Science.gov

Sample records for additional health benefits

  1. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

  2. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  3. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  4. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  5. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  6. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats.

  7. Nutritional, Health, and Technological Functionality of Lupin Flour Addition to Bread and Other Baked Products: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Villarino, C B J; Jayasena, V; Coorey, R; Chakrabarti-Bell, S; Johnson, S K

    2016-01-01

    Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits, and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water-binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, antistaling functionality, and bioactivity of its γ-conglutin protein. PMID:25675266

  8. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  9. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  10. 45 CFR 155.170 - Additional required benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional required benefits. 155.170 Section 155.170 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT...

  11. Benefits for Health; NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Presentation discusses (1) Bone Health: Vitamin D, Fish Consumption and Exercise (2) Medical Support in Remote Areas (3) ISS Ultrasound 4) Dry electrode EKG System (5) Environmental Factors and Psychological Health.

  12. Health benefits revised.

    PubMed

    McCormack, T

    1998-01-01

    The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides $24 billion for States to use in providing health coverage to needy children and the States have some flexibility in developing their own programs. Some States have raised Medicaid income eligibility levels and others have purchased private insurance for eligible children. The private insurance provision can lead to whole family coverage being purchased, extending coverage to many HIV-positive parents. Provisions of last year's welfare reform bill dropped many children from health coverage by tightening the definition of disability or by making their parents ineligible because of immigration status. The Specified Low Income Medicaid Beneficiary (SLIMB) program and the economic issues in providing private coverage are described. PMID:11365010

  13. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  14. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  15. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  16. 20 CFR 410.535 - Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; effect of an additional claim for benefits. 410.535 Section 410.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits §...

  17. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  18. Health benefits of particle filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

  19. Probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harsharn; Prasad, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amount, confer a health benefit on the host. Amongst the many benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics, modulation of the immune system has received the most attention. Several animal and human studies have provided unequivocal evidence that specific strains of probiotics are able to stimulate as well as regulate several aspects of natural and acquired immune responses. There is also evidence that intake of probiotics is effective in the prevention and/or management of acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and pouchitis, and paediatric atopic disorders. The efficacy of probiotics against bacterial infections and immunological disorders such as adult asthma, cancers, diabetes, and arthritis in humans remains to be proven. Also, major gaps exist in our knowledge about the mechanisms by which probiotics modulate immune function. Optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment required for different conditions in different population groups also remains to be determined. Different probiotic strains vary in their ability to modulate the immune system and therefore efficacy of each strain needs to be carefully demonstrated through rigorously designed (randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled) studies. This chapter provides an over view of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in health and disease, and discusses possible mechanisms through which probiotics mediate their disparate effects.

  20. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and... Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits. (a) Definitions. (1) Employee benefit plan means an employee benefit plan as defined in 29 U.S.C. 1002(3). (2) Medicare means the...

  1. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional claims; effect of a prior denial..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  2. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  3. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1211 - Health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contributions consistent with 5 CFR 890.502. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1211 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1211 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health...

  8. 42 CFR 417.592 - Additional benefits requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) General rules. (1) An HMO or CMP that has an APCRP (as determined under § 417.590) greater than its ACR... least equal to the difference between the APCRP and the proposed ACR. (b) Options—(1) Additional... the APCRP and the ACR. (4) Combination of additional benefits and withholding in a stabilization...

