough, the surface tension increment is entropy driven and approaches the asymptotic limit, Δγ≃cbkBTλ, due to the nearly complete depletion of the solute at the interface. Our result may shed some light on the surface tension increment for electrolyte solutions with concentration above 0.2M.

  5. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts.

  6. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts. PMID:22329456

  7. Additive interaction in survival analysis: use of the additive hazards model.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise; Marott, Jacob Louis; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-09-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures of additive interaction derived from multiplicative models-an approach that is both counter-intuitive and sometimes invalid. This paper presents a straightforward and intuitive way of assessing deviation from additivity of effects in survival analysis by use of the additive hazards model. The model directly estimates the absolute size of the deviation from additivity and provides confidence intervals. In addition, the model can accommodate both continuous and categorical exposures and models both exposures and potential confounders on the same underlying scale. To illustrate the approach, we present an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix.

  8. Evaluating small-body landing hazards due to blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, C.; Rodgers, D.; Barnouin, O.; Murchie, S.; Chabot, N.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Landed missions represent a vital stage of spacecraft exploration of planetary bodies. Landed science allows for a wide variety of measurements essential to unraveling the origin and evolution of a body that are not possible remotely, including but not limited to compositional measurements, microscopic grain characterization, and the physical properties of the regolith. To date, two spacecraft have performed soft landings on the surface of a small body. In 2001, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission performed a controlled descent and landing on (433) Eros following the completion of its mission [1]; in 2005, the Hayabusa spacecraft performed two touch-and-go maneuvers at (25143) Itokawa [2]. Both landings were preceded by rendezvous spacecraft reconnaissance, which enabled selection of a safe landing site. Three current missions have plans to land on small bodies (Rosetta, Hayabusa 2, and OSIRIS-REx); several other mission concepts also include small-body landings. Small-body landers need to land at sites having slopes and block abundances within spacecraft design limits. Due to the small scale of the potential hazards, it can be difficult or impossible to fully characterize a landing surface before the arrival of the spacecraft at the body. Although a rendezvous mission phase can provide global reconnaissance from which a landing site can be chosen, reasonable a priori assurance that a safe landing site exists is needed to validate the design approach for the spacecraft. Method: Many robotic spacecraft have landed safely on the Moon and Mars. Images of these landing sites, as well as more recent, extremely high-resolution orbital datasets, have enabled the comparison of orbital block observations to the smaller blocks that pose hazards to landers. Analyses of the Surveyor [3], Viking 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, Phoenix, Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity landing sites [4--8] have indicated that for a reasonable difference in size (a factor

  9. Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one

  10. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  11. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  12. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Merget, R; Bauer, T; Küpper, H U; Philippou, S; Bauer, H D; Breitstadt, R; Bruening, T

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic ("thermal" or "fumed") silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physicochemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or emphysema cannot be excluded. There is no study

  13. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  14. Errors in Expected Human Losses Due to Incorrect Seismic Hazard Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The probability of strong ground motion is presented in seismic hazard maps, in which peak ground accelerations (PGA) with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years are shown by color codes. It has become evident that these maps do not correctly give the seismic hazard. On the seismic hazard map of Japan, the epicenters of the recent large earthquakes are located in the regions of relatively low hazard. The errors of the GSHAP maps have been measured by the difference between observed and expected intensities due to large earthquakes. Here, we estimate how the errors in seismic hazard estimates propagate into errors in estimating the potential fatalities and affected population. We calculated the numbers of fatalities that would have to be expected in the regions of the nine earthquakes with more than 1,000 fatalities during the last 10 years with relatively reliable estimates of fatalities, assuming a magnitude which generates as a maximum intensity the one given by the GSHAP maps. This value is the number of fatalities to be exceeded with probability of 10% during 50 years. In most regions of devastating earthquakes, there are no instruments to measure ground accelerations. Therefore, we converted the PGA expected as a likely maximum based on the GSHAP maps to intensity. The magnitude of the earthquake that would cause the intensity expected by GSHAP as a likely maximum was calculated by M(GSHAP) = (I0 +1.5)/1.5. The numbers of fatalities, which were expected, based on earthquakes with M(GSHAP), were calculated using the loss estimating program QLARM. We calibrated this tool for each case by calculating the theoretical damage and numbers of fatalities (Festim) for the disastrous test earthquakes, generating a match with the observe numbers of fatalities (Fobs=Festim) by adjusting the attenuation relationship within the bounds of commonly observed laws. Calculating the numbers of fatalities expected for the earthquakes with M(GSHAP) will thus yield results that

  15. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  16. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  17. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  18. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  19. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  20. Predicting the Survival Time for Bladder Cancer Using an Additive Hazards Model in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    TAPAK, Leili; MAHJUB, Hossein; SADEGHIFAR, Majid; SAIDIJAM, Massoud; POOROLAJAL, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: One substantial part of microarray studies is to predict patients’ survival based on their gene expression profile. Variable selection techniques are powerful tools to handle high dimensionality in analysis of microarray data. However, these techniques have not been investigated in competing risks setting. This study aimed to investigate the performance of four sparse variable selection methods in estimating the survival time. Methods: The data included 1381 gene expression measurements and clinical information from 301 patients with bladder cancer operated in the years 1987 to 2000 in hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, Spain, France, and England. Four methods of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, smoothly clipped absolute deviation, the smooth integration of counting and absolute deviation and elastic net were utilized for simultaneous variable selection and estimation under an additive hazards model. The criteria of area under ROC curve, Brier score and c-index were used to compare the methods. Results: The median follow-up time for all patients was 47 months. The elastic net approach was indicated to outperform other methods. The elastic net had the lowest integrated Brier score (0.137±0.07) and the greatest median of the over-time AUC and C-index (0.803±0.06 and 0.779±0.13, respectively). Five out of 19 selected genes by the elastic net were significant (P<0.05) under an additive hazards model. It was indicated that the expression of RTN4, SON, IGF1R and CDC20 decrease the survival time, while the expression of SMARCAD1 increase it. Conclusion: The elastic net had higher capability than the other methods for the prediction of survival time in patients with bladder cancer in the presence of competing risks base on additive hazards model. PMID:27114989

  1. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  2. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  3. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. 260.23 Section 260.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  4. Compounding Hazards Facing Nepalese Villages due to Glacial Lake Thulagi, Extreme Monsoons, and Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Gregory; Kargel, Jeffrey; Regmi, Dhananjay

    2014-05-01

    Thulagi Tsho is listed by ICIMOD as among the most hazardous glacial lakes in Nepal. The listing is warranted by the physiography and downstream vulnerabilities. Tal Village—along a major trekking route—and a hydroelectric dam and reservoir are notably at risk due to the potential for a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF), an extreme summer monsoon, extreme spring snowmelt, landslides, and rockfalls. Tal is downstream from Thulagi Lake just a couple meters above river level, and ordinary monsoons already cause an approach toward flood conditions, according to residents. A high flood stage due to an extreme monsoon or unusually rapid springtime melting of a thick winter snowpack could be catastrophic. Two significant mass movements occurred recently in Tal, one having buried some structures in the village in June 2012. In a favorable note, satellite image analysis shows that Thulagi Lake has slowed its elongation in the last couple years. Furthermore, any tsunami or other flood surge would have to traverse and erode a wide end moraine in order to generate a GLOF. On the other hand, remote sensing and field observations show that wasting of Thulagi Glacier has debuttressed the northern lateral moraine, which is slipping toward the growing lake and the thinning/retreating glacier. The landslip itself is not necessarily a bad thing: it is causing a loss of gravitational potential energy of the lateral moraine, and if that process continues gradually, it will result in diminished instability. However, the debuttressing and moraine slip signifies that the moraines are unstable. Will a rapid mass movement dump into the lake? Triggers could include seismicity, extreme rainfall, or a small landslip. The risk of a serious GLOF exceeds that of Imja Lake due to Thulagi Lake's large hydrographic head and the shape of its downstream end, which could funnel and amplify a potential tsunami generated by a large mass movement into the lake. A moraine collapse into the lake would

  5. Styrofoam Debris as a Source of Hazardous Additives for Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2016-05-17

    There is growing concern over plastic debris and their fragments as a carrier for hazardous substances in marine ecosystem. The present study was conducted to provide field evidence for the transfer of plastic-associated chemicals to marine organisms. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), brominated flame retardants, were recently detected in expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) marine debris. We hypothesized that if styrofoam debris acts as a source of the additives in the marine environment, organisms inhabiting such debris might be directly influenced by them. Here we investigated the characteristics of HBCD accumulation by mussels inhabiting styrofoam. For comparison, mussels inhabiting different substrates, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), metal, and rock, were also studied. The high HBCD levels up to 5160 ng/g lipid weight and the γ-HBCD dominated isomeric profiles in mussels inhabiting styrofoam strongly supports the transfer of HBCDs from styrofoam substrate to mussels. Furthermore, microsized styrofoam particles were identified inside mussels, probably originating from their substrates.

  6. Styrofoam Debris as a Source of Hazardous Additives for Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2016-05-17

    There is growing concern over plastic debris and their fragments as a carrier for hazardous substances in marine ecosystem. The present study was conducted to provide field evidence for the transfer of plastic-associated chemicals to marine organisms. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), brominated flame retardants, were recently detected in expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) marine debris. We hypothesized that if styrofoam debris acts as a source of the additives in the marine environment, organisms inhabiting such debris might be directly influenced by them. Here we investigated the characteristics of HBCD accumulation by mussels inhabiting styrofoam. For comparison, mussels inhabiting different substrates, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), metal, and rock, were also studied. The high HBCD levels up to 5160 ng/g lipid weight and the γ-HBCD dominated isomeric profiles in mussels inhabiting styrofoam strongly supports the transfer of HBCDs from styrofoam substrate to mussels. Furthermore, microsized styrofoam particles were identified inside mussels, probably originating from their substrates. PMID:27100560

  7. JANNAF workshop on hazards due to pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results and hazards associated with the pre-combustion behavior of high energy propellants are discussed. Special attention was given to future needs for modeling and the problem of deflagration to detonation transition.

  8. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events.

  9. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events. PMID:26745353

  10. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Son, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2013-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program coordinated by CalOES and CGS in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine ';safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. This presentation will focus on the results from five California ports and harbors, and will include feedback we have received from initial discussion with local harbor masters and port authorities. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard

  11. Establishing sitewide risk perspectives due to cumulative impacts from AB, EP, and NEPA hazard analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, S.J.; Foppe, T.L.

    1998-06-01

    With the end of the Cold War in 1992, the mission for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) was changed from production of nuclear weapon components to special nuclear materials (SNM) and waste management, accelerated cleanup, reuse and closure of the Site. This change in mission presents new hazards and risk management challenges. With today`s shrinking DOE budget, a balance needs to be achieved between controlling those hazards related to SNM and waste management and interim storage, and those hazards related to accelerated closure of the Site involving deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning (DD and D) of surplus nuclear facilities. This paper discusses how risk assessments of normal operations and potential accidents have provided insights on the risks of current operations and planned closure activities.

  12. Managing Temporary School Closure Due to Environmental Hazard: Lessons from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kathy L.; Patterson, Lesley G.; Johnston, David M.; Peace, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The February 2011 Canterbury earthquake was a dramatic reminder of the need for schools to have emergency management plans in place. A number of other disaster and hazard events have historically caused New Zealand schools to close temporarily, and often within a short time frame. At such times principals must act decisively and communicate…

  13. Assessment of radiation hazards due to natural radioactivity in some building materials used in Egyptian dwellings.

    PubMed

    Medhat, M E

    2009-02-01

    Different types of Egyptian building materials from various locations in Cairo and its suburbs have been analysed for natural radioactivity using gamma ray spectrometry. Concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were in the ranges of (12 +/- 2.8-65 +/- 6.5), (5 +/- 1.8-60 +/- 6.7) and (159 +/- 3.8-920 +/- 12.7 Bq kg(-1)), respectively. The minimum concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found in gravel samples, whereas the maximum in granite samples. The results are compared with the published data of other countries and with the world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters: radium equivalent activity, gamma index, alpha index, absorbed dose rate and the annual exposure rate, were determined to assess the radiation hazards associated with Egyptian buildings. All studied samples are lower than world average limits.

  14. A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Rossetti, Federico; Belardi, Girolamo; Billi, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Asbestos-bearing rock sequences constitute a remarkable natural hazard that poses important threat to human health and may be at the origin of diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). Presently, asbestos is classified as Category 1 carcinogen by world health authorities. Although regulatory agencies in many countries prohibit or restrict the use of asbestos, and discipline the environmental asbestos exposure, the impact of asbestos on human life still constitutes a major problem. Naturally occurring asbestos includes serpentine and amphibole minerals characterised by fibrous morphology and it is a constituent of mineralogical associations typical of mafic and ultramafic rocks within the ophiolitic sequences. Release of fibres can occur both through natural processes (erosion) and through human activities requiring fragmentation of ophiolite rocks (quarrying, tunnelling, railways construction, etc.). As a consequence, vulnerability is increasing in sites where workers and living people are involved by dispersion of fibres during mining and milling of ophiolitic rocks. By analysing in the field different exposures of ophiolitic sequences from the Italian peninsula and after an extensive review of the existing literature, we remark the importance of the geological context (origin, tectonic and deformation history) of ophiolites as a first-order parameter in evaluating the asbestos hazard. Integrated structural, textural, mineralogical and petrological studies significantly improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing the nucleation/growth of fibrous minerals in deformation structures (both ductile and brittle) within the ophiolitic rocks. A primary role is recognised in the structural processes favouring the fibrous mineralization, with correlation existing between the fibrous parameters (such as mineralogical composition, texture, mechanics characteristics) and the particles released in the air (such as shape, size, and amount liberated

  15. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  16. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  17. Assessing the indirect effects due to natural hazards on a mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Schwarze, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measuring indirect economic costs and other effects from natural hazards, especially floods in alpine and other mountainous regions, are a necessary part of a comprehensive economic assessment. Their omission seriously affects the relative economic benefits of structural or non structural measures of flood defence. Surpassing controversial, IO-model-based economic estimates, analysing indirect economic effects lead to the key question of identifying and evaluating the drivers of indirect economic effects and resilience to system effects in the regional economy, i.e. at the meso-level. This investigation takes place for the catastrophic floods in summer 2005 in the provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Austria, which caused an estimated € 670 Mio direct loss on private and public assets and severe interruptions in lifeline services. The paper starts out with differentiating the concept of indirect economic costs from direct costs, examing different temporal (short vs. long-term) and spatial (macro-, meso- vs. microeconomic) system boundaries. It surveys common theories of economic resilience and vulnerability at the regional economy level. Indirect effects at the regional economy level can be defined as interferences of the economic exchange of goods and services triggered by breakdowns of transport lines and critical production inputs. The extent and persistence of indirect effects of natural hazards is not only by parameters of the extreme event, such as duration and amplitude of the flood, but much more by resilience parameters of the regional economy such as size of enterprises, the network structure (linkages) of the regional economy, availability of insurance and relief funds, and the stock of inventory. These effects can only be dissected by means of expert judgement and event studies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among business practioneers, members of chamber of commerce, civil protection agencies to identify and scale the drivers of

  18. Using satellite data for forecasting radiation hazards due to great SEP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman; Zukerman, Igor; Pustilnik, Lev; Dai, Uri; Shternlib, Abracham; Shai Applbaum, David; Kazantsev, Vasilii; Ben Israel, Isaac; Fatima, Keshtova

    The model is based on one minute satellite data (e.g., from the GOES series) available on the Internet in different energy ranges (from 4 MeV up to 500 MeV). First, we developed a program that automatically determines the beginning of an SEP by continuously analysing satellite data After the start of an SEP, we determine the SEP energy spectrum by using data in the four largest energy ranges. After a few (at least 4) minutes, we try to solve the inverse problem of SEP generation and propagation and estimate on the basis of determined changes of SEP energy spectrum in time the following main parameters: time of ejection into solar wind, energy spectrum of SEP generation, two-parametric diffusion coefficient in dependence of energy and distance from the Sun. With each new minute of observation obtained results of the inverse problem solution became more and more exactly. For each new minute of observation we then solve direct problem (by using estimated values of time of ejection into solar wind, energy spectrum of SEP generation, two-parametric diffusion coefficient) and determine expected SEP fluxes in different energy ranges not only during observed time (for checking solution of inverse problem), but also expected SEP fluxes in near future for forecasting of expected total radiation hazard in space, in magnetosphere, and in atmosphere for spacecrafts, satellites, and airplanes.

  19. Hazards Due to Overdischarge in Lithium-ion Cylindrical Cells in Multi-cell Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Strangways, Brad; Nelson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells in the cylindrical Commercial-off-the-shelf 18650 design format were used to study the hazards associated with overdischarge. The cells in series or in parallel configurations were subjected to different conditions of overdischarge. The cells in parallel configurations were all overdischarged to 2.0 V for 75 cycles with one cell removed at 25 cycles to study the health of the cell. The cells in series were designed to be in an unbalanced configuration by discharging one cell in each series configuration before the start of test. The discharge consisted of removing a pre-determined capacity from the cell. This ranged from 50 to 150 mAh removal. The cells were discharged down to a predetermined end-of-discharge voltage cutoff which allowed the cell with lower capacity to go into an overdischarge mode. The cell modules that survived the 75 cycles were subjected to one overvoltage test to 4.4 V/cell.

  20. Building a flood hazard map due to magma effusion into the caldera lake of the Baekdusan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Yun, S.; Yu, S.; Kim, I.

    2013-12-01

    Many volcanic craters and calderas are filled with large amounts of water that can pose significant flood hazards to downstream communities due to their high elevation and the potential for catastrophic releases of water. Recent reports pointed out the Baekdusan volcano that is located between the border of China and North Korea as a potential active volcano. Since Millennium Eruption around 1000 AD, smaller eruptions have occurred at roughly 100-year intervals, with the last one in 1903. The volcano is showing signs of waking from a century-long slumber recently and the volcanic ash may spread up to the northeastern of Japan. The development of various forecasting techniques to prevent and minimize economic and social damage is in urgent need. Floods from lake-filled calderas may be particularly large and high. Volcanic flood may cause significant hydrologic hazards for this reason. This study focuses on constructing a flood hazard map triggered by the uplift of lake bottom due to magma effusion in the Baekdusan volcano. A physically-based uplift model was developed to compute the amount of water and time to peak flow. The ordinary differential equation was numerically solved using the finite difference method and Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to solve nonlinear equation. The magma effusion rate into the caldera lake is followed by the past record from other volcanic activities. As a result, the hydrograph serves as an upper boundary condition when hydrodynamic model (Flo-2D) runs to simulate channel routing downstream. The final goal of the study stresses the potential flood hazard represented by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability. he study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Effusion rate, Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Uplift, Flood hazard map Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from

  1. Some Factors Controlling the Seismic Hazard due to Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection at Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The maximum seismic moment (or moment magnitude) is an important measure of the seismic hazard associated with earthquakes induced by deep fluid injection. Although it would be advantageous to be able to predict the induced earthquake outcome, including the maximum seismic moment, of a specified fluid injection project in advance, this capability has, to date, proved to be elusive because the geomechanical and hydrological factors that control the seismic response to injection are too poorly understood. Fortunately, the vast majority of activities involving the injection of fluids into deep aquifers do not cause earthquakes that are large enough to be of any consequence. There have been, however, significant exceptions during the past 50 years, starting with the earthquakes induced by injection of wastewater at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well, during the 1960s, that caused extensive damage in the Denver, CO, area. Results from numerous case histories of earthquakes induced by injection activities, including wastewater disposal at depth and the development of enhanced geothermal systems, suggest that it may be feasible to estimate bounds on maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected liquid. For these cases, volumes of injected liquid ranged from approximately 11.5 thousand to 5 million cubic meters and resulted in main shock moment magnitudes from 3.4 to 5.3. Because the maximum seismic moment appears to be linearly proportional to the total volume of injected fluid, this upper bound is expected to increase with time as long as a given injection well remains active. For example, in the Raton Basin, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, natural gas is produced from an extensive coal bed methane field. The deep injection of wastewater associated with this gas production has induced a sequence of earthquakes starting in August 2001, shortly after the beginning of major injection activities. Most of this seismicity defines a northeast striking plane dipping

  2. Coulomb stress change due to 2005 Kashmir earthquake and implications for future seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, Vineet K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate static stress change due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake ( M = 7.6). We suggest that the earthquake caused significant increase in stress in the Indo-Kohistan seismic zone (IKSZ) region, lying to the NW of the rupture and moderate increase in the adjacent Himalayan region, lying to the SE of rupture. Thus, these regions have been brought closer to the failure. On the other hand, the Salt Range region lies in the stress shadow of the earthquake, implying that future earthquakes in this region will be inhibited. We find that this earthquake may not be compared with typical Himalayan earthquake, and hence, rupture features of this earthquake may not be directly applicable to the earthquakes of the Himalayan region.

  3. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed.

  4. [Alimentary intake of opioid alkaloids by horses. Hazards due to poppy-containing feeds].

    PubMed

    Hertzsch, R; Emmerich, I U; Lachenmeier, D W; Sproll, C; Monakhova, Y B; Aboling, S; Bachmann, U; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Opioid alkaloids were identified in the urine of horses during an anti-doping control and in a case of intoxication. In both cases, it was suspected that the horses had ingested poppy-contaminated feed. To verify this suspicion, possible opioid alkaloid sources in Germany were identified through a literature research. Additionally, the contaminated feed was botanically and chemically analysed. The results indicated that both cases were most probably caused by the poppy in the feed. This highlights the previously underestimated risk of an intake of poppy-contaminated feed in horses. Recommendations are formulated for the prevention of positive doping-test results and intoxications by poppy-contaminated feeds in horses. Furthermore, a threshold for morphine in urine samples in competing horses is proposed. PMID:25624174

  5. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-05-12

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  6. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  7. 76 FR 5370 - Potential Addition of Vapor Intrusion Component to the Hazard Ranking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... accurate in assessing relative risk. The revisions included the addition of the human food chain and... this pathway include drinking water, the human food chain (i.e., contaminants build up in the aquatic... (NPL). To implement CERCLA, EPA promulgated the revised NCP, 40 CFR Part 300, on July 16, 1982 (47...

  8. Parametric studies with an atmospheric diffusion model that assesses toxic fuel hazards due to the ground clouds generated by rocket launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. B.; Grose, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Parametric studies were made with a multilayer atmospheric diffusion model to place quantitative limits on the uncertainty of predicting ground-level toxic rocket-fuel concentrations. Exhaust distributions in the ground cloud, cloud stabilized geometry, atmospheric coefficients, the effects of exhaust plume afterburning of carbon monoxide CO, assumed surface mixing-layer division in the model, and model sensitivity to different meteorological regimes were studied. Large-scale differences in ground-level predictions are quantitatively described. Cloud alongwind growth for several meteorological conditions is shown to be in error because of incorrect application of previous diffusion theory. In addition, rocket-plume calculations indicate that almost all of the rocket-motor carbon monoxide is afterburned to carbon dioxide CO2, thus reducing toxic hazards due to CO. The afterburning is also shown to have a significant effect on cloud stabilization height and on ground-level concentrations of exhaust products.

  9. Excipients and additives: hidden hazards in drug products and in product substitution.

    PubMed Central

    Napke, E; Stevens, D G

    1984-01-01

    The excipients and additives in drug formulations have been described as inert because they do not have an active role in the prevention or treatment of particular ailments. This has led to the misconception among physicians, pharmacists, drug manufacturers and the public that excipients are harmless and unworthy of mention. In fact, pharmacists are allowed to substitute drug formulations, without regard to the excipients, as long as they ensure that the active ingredients in the substitute are the same as those in the formulation prescribed. The inappropriateness of the term inert is becoming increasingly apparent as evidence of adverse reactions--some fatal--to excipients mounts. The likelihood that some "active" constituents, particularly erythromycin, have been blamed for such reactions deserves to be investigated. The public deserves to be better protected. For example, the United States has legislation requiring complete labelling of all food, drugs and cosmetics that incorporate more than one ingredient, no matter how innocuous the constituents are believed to be. In Canada, drug manufacturers are not even required to share this information with physicians or pharmacists when they introduce a new drug or reformulate a product already being marketed, nor are pharmacists required to disclose the contents of formulations that they prepare in the absence of commercially available products. PMID:6498699

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive DT implosions due to 3He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W; Langenbrunner, James R; Mack, Joseph M; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Douglas C; Evans, Scott C; Sedillo, Tom J; Kyrala, George A; Caldwell, Stephen E; Young, Carlton A; Nobile, Arthur; Wermer, Joseph R; Paglieri, Stephen N; Mcevoy, Aaron M; Kim, Yong Ho; Batha, Steven H; Horsfield, Colin J; Drew, Dave; Garbett, Warren; Rubery, Michael; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Roberts, Samuel; Frenje, Johan A

    2008-01-01

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et aI., Opt. Commun. 133, 495, 1997] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield (i.e., beyond what is predicted) and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas, but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of ICF implosions and capsule performance. A relatively short laser pulse (600 ps) was used to provide some degree of temporal separation between shock and compression yield components for analysis. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the 'factor of two' degradation previously reported by MIT at a 50% {sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg et aI., Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT, but consistent with LANL results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He [Wilson, et aI., lml Phys: Conf Series 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression ofcapsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood Equation-of-State (EOS) for gas mixtures, and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  12. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  13. A multiple imputation approach to the analysis of interval-censored failure time data with the additive hazards model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Sun, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses regression analysis of interval-censored failure time data, which occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical, and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model and a multiple imputation approach is presented for inference. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using the existing software packages for right-censored failure time data. Extensive simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and is comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of interval-censored failure time data arising from an AIDS clinical trial. PMID:25419022

  14. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  15. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  16. EFFECT ON 105KW NORTH WALL DUE TO ADDITION OF FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHO CS

    2010-03-08

    CHPRC D&D Projects is adding three filtration system on two 1-ft concrete pads adjacent to the north side of existing KW Basin building. This analysis is prepared to provide qualitative assessment based on the review of design information available for 105KW basin substructure. In the proposed heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filtration pad designs a 2 ft gap will be maintained between the pads and the north end of the existing 1 05KW -Basin building. Filtration Skids No.2 and No.3 share one pad. It is conservative to evaluate the No.2 and No.3 skid pad for the wall assessment. Figure 1 shows the plan layout of the 105KW basin site and the location of the pads for the filtration system or HVAC skids. Figure 2 shows the cross-section elevation view of the pad. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 directs the replacement of the existing 8-inch concrete pad with two new 1-ft think pads. The existing 8-inch pad is separated from the 105KW basin superstructure by an expansion joint of only half an inch. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 shows the gap between the new proposed pads and the north wall and any overflow pits and sumps is 2-ft. Following analysis demonstrates that the newly added filtration units and their pads do not exceed the structural capacity of existing wall. The calculation shows that the total bending moment on the north wall due to newly added filtration units and pads including seismic load is 82.636 ft-kip/ft and is within the capacity of wall which is 139.0ft-kip/ft.

  17. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  18. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on... leases, published August 10, 1999, require the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) to determine... . Mailing address: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Western Audit and Compliance Management, Team B,...

  19. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  20. Too generous to a fault? Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art? Errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, James

    2014-11-01

    "One is well advised, when traveling to a new territory, to take a good map and then to check the map with the actual territory during the journey." In just such a reality check, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) maps (prepared using PSHA) portrayed a "low seismic hazard," which was then also assumed to be the "risk to which the populations were exposed." But time-after-time-after-time the actual earthquakes that occurred were not only "surprises" (many times larger than those implied on the maps), but they were often near the maximum potential size (Maximum Credible Earthquake or MCE) that geologically could occur. Given these "errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates" revealed globally in these past performances of the GSHAP maps (> 700,000 deaths 2001-2011), we need to ask not only: "Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art?" but also: "Who and what were the `Raiders of the Lost Art?' "

  1. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  2. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... based on the weight of evidence showing that regulation under 40 CFR part 273 is appropriate for the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  3. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... based on the weight of evidence showing that regulation under 40 CFR part 273 is appropriate for the... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL...

  4. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  5. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  6. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Efforts over the last Two Decades to Reduce Human Losses due to Natural Hazards, and A Proposal for Future Efforts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Chakos, A.

    2009-12-01

    While there is evidence that efforts over the last 20 years to reduce human and fiscal losses due to natural hazards have been effective, there is also evidence that, despite these efforts, we can expect large and, perhaps, even increasing losses in the future. If this conclusion is correct—and unacceptable—then what should be done differently to reduce these losses? One piece of the answer can be found through analyzing why the efforts to date have not been more effective. Another piece can be found through examining the characteristics of successful social movements. For a social movement is what we are talking about when we advocate changing human behavior in order to reduce risk from natural hazards. We cannot attribute the disappointingly modest success of past risk reduction efforts to inadequate science or engineering: the reduction of natural disaster losses in both the U.S. and Japan over the last century indicates that humans possess the required scientific and engineering expertise to reduce the risk of natural hazards, and reduce it significantly. If the problem is that this expertise is not being applied outside of Japan and the U.S., where the risk is concentrated, then we need to understand why. There are numerous examples, after all, of widespread, rapid adoption of modern technologies (such as the internet), once these technologies were perceived to be beneficial. Yet not only have earthquake engineering advances failed to be adopted where they are needed, even existing building codes are often not followed. To understand this behavioral paradox better, we turn to human psychology. In the last several years, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times has invoked the work of psychologists, in order to explore how our brains may not have yet evolved to respond properly to certain types of modern risks. Kristof refers, for example, to Professor Daniel Gilbert, who argues that threats that will catch our attention will either be personalized, imminent

  8. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  9. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., error in judgment, or similar instance of fault on VA's part in furnishing hospital care, medical or.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical...

  10. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  11. 38 CFR 3.361 - Benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment.... 1151(a) for additional disability or death due to hospital care, medical or surgical treatment..., VA compares the veteran's condition immediately before the beginning of the hospital care, medical...

  12. Coastal Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

  13. 76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) to determine major portion prices and notify industry by publishing the prices in the Federal Register. The regulations also require ONRR to publish a due date for industry to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms. PMID:25016277

  15. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms.

  16. Addressing Loss of Efficiency Due to Misclassification Error in Enriched Clinical Trials for the Evaluation of Targeted Therapies Based on the Cox Proportional Hazards Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-An; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Jen-pei

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of precision medicine is that it takes individual variability at the genetic or molecular level into account in determining the best treatment for patients diagnosed with diseases detected by recently developed novel biotechnologies. The enrichment design is an efficient design that enrolls only the patients testing positive for specific molecular targets and randomly assigns them for the targeted treatment or the concurrent control. However there is no diagnostic device with perfect accuracy and precision for detecting molecular targets. In particular, the positive predictive value (PPV) can be quite low for rare diseases with low prevalence. Under the enrichment design, some patients testing positive for specific molecular targets may not have the molecular targets. The efficacy of the targeted therapy may be underestimated in the patients that actually do have the molecular targets. To address the loss of efficiency due to misclassification error, we apply the discrete mixture modeling for time-to-event data proposed by Eng and Hanlon [8] to develop an inferential procedure, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, for treatment effects of the targeted treatment effect for the true-positive patients with the molecular targets. Our proposed procedure incorporates both inaccuracy of diagnostic devices and uncertainty of estimated accuracy measures. We employed the expectation-maximization algorithm in conjunction with the bootstrap technique for estimation of the hazard ratio and its estimated variance. We report the results of simulation studies which empirically investigated the performance of the proposed method. Our proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example. PMID:27120450

  17. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  18. Calculation of enhanced slowing and cooling due to the addition of a traveling wave to an intense optical standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, D.; Mervis, J.; Prentiss, M.; Bigelow, N. P.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the force on a two-level atom interacting with intense monochromatic laser fields which are combinations of standing and traveling waves. We present a continued-fraction solution to the optical Bloch equations. Using this solution to calculate the force on an atom, we have examined the slowing and cooling of a thermal Na atomic beam. We find that the addition of a traveling wave to an intense standing wave can significantly improve the slowing rate and simultaneously decrease the final velocity of the cooled beam.

  19. Growth and parameters of microflora in intestinal and faecal samples of piglets due to application of a phytogenic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Muhl, A; Liebert, F

    2007-10-01

    A commercial phytogenic feed additive (PFA), containing the fructopolysaccharide inulin, an essential oil mix (carvacrol, thymol), chestnut meal (tannins) and cellulose powder as carrier substance, was examined for effects on growth and faecal and intestinal microflora of piglets. Two experiments (35 days) were conducted, each with 40 male castrated weaned piglets. In experiment 1, graded levels of the PFA were supplied (A1: control; B1: 0.05% PFA; C1: 0.1% PFA; D1: 0.15% PFA) in diets based on wheat, barley, soybean meal and fish meal with lysine as the limiting amino acid. In experiment 2, a similar diet with 0.1% of the PFA (A2: control; B2: 0.1% PFA; C2: +0.35% lysine; D2: 0.1% PFA + 0.35% lysine) and lysine supplementation was utilized. During experiment 1, no significant effect of the PFA on growth, feed intake and feed conversion rate was observed (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation in experiment 2 improved growth performance significantly, but no significant effect of the PFA was detected. Microbial counts in faeces (aerobes, Gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) during the first and fifth week did not indicate any significant PFA effect (p > 0.05). In addition, microflora in intestinal samples was not significantly modified by supplementing the PFA (p > 0.05). Lysine supplementation indicated lysine as limiting amino acid in the basal diet, but did not influence the microbial counts in faeces and small intestine respectively.

  20. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  1. Anomalous yield reduction in direct-drive deuterium/tritium implosions due to {sup 3}He addition

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H. W.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Mack, J. M.; Cooley, J. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Caldwell, S. E.; Young, C. S.; Nobile, A.; Wermer, J.; Paglieri, S.; McEvoy, A. M.; Kim, Y.; Batha, S. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Drew, D.; Garbett, W.; Rubery, M.

    2009-05-15

    Glass capsules were imploded in direct drive on the OMEGA laser [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to look for anomalous degradation in deuterium/tritium (DT) yield and changes in reaction history with {sup 3}He addition. Such anomalies have previously been reported for D/{sup 3}He plasmas but had not yet been investigated for DT/{sup 3}He. Anomalies such as these provide fertile ground for furthering our physics understanding of inertial confinement fusion implosions and capsule performance. Anomalous degradation in the compression component of yield was observed, consistent with the ''factor of 2'' degradation previously reported by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) at a 50%{sup 3}He atom fraction in D{sub 2} using plastic capsules [Rygg, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)]. However, clean calculations (i.e., no fuel-shell mixing) predict the shock component of yield quite well, contrary to the result reported by MIT but consistent with Los Alamos National Laboratory results in D{sub 2}/{sup 3}He[Wilson et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 022015 (2008)]. X-ray imaging suggests less-than-predicted compression of capsules containing {sup 3}He. Leading candidate explanations are poorly understood equation of state for gas mixtures and unanticipated particle pressure variation with increasing {sup 3}He addition.

  2. Additional Radiative Cooling of the Mesopause Region due to Small-Scale Temperature Fluctuations Associated with Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutepov, A.; Feofilov, A.; Medvedev, A.; Pauldrach, A.; Hartogh, P.

    2008-05-01

    We address a previously unknown effect of the radiative cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) produced by small-scale irregular temperature fluctuations (ITFs) associated with gravity waves. These disturbances are not resolved by present GCMs, but they alter the radiative transfer and the heating/cooling rates significantly. We apply a statistical model of gravity waves superimposed on large-scale temperature profiles, and perform direct calculations of the radiative cooling/heating in the MLT in the IR bands of CO2, O3 and H2O molecules taking into account the breakdown of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE). We found that in the periods of strong wave activity the subgrid ITFs can cause an additional cooling up to 3 K/day near the mesopause. The effect is produced mainly by the fundamental 15 μm band of the main CO2 isotope. We derived a simple expression for the correction to mean (resolved by GCMs) temperature profiles using the variance of the temperature perturbations to account for the additional cooling effect. The suggested parameterization can be applied in GCMs in conjunction with existing gravity wave drag parameterizations.

  3. S. 1082: This Act may be cited as the Hazardous and Additional Waste Export and Import Act of 1991, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US Senate on May 15, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act. This legislation prohibits the export from and import into the United States of Hazardous and additional waste except in compliance with the requirements of this bill. The purpose of this act is to implement the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, done at Basel, Switzerland, March 22, 1989. Key sections of this bill address the following: international shipments of hazardous and additional waste; objectives and national policy; retention of existing authority; and conforming amendments.

  4. Changes in the nanoparticle aggregation rate due to the additional effect of electrostatic and magnetic forces on mass transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Rosická, Dana; Sembera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    : The need may arise to be able to simulate the migration of groundwater nanoparticles through the ground. Transportation velocities of nanoparticles are different from that of water and depend on many processes that occur during migration. Unstable nanoparticles, such as zero-valent iron nanoparticles, are especially slowed down by aggregation between them. The aggregation occurs when attracting forces outweigh repulsive forces between the particles. In the case of iron nanoparticles that are used for remediation, magnetic forces between particles contribute to attractive forces and nanoparticles aggregate rapidly. This paper describes the addition of attractive magnetic forces and repulsive electrostatic forces between particles (by 'particle', we mean both single nanoparticles and created aggregates) into a basic model of aggregation which is commonly used. This model is created on the basis of the flow of particles in the proximity of observed particles that gives the rate of aggregation of the observed particle. By using a limit distance that has been described in our previous work, the flow of particles around one particle is observed in larger spacing between the particles. Attractive magnetic forces between particles draw the particles into closer proximity and result in aggregation. This model fits more closely with rapid aggregation which occurs between magnetic nanoparticles.

  5. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, M.C. . E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-05-15

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Downstream Flooding due to a Flexible-Dam Collapse. The case of "La Esperanza" dam, Hidalgo-México: Implication on Hazard Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areu Rangel, O. S., Sr.; Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Bonasia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The risk of flooding of settlements located downstream of a dam is high due to the large number of people living on natural waterways. Risk assessment of flooding could help in projecting containment and protection in case of a dam-break. For projecting containment and protection works, the assessment should take into account velocities, densities and impact pressure of the water on the villages in risk. Therefore, it is appealing to conduct a series of numerical simulations of downstream flooding including velocity and pressure fields, and their temporal and spatial fluctuations. The present work focuses on the real case of "La Esperanza" dam, located in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). The dam was built 70 years ago and currently two thirds of its capacity is covered with silt, which implies a very high horizontal thrust. The simulation of the flood due to failure of the dam was carried on using the DualSPHysics code, a new implementation of the mesh-free Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. For the boundary conditions, a Digital Elevation Model of the potentially affected area was built using satellite images, the actual bathymetry of the dam and cross sections of the channel. In order to evaluate the hazard posed to the villages located downstream of the dam, different collapse scenarios were simulated, with particular focus on the consequences of the temporal variation of rainfall. Preliminary results show acceleration and dynamic pressure values of water in especially selected areas that are subjected to high risk for the elevated number of inhabitant.

  7. Microstructural evolution and intermetallic formation in Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe alloy due to grain refiner and modifier additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Amir; Ranjbar, Khalil; Sami, Sattar

    2012-08-01

    An alloy of Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe was cast in a metallic die, and its microstructural changes due to Ti-B refiner and Sr modifier additions were studied. Apart from usual refinement and modification of the microstructure, some mutual influences of the additives took place, and no mutual poisoning effects by these additives, in combined form, were observed. It was noticed that the dimensions of the iron-rich intermetallics were influenced by the additives causing them to become larger. The needle-shaped intermetallics that were obtained from refiner addition became thicker and longer when adding the modifier. It was also found that α-Al and eutectic silicon phases preferentially nucleate on different types of intermetallic compounds. The more iron content of the intermetallic compounds and the more changes in their dimensions occurred. Formation of the shrinkage porosities was also observed.

  8. Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps/Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate variability and change are clearly stressing water supplies in high alpine regions of the Earth. These recent long-term natural hazards present critical challenges to policy makers and water managers. This paper addresses strategies to use enhanced scientific methods to mitigate the problem. Recent rapid depletions of glaciers and intense droughts throughout the world have created a need to reexamine modern water augmentation technologies for enhancing snow pack in mountainous regions. Today’s reliance on clean efficient hydroelectric power in the Alps and the Rocky Mountains poses a critical need for sustainable snow packs and high elevation water supplies through out the year. Hence, the need to make natural cloud systems more efficient precipitators during the cold season through anthropogenic weather modification techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior, has spent over $39M in research from 1963 to 1990 to develop the scientific basis for snow pack augmentation in the headwaters of the Colorado, American, and Columbia River Basins in the western United States, and through USAID in Morocco in the High Atlas Mountains. This paper presents a brief summary of the research findings and shows that even during drought conditions potential exists for significant, cost-effective enhancement of water supplies. Examples of ground based propane and AgI seeding generators, cloud physics studies of supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystal characteristics that indicate seeding potential will be shown. Hypothetical analyses of seeding potential in 17 western states from Montana to California will be presented based on observed SNOTEL snow water equivalent measurements, and distributed by elevation and observed winter precipitation. Early studies indicated from 5 to 20% increases in snow pack were possible, if winter storm systems were seeded effectively. If this potential was realized in drought conditions observed in 2003, over 1

  9. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  10. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S U; Rafique, M; Jabbar, A; Matiullah

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.

  11. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes.