  9. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  10. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  11. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  12. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    Tandel, Kirtida R

    2011-10-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  13. Health benefits of prebiotic fibers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be. PMID:25624035

  14. The Benefits of Health Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    The article focuses on the merits of a comprehensive, medically-oriented health maintenance/risk assessment program, and suggests that such conditions as heart disease, cancer, and arteriosclerosis can be prevented or postponed through proper nutrition, weight control, exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. (Author/CB)

  15. Flavones: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Flavones correspond to a flavonoid subgroup that is widely distributed in the plants, and which can be synthesized by different pathways, depending on whether they contain C- or O-glycosylation and hydroxylated B-ring. Flavones are emerging as very important specialized metabolites involved in plant signaling and defense, as well as key ingredients of the human diet, with significant health benefits. Here, we appraise flavone formation in plants, emphasizing the emerging theme that biosynthesis pathway determines flavone chemistry. Additionally, we briefly review the biological activities of flavones, both from the perspective of the functions that they play in biotic and abiotic plant interactions, as well as their roles as nutraceutical components of the human and animal diet. PMID:27338492

  16. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  17. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  18. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearly benefit workers, allowing such individuals to acquire affordable health insurance coverage at a time when private health insurance coverage might otherwise be cost prohibitive. The Commission... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare...

  19. 29 CFR 1625.32 - Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare and State health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearly benefit workers, allowing such individuals to acquire affordable health insurance coverage at a time when private health insurance coverage might otherwise be cost prohibitive. The Commission... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of retiree health benefits with Medicare...

  20. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed.

  1. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. 408.21 Section 408.21 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. (a) Basis for reduction in Part B premium. Beginning...

  2. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. 408.21 Section 408.21 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans. (a) Basis for reduction in Part B premium. Beginning...

  3. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  4. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  5. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  6. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  7. Health risks and benefits of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Napier, Gena L; Kodner, Charles M

    2008-12-01

    Health and safety concerns have dramatically increased the consumption of bottled water in developed countries, including the United States. The economic and environmental impact of the many different bottled water products on the market is considerable, and the role and impact of bottled water for routine use is unclear, outside the setting of emergencies or natural disasters, when routine water sources may be unsafe. Evidence for routine health risks or benefits from using bottled water is limited. Patients who have specific health needs may wish to use bottled or filtered water. Physicians can use background information regarding the regulation, production, and possible health impact of bottled water to counsel patients.

  8. [The potential health benefits of philanthropy].

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    The act of donating or doing voluntary or charitable work has a positive effect on the giver's health. Numerous French and international studies have shown the benefits of a voluntary activity. It enables people to live better and longer, by favouring their physical, psychological, social and cognitive balance.

  9. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  10. Implications of health reform for retiree health benefits.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This Issue Brief examines how current health reform legislation being debated in Congress will impact the future of retiree health benefits. In general, the proposals' provisions will have a mixed impact on retiree health benefits: In the short term, the reinsurance provisions would help shore up early retiree coverage and Medicare Part D coverage would become more valuable to retirees. In the longer term, insurance reform combined with new subsidies for individuals enrolling for coverage through insurance exchanges, the maintenance-of-effort provision affecting early retiree benefits, increases to the cost of providing drug benefits to retirees, and enhanced Medicare Part D coverage, would all create significant incentives for employers to drop coverage for early retirees and drug coverage for Medicare-eligible retirees. REINSURANCE PROGRAM FOR EARLY RETIREES: Proposed legislation includes a provision to create a temporary reinsurance program for employers providing health benefits to retirees over age 55 and not yet eligible for Medicare. Given the temporary nature of the program, it is intended to provide employers an incentive to maintain benefits until the health insurance exchange is fully operational. At that point, employers will have less incentive to provide health benefits to early retirees, and retirees will have less need for former employers to maintain a program. MEDICARE DRUG BENEFITS: The House-passed bill would initially reduce the coverage gap (the so-called "doughnut hole") for individuals in the Medicare Part D program by $500 and eliminate it altogether by 2019. The bill currently before the Senate would also reduce the coverage gap by $500, but does not call for eliminating it. Both would also provide a 50 percent discount to brand-name drug coverage in the coverage gap. These provisions increase the value of the Medicare Part D drug program to Medicare-eligible beneficiaries relative to drug benefits provided by employers. TAX TREATMENT OF

  11. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  12. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  13. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  14. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  15. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy,...

  16. New insights into the health benefits of dairy products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known to provide good nutrition. The protein and calcium present in milk and the vitamin D added to it are major healthful contributors to the diets of many Americans. Additional ways in which milk and milk products benefit humans is th...