    PubMed

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia; Macías Garcia, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January-October 2009-2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  12. Pre- and post-experimental manipulation assessments confirm the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes

    PubMed Central

    Cuatianquiz Lima, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds breed in holes that they do not excavate themselves. This is possible where there are large trees whose size and age permit the digging of holes by primary excavators and only rarely happens in forest plantations, where we expected a deficit of both breeding holes and SCN species. We assessed whether the availability of tree cavities influenced the number of SCNs in two temperate forest types, and evaluated the change in number of SCNs after adding nest boxes. First, we counted all cavities within each of our 25-m radius sampling points in mature and young forest plots during 2009. We then added nest boxes at standardised locations during 2010 and 2011 and conducted fortnightly bird counts (January–October 2009–2011). In 2011 we added two extra plots of each forest type, where we also conducted bird counts. Prior to adding nest boxes, counts revealed more SCNs in mature than in young forest. Following the addition of nest boxes, the number of SCNs increased significantly in the points with nest boxes in both types of forest. Counts in 2011 confirmed the increase in number of birds due to the addition of nest boxes. Given the likely benefits associated with a richer bird community we propose that, as is routinely done in some countries, forest management programs preserve old tree stumps and add nest boxes to forest plantations in order to increase bird numbers and bird community diversity. PMID:26998410

  13. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  14. Variation in mechanical behavior due to different build directions of Titanium6Aluminum4Vanadium fabricated by electron beam additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Lalit

    Titanium has always been a metal of great interest since its discovery especially for critical applications because of its excellent mechanical properties such as light weight (almost half of that of the steel), low density (4.4 gm/cc) and high strength (almost similar to steel). It creates a stable and adherent oxide layer on its surface upon exposure to air or water which gives it a great resistance to corrosion and has made it a great choice for structures in severe corrosive environment and sea water. Its non-allergic property has made it suitable for biomedical application for manufacturing implants. Having a very high melting temperature, it has a very good potential for high temperature applications. But high production and processing cost has limited its application. Ti6Al4V is the most used titanium alloy for which it has acquired the title as `workhouse' of the Ti family. Additive layer Manufacturing (ALM) has brought revolution in manufacturing industries. Today, this additive manufacturing has developed into several methods and formed a family. This method fabricates a product by adding layer after layer as per the geometry given as input into the system. Though the conception was developed to fabricate prototypes and making tools initially, but its highly economic aspect i.e., very little waste material for less machining and comparatively lower production lead time, obviation of machine tools have drawn attention for its further development towards mass production. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is the latest addition to ALM family developed by Arcam, ABRTM located in Sweden. The electron beam that is used as heat source melts metal powder to form layers. For this thesis work, three different types of specimens have been fabricated using EBM system. These specimens differ in regard of direction of layer addition. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus and yield strength, have been measured and compared with standard data

  15. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibb, Herman J.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Fred J.; Lake, Robin J.; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food. Methods and Findings We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke’s Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead). Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific ‘seed’ questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke’s Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the ‘target’ questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts

  16. Class 1 Permit Modification Notification Addition of Structures within Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11, Dome 375 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Lechel, Robert A.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to notify the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of a Class 1 Permit Modification to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in November 2010. The modification adds structures to the container storage unit at Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, Pad 11. Permit Section 3.1(3) requires that changes to the location of a structure that does not manage hazardous waste shall be changed within the Permit as a Class 1 modification without prior approval in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (40 CFR), {section}270.42(a)(1). Structures have been added within Dome 375 located at TA-54, Area G, Pad 11 that will be used in support of waste management operations within Dome 375 and the modular panel containment structure located within Dome 375, but will not be used as waste management structures. The Class 1 Permit Modification revises Figure 36 in Attachment N, Figures; and Figure G.12-1 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Descriptions of the structures have also been added to Section A.4.2.9 in Attachment A, TA - Unit Descriptions; and Section 2.0 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Full description of the permit modification and the necessary changes are included in Enclosure 1. The modification has been prepared in accordance with 40 CFR {section}270.42(a)(l). This package includes this letter and an enclosure containing a description of the permit modification, text edits of the Permit sections, and the revised figures (collectively LA-UR-12-22808). Accordingly, a signed certification page is also enclosed. Three hard copies and one electronic copy of this submittal will be delivered to the NMED-HWB.

  17. Treatability studies on mixed (radioactive and hazardous) M-Area F006 waste sludge: Vitrification via the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.; Beam, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Solidification of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste sludges into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The M-Area operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, produced reactor components for nuclear weapons materials for the US Department of Energy. The resulting waste is currently being stored in nine tanks. The total volume in storage of was initially {approximately}1,200,000 gallons of which {approximately} 1/3 is a gelatinous hydroxide sludge. Vitrification of the sludge into glass is an attractive option because it reduces the waste volume by {approximately}85% and reduces final disposal volume by 96% compared to alternative stabilization technologies. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  18. Hazard detection with a monocular bioptic telescope

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Amy L.; Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The safety of bioptic telescopes for driving remains controversial. The ring scotoma, an area to the telescope eye due to the telescope magnification, has been the main cause of concern. This study evaluates whether bioptic users can use the fellow eye to detect in hazards driving videos that fall in the ring scotoma area. Methods Twelve visually impaired bioptic users watched a series of driving hazard perception training videos and responded as soon as they detected a hazard while reading aloud letters presented on the screen. The letters were placed such that when reading them through the telescope the hazard fell in the ring scotoma area. Four conditions were tested: no bioptic and no reading, reading without bioptic, reading with a bioptic that did not occlude the fellow eye (non-occluding bioptic), and reading with a bioptic that partially-occluded the fellow eye. Eight normally sighted subjects performed the same task with the partially occluding bioptic detecting lateral hazards (blocked by the device scotoma) and vertical hazards (outside the scotoma) to further determine the cause-and-effect relationship between hazard detection and the fellow eye. Results There were significant differences in performance between conditions: 83% of hazards were detected with no reading task, dropping to 67% in the reading task with no bioptic, to 50% while reading with the non-occluding bioptic, and 34% while reading with the partially occluding bioptic. For normally sighted, detection of vertical hazards (53%) was significantly higher than lateral hazards (38%) with the partially occluding bioptic. Conclusions Detection of driving hazards is impaired by the addition of a secondary reading like task. Detection is further impaired when reading through a monocular telescope. The effect of the partially-occluding bioptic supports the role of the non-occluded fellow eye in compensating for the ring scotoma. PMID:26303448

  19. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  20. Migration and Environmental Hazards.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M

    2005-03-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations.

  1. The potential health hazard due to elevated radioactivity in old uranium mines in Dolina Białego, Tatra Mountains, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Vaupotič, Janja; Grządziel, Dominik; Kobal, Ivan; Omran, Khaled M H

    2013-06-01

    Natural radioactivity is one of the essential components of the environment. Unlike the Sudety mountains area in Poland, the Tatra Mountains were not the subject of wide survey as regards the levels of natural radioactivity. Especially, the concentrations of radon (natural radioactive gas) have not been investigated there in terms of their possible negative health impact. Within the frame of bilateral cooperation between the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków, Poland, and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, the measurements of natural radioactive elements in old uranium mines in the Tatra National Park were performed in June 2010. The investigated sites were located in Dolina Białego (The Valley of the White). One of the mines is situated near the tourist path. The paper presents the results of complex measurements of natural radioactivity in both uranium drifts. The concentration of radon gas inside the mining drifts exceeded 28,000 Bq m(-3). Also, very high gamma dose rates were observed (up to 5600 nSv h(-1)). The maximum concentrations of natural radioactive elements (potassium (40)K, radium (226)Ra, thorium (232)Th) in rock samples amounted to 535, 2137, and 18 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The effective dose rates due to radon and thoron inhalation have been assessed as 0.013 mSv h(-1) (for the lowest concentration) and 0.121 mSv h(-1) (for the highest concentration).

  2. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  5. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  6. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Employee Downloads Additional Information Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Mercury Needlesticks Noise Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/ ... Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Lack ...

  8. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  9. The test and treatment methods of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and an addition to the management of vertigo due to the superior vestibular canal (BPPV-SC).

    PubMed

    Rahko, T

    2002-10-01

    A review of the tests and treatment manoeuvres for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior, horizontal and superior vestibular canals is presented. Additionally, a new way to test and treat positional vertigo of the superior vestibular canal is presented. In a prospective study, 57 out of 305 patients' visits are reported. They had residual symptoms and dizziness after the test and the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal canal (BPPV-HC) and posterior canal (PC). They were tested with a new test and treated with a new manoeuvre for superior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV-SC). Results for vertigo in 53 patients were good; motion sickness and acrophobia disappeared. Reactive neck tension to BPPV was relieved. Older people were numerous among patients and their quality of life (QOL) improved.

  10. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... people how to work with hazardous materials and waste. There are many different kinds of hazardous materials, including: Chemicals, like some that are used for cleaning Drugs, like chemotherapy to treat cancer Radioactive material that is used for x-rays or ...

  11. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  12. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  13. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  14. Deadly Cold: Health Hazards Due to Cold Weather. An Information Paper by the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (February 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This paper, on the health hazards of cold weather for elderly persons, presents information from various sources on the death rates in winter throughout the United States. After reviewing the scope of the problem, specific health hazards associated with cold weather are discussed, i.e., hypothermia, fires, carbon monoxide poisoning, and influenza…

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  16. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  17. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  18. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Siu, Y. L.; Mitchell, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  19. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  20. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  1. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. "Only When You Know the Hazards..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2005-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous chemicals and chemical containing products is of much concern and there is a need for a document that describes the hazards of a chemical, to consider the precautionary measures to be taken. Many classic demonstrations however cannot be performed due to safety concerns since sometimes chemicals are deemed too hazardous or…

  15. Modeling and Hazard Analysis Using STPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimatsu, Takuto; Leveson, Nancy; Thomas, John; Katahira, Masa; Miyamoto, Yuko; Nakao, Haruka

    2010-09-01

    A joint research project between MIT and JAXA/JAMSS is investigating the application of a new hazard analysis to the system and software in the HTV. Traditional hazard analysis focuses on component failures but software does not fail in this way. Software most often contributes to accidents by commanding the spacecraft into an unsafe state(e.g., turning off the descent engines prematurely) or by not issuing required commands. That makes the standard hazard analysis techniques of limited usefulness on software-intensive systems, which describes most spacecraft built today. STPA is a new hazard analysis technique based on systems theory rather than reliability theory. It treats safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem. The goal of STPA, which is to create a set of scenarios that can lead to a hazard, is the same as FTA but STPA includes a broader set of potential scenarios including those in which no failures occur but the problems arise due to unsafe and unintended interactions among the system components. STPA also provides more guidance to the analysts that traditional fault tree analysis. Functional control diagrams are used to guide the analysis. In addition, JAXA uses a model-based system engineering development environment(created originally by Leveson and called SpecTRM) which also assists in the hazard analysis. One of the advantages of STPA is that it can be applied early in the system engineering and development process in a safety-driven design process where hazard analysis drives the design decisions rather than waiting until reviews identify problems that are then costly or difficult to fix. It can also be applied in an after-the-fact analysis and hazard assessment, which is what we did in this case study. This paper describes the experimental application of STPA to the JAXA HTV in order to determine the feasibility and usefulness of the new hazard analysis technique. Because the HTV was originally developed using fault tree analysis

  16. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  17. Infrasound Monitoring of Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.

    2015-12-01

    Infrasound is generated by a wide variety of energetic natural and anthropogenic phenomena that originate in the solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Because the absorption of infrasound is low, it can propagate long distances through atmospheric waveguides, making it a valuable tool for remote monitoring of hazards. Advances in using infrasound for monitoring energetic events in the solid earth, oceans, and atmosphere are being driven by the wealth of new datasets in addition to advances in modeling source and propagation physics. This presentation provides an overview of recent advances in infrasound monitoring of natural hazards, focusing on selected hazards in the earth (earthquakes and volcanoes), ocean (tsunamis), and atmosphere (meteoroids).

  18. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  20. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  1. Gamma-ray exposure hazard due to stowage of M-774 APFSDS (Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot) rounds in a Leopard C-1 main battle tank. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, H.A.

    1983-09-01

    The M-744 APFSDS anti-tank round contains a depleted-uranium penetrator of 3.4 kgram mass. Since depleted uranium is naturally radioactive, the storage of a substantial number of these rounds inside a Leopard C-1 main battle tank creates a gamma radiation field within the vehicle. Gamma-ray exposure rates have been measured using a sodium-iodide spectrometer at each of the four crew-member locations and for two turret orientations, with 59 rounds stowed in the vehicle. In all cases the measured gamma-ray dose rates were less than a maximum of 0.17 millirad per hour observed at the loader's position. Assuming the loader spent an entire week (168 hours) at his station, his integrated dose would amount to 29 mRad - approximately a factor of 4 lower than the maximum currently allowed by Canadian Forces regulations. It is therefore concluded that the M774 round does not represent a significant gamma radiation hazard to Leopard C1 crewmembers.

  2. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Demircioglu, Mine; Sesetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    Using a GIS-environment to present the results, seismic risk analysis is considered as a helpful tool to support the decision making for planning and prioritizing seismic retrofit intervention programs at large scale. The main ingredients of seismic risk analysis consist of seismic hazard, regional inventory of buildings and vulnerability analysis. In this study, the assessment of the national earthquake hazard based on the NGA ground motion prediction models and the comparisons of the results with the previous models have been considered, respectively. An evaluation of seismic risk based on the probabilistic intensity ground motion prediction for Turkey has been investigated. According to the Macroseismic approach of Giovinazzi and Lagomarsino (2005), two alternative vulnerability models have been used to estimate building damage. The vulnerability and ductility indices for Turkey have been taken from the study of Giovinazzi (2005). These two vulnerability models have been compared with the observed earthquake damage database. A good agreement between curves has been clearly observed. In additional to the building damage, casualty estimations based on three different methods for each return period and for each vulnerability model have been presented to evaluate the earthquake loss. Using three different models of building replacement costs, the average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss ratio (PMLR) due to regional earthquake hazard have been provided to form a basis for the improvement of the parametric insurance model and the determination of premium rates for the compulsory earthquake insurance in Turkey.

  3. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  4. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of the Chiapas State (SE Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lomelí, Anabel Georgina; García-Mayordomo, Julián

    2015-04-01

    The Chiapas State, in southeastern Mexico, is a very active seismic region due to the interaction of three tectonic plates: Northamerica, Cocos and Caribe. We present a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) specifically performed to evaluate seismic hazard in the Chiapas state. The PSHA was based on a composited seismic catalogue homogenized to Mw and was used a logic tree procedure for the consideration of different seismogenic source models and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). The results were obtained in terms of peak ground acceleration as well as spectral accelerations. The earthquake catalogue was compiled from the International Seismological Center and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de México sources. Two different seismogenic source zones (SSZ) models were devised based on a revision of the tectonics of the region and the available geomorphological and geological maps. The SSZ were finally defined by the analysis of geophysical data, resulting two main different SSZ models. The Gutenberg-Richter parameters for each SSZ were calculated from the declustered and homogenized catalogue, while the maximum expected earthquake was assessed from both the catalogue and geological criteria. Several worldwide and regional GMPEs for subduction and crustal zones were revised. For each SSZ model we considered four possible combinations of GMPEs. Finally, hazard was calculated in terms of PGA and SA for 500-, 1000-, and 2500-years return periods for each branch of the logic tree using the CRISIS2007 software. The final hazard maps represent the mean values obtained from the two seismogenic and four attenuation models considered in the logic tree. For the three return periods analyzed, the maps locate the most hazardous areas in the Chiapas Central Pacific Zone, the Pacific Coastal Plain and in the Motagua and Polochic Fault Zone; intermediate hazard values in the Chiapas Batholith Zone and in the Strike-Slip Faults Province. The hazard decreases

  5. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  6. Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector.

    PubMed

    Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Mawn, Barbara; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare personnel work in vulnerable conditions that can adversely impact physical and/or mental health. This paper aims to synthesize the state of knowledge on work-related illnesses, injuries, and risks experienced by Thai healthcare workers. We found that Thai healthcare personnel, like others worldwide, are at risk for injury related to needle sticks and sharp instruments; infectious diseases due to biological hazards exposure such as airborne pathogens and patient secretions; muscle pain due to workload and long duration of work; and psychological disorders related to stressful working conditions. Because detailed surveillance data are limited for the Thai healthcare workforce, we recommend that additional surveillance data on Thai healthcare workers' health outcomes be collected. Future research efforts should also focus on evidence-based interventions in order to develop methods to prevent and treat occupational health injuries and illnesses acquired in the workplace for Thai healthcare sector workers. PMID:26956017

  7. Waste explosives and other hazardous materials--hazard potential and remedial measures: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R K; Asthana, S N; Bhattacharya, B; Tiwari, Ila; Ghole, V S

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of energetic materials including propellants, high explosives, pyrotechnics are subjected to disposal either due to expiry of their useful life or rejection in the manufacturing process. The environmental regulations do not allow the hazardous materials for open burning / detonation in view of the health hazard involved in these operations. The present paper describes the hazard potential of energetic materials and associated hazardous chemicals. It also deals with global technological status for remedial measures of hazardous chemicals along with their merits and demerits.

  8. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  9. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  10. Radon-hazard potential of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.D.; Solomon, B.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

  11. Flood hazard assessment for french NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebour, Vincent; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Guimier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the approach for flood hazard assessment for NPP which is on-going in France in the framework of post-Fukushima activities. These activities were initially defined considering both European "stress tests" of NPPs pursuant to the request of the European Council, and the French safety audit of civilian nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main actors in that process are the utility (EDF is, up to date, the unique NPP's operator in France), the regulatory authority (ASN) and its technical support organization (IRSN). This paper was prepared by IRSN, considering official positions of the other main actors in the current review process, it was not officially endorsed by them. In France, flood hazard to be considered for design basis definition (for new NPPs and for existing NPPs in periodic safety reviews conducted every 10 years) was revised before Fukushima-Daichi accident, due to le Blayais NPP December 1999 experience (partial site flooding and loss of some safety classified systems). The paper presents in the first part an overview of the revised guidance for design basis flood. In order to address design extension conditions (conditions that could result from natural events exceeding the design basis events), a set of flooding scenarios have been defined by adding margins on the scenarios that are considered for the design. Due to the diversity of phenomena to be considered for flooding hazard, the margin assessment is specific to each flooding scenario in terms of parameter to be penalized and of degree of variation of this parameter. The general approach to address design extension conditions is presented in the second part of the paper. The next parts present the approach for five flooding scenarios including design basis scenario and additional margin to define design extension scenarios.

  12. Hazard detection in noise-related incidents - the role of driving experience with battery electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Bachl, Veronika; Früh, Laura; Koch, Iris; Krems, Josef F

    2014-12-01

    The low noise emission of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has led to discussions about how to address potential safety issues for other road users. Legislative actions have already been undertaken to implement artificial sounds. In previous research, BEV drivers reported that due to low noise emission they paid particular attention to pedestrians and bicyclists. For the current research, we developed a hazard detection task to test whether drivers with BEV experience respond faster to incidents, which arise due to the low noise emission, than inexperienced drivers. The first study (N=65) revealed that BEV experience only played a minor role in drivers' response to hazards resulting from low BEV noise. The tendency to respond, reaction times and hazard evaluations were similar among experienced and inexperienced BEV drivers; only small trends in the assumed direction were observed. Still, both groups clearly differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios and responded accordingly. In the second study (N=58), we investigated additionally if sensitization to low noise emission of BEVs had an effect on hazard perception in incidents where the noise difference is crucial. Again, participants in all groups differentiated between critical and non-critical scenarios. Even though trends in response rates and latencies occurred, experience and sensitization to low noise seemed to only play a minor role in detecting hazards due to low BEV noise. An additional global evaluation of BEV noise further suggests that even after a short test drive, the lack of noise is perceived more as a comfort feature than a safety threat.

  13. 76 FR 65779 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is hereby... hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of transportation, etc.) are described in... Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of...

  14. 76 FR 2950 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is hereby... hazardous materials, packaging design changes, ] additional mode of transportation, etc.) are described in... Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of...

  15. Hazardous waste: 1998 Regulatory and judicial developments

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, M.E.; Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Every year, owners and operators of facilities generating, transporting, treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous waste, or persons held liable for past hazardous waste management practice through EPA`s Superfund program, are affected by changes in the application and interpretation of hazardous waste regulation. This paper will summarize the significant 1997 hazardous waste regulatory developments, including changes and additions to land disposal restrictions and treatment standards, hazardous waste determination procedures, used oil management practices. This paper will also summarize key judicial decisions addressing expanded definitions of solid and hazardous waste, activities constituting disposal, and circumstances constituting imminent and substantial endangerment. Finally, this paper will summarize new EPA Superfund guidance documents and judicial decisions addressing issues of liability and defenses to liability under Superfund.

  16. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  17. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  18. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  19. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L. K.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Generalized Pareto (GP) model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series X, with corresponding failure time series T, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with rich opportunities for future extensions.