  17. New insights into the health benefits of dairy products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known to provide good nutrition. The protein, calcium, and fatty acids present in milk and the vitamin D added to it are major healthful contributors to the diets of many people. Additional ways in which milk and milk products benefit h...

  18. Spanish health benefits for services of curative care

    PubMed Central

    Planas-Miret, Ivan; Tur-Prats, Ana

    2005-01-01

    This contribution presents entitlements and benefits, decision criteria, and involved actors for services of curative care in Spain. It describes basic benefits included in the category of curative care defined by the central government and any additional benefits that some autonomous communities (ACs) have included to enlarge their own basket. It is concluded that there is no specific and explicit benefit catalogue. As no user charges exist for this category, waiting times serve as the main cost containment tool. There is a need for further legislation, as inequalities may increase across the territory as a matter of fact. Inequalities in access to health care resources between ACs are not due to differences in health baskets but mainly to the availability of technologies. PMID:16267655

  19. [Health insurance benefits for dental and skeletal malocclusions].

    PubMed

    Galli, Andreas M; Rohrer, Felix A

    2010-01-01

    In view of the large quantity of additional insurance for dental and skeletal malocclusions offered in Switzerland the benefits of 24 Swiss health insurance companies have exemplary been compiled in a table for an insured party of Zurich. This should provide an opportunity for the dentist or orthodontist to better brief his or her patient and facilitate the parents' choice of a suitable additional insurance for their child. There are great varieties in the offered benefits of the different insurance versions. The table embodies all crucial issues in a clearly presented form. All parameters were analyzed und some of them are critically discussed.

  20. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094

  1. Health benefits for veteran (senior) tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Marks, B L

    2006-01-01

    To explore the health benefits of tennis participation in veteran players and to identify future research needs, an electronic literature search using the Ovid (Cinhal, Medline, Sport Discus) library databases from 1966–2005 was undertaken. Specific search words were employed related to tennis, aging, exercise, health, and the psychophysiological systems. Public access internet search engines were also used (Google, PubMed), along with non‐electronic searches of library holdings. There is ample research documenting the health benefits of regular participation in moderately intense aerobic activity. There have been research studies targeting veteran tennis players but most were cross sectional. No tennis related study successfully eliminated all confounding cross training effects. The health of veteran tennis players is improved by enhanced aerobic capacity, greater bone densities in specific regions, lower body fat, greater strength, and maintained reaction time performance in comparison with age matched but less active controls. However, it is not certain whether tennis alone can be a sole contributor to these physiological variables. Well controlled longitudinal research among elite veteran and novice older adult players is needed. PMID:16632583

  2. Nutritional and health benefits of beer.

    PubMed

    Denke, M A

    2000-11-01

    Physicians should be aware of the growing evidence supporting the nutritional and health benefits of moderate consumption of alcohol as part of a healthy lifestyle. The recently approved voluntary label on wine ("the proud people who made this wine encourage you to consult your family doctor about the health effects of wine consumption") implies that physicians should promote wine as the preferred source of dietary alcohol. However, studies evaluating the relative benefits of wine versus beer versus spirits suggest that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. From a nutritional standpoint, beer contains more protein and B vitamins than wine. The antioxidant content of beer is equivalent to that of wine, but the specific antioxidants are different because the barley and hops used in the production of beer contain flavonoids different from those in the grapes used in the production of wine. The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption have not been generally endorsed by physicians for fear that heavy consumers may consider any message as a permissive license to drink in excess. Discussions with patients regarding alcohol consumption should be made in the context of a general medical examination. There is no evidence to support endorsement of one type of alcoholic beverage over another. The physician should define moderate drinking (1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men) for the patient and should review consumption patterns associated with high risk. PMID:11093684

  3. Hypoglycemic health benefits of D-psicose.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Oh, Deok-Kun; Lee, Ki Won

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes is an emerging health problem worldwide. The incidence of type 2 diabetes has dramatically increased and is expected to increase more rapidly in the future. Most patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from obesity and diabetes-related complications, including cardiovascular disease and hepatic steatosis. It has been proposed that simple sugar consumption is one of the major risk factors in the development of diabetes. Hence, the replacement of sugars with a low glycemic response would be an effective strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that D-psicose, which has 70% the sweetness of sucrose and no calories, is a functional sugar exerting several health benefits preventing the development of diabetes. Although D-psicose presents in small amounts in natural products, a recent new technique using biocatalyst sources enables large-scale D-psicose production. More importantly, several clinical and animal studies demonstrated that D-psicose has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities, which make it an ideal candidate for preventing diabetes and related health concerns. This review will summarize the protective effects of D-psicose against type 2 diabetes and its complications, suggesting its potential benefits as a sucrose substitute.

  4. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  5. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  6. Health benefits of probiotics: a review.

    PubMed

    Kechagia, Maria; Basoulis, Dimitrios; Konstantopoulou, Stavroula; Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Gyftopoulou, Konstantina; Skarmoutsou, Nikoletta; Fakiri, Eleni Maria

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. As a result they have been applied as various products with the food industry having been very active in studying and promoting them. Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. In light of this ongoing trend and despite the strong scientific evidence associating these microorganisms to various health benefits, further research is needed in order to establish them and evaluate their safety as well as their nutritional aspects. The purpose of this paper is to review the current documentation on the concept and the possible beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria in the literature, focusing on those available in food.

  7. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available.

  8. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available. PMID:12410539

  9. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  10. Characteristics and Health Benefits of Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    In food science the term 'phytochemicals' includes a variety of plant ingredients with different structures that are capable of health-promoting effects. Phytonutrients are natural substances but are not called nutrients in the traditional sense, since they are synthesized by plants neither in energy metabolism nor in anabolic or catabolic metabolism, but only in specific cell types. They differ from primary plant compounds in that they are not essential to the plant. Phytonutrients perform important tasks in the secondary metabolism of plants as repellents to pests and sunlight as well as growth regulators. They occur only in low concentrations and usually have a pharmacological effect. Since antiquity, these effects have been used in naturopathy in the form of medicinal herbs, spices, teas, and foods. With the development of highly sensitive analytical methods, a variety of these substances could be identified. These phytochemicals may have health benefits or adverse health effects, depending on the dosage. In the past, these effects were studied in cell and tissue cultures as well as in animal models. Meanwhile there are numerous epidemiological data that point to the extensive health potential of phytochemicals in humans. A high dietary intake of phytochemicals with vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, and whole grain is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. PMID:27160996

  11. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  12. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  13. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  14. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed Central

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-01-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future. PMID:3106266

  15. Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Gary; Carughi, Arianna

    2010-08-01

    The health benefits of grapes and wine have been studied and publicized extensively, but dried grapes (raisins, including "sultanas" and "currants") have received comparatively little attention. The purpose of the review was to summarize the polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin (PPT) composition of raisins; predict the likely bioavailability of the component PPT; and summarize the results of human intervention studies involving raisins. The most abundant PPTs are the flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol, and the phenolic acids, caftaric and coutaric acid. On a wet weight basis, some PPTs, such as protocatechuic and oxidized cinnamic acids, are present at a higher level in raisins compared to grapes. In human intervention studies, raisins can lower the postprandial insulin response, modulate sugar absorption (glycemic index), affect certain oxidative biomarkers, and promote satiety via leptin and ghrelin. However, only limited numbers of studies have been performed, and it is not clear to what extent the PPT component is responsible for any effects. More research is required to establish the bioavailability and health effects of the PPT component of raisins, the effects of raisins on health biomarkers in vivo in humans, and how these effects compare to grapes and wine.