  20. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  1. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    DOE PAGES

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-11

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field ofmore » hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.« less

  2. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  5. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  6. Automated Hazard Analysis

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  7. Predicting Strong Motions for Seismic Hazard Assessments in Seattle, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, Andrew A.

    Much of Seattle, Washington lies atop a deep sedimentary basin. The Seattle Basin amplifies and distorts seismic waves in ways that modulate the hazard from earthquakes. Seismic hazard assessments heavily depend upon upper crustal and near-surface S-wave velocity models, which have traditionally been constructed from P-wave models using an empirical relationship between P-wave and S-wave velocity or by interpolating and extrapolating widely spaced observations of shallow geologic structures. Improving the accuracy and resolution of basin S-wave models is key to predictions for ground shaking. Tomography, with short-period Rayleigh waves extracted using noise interferometry, can refine S-wave velocity models in urban areas with dense arrays of short-period and broadband instruments. I apply this technique to the Seattle area to develop a new shallow S-wave model for use in hazard assessment. Continuous data from the Seismic Hazards in Puget Sound (SHIPS) array and local broadband stations have inter-station distances as short as a few kilometers. This spacing allows me to extract Rayleigh waves between 2-10s period that are sensitive to shallow basin structure. My results reveal greater detail in the upper 4 km than previous models. I use the new model to make predictions on the levels of ground motions for a variety of representative crustal and Benioff Zone earthquakes. My simulations reveal additional risk from earthquake shaking in some neighborhoods in north Seattle from crustal events relative to predictions made in the current seismic hazard map. The predicted amplitudes in the Seattle neighborhoods of Capital Hill and Queen Anne are twice as high as previous predictions for some events. The combined risk for all possible events will increase somewhat due to these predictions. My simulations of Benioff Zone events show similar results to the previous model used to make predictions for the seismic hazard map.

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. Indoor air quality. [Health hazards due to energy conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed.

  10. Subsidence hazards due to evaporite dissolution in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth S.

    2005-01-01

    Evaporites, including gypsum (or anhydrite) and salt, are the most soluble of common rocks; they are dissolved readily to form the same type of karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites, and their dissolution can locally result in major subsidence structures. The four basic requirements for evaporite dissolution to occur are: (1) a deposit of gypsum or salt; (2) water, unsaturated with CaSO4 or NaCl; (3) an outlet for escape of dissolving water; and (4) energy to cause water to flow through the system. Evaporites are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous states of the United States, and they underlie about 35–40% of the land area. Karst is known at least locally (and sometimes quite extensively) in almost all areas underlain by evaporites, and some of these karst features involve significant subsidence. The most widespread and pronounced examples of both gypsum and salt karst and subsidence are in the Permian basin of the southwestern United States, but many other areas also are significant. Human activities have caused some evaporite–subsidence development, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes may enable (either intentionally or inadvertently) unsaturated water to flow through or against salt deposits, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures above the cavity can cause land subsidence or catastrophic collapse.

  11. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  12. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  20. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  1. Radar image and data fusion for natural hazards characterisation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    Fusion of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images through interferometric, polarimetric and tomographic processing provides an all - weather imaging capability to characterise and monitor various natural hazards. This article outlines interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing and products and their utility for natural hazards characterisation, provides an overview of the techniques and applications related to fusion of SAR/InSAR images with optical and other images and highlights the emerging SAR fusion technologies. In addition to providing precise land - surface digital elevation maps, SAR - derived imaging products can map millimetre - scale elevation changes driven by volcanic, seismic and hydrogeologic processes, by landslides and wildfires and other natural hazards. With products derived from the fusion of SAR and other images, scientists can monitor the progress of flooding, estimate water storage changes in wetlands for improved hydrological modelling predictions and assessments of future flood impacts and map vegetation structure on a global scale and monitor its changes due to such processes as fire, volcanic eruption and deforestation. With the availability of SAR images in near real - time from multiple satellites in the near future, the fusion of SAR images with other images and data is playing an increasingly important role in understanding and forecasting natural hazards.

  2. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy. Our approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The dielectric-barrier discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. During the first phase of the program we demonstrated that a variety of hazardous species could be detected by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence. Species investigated included heavy metals, Hg, Cr, and Se, both chlorinated and non-chlorinated organics, and uranyl compounds. For most of these species we demonstrated sensitivity limits for their detection at parts per billion (ppb) levels. Our principal goals for this second phase of the program are to develop and breadboard test instrument components and to design a prototype instrument suitable for construction and evaluation in the final phase of the program. A secondary goal is to extend the ANET technology to encompass a greater number of hazardous species, primarily additional heavy metals and radionuclides.

  3. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Couto, Djalma Ticiani; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Branco, Anadergh Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS) was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree. PMID:21994814

  4. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  5. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  6. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  7. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  8. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  9. Volcano Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Diagram of common volcano hazards. The U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) monitors unrest and eruptions at U.S. volcanoes, assesses potential hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how volcanoes work. When conditions change at a monitored volcano, the VHP issues public advisories and warnings to alert emergency-management authorities and the public. See http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ to learn more about volcanoes and find out what's happening now.

  10. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  12. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  13. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  14. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  15. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  16. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  17. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  18. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  19. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, Franziska; Jahn, Patrick; Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk; Jordan, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  20. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-09-07

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

  4. Evaluating Additive Interaction Using Survival Percentiles.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Bottai, Matteo; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of statistical interaction in time-to-event analysis is usually limited to the study of multiplicative interaction, via inclusion of a product term in a Cox proportional-hazard model. Measures of additive interaction are available but seldom used. All measures of interaction in survival analysis, whether additive or multiplicative, are in the metric of hazard, usually assuming that the interaction between two predictors of interest is constant during the follow-up period. We introduce a measure to evaluate additive interaction in survival analysis in the metric of time. This measure can be calculated by evaluating survival percentiles, defined as the time points by which different subpopulations reach the same incidence proportion. Using this approach, the probability of the outcome is fixed and the time variable is estimated. We also show that by using a regression model for the evaluation of conditional survival percentiles, including a product term between the two exposures in the model, interaction is evaluated as a deviation from additivity of the effects. In the simple case of two binary exposures, the product term is interpreted as excess/decrease in survival time (i.e., years, months, days) due to the presence of both exposures. This measure of interaction is dependent on the fraction of events being considered, thus allowing evaluation of how interaction changes during the observed follow-up. Evaluation of interaction in the context of survival percentiles allows deriving a measure of additive interaction without assuming a constant effect over time, overcoming two main limitations of commonly used approaches.

  5. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  6. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  7. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  8. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  9. Reducing aluminum dust explosion hazards: case study of dust inerting in an aluminum buffing operation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Timothy J

    2008-11-15

    Metal powders or dusts can represent significant dust explosion hazards in industry, due to their relatively low ignition energy and high explosivity. The hazard is well known in industries that produce or use aluminum powders, but is sometimes not recognized by facilities that produce aluminum dust as a byproduct of bulk aluminum processing. As demonstrated by the 2003 dust explosion at aluminum wheel manufacturer Hayes Lemmerz, facilities that process bulk metals are at risk due to dust generated during machining and finishing operations [U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Investigation Report, Aluminum Dust Explosion Hayes Lemmerz International, Inc., Huntington, Indiana, Report No. 2004-01-I-IN, September 2005]. Previous studies have shown that aluminum dust explosions are more difficult to suppress with flame retardants or inerting agents than dust explosions fueled by other materials such as coal [A.G. Dastidar, P.R. Amyotte, J. Going, K. Chatrathi, Flammability limits of dust-minimum inerting concentrations, Proc. Saf. Progr., 18-1 (1999) 56-63]. In this paper, an inerting method is discussed to reduce the dust explosion hazard of residue created in an aluminum buffing operation as the residue is generated. This technique reduces the dust explosion hazard throughout the buffing process and within the dust collector systems making the process inherently safer. Dust explosion testing results are presented for process dusts produced during trials with varying amounts of flame retardant additives.

  10. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-06-13

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  11. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  12. Natural hazards science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  13. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport.

  14. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    SciTech Connect

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  15. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  16. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  17. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  18. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  19. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  20. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  1. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  2. Lava flow hazard at Nyiragongo Volcano, DRC. 2. Hazard reduction in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, Giuseppe D.; Favalli, Massimiliano; Papale, Paolo; Boschi, Enzo; Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Mamou-Mani, Arthur

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Nyiragongo is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world for the risk associated with the propagation of lava flows. In 2002 several vents opened along a huge system of fractures, pouring out lava which reached and destroyed a considerable part of Goma, a town of about 500,000 inhabitants on the shore of Lake Kivu. In a companion paper (Favalli et al. in Bull Volcanol, this issue, 2008) we employed numerical simulations of probable lava flow paths to evaluate the lava flow hazard on the flanks of the volcano, including the neighbouring towns of Goma (DRC) and Gisenyi (Rwanda). In this paper we use numerical simulations to investigate the possibility of significantly reducing the lava flow hazard in the city through the construction of protective barriers. These barriers are added to the DEM of the area as additional morphological elements, and their effect is evaluated by repeating numerical simulations with and without the presence of barriers. A parametric study on barrier location, size, shape and orientation led to the identification of barriers which maximize protection while minimizing their impact. This study shows that the highest hazard area corresponding to eastern Goma, which was largely destroyed by lava flows in 2002, cannot be effectively protected from future lava flows towards Lake Kivu and should be abandoned. On the contrary, the rest of the town can be sheltered from lava flows by means of two barriers that deviate or contain the lava within the East Goma sector. A proposal for the future development of the town is formulated, whereby “new” Goma is completely safe from the arrival of lava flows originating from vents outside its boundaries. The proposal minimizes the risk of further destruction in town due to future lava flows.

  3. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is to evaluate the hazard of seismic ground motion at a site by considering all possible earthquakes in the area, estimating the associated shaking at the site, and calculating the probabilities of these occurrences. The Panel on Seismic Hazard Analysis is charged with assessment of the capabilities, limitations, and future trends of PSHA in the context of alternatives. The report identifies and discusses key issues of PSHA and is addressed to decision makers with a modest scientific and technical background and to the scientific and technical community. 37 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  5. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  6. Space Debris Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H.; Winslow, Paul C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The hazard to space vehicles from natural space debris has been explored. A survey of the available information pertinent to this problem is presented. The hope is that this presentation gives a coherent picture of the knowledge to date in terms of the topic covered. The conclusion reached is that a definite hazard exists but that it can only be poorly assessed on the basis of present information. The need for direct measurement of this hazard is obvious, and some of the problems involved in making these direct measurements have been explored.

  7. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale

    PubMed Central

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. Methods The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. Results The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged < = 60 and in patients >70. Conclusions The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification. PMID:27045168

  8. Physical hazards of animal handlers.

    PubMed

    Langley, R

    1999-01-01

    Animal handlers may be harmed on the job due to injuries inflicted by animals; dangers related to the facility, work activities, and equipment; and weather extremes. Traumatic or venomous attacks by animals can result in fatality. Potentially hazardous features of the work environment include fumigation chambers, cage washers, slippery walking surfaces, needles and scalpels, food preparation equipment, noise, radiation, and motor vehicles. Heat- and cold-related injuries are not uncommon. Attention to safety measures is of critical importance in the field of animal handling.

  9. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  10. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  11. California's potential volcanic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions have occurred infrequently in California during the last few thousand years, the potential danger to life and property from volcanoes in the state is great enough to be of concern, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The 17-page bulletin, Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California, gives a brief history of volcanic activity in California during the past 100,000 years, descriptions of the types of volcanoes in the state, the types of potentially hazardous volcanic events that could occur, and hazard-zonation maps and tables depicting six areas of the state where volcanic eruptions might occur. The six areas and brief descriptions of their past volcanic history and potential for future volcanic hazards are briefly summarized here.

  12. Hazardous material control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics. Waste exchange and recycling, the New York State experience. Department of defense hazardous waste minimazation, Recovery of heavy metals from electric arc furnace steelmaking dusts, Small generator cooperative effects economical recycling.

  13. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  14. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  15. Health hazards of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A; Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir

    2003-11-01

    Even in the twenty-first century, welding is still a common and a highly skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, tin, and zinc. All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive lung disease, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthma, pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In addition, welding workers suffer from eye irritation, photokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, pterygium, non-melanocytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count, motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of welding fumes. However, no collectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on different organs or systems or both in human has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provide informations to community on hazards of welding.

  16. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR CRITERIA AND PROCESSES FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF NON-RADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J; Gaylord, R

    2007-02-13

    This Technical Basis Document (TBD) identifies how the values presented in the ''Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes'' were derived. The original moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) applied only to hazardous wastes generated in Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs) that were destined for off-site Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) that did not possess a radioactive materials license. Since its inception, the original moratorium document has become the de facto free-release procedure for potentially volumetrically contaminated materials of all varieties. This was promulgated in a February 4, 1992 memo from Jyle Lytle, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Waste Management, entitled ''Update: Moratorium on Shipment of Potentially Radioactive Hazardous and Toxic Wastes''. In this memo, Ms. Lytle states, ''While the moratorium does not apply to non-hazardous/non-TSCA solid wastes and non-waste materials, the same release criteria apply''. Over the past few years, a considerable quantity of data and operating experience has been developed, which has shown the limitations of UCRL-AR-109662. The original Moratorium is out of date, and many of the organizations and procedures that it references are no longer in existence. In addition, the original document lacked sufficient detail to be used as an LLNL-wide procedure for free release, as it only addressed hazardous wastes. The original moratorium document also used highly optimistic ''action limits'', which were based on theoretically achievable minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels for various matrices. Years of operating experience has shown that these action limits are simply not achievable for certain analyses in certain matrices, either due to limitations in sample size, or underestimates of the contribution of naturally-occurring radioactive materials, resulting in the mis-characterization of samples of these matrices as radioactive

  17. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Geomorphology and natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gares, Paul A.; Sherman, Douglas J.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    1994-08-01

    Natural hazards research was initiated in the 1960's by Gilbert White and his students who promulgated a research paradigm that involved assessing risk from a natural event, identifying adjustments to cope with the hazard, determining people's perception of the event, defining the process by which people choose adjustments, and estimating the effects of public policy on the choice process. Studies of the physical system played an important role in early research, but criticismsof the paradigm resulted in a shift to a prominence of social science. Geomorphologists are working to fill gaps in knowledge of the physical aspects of individual hazards, but use of the information by social scientists will only occur if information is presented in a format that is useful to them. One format involves identifying the hazard according to seven physical parameters established by White and his colleagues: magnitude, frequency, duration, areal extent, speed of onset, spatial dispersion, and temporal spacing. Geomorphic hazards are regarded as related to landscape changes that affect human systems. The processes that produce the changes are rarely geomorphic in nature, but are better regarded as atmospheric or hydrologic. An examination of geomorphic hazards in four fields — soil erosion, mass movement, coastal erosion and fluvial erosion — demonstrates that advances in those fields may be evaluated in terms of the seven parameters. Geomorphologists have contributed to hazard research by focusing on the dynamics of the landforms. The prediction of occurence, the determination of spatial and temporal characteristics, the impact of physical characteristics on people's perception, and the impact of physical characteristics on adjustment formulation. Opportunities for geomorphologists to improve our understanding of geomorphic hazards include research into the characteristics of the events particularly with respect to predicting the occurence, and increased evaluation of the

  20. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  1. Site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map of Himachal Pradesh, India. Part II. Hazard Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuganeisan, Prabhu; Raghukanth, S. T. G.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents site-specific probable seismic hazard of the Himachal Pradesh province, situated in a seismically active region of northwest Himalaya, using the ground motion relations presented in a companion article. Seismic recurrence parameters for all the documented probable sources are established from an updated earthquake catalogue. The contour maps of probable spectral acceleration at 0, 0.2, and 1 s (5% damping) are presented for 475 and 2475 years return periods. Also, the hazard curves and uniform hazard response spectrums are presented for all the important cities in this province. Results indicate that the present codal provision underestimates the seismic hazard at cities of Bilaspur, Shimla, Hamirpur, Chamba, Mandi, and Solan. In addition, regions near Bilaspur and Chamba exhibit higher hazard levels than what is reported in literature.

  2. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  3. Case history and hazard analysis of two lake-damming landslides in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Johannes T.

    1998-04-01

    In investigating the hazard and case history of natural dams in the Himalayas, two sites of landslides and their former dammed lakes in the hinterland were visited between May 1994 and October 1995 and analysed from the geomorphological, geotechnical, geohydrological, tectonic, sedimentary and climatic points of view. One of the examples studied, the landslide in the valley of Birahi Ganga (Northern India), is one of the most impressive examples of recent hazards in alpinotype high mountain regions. This study was complemented by a study of the Ghatta Khola landslide (Western Nepal). In both cases, lithotectonic and climatic conditions led to the destabilisation and failure of carbonate bedrock. The occurrence of lakes, dammed over long periods behind the barriers, is of great importance, because after the sometimes fatal landslide event itself, one is confronted and has to cope with a secondary natural hazard, the possibility of a major flood due to the failure of the dam. That is why the preparatory causal factors of the origin of the two lakes (by damming up the river due to the landslide) and their stepwise disappearance (by secondary landslides within the barrier and sedimentation into the basin) were additionally focused upon. It is shown that due to very special circumstances (availability of sediments, heavy rainfall) in the Himalayas there is a progressive decrease in the potential hazard to the landscape and to human beings lower down the main valleys over a period of only a few decades.

  4. Seismic hazards in Thailand: a compilation and updated probabilistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailoplee, Santi; Charusiri, Punya

    2016-06-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Thailand was performed and compared to those of previous works. This PSHA was based upon (1) the most up-to-date paleoseismological data (slip rates), (2) the seismic source zones, (3) the seismicity parameters ( a and b values), and (4) the strong ground-motion attenuation models suggested as being suitable models for Thailand. For the PSHA mapping, both the ground shaking and probability of exceedance (POE) were analyzed and mapped using various methods of presentation. In addition, site-specific PSHAs were demonstrated for ten major provinces within Thailand. For instance, a 2 and 10 % POE in the next 50 years of a 0.1-0.4 g and 0.1-0.2 g ground shaking, respectively, was found for western Thailand, defining this area as the most earthquake-prone region evaluated in Thailand. In a comparison between the ten selected specific provinces within Thailand, the Kanchanaburi and Tak provinces had comparatively high seismic hazards, and therefore, effective mitigation plans for these areas should be made. Although Bangkok was defined as being within a low seismic hazard in this PSHA, a further study of seismic wave amplification due to the soft soil beneath Bangkok is required.

  5. Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

  6. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  7. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  8. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  9. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  11. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  12. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  13. Landslide and Land Subsidence Hazards to Pipelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Galloway, Devin L.; Harp, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides and land subsidence pose serious hazards to pipelines throughout the world. Many existing pipeline corridors and more and more new pipelines cross terrain that is affected by either landslides, land subsidence, or both. Consequently the pipeline industry recognizes a need for increased awareness of methods for identifying and evaluating landslide and subsidence hazard for pipeline corridors. This report was prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, and Pipeline Research Council International through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with DGH Consulting, Inc., to address the need for up-to-date information about current methods to identify and assess these hazards. Chapters in this report (1) describe methods for evaluating landslide hazard on a regional basis, (2) describe the various types of land subsidence hazard in the United States and available methods for identifying and quantifying subsidence, and (3) summarize current methods for investigating individual landslides. In addition to the descriptions, this report provides information about the relative costs, limitations and reliability of various methods.

  14. Task 1.11 - Spectroscopic field screening of hazardous waste and toxic spills. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques for the field characterization of soil contamination due to spillage of hazardous waste or toxic chemicals are time consuming and expensive. Thus more economical, less time intensive methods are needed to facilitate rapid field screening of contaminated sites. In situ detection of toxic chemicals in soil offers both time and cost advantages for field screening, with additional application to real time site monitoring.

  15. Hazardous materials dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Parallel growth of the chemical industry of emergency response capabilities in the public and private sectors has created a new need for improved communications. A new vocabulary of important terms is emerging in each of the industries that transport, store and handle hazardous materials. This dictionary, representing a compilation of words and phrases from many relevant sources, will help document and standardize the nomenclature of hazardous materials. The authors have screened the technical discourse of the chemical, transportation, petroleum and medical fields, both governmental and private, to determine the most current expressions and their uses. The lexicographic goal has been to identify key terms, ambiguous and multiple meaning words, acronyms, symbols and even slang referring to hazardous materials reactions, storing and handling procedures.