  16. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  17. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  18. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  19. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits available under base benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (1) States wishing to elect... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  1. Vitamin D and health issues--questioned benefits.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2014-12-01

    The easy access to measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitD) levels created a surge in interest to learn more of its potential health benefits and its association with prevention of chronic diseases. VitD effects on bone and fracture risk were studied extensively, resulting in clinical guides that stress the need for adequate vitD supplementation. In addition, data are accumulating on its relevance to cardiovascular disease, cancer, cognition and other health domains. Recent studies and meta-analyses seem to lower this enthusiasm concerning the expected good outcomes of higher vitD levels in regard to reduction of risk for major chronic diseases in the general population. However, data are more supportive on various benefits in the case of vitamin D deficiency states, especially in older people. The following article is a short review of the latest developments in this regard. PMID:25203615

  2. The “Health Benefit Basket” in France

    PubMed Central

    Cherilova, Veneta; Paris, Valérie

    2005-01-01

    The French “Health Benefit Basket” is defined principally by positive lists of reimbursed goods and services; however, global budget-financed hospital-delivered services are more implicitly defined. The range of reimbursable curative care services is defined by two coexisting positive lists/fee schedules: the Classification Commune des Actes Médicaux (CCAM) and the Nomenclature Générale des Actes Professionnels (NGAP). The National Union of Health Insurance Funds has been updating these positive lists since August 2004, with the main criterion for inclusion being the proposed procedure’s effectiveness. This is assessed by the newly created High Health authority (replacing the former ANAES). In addition, complementary health insurers are consulted in the inclusion process due to their important role in French healthcare financing. PMID:16267657

  3. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel; Gibson, Glenn R; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Rastall, Robert; Rowland, Ian; Wolvers, Danielle; Watzl, Bernhard; Szajewska, Hania; Stahl, Bernd; Guarner, Francisco; Respondek, Frederique; Whelan, Kevin; Coxam, Veronique; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Léotoing, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Meheust, Agnes

    2010-08-01

    The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to 'dysbiosis', in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in 'prebiotic effects'), defined as: 'The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.' Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where

  4. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  5. Occupational health experience with organic additives.

    PubMed

    Thiess, A M; Wellenreuther, G

    1984-12-01

    For many decades, interest in occupational medicine has been focused on the wide variety of organic additives, which includes a large number of substances, for example, dyestuffs, pigments, and auxiliaries for the textile, leather, and paper industries. The reason is that, if the recommended precautions are not observed, there is a risk of exposure to most of these substances during both production and use. Moreover, over the years, some additives have caused concern and aroused suspicion regarding adverse effects on health. In order to deal with health problems in this field, it is important to be aware of how, what, and where occupational diseases or accidents arise. Much knowledge has been gained about these, and it would be an impossible task to give a systematic survey of the data that have accumulated, especially since it is necessary to take account of the problem of exposure to more than one substance. Thus an attempt is made to report on occupational health experience in general, and to demonstrate how an industrial hygienist may approach the many and various problems. Some epidemiological studies on organic additives (auramine, anthraquinone dyestuffs, organic dyes, etc.) are discussed.

  6. The benefit of additional oviposition targets for a polyphagous butterfly.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Josefin; Bergström, Anders; Janz, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    While the reasons for the prevalence of specialists over generalists among herbivorous insects have been at the focus of much interest, less effort has been put into understanding the polyphagous exceptions. Recent studies have suggested that these exceptions may be important for insect diversification, which calls for a better understanding of the potential factors that can lead to an increased host plant repertoire. Females of the Nymphalid butterfly, Polygonia c-album, were used to test if egg output and/or likelihood of finding a host increased with the addition of a secondary host. There was no effect of prior eggs on the host for willingness to oviposit on a plant. The main experiments were conducted both in small laboratory cages and in large outdoor experimental arenas. No positive effect was found when another oviposition target was added in small cages in the laboratory. On the other hand, in the outdoor arenas the females more often found a host to oviposit on and had a higher egg output when they had access to an additional host, even though the second host was lower in their preference hierarchy. The difference between these experiments was attributed to searching for acceptable host plants within a patch, a factor that was included in the large cages but not in the small. When host availability is limited, adding oviposition targets can potentially act to counterbalance specialization and thus favor the evolution of generalization.

  7. 76 FR 57637 - TRICARE; Continued Health Care Benefit Program Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB30 TRICARE; Continued Health Care Benefit Program..., some MHS beneficiaries would not be eligible to purchase Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP... continued health care coverage for eligible beneficiaries who lose their MHS eligibility. It was...

  8. Health and environmental benefits from air pollution reductions in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Aunan, K; Pátzay, G; Asbjørn Aaheim, H; Martin Seip, H

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost and benefit of the implementation of a specific energy saving program in Hungary. We have considered the possible reduced damage to public health, building materials and agricultural crops that may be obtained from reducing emissions of important air pollutants and also how the program contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. The measures are described in the National Energy Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Programs (NEEIECP), elaborated by the Hungarian Ministry of Industry and Trade and accepted by the Government in 1994. The energy saving expected from the program is approximately 64 PJ/year. The benefits were estimated using monitoring data and population/recipient data from urban and rural areas in Hungary together with exposure-response functions and valuation estimates mainly from western studies. Our analysis indicates that the main benefit from reducing the concentrations of pollutants relates to public health and that reduced prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is an important effect. Reduced premature mortality is also important and the estimated attributable risk of air pollution to excess mortality at present is approximately 6%. The estimated annual benefit of improved health conditions alone is likely to exceed the investments needed to implement the program. In addition there are significant benefits due to reduced replacement and maintenance costs for building materials (30-35 million US$ annually in Budapest only). The damage to crops due to ozone is large, but a significant improvement in Hungary depends upon concerted actions in several countries. PMID:9573631

  9. Preserving workers' compensation benefits in a managed health care environment.

    PubMed

    Dembe, A E

    1998-01-01

    Managed care techniques are increasingly being applied in the workers' compensation setting. Many workers, labor representatives and public health advocates fear that the introduction of managed care into workers' compensation may reflect a broader employer-driven campaign to erode benefits, tighten eligibility criteria, and weaken employees' control over health care and compensation issues. The potential threats to workers can be mitigated by involving them in the design of the workers' compensation health plan and selection of provider organization, assuring access to appropriate specialists and diagnostic testing, minimizing delays, increasing accountability through contract provisions and government oversight, and enhancing communications through the use of ombudsmen and alternative dispute resolution approaches. Additional outcomes studies assessing the long-term impact of managed care in workers' compensation are needed. PMID:9670702

  10. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  11. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  12. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  13. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  14. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  15. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  16. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  17. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  18. 45 CFR 147.150 - Coverage of essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage of essential health benefits. 147.150 Section 147.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE...

  19. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  20. 42 CFR 457.410 - Health benefits coverage options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits coverage options. 457.410 Section 457.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  1. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S.; Willman, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  2. Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Brandon, D L

    2001-03-01

    Soy protein is a major component of the diet of food-producing animals and is increasingly important in the human diet. However, soy protein is not an ideal protein because it is deficient in the essential amino acid methionine. Methionine supplementation benefits soy infant formulas, but apparently not food intended for adults with an adequate nitrogen intake. Soy protein content of another essential amino acid, lysine, although higher than that of wheat proteins, is still lower than that of the milk protein casein. Adverse nutritional and other effects following consumption of raw soybean meal have been attributed to the presence of endogenous inhibitors of digestive enzymes and lectins and to poor digestibility. To improve the nutritional quality of soy foods, inhibitors and lectins are generally inactivated by heat treatment or eliminated by fractionation during food processing. Although lectins are heat-labile, the inhibitors are more heat-stable than the lectins. Most commercially heated meals retain up to 20% of the Bowman-Birk (BBI) inhibitor of chymotrypsin and trypsin and the Kunitz inhibitor of trypsin (KTI). To enhance the value of soybeans in human nutrition and health, a better understanding is needed of the factors that impact the nutrition and health-promoting aspects of soy proteins. This paper discusses the composition in relation to properties of soy proteins. Also described are possible beneficial and adverse effects of soy-containing diets. The former include soy-induced lowering of cholesterol, anticarcinogenic effects of BBI, and protective effects against obesity, diabetes, irritants of the digestive tract, bone, and kidney diseases, whereas the latter include poor digestibility and allergy to soy proteins. Approaches to reduce the concentration of soybean inhibitors by rearrangement of protein disulfide bonds, immunoassays of inhibitors in processed soy foods and soybean germplasm, the roles of phytoestrogenic isoflavones and lectins, and