  16. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties. PMID:27292845

  17. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    relevant to the work activity being analyzed are selected from the listing provided in AJHA. The work team can also enter one-time hazards unique to the work activity. Because AJHA is web based, it can be taken into the field during site walk-downs using wireless or cell- phone technologies. Once hazards are selected, AJHA automatically lists mandatory and optional controls, based on the referenced codes and good work practices. The hazards selected may also require that additional specific analysis be performed, focusing on the unique characteristics of the job being analyzed. For example, the physical characteristics, packaging, handling, and disposal requirements for a specific waste type. The work team then evaluates the identified hazards and related controls and adds details as needed for the specific work activity being analyzed. The selection of relevant hazards also triggers required reviews by subject-matter experts (SMEs) and the on-line completion of necessary forms and permits. The details of the hazard analysis are reviewed on line or in a work- team group setting. SME approvals are entered on-line and are published in the job hazard analysis report. (authors)

  18. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  19. Hazardous-Materials Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1995-01-01

    Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

  20. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  1. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  2. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  3. 75 FR 52391 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is hereby... hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of transportation, etc.) are described in... special Duenweg, MO. permit to add an additional Division 5.1 hazardous material. 10656-M The...

  4. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project: Flood hazard models for Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Murray, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    For eight sites, the evaluation of flood hazards was considered in two steps. First, a screening assessment was performed to determine whether flood hazards may impact DOE operations. The screening analysis consisted of a preliminary flood hazard assessment that provides an initial estimate of the site design basis. The second step involves a review of the vulnerability of on-site facilities by the site manager; based on the results of the preliminary flood hazard assessment and a review of site operations, the manager can decide whether flood hazards should be considered a part of the design basis. The scope of the preliminary flood hazard analysis was restricted to evaluating the flood hazards that may exist in proximity to a site. The analysis does not involve an assessment of the potential of encroachment of flooding at specific on-site locations. Furthermore, the screening analysis does not consider localized flooding at a site due to precipitation (i.e., local run-off, storm sewer capacity, roof drainage). These issues were reserved for consideration by the DOE site manager. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  5. 77 FR 50709 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are the... affected by the flood hazard determinations are provided in the tables below. Any request for.... Additional information regarding the SRP process can be found online at...

  6. Earthquake hazard hunt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The Earthquake Hazard Hunt should begin at home, with all family members participating. Foresight, imagination, and commonsense are all that are needed as you go from room to room and imagine what would happen when the Earth and house started to shake. 

  7. Hazardous solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-11-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is `What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?`You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product`s constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace.

  8. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  9. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  10. Managing Academe's Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Fay

    1991-01-01

    Those responsible for planning and management of colleges and universities must plan comprehensively for hazardous waste disposal. Federal and state regulations are increasing, landfill area is becoming scarce, and incineration costs are rising fast. High-level institutional commitment to a sound campus environment policy is essential. (MSE)

  11. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  12. The Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    The Earth has been subject to hypervelocity impacts from comets and asteroids since its formation, and such impacts have played an important role in the evolution of life on our planet. We now recognize not only the historical role of impacts, but the contemporary hazard posed by such events. In the absence of a complete census of potentially threatening Earth-crossing asteroids or comets (called collectively Near Earth Objects, or NEOs), or even of a comprehensive cur-rent search program to identify NEOs, we can consider the hazard only from a probabilistic perspective. We know the steep power-law relationship between NEO numbers and size, with many more small bodies than large ones. We also know that few objects less than about 50 m in diameter (with kinetic energy near 10 megatons) penetrate the atmosphere and are capable of doing surface damage. But there is a spectrum of possible impact hazards associated with objects from this 10-megaton threshold all the way up to NEOs 5 km or larger in diameter, which are capable of inflicting severe damage on the environment, leading to mass extinction's of species. Detailed analysis has shown that, in general, the larger the object the greater the hazard, even when allowance is made for the infrequency of large impacts. Most of the danger to human life is associated with impacts by objects roughly 2 km or larger (energy greater than 1 million megatons), which can inject sufficient submicrometer dust into the atmosphere to produce a severe short-term global cooling with subsequent loss of crops, leading to starvation. Hazard estimates suggest that the chance of such an event occurring during a human lifetime is about 1:5000, and the global probability of death from such impacts is of the order of 1:20000, values that can be compared with risks associated with other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms. However, the impact hazard differs from the others in that it can be largely

  13. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-002-1551, Salomon Brothers, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Fannick, N.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon-monoxide (630080) and carbon-dioxide (124389) concentrations were measured at Salomon Brothers, Incorporated (SIC-6711), New York, New York, in September and October, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the firm's medical department because of complaints of headache and eye, nose, and sinus irritation among employees who worked on the 40th floor, trading center. Ventilation surveys were also performed. After additional ventilation equipment was installed, a second survey found that the outdoor air supplied exceeded the ASHRAE recommendations. Following installation of the supplemental ventilation equipment, the employees complaints abated. The author concludes that in the preliminary survey, a potential health hazard existed due to an inadequate supply of fresh air. Installation of additional ventilation equipment removed the potential hazard.

  14. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid...

  15. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid...

  16. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid...

  17. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid...

  18. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid...

  19. Tank farms hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  1. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  2. Hazard prediction discriminates between novice and experienced drivers.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David

    2016-01-01

    Typical hazard perception tests often confound multiple processes in their responses. The current study tested hazard prediction in isolation to assess whether this component can discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. A variant of the hazard perception test, based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, found experienced drivers to outperform novices across three experiments suggesting that the act of predicting an imminent hazard is a crucial part of the hazard-perception process. Furthermore three additional hypotheses were tested in these experiments. First, performance was compared across clips of different length. There was marginal evidence that novice drivers' performance suffered with the longest clips, but experienced drivers' performance did not, suggesting that experienced drivers find hazard prediction less effortful. Secondly, predictive accuracy was found to be dependent on the temporal proximity of visual precursors to the hazard. Thirdly the relationship between the hazard and its precursor was found to be important, with less obvious precursors improving the discrimination between novice and experience drivers. These findings demonstrate that a measure of hazard prediction, which is less confounded by the influence of risk appraisal than simple response time measures, can still discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. Application of this methodology under different conditions can produce insights into the underlying processes that may be at work, whilst also providing an alternative test of driver skill in relation to the detection of hazards. PMID:26513336

  3. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  4. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However

  5. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  6. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  7. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  8. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints

  9. Carbon sequestration and eruption hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In order to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposals have been made to sequestrate carbon in ocean, or in coal mines and other underground formations. High gas concentration in ocean or underground formations has to potential to power gas-driven eruptions. In this presentation, possible eruption hazards are explored. Whenever carbon dioxide is sequestrated in the form of carbon dioxide gas, or dissolved and/or absorbed carbon dioxide, it is necessary to exercise caution to avoid gas-driven eruption hazard. It is long known that explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by H2O gas in magma. Lake eruptions powered by dissolved CO2 in lake bottom water were discovered in the 1980's (Kling et al., 1987; Zhang, 1996). Gas-driven ocean eruptions with mechanism similar to lake eruptions have been hypothesized (Zhang, 2003; Zhang and Kling, 2006) although not confirmed. Mud volcanos are commonly thought to be driven by methane-rich fluids in sediment (Milkov, 2000). Recently, Zhang et al. (2007) have proposed that coal outbursts in underground coal mines are driven by dissolved high CO2 concentration in coal, causing coal fragmentation and outburst. That is, coal outbursts may be regarded as a new type of gas-driven eruptions. Therefore, high concentrations of free gas or dissolved/absorbed gas may power eruptions of magma, lake water, ocean water, sediment, and coal. Gas- driven volcanic, lake and ocean eruptions are due to volume expansion from bubble growth, whereas gas-driven coal and sediment eruptions are due to high gas-pressure, leading to fragmentation of coal and sediment. (In explosive volcanism, magma fragmentation is also a critical point.) The threshold conditions for many of these eruptions are not known yet. In planning large (industrial) scale injection of CO2 into a natural reservoir, it is important to know the eruption threshold and design the injection scheme accordingly. More safe sequestration in terms of eruption hazards would

  10. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  11. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1981-12-01

    An international meeting held at the State Department in Washington, DC on hazardous waste management is discussed. The conference was held by the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Among the wastes considered at the meeting were chromium wastes, lead wastes, pesticides, mercury wastes, nickel wastes, oil refinery wastes, PCBs, cadmium wastes, and others. Radioactive wastes were not considered. Legislation, landfill use, recycling, and the Common Market's approach to these wastes were also discussed. (JMT)

  12. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  13. California's potential volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, P.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California' (USGS Bulletin No. 1847: price $4.75). The chief areas of danger are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake Highland in the north; Clear Lake, Mono Lake and Long Valley in the centre; and Owen's River-Death Valley, Amboy Crater and the Saltan Butter in the south of the State. -A.Scarth

  14. Towards dynamics in mountain hazard risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth; Sokratov, Sergey; Shnyparkov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Starting with an overview on losses due to mountain hazards in the Russian Federation and the European Alps the question is raised why a substantial number of events still is recorded - despite considerable efforts in hazard mitigation and risk reduction. The main reason for this paradox lies in a missing dynamic risk-based approach, and it is shown that these dynamics have different roots: Firstly, neglecting climate change and systems dynamics, the development of hazard scenarios is based on the static approach of design events. Secondly, due to economic development and population dynamics, the elements at risk exposed are subject to spatial and temporal changes. These issues are discussed with respect to temporal and spatial demands. As a result, it is shown how risk is dynamic on a long-term and short term scale, which has to be acknowledged in the risk concept if this concept is targeted at a sustainable development of mountain regions. A conceptual model is presented that can be used for dynamical risk assessment, and it is shown by different management strategies how this model may be converted into practice. Furthermore, the interconnectedness and interaction between hazard and risk are addressed in order to enhance prevention, the level of protection and the degree of preparedness.

  15. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability. PMID:16022703

  16. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  17. Identifying and modeling safety hazards

    SciTech Connect

    DANIELS,JESSE; BAHILL,TERRY; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-03-29

    The hazard model described in this paper is designed to accept data over the Internet from distributed databases. A hazard object template is used to ensure that all necessary descriptors are collected for each object. Three methods for combining the data are compared and contrasted. Three methods are used for handling the three types of interactions between the hazard objects.

  18. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  19. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  20. THE ROLE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN ADDRESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment plays many important roles in addressing hazardous waste issues. In addition to providing a scientific framework and common health metric to evaluate risks. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") risk assessm...

  1. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    proxy for its size is a poor approximation, due to asteroids large spread in albedos. Roughly 23% of NEOs larger than 140 m have absolute magnitudes fainter than H = 22 mag, the authors show which is the value usually assumed as the default absolute magnitude of a 140 m NEO.Fraction of NEOs weve detected as a function of time based on the authors simulations of the current surveys (red), LSST plus the current surveys (black), NEOCam plus the current surveys (blue), and the combined result for all surveys (green). [Grav et al. 2016]Taking this into account, Grav and collaborators then use information about the planned LSST survey strategies and detection limits to test what fraction of this synthetic NEO population LSST will be able to detect in its proposed 10-year mission.The authors find that, within 10 years, LSST will likely be able to detect only 63% of NEOs larger than 140 m. Luckily, LSST may not have to work alone; in addition to the current surveys in operation, a proposed infrared space-based survey mission called NEOCam is planned for launch in 2021. If NEOCam is funded, it will complement LSSTs discovery capabilities, potentially allowing the two surveys to jointly achieve the 90% detection goal within a decade.CitationT. Grav et al 2016 AJ 151 172. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/6/172

  2. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  3. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  4. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  5. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  6. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project: Preliminary flood hazards estimates for screening Department of Energy sites, Albuquerque Operations Office

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, M.W. Jr.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1988-05-01

    As part of an ongoing program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is directing the Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project (NPHMP) on behalf of the Department of Energy (DOE). A major part of this effort is the development of probabilistic definitions of natural phenomena hazards; seismic, wind, and flood. In this report the first phase of the evaluation of flood hazards at DOE sites is described. Unlike seismic and wind events, floods may not present a significant threat to the operations of all DOE sites. For example, at some sites physical circumstances may exist that effectively preclude the occurrence of flooding. As a result, consideration of flood hazards may not be required as part of the site design basis. In this case it is not necessary to perform a detailed flood hazard study at all DOE sites, such as those conducted for other natural phenomena hazards, seismic and wind. The scope of the preliminary flood hazard analysis is restricted to evaluating the flood hazards that may exist in proximity to a site. The analysis does involve an assessment of the potential encroachment of flooding on-site at individual facility locations. However, the preliminary flood hazard assessment does not consider localized flooding at a site due to precipitation (i.e., local run-off, storm sewer capacity, roof drainage). These issues are reserved for consideration by the DOE site manager. 11 refs., 84 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  8. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft. PMID:7387571

  9. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  10. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  11. 76 FR 77588 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR part 107, subpart B), notice is hereby... hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of transportation, etc.) are described in...: Record Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of...

  12. 77 FR 31005 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Waste Report, Notification of Regulated Waste Activity, and Part A Hazardous Waste Permit Application... collection. In addition, EPA is requesting comments on some proposed changes to the Hazardous Waste Report... Hazardous Waste Report From and Instructions booklet in the docket for this notice. What should I...

  13. 76 FR 17414 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2011 Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Waste Report, Notification of Regulated Waste Activity, and Part A Hazardous Waste Permit Application... collection. In addition, EPA is requesting comments on some proposed changes to the Hazardous Waste Report... Hazardous Waste Report From and Instructions booklet in the docket for this notice. What should I...

  14. Uncovering the historic environmental hazards of urban brownfields.

    PubMed

    Litt, Jill S; Burke, Thomas A

    2002-12-01

    In Baltimore, over 1,000 vacant industrial sites persist across its urban landscape, yet little is known about the potential environmental health risks that may undermine future cleanup and redevelopment activities and the health of those in communities near these sites. This study examined the characteristics of urban brownfield properties in southeast Baltimore, Maryland, and screened sites for their potential environmental hazards. In addition, demographic and health data were evaluated to profile the social and health status of those in brownfield communities. The results show that brownfields in southeast Baltimore represent a range of historic operations, including metal smelting, oil refining, warehousing, and transportation, as well as paints, plastics, and metals manufacturing. The screening method identified a range of substances associated with these properties, including heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which are suspected or recognized toxicants, and many of which are persistent in the environment. Spatially, these sites are concentrated in white, working class neighborhoods in which poverty levels exceed and educational attainment lags behind state and national averages. Moreover, these sites are concentrated in communities in which excess mortality rates due to respiratory disease, cancer, and heart disease exist when compared to the city, state, and national averages. This investigation demonstrated the usefulness of historic archives, real estate records, regulatory files, and national hazard-tracking systems based on standard industrial classification (SIC) to screen brownfield properties for their hazard potential. This analysis provides the foundation for further site monitoring and testing, cleanup and redevelopment priority setting, risk management strategies, and neighborhood planning, and it illustrates the need for increased health surveillance and disease prevention strategies in affected

  15. Dust Hazard Management in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Most robotic missions to the outer solar system must grapple with the hazards posed by the dusty rings of the gas giants. Early assessments of these hazards led simply to ring avoidance due to insufficient data and high uncertainties on the dust population present in such rings. Recent approaches, principal among them the Cassini dust hazard management strategy, provide useful results from detailed modeling of spacecraft vulnerabilities and dust hazard regions, which along with the range of mission trajectories are used to to assess the risks posed by each passage through a zone of potential hazard. This paper shows the general approach used to implement the analysis for Cassini, with recommendations for future outer planet missions.

  16. How new fault data and models affect seismic hazard results? Examples from southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.; Staller, Alejandra; Ruiz Barajas, Sandra; Quirós, Ligia E.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we study the impact of different approaches to incorporate faults in a seismic hazard assessment analysis. Firstly, we consider two different methods to distribute the seismicity of the study area into faults and area-sources, based on magnitude partitioning and on moment rate distribution. We use two recurrence models to characterize fault activity: the characteristic earthquake model and the modified Gutenberg-Richter exponential frequency-magnitude distribution. An application of the work is developed in the region of Murcia (southeastern Spain), due to the availability of fault data and because is one of the areas in Spain with higher seismic hazard. The parameters used to model fault sources are derived from paleoseismological and field studies obtained from the literature and online repositories. Additionally, for some significant faults only, geodetically-derived slip rates are used to compute recurrence periods. The results of all the seismic hazard computations carried out using different models and data are represented in maps of expected peak ground accelerations for a return period of 475 years. Maps of coefficients of variation are presented to constraint the variability of the end-results to different input models and values. Additionally, the different hazard maps obtained in this study are compared with the seismic hazard maps obtained in previous work for the entire Spanish territory and more specifically for the region of Murcia. This work is developed in the context of the MERISUR project (ref. CGL2013-40492-R), with funding from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

  17. A multivariate copula-based framework for dealing with hazard scenarios and failure probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, G.; Durante, F.; De Michele, C.; Bernardi, M.; Petrella, L.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is of methodological nature, and deals with the foundations of Risk Assessment. Several international guidelines have recently recommended to select appropriate/relevant Hazard Scenarios in order to tame the consequences of (extreme) natural phenomena. In particular, the scenarios should be multivariate, i.e., they should take into account the fact that several variables, generally not independent, may be of interest. In this work, it is shown how a Hazard Scenario can be identified in terms of (i) a specific geometry and (ii) a suitable probability level. Several scenarios, as well as a Structural approach, are presented, and due comparisons are carried out. In addition, it is shown how the Hazard Scenario approach illustrated here is well suited to cope with the notion of Failure Probability, a tool traditionally used for design and risk assessment in engineering practice. All the results outlined throughout the work are based on the Copula Theory, which turns out to be a fundamental theoretical apparatus for doing multivariate risk assessment: formulas for the calculation of the probability of Hazard Scenarios in the general multidimensional case (d≥2) are derived, and worthy analytical relationships among the probabilities of occurrence of Hazard Scenarios are presented. In addition, the Extreme Value and Archimedean special cases are dealt with, relationships between dependence ordering and scenario levels are studied, and a counter-example concerning Tail Dependence is shown. Suitable indications for the practical application of the techniques outlined in the work are given, and two case studies illustrate the procedures discussed in the paper.

  18. Communication in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

  19. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  1. Hazardous-materials regulations miscellaneous amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-18

    The US Materials Transportation Bureau incorporates changes into its hazardous-materials regulations, including the addition of the word ''flammable'' as part of the shipping name for the proposed entry ''Poisonous liquid or gas''. This final rule is effective as of 9/18/80. The description requirements for the transportation of dangerous substances by air, which would change the words ''Cargo-only aircraft'' to ''Cargo aircraft only'', will become effective on 7/1/83.

  2. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Soomaroo, Lee; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Reviews of mass gathering events have traditionally concentrated on crowd variables that affect the level and type of medical care needed. Weather and environmental hazards at mass gathering events have not been fully researched. This review examines these events and aims to provide future suggestions for event organisers, medical resource planners, and emergency services, including local hospital emergency departments. Methods A review was conducted using computerised data bases: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HMIC and EMBASE, with Google used to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications, to identify grey literature. All peer-review literature articles found containing information pertaining to lessons identified from mass gathering disasters due to weather or environmental hazards leading to participant death, injury or illness were analysed and reviewed. Disasters occurring due to crowd variables were not included. These articles were read, analysed, abstracted and summarised. Results 20 articles from literature search were found detailing mass gathering disasters relating directly to weather or environmental hazards from 1988 – 2011, with only 17 cases found within peer-review literature. Two events grey literature from 2011 are due to undergo further inquiry while one article reviews an event originally occurring in 1922. Analysis of cases were categorised in to heat and cold-related events, lightning and storms and disease outbreak. Conclusions Mass gathering events have an enormous potential to place a severe strain on the local health care system, Prior health resource and environmental planning for heat & cold-related illness, lightning & storms, and disease outbreak can advance emergency preparedness and response to potential disasters. Citation: Soomaroo L, Murray V. Weather and Environmental Hazards at Mass Gatherings. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 31 Keywords: Mass Gatherings, Disasters, Sporting Events, Festivals, Concerts

  3. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  4. The Impact Hazard in the Context of Other Natural Hazards and Predictive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    1998-09-01

    The hazard due to impact of asteroids and comets has been recognized as analogous, in some ways, to other infrequent but consequential natural hazards (e.g. floods and earthquakes). Yet, until recently, astronomers and space agencies have felt no need to do what their colleagues and analogous agencies must do in order the assess, quantify, and communicate predictions to those with a practical interest in the predictions (e.g. public officials who must assess the threats, prepare for mitigation, etc.). Recent heightened public interest in the impact hazard, combined with increasing numbers of "near misses" (certain to increase as Spaceguard is implemented) requires that astronomers accept the responsibility to place their predictions and assessments in terms that may be appropriately considered. I will report on preliminary results of a multi-year GSA/NCAR study of "Prediction in the Earth Sciences: Use and Misuse in Policy Making" in which I have represented the impact hazard, while others have treated earthquakes, floods, weather, global climate change, nuclear waste disposal, acid rain, etc. The impact hazard presents an end-member example of a natural hazard, helping those dealing with more prosaic issues to learn from an extreme. On the other hand, I bring to the astronomical community some lessons long adopted in other cases: the need to understand the policy purposes of impact predictions, the need to assess potential societal impacts, the requirements to very carefully assess prediction uncertainties, considerations of potential public uses of the predictions, awareness of ethical considerations (e.g. conflicts of interest) that affect predictions and acceptance of predictions, awareness of appropriate means for publicly communicating predictions, and considerations of the international context (especially for a hazard that knows no national boundaries).