  3. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... data elements not needed or used by the health plan (for example, coordination of benefits information). (4) A health plan may not offer an incentive for a health care provider to conduct a transaction... health plan that operates as a health care clearinghouse, or requires an entity to use a health...

  4. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  5. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 162.925 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... data elements not needed or used by the health plan (for example, coordination of benefits information... coordination of benefits data it needs to forward the standard transaction to the other health plan (or...

  6. Nutritional and health benefits of pulses.

    PubMed

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Yu, Nancy; Aukema, Harold M

    2014-11-01

    Pulses (beans, peas, and lentils) have been consumed for at least 10 000 years and are among the most extensively used foods in the world. A wide variety of pulses can be grown globally, making them important both economically as well as nutritionally. Pulses provide protein and fibre, as well as a significant source of vitamins and minerals, such as iron, zinc, folate, and magnesium, and consuming half a cup of beans or peas per day can enhance diet quality by increasing intakes of these nutrients. In addition, the phytochemicals, saponins, and tannins found in pulses possess antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects, indicating that pulses may have significant anti-cancer effects. Pulse consumption also improves serum lipid profiles and positively affects several other cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as blood pressure, platelet activity, and inflammation. Pulses are high in fibre and have a low glycemic index, making them particularly beneficial to people with diabetes by assisting in maintaining healthy blood glucose and insulin levels. Emerging research examining the effect of pulse components on HIV and consumption patterns with aging populations indicates that pulses may have further effects on health. In conclusion, including pulses in the diet is a healthy way to meet dietary recommendations and is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Long-term randomized controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the direct effects of pulses on these diseases.

  7. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (1) States wishing to elect Secretary-approved coverage should... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. Involving Community Health Workers in the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities Research Projects: Benefits and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Weier, Rory C; Hohl, Sarah D; Thompson, Beti; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the benefits and challenges of including community health workers (CHWs) in health disparities research can improve planning and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Representatives from 18 projects from the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative completed an online questionnaire about the benefits and challenges of involving CHWs in their research. Eight emergent themes were classified into two categories: 1) Personal qualities and background CHWs bring to research including community knowledge and cultural sensitivity to improve recruitment and effectiveness of interventions; and 2) Workplace demands of CHWs including human resource policies and processes, research skills/background (training needs), and oversight despite distance. These findings demonstrate the benefits of involving CHWs in research and draw attention to the hiring, training, and oversight of CHWs and subsequent challenges. Additional research is needed to understand interactions between project staff and CHWs better and to identify best practices to involve CHWs in research. PMID:27524766

  9. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education.

  10. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients’ sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. Future directions The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in

  11. Nutritional constituents and health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.).

    PubMed

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Alsaif, Maha; Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-04-01

    Wild rice (Zizania spp.) seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Nutritional analysis shows that wild rice is rich in minerals, vitamins, protein, starch, dietary fiber, and various antioxidant phytochemicals, while it is low in fat. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. While evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of wild rice consumption is accumulating, additional studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of regular consumption of wild rice.