  5. Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M

    1983-02-01

    In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management.

  6. Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M

    1983-01-01

    In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management. PMID:6825630

  7. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref.

  8. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  9. Occupational and environmental health hazards in the plastics industry.

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, R E

    1976-01-01

    A brief description of the potential occupational health hazards encountered in the manufacture of plastics (polymers) is given. In general, these hazards are due to the monomers used to make the various plastics, to unreacted monomer contained within the finished products, and to the fillers, stabilizers, pigments, inhibitors, and initiators used in fabricating the finished products. They run the gamut from angiosarcomas of the liver due to vinyl chloride, to dermatitis and asthma-like reactions due to the initiators used with epoxy resins. PMID:140799

  10. Including Faults Detected By Near-Surface Seismic Methods in the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps - Some Restrictions Apply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. A.; Haller, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Every 6 years, the USGS updates the National Seismic Hazard Maps (new version released July 2014) that are intended to help society reduce risk from earthquakes. These maps affect hundreds of billions of dollars in construction costs each year as they are used to develop seismic-design criteria of buildings, bridges, highways, railroads, and provide data for risk assessment that help determine insurance rates. Seismic source characterization, an essential component of hazard model development, ranges from detailed trench excavations across faults at the ground surface to less detailed analysis of broad regions defined mainly on the basis of historical seismicity. Though it is a priority for the USGS to discover new Quaternary fault sources, the discovered faults only become a part of the hazard model if there are corresponding constraints on their geometry (length and depth extent) and slip-rate (or recurrence interval). When combined with fault geometry and slip-rate constraints, near-surface seismic studies that detect young (Quaternary) faults have become important parts of the hazard source model. Examples of seismic imaging studies with significant hazard impact include the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Washington; Santa Monica fault, San Andreas fault, and Palos Verdes fault zone, California; and Commerce fault, Missouri. There are many more faults in the hazard model in the western U.S. than in the expansive region east of the Rocky Mountains due to the higher rate of tectonic deformation, frequent surface-rupturing earthquakes and, in some cases, lower erosion rates. However, the recent increase in earthquakes in the central U.S. has revealed previously unknown faults for which we need additional constraints before we can include them in the seismic hazard maps. Some of these new faults may be opportunities for seismic imaging studies to provide basic data on location, dip, style of faulting, and recurrence.

  11. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  12. 42 CFR 65.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 65.9 Section 65.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.9...

  13. 42 CFR 65.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 65.9 Section 65.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.9...

  14. 42 CFR 65.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 65.9 Section 65.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.9...

  15. 42 CFR 65.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 65.9 Section 65.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.9...

  16. 42 CFR 65.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 65.9 Section 65.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.9...

  17. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice

  18. Hazardous solvent source reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, M.S.; Green, B.

    1995-09-01

    This book is written for the managers, production leaders, and operations staff tasked with the job of eliminating hazardous cleaning solvents from their workplace. Information regarding the location, evaluation, and implementation of environmentally preferred cleaning technologies is offered for a broad range of applications. These include: removal of grease and grime from a piece of equipment during maintenance, cleaning small parts before assembly, defluxing printed circuit boards and assemblies, and stripping paint from field vehicles and aircraft. Moving beyond the limits of source reduction alone, this book provides complete information on the planning, staffing, and execution of a pollution prevention program, alternative and in-use cleaner testing, waste recycling and treatment, air emission control, replacement system design, and system economics. For the environmental specialist, this book helps to bridge the gap between regulatory requirements and shop-floor constraints.

  19. New hazardous waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1993-05-15

    From data supplied by industrial laboratories, from academia, and from the EPA's Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) program, this paper presents an informal look at some new and innovative hazardous waste treatment processes. These processes show promise for sparing users off-site disposal costs as well as for remediation of contamination at Superfund or RCRA sites. Included are the following: equipment that will biodegrade water-based paint wastes and pesticide wastes; recycling of potliner and furnace dusts for metal recovery; a process that reduces PCBs and PAHs to lighter hydrocarbons such as methane. Finally, two radiofrequency (RF) processes are described that can be used to remove soil contaminants such as pentachlorophenols, Aroclor 1242, solvents, oils, jet fuel, and pesticides.

  20. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  1. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  2. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, G.; Tsereteli, E.; Gaprindashvili, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early

  3. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early

  4. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  5. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  6. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  7. Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1994-01-06

    This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi)) requires that the characteristics of local and regional hydrogeology be defined. A plan for that work has been developed (Weekes and Borghese 1993). In addition, WAC 173-303-282 provides regulatory guidance on siting a dangerous waste facility, and US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28 requires consideration of natural phenomena hazards mitigation for DOE sites and facilities. This report provides information to evaluate the ERDF site with respect to seismic hazard. The ERDF will be a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) as defined by 40 CFR 260.10.

  8. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.

  9. Physical vulnerability modelling in natural hazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, J.

    2007-04-01

    An evaluation of the risk to an exposed element from a hazardous event requires a consideration of the element's vulnerability, which expresses its propensity to suffer damage. This concept allows the assessed level of hazard to be translated to an estimated level of risk and is often used to evaluate the risk from earthquakes and cyclones. However, for other natural perils, such as mass movements, coastal erosion and volcanoes, the incorporation of vulnerability within risk assessment is not well established and consequently quantitative risk estimations are not often made. This impedes the study of the relative contributions from different hazards to the overall risk at a site. Physical vulnerability is poorly modelled for many reasons: the cause of human casualties (from the event itself rather than by building damage); lack of observational data on the hazard, the elements at risk and the induced damage; the complexity of the structural damage mechanisms; the temporal and geographical scales; and the ability to modify the hazard level. Many of these causes are related to the nature of the peril therefore for some hazards, such as coastal erosion, the benefits of considering an element's physical vulnerability may be limited. However, for hazards such as volcanoes and mass movements the modelling of vulnerability should be improved by, for example, following the efforts made in earthquake risk assessment. For example, additional observational data on induced building damage and the hazardous event should be routinely collected and correlated and also numerical modelling of building behaviour during a damaging event should be attempted.

  10. Multi-risk assessment: from natural hazards to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    The World Bank report on the main hotspots of natural hazards highlights that million people in the world are relatively highly exposed to at least two hazards and additional impacts on natural and human systems can be posed by climate change. Therefore, a major challenge for natural hazard and climate impact research is to develop new methods and tools for the aggregation of cumulative effects expected from multiple impacts forced by natural and anthropogenic drivers across different regions and sectors, taking into account changing climate, exposure and vulnerability. So far, a hazard by hazard approach has been generally applied for evaluating the consequences of natural and climate change hazards on the analyzed region (e.g. heavy precipitations, floods, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, storm surges). However, different natural hazards and climate-related impacts affecting a region should be handled according to a multi-risk approach in order to aggregate, compare and rank different kinds of concurrent impacts caused by climate change. Several EU funded projects (e.g. ESPON-HAZARD, ARMONIA, MATRIX) were developed so far in order to provide sound scientific advancement towards the elaboration of multi-risk approaches. A full multi-risk approach entails both a multi-hazard and multi-vulnerability perspective. However, internationally, most of the work concerning multi-hazards focused especially on natural hazards (e.g. flooding, storm surges, landslides, seismicity, droughts) affecting the same area. Moreover, multi-risk approaches developed so far refer only to the assessment of different hazards and rely on the analysis of static vulnerability (i.e. no time-dependent vulnerabilities for different exposed elements), also called multi-hazard risk assessment. A relevant challenge is therefore to develop a comprehensive formal approach for the assessment of different natural and climate-induced hazards and risks at the regional scale. A critical review of existing

  11. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  12. Central US earthquake catalog for hazard maps of Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    An updated version of the catalog that was used for the current national probabilistic seismic-hazard maps would suffice for production of large-scale hazard maps of the Memphis urban area. Deaggregation maps provide guidance as to the area that a catalog for calculating Memphis hazard should cover. For the future, the Nuttli and local network catalogs could be examined for earthquakes not presently included in the catalog. Additional work on aftershock removal might reduce hazard uncertainty. Graphs of decadal and annual earthquake rates suggest completeness at and above magnitude 3 for the last three or four decades. Any additional work on completeness should consider the effects of rapid, local population changes during the Nation's westward expansion. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in continental Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Peizhen; Yang, Zhi-xian; Gupta, Harsh K.; Bhatia, Satish C.; Shedlock, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    The regional hazard mapping for the whole Eastern Asia was coordinated by the SSB Regional Centre in Beijing, originating from the expansion of the test area initially established in the border region of China-India-Nepal-Myanmar- Bangla Dash, in coordination with the other Regional Centres (JIPE, Moscow, and AGSO, Canberra) and with the direct assistance of the USGS. All Eastern Asian countries have participated directly in this regional effort, with the addition of Japan, for which an existing national hazard map was incorporated. The regional hazard depicts the expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years.

  14. Motorcycling experience and hazard perception.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; van Loon, Editha; Stedmon, Alex W; Crundall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Studies of hazard perception skills in car drivers suggest that the ability to spot hazards improves with driving experience. Is this the case with motorcyclists? Sixty-one motorcyclists, split across three groups (novice, experienced and advanced riders) were tested on a hazard perception test containing video clips filmed from the perspective of a motorcyclist. Response times to hazards revealed that the advanced riders (who had completed an advanced riding course) were the fastest, and the experienced riders were the slowest to respond to hazards, with novice riders falling in-between. Advanced riders were also found to make more internal attributions regarding the causes of the hazards than novice riders (though on a general measure of Locus of Control there was no difference between groups). The results demonstrate a link between advanced training and motorcycling hazard perception skill, but raise important concerns about the effects of mere experience on rider safety. This challenges previous conceptions that simply extrapolated from our understanding of the hazard perception skills of car drivers to this particularly vulnerable group of road users.

  15. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  16. Hazard Tree Management for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Earl

    2002-01-01

    The principles behind a camp's hazard tree program are, first, identifying and removing those hazards that offer a clear, immediate threat, and then creating a management plan for the other trees. The plan should be written and contain goals and objectives, field evaluations, and treatments. Follow-up evaluations should be done annually and after…

  17. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  19. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  20. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  1. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  2. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  3. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

  4. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  5. Handbook of hazard communication and OSHA requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    This guide gives an understanding of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard which regulates hazardous materials in the workplace. Contents include: how to identify hazards in the workplace; characterization of hazards; label design and content; written hazard communication program; employee training; legal responsibilities including penalties and consequences; and a MSDS form.

  6. 49 CFR 386.72 - Imminent hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent hazard. 386.72 Section 386.72... Injunctions and Imminent Hazards § 386.72 Imminent hazard. (a) Whenever it is determined that an imminent hazard exists as a result of the transportation by motor vehicle of a particular hazardous material,...

  7. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Kevin A; Cutter, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies on natural hazard mortality are most often hazard-specific (e.g. floods, earthquakes, heat), event specific (e.g. Hurricane Katrina), or lack adequate temporal or geographic coverage. This makes it difficult to assess mortality from natural hazards in any systematic way. This paper examines the spatial patterns of natural hazard mortality at the county-level for the U.S. from 1970–2004 using a combination of geographical and epidemiological methods. Results Chronic everyday hazards such as severe weather (summer and winter) and heat account for the majority of natural hazard fatalities. The regions most prone to deaths from natural hazards are the South and intermountain west, but sub-regional county-level mortality patterns show more variability. There is a distinct urban/rural component to the county patterns as well as a coastal trend. Significant clusters of high mortality are in the lower Mississippi Valley, upper Great Plains, and Mountain West, with additional areas in west Texas, and the panhandle of Florida, Significant clusters of low mortality are in the Midwest and urbanized Northeast. Conclusion There is no consistent source of hazard mortality data, yet improvements in existing databases can produce quality data that can be incorporated into spatial epidemiological studies as demonstrated in this paper. It is important to view natural hazard mortality through a geographic lens so as to better inform the public living in such hazard prone areas, but more importantly to inform local emergency practitioners who must plan for and respond to disasters in their community. PMID:19091058

  8. Lava flow hazard at Nyiragongo volcano, D.R.C.. 1. Model calibration and hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, Massimiliano; Chirico, Giuseppe D.; Papale, Paolo; Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Boschi, Enzo

    2009-05-01

    The 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo volcano constitutes the most outstanding case ever of lava flow in a big town. It also represents one of the very rare cases of direct casualties from lava flows, which had high velocities of up to tens of kilometer per hour. As in the 1977 eruption, which is the only other eccentric eruption of the volcano in more than 100 years, lava flows were emitted from several vents along a N-S system of fractures extending for more than 10 km, from which they propagated mostly towards Lake Kivu and Goma, a town of about 500,000 inhabitants. We assessed the lava flow hazard on the entire volcano and in the towns of Goma (D.R.C.) and Gisenyi (Rwanda) through numerical simulations of probable lava flow paths. Lava flow paths are computed based on the steepest descent principle, modified by stochastically perturbing the topography to take into account the capability of lava flows to override topographic obstacles, fill topographic depressions, and spread over the topography. Code calibration and the definition of the expected lava flow length and vent opening probability distributions were done based on the 1977 and 2002 eruptions. The final lava flow hazard map shows that the eastern sector of Goma devastated in 2002 represents the area of highest hazard on the flanks of the volcano. The second highest hazard sector in Goma is the area of propagation of the western lava flow in 2002. The town of Gisenyi is subject to moderate to high hazard due to its proximity to the alignment of fractures active in 1977 and 2002. In a companion paper (Chirico et al., Bull Volcanol, in this issue, 2008) we use numerical simulations to investigate the possibility of reducing lava flow hazard through the construction of protective barriers, and formulate a proposal for the future development of the town of Goma.

  9. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  10. Multi-hazard assessment in Europe under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Feyen, Luc; Russo, Simone; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Outten, Stephen; Migliavacca, Mirco; Bianchi, Alessandra; Rojas, Rodrigo; Cid, Alba

    2016-04-01

    While reported losses of climate-related hazards are at historically high levels, climate change is likely to enhance the risk posed by extreme weather events. Several regions are likely to be exposed to multiple climate hazards, yet their modeling in a joint scheme is still at the early stages. A multi-hazard framework to map exposure to multiple climate extremes in Europe along the twenty-first century is hereby presented. Using a coherent ensemble of climate projections, changes in the frequency of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, streamflow droughts, wildfires and windstorms are evaluated. Corresponding variations in expected annual exposure allow for an objective comparison of hazards described by different process characteristics and metrics. Projected changes in exposure depict important variations in hazard scenarios, especially those linked to rising temperatures, and spatial patterns largely modulated by local climate conditions. Results show that Europe will likely face a progressive increase in overall climate hazard with a prominent spatial gradient towards south-western regions mainly driven by the rise of heat waves, droughts and wildfires. Key hotspots emerge particularly along coastlines and in floodplains, often highly populated and economically pivotal, where floods and windstorms could be critical in combination with other climate hazards. Projected increases in exposure will be larger for very extreme events due to their pronounced changes in frequency. Results of this appraisal provide useful input for forthcoming European disaster risk and adaptation policy.

  11. Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Toshiaki Sakai; Tomoyoshi Takeda; Hiroshi Soraoka; Ken Yanagisawa; Tadashi Annaka

    2006-07-01

    It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

  12. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, Safety Administration (PHMSA... participate in a public meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and......

  13. Flood Hazard Assessment for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-08-15

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood hazard curves for SRS facilities. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper.

  14. A New Approach to Characterizing Landslide Hazards with Global Crowd Sourcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach Kirschbaum, D.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Stanley, T.; Hall, B.; Franchek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide disasters cause thousands of fatalities each year and cumulatively produce more economic damage than most other natural disasters. However, the number and distribution of landslides remain poorly quantified due to their small size and the absence of local, regional or global observing or reporting mechanisms. As a result, there are very few global databases that describe landslide hazards. Characterizing the socioeconomic impacts of landslide hazards worldwide presents an even more challenging task due to the various reporting biases or information gaps in existing regional and global sources. An online system has been developed to improve reporting of landslide hazards at the global scale that leverages crowd sourcing capabilities. Through this portal, users are able to input landslide information in a series of specified fields, including the date, location, impacts, trigger, and setting of the event. They are also able to link to photos so that other users can improve the characterization of the landslide event based on additional information or expert opinion. This hazard portal and editor provides a foundation to involve citizens in reporting, visualizing and sharing landslide events while improving a global landslide database and introducing them to other geospatial data in the process. A global landslide catalog of over 6,000 events developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center currently anchors this system. This research presents this new crowd-based system and outlines the technology used in developing this system. Preliminary findings of societal metrics, limitations on this type of interactive crowd sourcing portal, and lessons learned from the initial launch of this system will also be presented.

  15. Occupational hazards to health care workers: Diverse, ill-defined, and not fully appreciated

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M. Jr.; Kaczmarek, R.G. )

    1990-10-01

    Health care workers are challenged by an imposing group of occupational hazards. These hazards include exposure to ionizing radiation, stress, injury, infectious agents, and chemicals. The magnitude and diversity of these hazards are not fully appreciated. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic has created additional occupational hazards and has focused attention on the problem of occupational hazards to health care workers. Concern over the nosocomial transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus has contributed to efforts to implement universal infection control precautions and to decrease needlestick injuries. Health care organizations and providers, who have prompted health and safety campaigns for the general public, should not overlook the dangers associated with the health care setting.

  16. An Introduction to Hazardous Material Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Peter A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Colleges must have a system to safely control the ordering, delivery, transport, storage, and use of hazardous material. Information on hazardous material management is excerpted from "Managing Hazardous Waste at Educational Institutions. (MLW)

  17. Assessing hazards along our Nation's coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen; Hehre, Rachel; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal areas are essential to the economic, cultural, and environmental health of the Nation, yet by nature coastal areas are constantly changing due to a variety of events and processes. Extreme storms can cause dramatic changes to our shorelines in a matter of hours, while sea-level rise can profoundly alter coastal environments over decades. These changes can have a devastating impact on coastal communities, such as the loss of homes built on retreating sea cliffs or protective dunes eroded by storm waves. Sometimes, however, the changes can be positive, such as new habitat created by storm deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is meeting the need for scientific understanding of how our coasts respond to different hazards with continued assessments of current and future changes along U.S. coastlines. Through the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH), the USGS carries out the unique task of quantifying coastal change hazards along open-ocean coasts in the United States and its territories. Residents of coastal communities, emergency managers, and other stakeholders can use science-based data, tools, models, and other products to improve planning and enhance resilience.

  18. Probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment for Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashish; Lindholm, C.; Parvez, I. A.; Kühn, D.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is presented for Peninsular India. The PSHA has been performed using three different recurrence models: a classical seismic zonation model, a fault model, and a grid model. The development of a grid model based on a non-parameterized recurrence model using an adaptation of the Kernel-based method that has not been applied to this region before. The results obtained from the three models have been combined in a logic tree structure in order to investigate the impact of different weights of the models. Three suitable attenuation relations have been considered in terms of spectral acceleration for the stable continental crust as well as for the active crust within the Gujarat region. While Peninsular India has experienced large earthquakes, e.g., Latur and Jabalpur, it represents in general a stable continental region with little earthquake activity, as also confirmed in our hazard results. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that both the Gujarat and the Koyna regions are exposed to a high seismic hazard. The peak ground acceleration for 10 % exceedance in 50 years observed in Koyna is 0.4 g and in the Kutch region of Gujarat up to 0.3 g. With respect to spectral acceleration at 1 Hz, estimated ground motion amplitudes are higher in Gujarat than in the Koyna region due to the higher frequency of occurrence of larger earthquakes. We discuss the higher PGA levels for Koyna compared Gujarat and do not accept them uncritically.

  19. Probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment for Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashish; Lindholm, C.; Parvez, I. A.; Kühn, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is presented for Peninsular India. The PSHA has been performed using three different recurrence models: a classical seismic zonation model, a fault model, and a grid model. The development of a grid model based on a non-parameterized recurrence model using an adaptation of the Kernel-based method that has not been applied to this region before. The results obtained from the three models have been combined in a logic tree structure in order to investigate the impact of different weights of the models. Three suitable attenuation relations have been considered in terms of spectral acceleration for the stable continental crust as well as for the active crust within the Gujarat region. While Peninsular India has experienced large earthquakes, e.g., Latur and Jabalpur, it represents in general a stable continental region with little earthquake activity, as also confirmed in our hazard results. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that both the Gujarat and the Koyna regions are exposed to a high seismic hazard. The peak ground acceleration for 10 % exceedance in 50 years observed in Koyna is 0.4 g and in the Kutch region of Gujarat up to 0.3 g. With respect to spectral acceleration at 1 Hz, estimated ground motion amplitudes are higher in Gujarat than in the Koyna region due to the higher frequency of occurrence of larger earthquakes. We discuss the higher PGA levels for Koyna compared Gujarat and do not accept them uncritically.

  20. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem. PMID:7165025

  1. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  2. The global coastal hazards data base

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V. . Goddard Inst. for Space Studies Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); White, T.W. )

    1989-01-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.5 and 1.5 m, caused by predicted climate warming in the next century, could jeopardize low-lying radioactive waste disposal sites near the coast, due to permanent and episodic inundation, increased shoreline retreat, and changes in the water table. The effects of global sea level rise on the shoreline will not be spatially uniform. Therefore, site selection will depend on assessment of these differential vulnerabilities, in order to avoid high-risk coasts. The coastal hazards data base described here could provide an appropriate framework. The coastal hazards data base integrates relevant topographic, geologic, geomorphologic, erosional and subsidence information in a Geographic Information System (GIS), to identify high-risk shorelines characterized by low coastal relief, an erodible substrate, present and past evidence of subsidence, extensive shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Data for seven variables relating to inundation and erosion hazards are incorporated into the ORNL ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS). Data compilation has been completed for the US and is being extended to North America, and ultimately the world. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  4. 77 FR 76604 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49 CFR Part 107, Subpart B), notice is hereby... hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of transportation, etc.) are described in....173(b)(2). permit to authorize an Services, Inc., additional packaging. Norwell, MA. 14848-M...

  5. A spatiotemporal multi-hazard exposure assessment based on property data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth; Zischg, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a nation-wide spatially explicit object-based assessment of buildings and citizens exposed to natural hazards in Austria, including river flooding, torrential flooding, and snow avalanches. The assessment was based on two different datasets, (a) hazard information providing input to the exposure of elements at risk, and (b) information on the building stock combined from different spatial data available on the national level. Hazard information was compiled from two different sources. For torrential flooding and snow avalanches available local-scale hazard maps were used, and for river flooding the results of the countrywide flood modelling eHORA were available. Information on the building stock contained information on the location and size of each building, as well as on the building category and the construction period. Additional information related to the individual floors, such as their height and net area, main purpose and configuration, was included for each property. Moreover, this dataset has an interface to the population register and allowed therefore retrieving the number of primary residents for each building. With the exception of sacral buildings, an economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings using (a) the information of the building register such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (b) regionally averaged construction costs. It is shown that the repeatedly-stated assumption of increasing exposure due to continued population growth and related increase in assets has to be carefully evaluated by the local development of building stock. While some regions have shown a clearly above-average increase in assets, other regions were characterised by a below-average development. This mirrors the topography of the country, but also the different economic activities. While hotels and hostels are extraordinary prone to torrential flooding, commercial buildings as well as buildings used for

  6. Hazardous combustion products from municipal waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Marty, M A

    1993-01-01

    Metropolitan areas are experiencing waste management problems due to the considerable volume of municipal waste generated and the limited space for landfills. Some communities are including incineration as part of their waste management strategy. Incineration is the destruction of materials by the controlled application of heat and is a chemically complex process that leads to the de novo formation of a large number of compounds, many of which have known toxicologic properties. This article explores some of the de novo toxicants formed during incineration of municipal waste and hazardous waste.

  7. Sustainable regional development and natural hazard impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena; Svetlosanov, Vladimir; Kudin, Valery

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, natural hazard impacts on social and economic development in many countries were increasing due to the expansion of human activities into the areas prone to natural risks as well as to increasing in number and severity of natural hazardous events caused by climate changes and other natural phenomena. The escalation of severe disasters (such as Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2011) triggered by natural hazards and related natural-technological and environmental events is increasingly threatening sustainable development at different levels from regional to global scale. In our study, we develop a model of ecological, economic and social sustainable development for the European part of Russia and the Republic of Belarus. The model consists of six blocks including 1) population, 2) environment, 3) mineral resources, 4) geographic space, 5) investments, and 6) food production and import. These blocks were created based on the analysis of the main processes at the regional level; all the blocks are closely interrelated between each other. Reaching the limit values of block parameters corresponds to a sharp deterioration of the system; as a result, the system can lose its stability. Aggravation of natural and natural-technological risk impacts on each block and should be taken into account in the model of regional development. Natural hazards can cause both strong influences and small but permanent perturbations. In both cases, a system can become unstable. The criterion for sustainable development is proposed. The Russian Foundation for Humanities and Belorussian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research supported the study (project 15-22-01008).

  8. [Vibration hazards in quarry workers].

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Miyao, M; Nakagawa, T; Yamada, S; Kobayashi, F; Ono, Y; Iwata, M; Hisanaga, N; Momoi, N

    1984-03-01

    Vibration hazards were surveyed in a population of quarry workers using chipping hammers and to a lesser extent, rock drills. Sixty-nine male quarry workers, aged 49.1 +/- 8.7 and exposed to vibration for 16.4 +/- 5.1 years, were surveyed in 1981-82. They were exposed to vibration for about 2-4 hours per days, mainly under a piece-work pay system. They had a high prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon (36.2%) and numbness in upper extremities (53.6%). It is considered that the high prevalence was mainly due to large vibration levels in chipping hammers and rock drills and long daily exposure time. The attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon were found predominantly in the left hand, which held chisels, whereas the restriction of motion in the elbow was predominantly in the right arm which pushed chipping hammers. The same 49 male quarry workers in this population were also surveyed in 1976-77 and the prevalence of their complaints between 1976-77 and 1981-82 was compared. The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was the same, but the frequency of the attacks increased between the two periods. The prevalence of other complaints such as numbness, pain and chills in the upper extremities also increased. Between 1976-77 and 1981-82, the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon, numbness, and pain in the upper extremities increased in the population of quarriers exposed to vibration for above 2.6 hours per day and 200 days per year, or 600 hours per year. On the other hand, the prevalence of these complaints mostly decreased in the population of quarriers with less exposure.

  9. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  10. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  11. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  12. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  13. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  14. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  15. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources. PMID:10050169

  16. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  17. Natural Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  18. Hazardous Wastes--New Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Harvey W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for effective disposal of hazardous medical and pathological wastes is discussed and the results of a test of five different models of incinerators in disposing of such wastes is presented. (MJB)

  19. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  20. Ocular hazards of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The eye is protected against bright light by the natural aversion response to viewing bright light sources. The aversion response normally protects the eye against injury from viewing bright light sources such as the sun, arc lamps and welding arcs, since this aversion limits the duration of exposure to a fraction of a second (about 0.25 s). The principal retinal hazard resulting from viewing bright light sources is photoretinitis, e.g., solar retinitis with an accompanying scotoma which results from staring at the sun. Solar retinitis was once referred to as 'eclipse blindness' and associated 'retinal burn'. Only in recent years has it become clear that photoretinitis results from a photochemical injury mechanism following exposure of the retina to shorter wavelengths in the visible spectrum, i.e., violet and blue light. Prior to conclusive animal experiments at that time, it was thought to be a thermal injury mechanism. However, it has been shown conclusively that an intense exposure to short-wavelength light (hereafter referred to as 'blue light') can cause retinal injury. The product of the dose-rate and the exposure duration always must result in the same exposure dose (in joules-per-square centimeter at the retina) to produce a threshold injury. Blue-light retinal injury (photoretinitis) can result from viewing either an extremely bright light for a short time, or a less bright light for longer exposure periods. This characteristic of photochemical injury mechanisms is termed reciprocity and helps to distinguish these effects from thermal burns, where heat conduction requires a very intense exposure within seconds to cause a retinal coagulation otherwise, surrounding tissue conducts the heat away from the retinal image. Injury thresholds for acute injury in experimental animals for both corneal and retinal effects have been corroborated for the human eye from accident data. Occupational safety limits for exposure to UVR and bright light are based upon this

  1. A modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures in multi-hazard environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Dean A.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Prince, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Currently, much of protection planning is conducted separately for each infrastructure and hazard. Limited funding requires a balance of expenditures between terrorism and natural hazards based on potential impacts. This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project that created a modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures focused on multiple hazards, including terrorism. To develop this framework, three modeling elements were integrated: natural hazards, terrorism, and interdependent infrastructures. For natural hazards, a methodology was created for specifying events consistent with regional hazards. For terrorism, we modeled the terrorists actions based on assumptions regarding their knowledge, goals, and target identification strategy. For infrastructures, we focused on predicting post-event performance due to specific terrorist attacks and natural hazard events, tempered by appropriate infrastructure investments. We demonstrate the utility of this framework with various examples, including protection of electric power, roadway, and hospital networks.

  2. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  3. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  4. Hazards of conveyor belt fires

    SciTech Connect

    Perzak, F.J.; Litton, C.D.; Mura, K.E.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a US Bureau of Mines study on the hazards of large-scale conveyor belt fires in underground coal mines, as a function of both air velocity and distance from belt surface to gallery roof. The fire hazards considered were smoke obscuration, toxic effects of carbon monoxide (CO), and elevated air temperatures downstream of the fire. All of these hazards scale with the ratio of fire intensity to ventilation airflow. These hazards were all found to be greater at the lower belt-to-roof distance, owing to the greater fire intensities that resulted. The hazards of smoke obscuration and elevated CO levels were greater at lower air velocities. Smoke obscuration was found to be the earliest hazard, reaching critical levels before the stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of belt burning. Data were analyzed to determine the early-warning capability of fire sensors. Smoke sensors provided the earliest warning, followed closely by CO sensors. Thermal sensors did not exhibit any early warning capability.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of tsunami hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2006-01-01

    Determining the likelihood of a disaster is a key component of any comprehensive hazard assessment. This is particularly true for tsunamis, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models. We discuss probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) from the standpoint of integrating computational methods with empirical analysis of past tsunami runup. PTHA is derived from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), with the main difference being that PTHA must account for far-field sources. The computational methods rely on numerical tsunami propagation models rather than empirical attenuation relationships as in PSHA in determining ground motions. Because a number of source parameters affect local tsunami runup height, PTHA can become complex and computationally intensive. Empirical analysis can function in one of two ways, depending on the length and completeness of the tsunami catalog. For site-specific studies where there is sufficient tsunami runup data available, hazard curves can primarily be derived from empirical analysis, with computational methods used to highlight deficiencies in the tsunami catalog. For region-wide analyses and sites where there are little to no tsunami data, a computationally based method such as Monte Carlo simulation is the primary method to establish tsunami hazards. Two case studies that describe how computational and empirical methods can be integrated are presented for Acapulco, Mexico (site-specific) and the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline (region-wide analysis).

  6. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  7. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  8. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. PMID:26399556

  9. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results.

  10. The hazards of reproduction in space.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R

    1996-04-01

    NASA Medical Standards for space flight (JSC 11570) specifically disqualify any flight crew member who is pregnant. A variety of factors led to this recommendation including the effects of radiation exposure on fetal development. Additionally, other concerns such as toxic chemical exposure, microgravity, pregnancy accidents, plus alterations in breathing gas mixtures and decompression preclude pregnant flight crew members from missions in the foreseeable future. The future of space travel will require reproduction beyond the confines of earth's environment. This makes it all the more necessary to identify the potential hazards associated with reproduction in space.

  11. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  12. 49 CFR 178.275 - Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials. 178.275 Section 178.275 Transportation... solid hazardous materials. (a) In addition to the requirements of § 178.274, this section sets forth... solid hazardous materials. (b) Definitions and requirements—(1) Design pressure means the pressure to...

  13. Comparison of empirical and data driven hydrometeorological hazard models on coastal cities of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Every year thousands of people are affected by floods and landslide hazards caused by rainstorms. The problem is more serious in tropical developing countries because of the susceptibility as a result of the high amount of available energy to form storms, and the high vulnerability due to poor economic and social conditions. Predictive models of hazards are important tools to manage this kind of risk. In this study, a comparison of two different modeling approaches was made for predicting hydrometeorological hazards in 12 cities on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 2003. In the first approach, an empirical multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed and used; the second approach used a type of unsupervised nonlinear artificial neural network called a self-organized map (SOM). By using twenty three independent variables of susceptibility (precipitation, soil type, slope, elevation, and regional atmospheric system scale) and vulnerability (distribution and total population, income and educational characteristics, poverty intensity, human development index), binary hazard responses were obtained. Model performance by cross-validation indicated that the respective MLR and SOM model accuracy was about 67% and 80%. Prediction accuracy can be improved by the addition of information, but the SOM approach is preferred because of sparse data and highly nonlinear relations among the independent variables.

  14. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  15. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  16. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  17. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  18. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance”...

  20. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance”...

  1. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance”...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance”...

  3. 16 CFR 1500.5 - Hazardous mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazardous mixtures. 1500.5 Section 1500.5... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.5 Hazardous mixtures. For a mixture of substances, the determination of whether the mixture is a “hazardous substance”...

  4. Testing Goodness-of-Fit for the Proportional Hazards Model based on Nested Case-Control Data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nested case-control sampling is a popular design for large epidemiological cohort studies due to its cost effectiveness. A number of methods have been developed for the estimation of the proportional hazards model with nested case-control data; however, the evaluation of modeling assumption is less attended. In this paper, we propose a class of goodness-of-fit test statistics for testing the proportional hazards assumption based on nested case-control data. The test statistics are constructed based on asymptotically mean-zero processes derived from Samuelsen’s maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation method. In addition, we develop an innovative resampling scheme to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics while accounting for the dependent sampling scheme of nested case-control design. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed approach, and an application to the Wilms’ Tumor Study is given to illustrate the methodology. PMID:25298193

  5. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery. MSHA therefore requires that: (a) Spilling of electrolyte. The lamp shall be so designed and constructed that, when properly filled, the battery will neither leak nor spill electrolyte under actual...

  6. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery. MSHA therefore requires that: (a) Spilling of electrolyte. The lamp shall be so designed and constructed that, when properly filled, the battery will neither leak nor spill electrolyte under actual...

  7. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery. MSHA therefore requires that: (a) Spilling of electrolyte. The lamp shall be so designed and constructed that, when properly filled, the battery will neither leak nor spill electrolyte under actual...

  8. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery. MSHA therefore requires that: (a) Spilling of electrolyte. The lamp shall be so designed and constructed that, when properly filled, the battery will neither leak nor spill electrolyte under actual...

  9. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery. MSHA therefore requires that: (a) Spilling of electrolyte. The lamp shall be so designed and constructed that, when properly filled, the battery will neither leak nor spill electrolyte under actual...

  10. Orbital missions safety - A survey of kinetic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, Vitaly; Veniaminov, Stanislav; Kozlov, Stanislav; Silnikov, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of the current state of manmade contamination of space due to space activities of mankind and analysis for its prospects on the base of latter investigations of scientists and by way of illustration of long-term observations. Some special consequences of progressive technogeneous contamination of space are considered. Hazard mitigation measures are discussed.

  11. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right

  12. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  13. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  14. Simple solutions for reduced fish farm hazards.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture poses emerging challenges for agricultural safety and health. Fish farming has many of the same hazards as other types of farming, but it also poses additional hazards associated with water impoundments and night-time work. In a multidisciplinary approach, researchers from four universities are identifying occupational hazards in fish farming and identifying no-cost or low-cost "simple solutions" to reduce or eliminate them. Simple solutions are discovered through farm visits so as to understand the countermeasures that individual stakeholders have taken to protect their workforce, and these countermeasures are documented and photographed to inform other farmers of these solutions. Equipping tractors with rollover protective structures is a standard practice to protect operators from serious injury in the event of an overturn. Other solutions identified include eliminating the need to climb feed bins to open and close the hatch for feed delivery by using a pull-cable at ground level. This simple technology eliminates the exposure to falling from an elevation, a risk that accounts for at least one reported death of a worker on a fish farm. Another solution is to replace metal paddles on a hatchery trough with plastic paddles that if and when entangled in a worker's hair or clothing slip on the rotating drive shaft and thus reduce laceration and entanglement injuries. Another simple solution to prevent entanglements in large pond aerators, used to mechanically dissolve oxygen into the water, that are operated by farm tractor power take-off shafts is to use electrically powered aerators. Bubble-type aerators are safer than electrically powered paddle aerators because workers are shielded from moving parts. Many additional simple solutions have been identified for a range of tasks in this environment. PMID:19437271

  15. Multi-hazards risk assessment at different levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Natural and technological disasters are becoming more frequent and devastating. Social and economic losses due to those events increase annually, which is definitely in relation with evolution of society. Natural hazards identification and analysis, as well natural risk assessment taking into account secondary technological accidents are the first steps in prevention strategy aimed at saving lives and protecting property against future events. The paper addresses methodological issues of natural and technological integrated risk assessment and mapping at different levels [1, 2]. At the country level the most hazardous natural processes, which may results in fatalities, injuries and economic loss in the Russian Federation, are considered. They are earthquakes, landslides, mud flows, floods, storms, avalanches. The special GIS environment for the country territory was developed which includes information about hazards' level and reoccurrence, an impact databases for the last 20 years, as well as models for estimating damage and casualties caused by these hazards. Federal maps of seismic individual and collective risk, as well as multi-hazards natural risk maps are presented. The examples of regional seismic risk assessment taking into account secondary accidents at fire, explosion and chemical hazardous facilities and regional integrated risk assessment are given for the earthquake prone areas of the Russian Federation. The paper also gives examples of loss computations due to scenario earthquakes taking into account accidents trigged by strong events at critical facilities: fire and chemical hazardous facilities, including oil pipe lines routes located in the earthquake prone areas. The estimations of individual seismic risk obtained are used by EMERCOM of the Russian Federation, as well as by other federal and local authorities, for planning and implementing preventive measures, aimed at saving lives and protecting property against future disastrous events. The

  16. Flood hazard assessment for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-01-18

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper.

  17. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  18. Assessing natural hazard risk using images and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccullough, H. L.; Dunbar, P. K.; Varner, J. D.; Mungov, G.

    2012-12-01

    Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazard assessment. Scientific research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for risk analysis, inundation mapping and historic records. Instrumental data only reveal a portion of the whole story; photographs explicitly illustrate the physical and societal impacts from the event. Visual data is rapidly increasing as the availability of portable high resolution cameras and video recorders becomes more attainable. Incorporating these data into archives ensures a more complete historical account of events. Integrating natural hazards data, such as tsunami, earthquake and volcanic eruption events, socio-economic information, and tsunami deposits and runups along with images and photographs enhances event comprehension. Global historic databases at NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) consolidate these data, providing the user with easy access to a network of information. NGDC's Natural Hazards Image Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazardimages) was recently improved to provide a more efficient and dynamic user interface. It uses the Google Maps API and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to provide geographic context to the images and events. Descriptive tags, or keywords, have been applied to each image, enabling easier navigation and discovery. In addition, the Natural Hazards Map Viewer (maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards) provides the ability to search and browse data layers on a Mercator-projection globe with a variety of map backgrounds. This combination of features creates a simple and effective way to enhance our understanding of hazard events and risks using imagery.

  19. Challenges in assessing seismic hazard in intraplate Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Edward; Stein, Seth; Liu, Mian; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Merino, Miguel; Landgraf, Angela; Hintersberger, Esther; Kübler, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate seismicity is often characterized by episodic, clustered and migrating earth- quakes and extended after-shock sequences. Can these observations - primarily from North America, China and Australia - usefully be applied to seismic hazard assessment for intraplate Europe? Existing assessments are based on instrumental and historical seismicity of the past c. 1000 years, as well as some data for active faults. This time span probably fails to capture typical large-event recurrence intervals of the order of tens of thousands of years. Palaeoseismology helps to lengthen the observation window, but preferentially produces data in regions suspected to be seismically active. Thus the expected maximum magnitudes of future earthquakes are fairly uncertain, possibly underestimated, and earthquakes are likely to occur in unexpected locations. These issues particularly arise in considering the hazards posed by low-probability events to both heavily populated areas and critical facilities. For example, are the variations in seismicity (and thus assumed seismic hazard) along the Rhine Graben a result of short sampling or are they real? In addition to a better assessment of hazards with new data and models, it is important to recognize and communicate uncertainties in hazard estimates. The more users know about how much confidence to place in hazard maps, the more effectively the maps can be used.

  20. Hazard ranking of landfills using fuzzy composite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, M.E.; Jones, D.D.; Woldt, W.E.

    1996-04-01

    The environmental and health risks posed by unregulated landfills are concerns that must be addressed. These concerns have been highlighted with the recent reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D, which requires the closure of all unregulated landfills by October 1993. Most communities with unregulated landfills do not have the financial resources to conduct full-scale risk assessments. This paper proposes the use of a multicriteria assessment system as a tool for screening and prioritizing unregulated disposal sites according to their level of environmental and health hazard. This multicriteria assessment system uses a technique termed composite programming and allows for the use of imprecise information through fuzzy set theory. Using this methodology in landfill hazard assessment allows for the consideration of uncertainty associated with parameters that impact the hazard assessment. Additionally, the user can specify hazards that are most detrimental. The complexity of input parameters (first level indicators) were selected to minimize the time required to collect and/or analyze site-specific data. The result obtained in the assessment is a fuzzy number that indicates the most likely range of hazard and the largest likely range of hazard relative to the best and worst case scenarios. A case study, in which this method is applied to a small rural landfill, is presented to illustrate the methodology.

  1. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  2. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates incorporating site effects - An example from Indiana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasse, J.S.; Park, C.H.; Nowack, R.L.; Hill, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published probabilistic earthquake hazard maps for the United States based on current knowledge of past earthquake activity and geological constraints on earthquake potential. These maps for the central and eastern United States assume standard site conditions with Swave velocities of 760 m/s in the top 30 m. For urban and infrastructure planning and long-term budgeting, the public is interested in similar probabilistic seismic hazard maps that take into account near-surface geological materials. We have implemented a probabilistic method for incorporating site effects into the USGS seismic hazard analysis that takes into account the first-order effects of the surface geologic conditions. The thicknesses of sediments, which play a large role in amplification, were derived from a P-wave refraction database with over 13, 000 profiles, and a preliminary geology-based velocity model was constructed from available information on S-wave velocities. An interesting feature of the preliminary hazard maps incorporating site effects is the approximate factor of two increases in the 1-Hz spectral acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for parts of the greater Indianapolis metropolitan region and surrounding parts of central Indiana. This effect is primarily due to the relatively thick sequence of sediments infilling ancient bedrock topography that has been deposited since the Pleistocene Epoch. As expected, the Late Pleistocene and Holocene depositional systems of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers produce additional amplification in the southwestern part of Indiana. Ground motions decrease, as would be expected, toward the bedrock units in south-central Indiana, where motions are significantly lower than the values on the USGS maps.

  3. Household hazardous waste in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, E.J. 3d.; Tuthill, R.W.; Willis, C.; Moore, G.S.

    1987-03-01

    Household wastes, when disposed of improperly, are hazardous to health. This paper reports a random digit dial telephone survey of Massachusetts households concerning household hazardous waste (HHW) disposal with a 54% response. Of the automotive oil disposed of by 33% of survey households, 57% was deposited in the ground, sewer, or landfill. Annually by household oil disposal in Massachusetts is estimated to be 8.8 million quarts. Four percent of hazardous waste generated in Massachusetts is from households. Improper disposal makes it a major environmental contaminant. More households (41.5%) in smaller communities disposed of oil compared with 26% of households in larger communities. Paint and pesticides were disposed of by 10% of the households, but were dumped on the ground sewer or landfills more than 90% of the time.

  4. Hazard Communication Project: reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

  5. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  6. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Shallow landsliding that involve Hillslope Deposits (HD), the surficial soil that cover the bedrock, is an important process of erosion, transport and deposition of sediment along hillslopes. Despite Shallow landslides generally mobilize relatively small volume of material, they represent the most hazardous factor in mountain regions due to their high velocity and the common absence of warning signs. Moreover, increasing urbanization and likely climate change make shallow landslides a source of widespread risk, therefore the interest of scientific community about this process grown in the last three decades. One of the main aims of research projects involved on this topic, is to perform robust shallow landslides hazard assessment for wide areas (regional assessment), in order to support sustainable spatial planning. Currently, three main methodologies may be implemented to assess regional shallow landslides hazard: expert evaluation, probabilistic (or data mining) methods and physical models based methods. The aim of this work is evaluate the uncertainty of shallow landslides hazard assessment based on physical models taking into account spatial variables such as: geotechnical and hydrogeologic parameters as well as hillslope morphometry. To achieve this goal a wide dataset of geotechnical properties (shear strength, permeability, depth and unit weight) of HD was gathered by integrating field survey, in situ and laboratory tests. This spatial database was collected from a study area of about 350 km2 including different bedrock lithotypes and geomorphological features. The uncertainty associated to each step of the hazard assessment process (e.g. field data collection, regionalization of site specific information and numerical modelling of hillslope stability) was carefully characterized. The most appropriate probability density function (PDF) was chosen for each numerical variable and we assessed the uncertainty propagation on HD strength parameters obtained by

  7. Human due diligence.

    PubMed

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  8. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden materials... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is...

  9. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  10. Safety and Health Hazard Observations in Hmong Farming Operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, R. L.; Krenz, J.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  11. A Bayesian Seismic Hazard Analysis for the city of Naples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenza, Licia; Pierdominici, Simona; Hainzl, Sebastian; Cinti, Francesca R.; Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Perfetti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the last years many studies have been focused on determination and definition of the seismic, volcanic and tsunamogenic hazard in the city of Naples. The reason is that the town of Naples with its neighboring area is one of the most densely populated places in Italy. In addition, the risk is increased also by the type and condition of buildings and monuments in the city. It is crucial therefore to assess which active faults in Naples and surrounding area could trigger an earthquake able to shake and damage the urban area. We collect data from the most reliable and complete databases of macroseismic intensity records (from 79 AD to present). For each seismic event an active tectonic structure has been associated. Furthermore a set of active faults, well-known from geological investigations, located around the study area that they could shake the city, not associated with any earthquake, has been taken into account for our studies. This geological framework is the starting point for our Bayesian seismic hazard analysis for the city of Naples. We show the feasibility of formulating the hazard assessment procedure to include the information of past earthquakes into the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. This strategy allows on one hand to enlarge the information used in the evaluation of the hazard, from alternative models for the earthquake generation process to past shaking and on the other hand to explicitly account for all kinds of information and their uncertainties. The Bayesian scheme we propose is applied to evaluate the seismic hazard of Naples. We implement five different spatio-temporal models to parameterize the occurrence of earthquakes potentially dangerous for Naples. Subsequently we combine these hazard curves with ShakeMap of past earthquakes that have been felt in Naples. The results are posterior hazard assessment for three exposure times, e.g., 50, 10 and 5 years, in a dense grid that cover the municipality of Naples, considering bedrock soil

  12. GIS thematic layers for assessing karst hazard in Murgia region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Filomena; D'Angella, Annachiara; Fidelibus, Dolores; Lella, Angela; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of karst hazard in a carbonate area may be somewhat complex for the multiplicity of involved factors (geological, hydrological, morphological, anthropogenic, etc.), their history and the slow rate of evolution of the processes. In coastal areas, moreover, the long term sea level variations and the short term oscillations generally influence the generation and evolution of the karst process. Another peculiarity of the karst hazard assessment consists in the difficulty for identifying the location of subsurface forms, which may develop over very large areas without any kind of surface signal. The karst processes and landforms often require specific methods of investigation and mitigation, due to the unique and highly variable characters of karst environments. In addition, the hidden character of the karst processes, often accelerated by human activity, is an issue with significant economic impact, affecting many regions of the world. The assessment of karst hazard in the Murgia plateau (in central-west of Apulia region) is the main goal of this research. For this aim, the typologies of karst phenomena, able to produce hazard in the study area, were individuated and collected in a specific database. The hazard was evaluated on the basis of the probability of occurrence of a phenomenon of instability, active (produced by human activities) or passive (natural evolution of karst process), in relation to the presence, evolution or generation of karst forms on surface or at critical distance from the surface. The critical distance from the surface is defined as the distance at which the local or general destructive evolution of a karst process can produce a variation of the usability of the area or of the value of elements involved in the instability. The thematic layers relative to the factors influencing karst processes and landforms (doline, sinkholes, polje, lame, gravine, caves) were elaborated and managed in a GIS system. The archives of the main karst

  13. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-07-01

    The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

  14. KSC VAB Aeroacoustic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveira, Justin M.; Yedo, Sabrina; Campbell, Michael D.; Atkinson, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) carried out an analysis of the effects of aeroacoustics produced by stationary solid rocket motors in processing areas at KSC. In the current paper, attention is directed toward the acoustic effects of a motor burning within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The analysis was carried out with support from ASRC Aerospace who modeled transmission effects into surrounding facilities. Calculations were done using semi-analytical models for both aeroacoustics and transmission. From the results it was concluded that acoustic hazards in proximity to the source of ignition and plume can be severe; acoustic hazards in the far-field are significantly lower.

  15. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  16. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  17. Recognizing the importance of hazardous material storage and handling

    SciTech Connect

    Strycula, J.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous material storage and handling, of both waste and raw material, is fast becoming the greatest concern of industry, government and the general public. These concerns are compounded in fixed manufacturing facilities due to the already tremendous pressure and scrutiny of government agencies and public watchdogs. Meeting hazardous material management regulations and guidelines head-on minimizes risk and practically eliminates penalties and fines. The Safety or Environmental Director at the facility must not only be concerned with the safe methods of storage and handling of these materials, but also aware of the methods that must be implemented to most effectively minimize and control accidents involving fluid spills, fires, explosions, or air contamination.

  18. Safety assessment of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant food additives.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Iatropoulos, M J; Whysner, J

    1999-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are widely used antioxidant food additives. They have been extensively studied for potential toxicities. This review details experimental studies of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity which bear on cancer hazard assessment of exposure to humans. We conclude that BHA and BHT pose no cancer hazard and, to the contrary, may be anticarcinogenic at current levels of food additive use.

  19. The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2013-04-01

    Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

  20. 49 CFR 192.317 - Protection from hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protect each transmission line or main from washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, or other hazards that may cause the pipeline to move or to sustain abnormal loads. In addition, the operator must take... or other similar causes, either by being placed at a safe distance from the traffic or by...

  1. 49 CFR 172.505 - Placarding for subsidiary hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material subject to the “Poison Inhalation Hazard” shipping description of § 172.203(m) must be placarded with a POISON INHALATION HAZARD or POISON GAS placard, as appropriate, on each side and each end, in addition to any other placard required for that material in § 172.504. Duplication of the POISON...

  2. 49 CFR 172.505 - Placarding for subsidiary hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material subject to the “Poison Inhalation Hazard” shipping description of § 172.203(m) must be placarded with a POISON INHALATION HAZARD or POISON GAS placard, as appropriate, on each side and each end, in addition to any other placard required for that material in § 172.504. Duplication of the POISON...

  3. 49 CFR 172.505 - Placarding for subsidiary hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material subject to the “Poison Inhalation Hazard” shipping description of § 172.203(m) must be placarded with a POISON INHALATION HAZARD or POISON GAS placard, as appropriate, on each side and each end, in addition to any other placard required for that material in § 172.504. Duplication of the POISON...

  4. 49 CFR 172.505 - Placarding for subsidiary hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... material subject to the “Poison Inhalation Hazard” shipping description of § 172.203(m) must be placarded with a POISON INHALATION HAZARD or POISON GAS placard, as appropriate, on each side and each end, in addition to any other placard required for that material in § 172.504. Duplication of the POISON...

  5. 49 CFR 172.505 - Placarding for subsidiary hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material subject to the “Poison Inhalation Hazard” shipping description of § 172.203(m) must be placarded with a POISON INHALATION HAZARD or POISON GAS placard, as appropriate, on each side and each end, in addition to any other placard required for that material in § 172.504. Duplication of the POISON...

  6. Crossing Hazard Functions in Common Survival Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei

    2010-01-01

    Crossing hazard functions have extensive applications in modeling survival data. However, existing studies in the literature mainly focus on comparing crossed hazard functions and estimating the time at which the hazard functions cross, and there is little theoretical work on conditions under which hazard functions from a model will have a crossing. In this paper, we investigate crossing status of hazard functions from the proportional hazards (PH) model, the accelerated hazard (AH) model, and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model. We provide and prove conditions under which the hazard functions from the AH and the AFT models have no crossings or a single crossing. A few examples are also provided to demonstrate how the conditions can be used to determine crossing status of hazard functions from the three models. PMID:20613974

  7. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  8. Mercury as a health hazard.

    PubMed

    Curtis, H A; Ferguson, S D; Kell, R L; Samuel, A H

    1987-03-01

    Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment.

  9. Electrocution Hazards on the Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... by overhead power lines, standby generators, and general operating procedures of electrical systems at the farm work site. Electrocution hazards The ... electricity generated by a farm operation’s emergency power system from entering the ... operating precautions, equipment can come in contact with electrical ...

  10. Chemical hazards in the organisation.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

  11. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  12. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  13. Poor People as Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douw, John

    1979-01-01

    In the United States Court of Appeals decision which ruled against New York City's plan to build 160 units of public housing in its West Side Urban Renewal Area, low income people were viewed as a threat to the environment in the same way as more familiar kinds of hazards protected against by federal environmental law. (Author/EB)

  14. Proportional Hazards Models of Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimka, Justin R.; Reed-Rhoads, Teri; Barker, Kash

    2008-01-01

    Survival analysis is a statistical tool used to describe the duration between events. Many processes in medical research, engineering, and economics can be described using survival analysis techniques. This research involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. Among male students with American…

  15. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    PubMed

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... 1983 and covered the manufacturing sector of industry (48 FR 53280, Nov. 25, 1983). (Please note: The... where employees are potentially exposed to hazardous chemicals (52 FR 31852, Aug. 24, 1987). Although... actions, the rule has been fully enforced in all industries regulated by OSHA since March 17, 1989 (54...

  17. Volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond; Mullineaux, Donal Ray

    1967-01-01

    clearly are valid only if the past behavior is, as we believe, a reliable guide. The purpose of this report is to infer the events recorded by certain postglacial deposits at Mount Rainier and to suggest what bearing similar events in the future might have on land use within and near the park. In addition, table 2 (page 22) gives possible warning signs of an impending eruption. We want to increase man's understanding of a possibly hazardous geologic environment around Mount Rainier volcano, yet we do not wish to imply for certain that the hazards described are either immediate or inevitable. However, we do believe that hazards exist, that some caution is warranted, and that some major hazards can be avoided by judicious planning. Most of the events with which we are concerned are sporadic phenomena that have resulted directly or indirectly from volcanic eruptions. Although no eruptions (other than steam emission) of the volcano in historic time are unequivocally known (Hopson and others, 1962), pyroclastic (air-laid) deposits of pumice and rock debris attest to repeated, widely spaced eruptions during the 10,000 years or so of postglacial time. In addition, the constituents of some debris flows indicate an origin during eruptions of molten rock; other debris flows, because of their large size and constituents, are believed to have been caused by steam explosions. Some debris flows, however, are not related to volcanism at all.

  18. Tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.

    Tephra deposits are one of the possible outcomes of explosive volcanic eruptions and are the result of vertical settling of volcanic particles that have been expelled from the volcanic vent into the atmosphere, following magma fragmentation within the volcanic conduit. Tephra fallout represents the main volcanic hazard to populated areas and critical facilities. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand processes that lead to tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards. In this study, and based on detailed mapping and sampling of the tephra deposit of the 2450BP Plinian eruption of Pululagua volcano (Ecuador), I investigate tephra deposits through a variety of approaches, including empirical and analytical modeling of tephra thickness and grain size data to infer important eruption source parameters (e.g. column height, total mass ejected, total grain size distribution of the deposit). I also use a statistical approach (smoothed bootstrap with replacement method) to assess the uncertainty in the eruptive parameters. The 2450BP Pululagua volcanic plume dynamics were also explored through detailed grain size analysis and 1D modeling of tephra accumulation. Finally, I investigate the influence of particle shape on tephra accumulation on the ground through a quantitative and comprehensive study of the shape of volcanic ash. As the global need for energy is expected to grow in the future, many future natural hazard studies will likely involve the assessment of volcanic hazards at critical facilities, including nuclear power plants. I address the potential hazards from tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows and lahars for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (Philippines) posed by three nearby volcanoes capable of impacting the site during an explosive eruption. I stress the need for good constraints (stratigraphic analysis and events dating) on past eruptive events to better quantify the probability of future events at potentially active volcanoes, the need for probabilistic

  19. 75 FR 3912 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-0076; Hazard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...; Comment Request, 1660-0076; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program Application and Reporting AGENCY: Federal... Notice seeks comments concerning the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program application and reporting..., Grants Policy Branch, Mitigation Division, (202) 646-3321 for additional information. You may contact...

  20. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... materials in commerce, as the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary is authorized to apply these regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the Secretary to apply these regulations to persons who cause hazardous materials to be transported in...

  1. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... materials in commerce, as the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary is authorized to apply these regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the Secretary to apply these regulations to persons who cause hazardous materials to be transported in...

  2. Climate resiliency: A unique multi-hazard mitigation approach.

    PubMed

    Baja, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Baltimore's unique combination of shocks and stresses cuts across social, economic and environmental factors. Like many other post-industrial cities, over the past several decades, Baltimore has experienced a decline in its population -- resulting in a lower tax base. These trends have had deleterious effects on the city's ability to attend to much needed infrastructure improvements and human and social services. In addition to considerable social and economic issues, the city has begun to experience negative impacts due to climate change. The compounding nature of these trends has put Baltimore, like other post-industrial cities, in the position of having to do more with fewer available resources. Rather than wait for disaster to strike, Baltimore took a proactive approach to planning for shocks and stresses by determining unique ways to pre-emptively plan for and adapt to effects from climate change and incorporating these into the City's All Hazard Mitigation Plan. Since adopting the plan in 2013, Baltimore has been moving forward with various projects aimed at improving systems, enhancing adaptive capacity and building a more resilient and sustainable city. This paper describes the basis for the city's approach and offers a portrait of its efforts in order to broaden foundational knowledge of the emerging ways that cities are recasting the role of planning in light of unprecedented circumstances that demand complex solutions that draw on few resources. PMID:27318285

  3. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  4. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  5. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  6. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  7. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  8. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  9. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  10. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-05-04

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

  11. Geostatistical methods for hazard assessment and site characterization in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Riefenberg, J.

    1996-12-01

    Ground control hazards, coal quality, ore reserve estimation, and pollution modeling seem unrelated topics from most mining perspectives. However, geostatistical methods can be used to characterize each of these, and more topics. Exploratory drill core data, and continued drilling and field measurements, can provide a wealth of information related to each of the above areas and are often severely underutilized. Recent studies have led to the development of the Multiple Parameter Mapping (MPM) technology, which utilizes geostatistics and other numerical modeling methods, to generate a {open_quotes}hazard index{close_quotes} map, often from exploratory drill core data. This mapping has been presented for ground control hazards relating roof quality, floor quality, numerically modelled stresses due to mining geometry, and geologic features. A review of the MPM method, future directions with the MPM, and a discussion of using these and other geostatistical methods to quantify coal quality, ore reserve estimation, and pollutant modeling are presented in this paper.

  12. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-04-01

    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  13. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  14. A conflict model for the international hazardous waste disposal dispute.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kaixian; Hipel, Keith W; Fang, Liping

    2009-12-15

    A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.

  15. The hazards of the changing hazard of dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Christos P; Unruh, Mark L

    2014-11-01

    The impact of the dialysis modality on patient survival has received considerable epidemiological attention, with most studies suggesting an early benefit favoring peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis. Kumar et al. report the relative outcomes of the two modalities in incident patients followed by an accountable care organization. Using advanced statistical techniques for non-proportional hazards survival models, the authors corroborate the early benefit of peritoneal dialysis for the first 3 years and equivalent outcomes thereafter.

  16. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office`s program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  17. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  18. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  19. Earthquake Cluster Analysis for Turkey and its Application for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake clusters are an important element in general seismology and also for the application in seismic hazard assessment. In probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, the occurrence of earthquakes is often linked to an independent Monte Carlo process, following a stationary Poisson model. But earthquakes are dependent and constrained, especially in terms of earthquake swarms, fore- and aftershocks or even larger sequences as observed for the Landers sequence in California or the Darfield-Christchurch sequence in New Zealand. For earthquake catalogues, the element of declustering is an important step to capture earthquake frequencies by avoiding a bias towards small magnitudes due to aftershocks. On the other hand, declustered catalogues for independent probabilistic seismic activity will underestimate the total number of earthquakes by neglecting dependent seismicity. In this study, the effect of clusters on probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is investigated in detail. To capture the features of earthquake clusters, a uniform framework for earthquake cluster analysis is introduced using methodologies of geostatistics and machine learning. These features represent important cluster characteristics like cluster b-values, temporal decay, rupture orientations and many more. Cluster parameters are mapped in space using kriging. Furthermore, a detailed data analysis is undertaken to provide magnitude-dependent relations for various cluster parameters. The acquired features are used to introduce dependent seismicity within stochastic earthquake catalogues. In addition, the development of smooth seismicity maps based on historic databases is in general biased to the more complete recent decades. A filling methodology is introduced which will add dependent seismicity in catalogues where none has been recorded to avoid the above mentioned bias. As a case study, Turkey has been chosen due to its inherent seismic activity and well-recorded data coverage. Clustering

  20. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)