  12. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    PubMed

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process. PMID:24191344

  13. Cost of health benefits becoming major business issue, conference told.

    PubMed Central

    Silversides, A

    1996-01-01

    As governments attempt to off-load health care costs in an attempt to cut budgets, the bills are being passed to businesses that provide supplementary health care coverage. Business representatives attending a recent conference heard that employers experienced a 26% increase in the cost of providing supplementary health and dental benefits between 1990 and 1994. PMID:8873646

  14. Benefits of radiation processing to public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampelmacher, E. H.

    The problem of foodborne diseases, in which especially food of animals origin and the infected animal is involved, is reviewed. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of meat and poultry may today, together with parasites in meat and fish be considered as an increasing public health problem. Control and prevention measures, especially including radiation processing is summarized and with regard to specific micro-organisms and parasites and to various food commodities suitable for irradiation purposes. The possibilities of this new processing technique for reduction and probably elimination of pathogens and parasites are discussed and recommendations are given for practical application of radiation in order to eliminate health risks eliminating from contaminated food.

  15. Personal Benefits of a Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Durbeck, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the benefits reported by participants in a health evaluation and enhancement program dealing with physical activity. Program benefits were identified and defined in regard to three major areas: program effects on work; program effects on health; and program effects on habits and behavior. A strong positive and consistent relationship was found between reported benefits in each of these areas and measures of improvement in cardiovascular functioning based on treadmill performance. Significant differences in these measures of improvement were also found between participants who reported program benefits and those persons who did not. These findings provide a meaningful profile of the pattern of benefits generated by this kind of health program.

  16. A review of the metrics for One Health benefits.

    PubMed

    Häsler, B; Cornelsen, L; Bennani, H; Rushton, J

    2014-08-01

    One Health as a concept has been with us for many years, yet it is only recently that it is actively being discussed as a way of mitigating risks in society. Initiatives in the use of this concept require methods to monitor the benefits gained from an holistic approach to health, yet there is an absence of adequate frameworks to measure One Health benefits. This paper explores the problem with a review of the available literature and an examination of methods used. It concludes that most published work on One Health describes how this concept is valuable without trying to estimate the size of benefit or type of value. A framework for measuring the advantages of a One Health approach is needed and, through the process of an international workshop and the development of a One Health business case, the authors are working towards its development.

  17. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (see § 725.4(d)), a person may exercise the right of review provided in paragraph (c) of § 727.103 at..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  18. 20 CFR 725.309 - Additional claims; effect of a prior denial of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (see § 725.4(d)), a person may exercise the right of review provided in paragraph (c) of § 727.103 at..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Filing of Claims §...

  19. The Health Benefits of Exercise (Part 1 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A panel of eight experts discuss the cardiovascular, lipoprotein, weight control, and psychological benefits of exercise on health. The challenge of motivating people to exercise regularly is explored. (Author/MT)

  20. 42 CFR 440.347 - Essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required as essential health benefits using the methodology set forth in 45 CFR 156.115(a)(5). (e... applicable requirements set forth in 45 CFR part 156: (1) Ambulatory patient services; (2) Emergency services... benefits described in 45 CFR 156.100, subject to supplementation under 45 CFR 156.110(b) and...

  1. 42 CFR 440.347 - Essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required as essential health benefits using the methodology set forth in 45 CFR 156.115(a)(5). (e... applicable requirements set forth in 45 CFR part 156: (1) Ambulatory patient services; (2) Emergency services... benefits described in 45 CFR 156.100, subject to supplementation under 45 CFR 156.110(b) and...

  2. 75 FR 20314 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Health Benefits (FEHB) coverage for certain former Senate Restaurant employees who transferred to... INFORMATION: Background Senate Restaurants Employees Public Law 110-279, enacted July 17, 2008, provides for certain Federal employee benefits to be continued for certain employees of the Senate Restaurants...

  3. Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Shehzad, Aamir; Omar, Mukama; Rakha, Allah; Raza, Husnain; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Shakeel, Azam; Ansari, Anum; Niazi, Sobia

    2016-08-20

    Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development. PMID:27178951

  4. Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Shehzad, Aamir; Omar, Mukama; Rakha, Allah; Raza, Husnain; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Shakeel, Azam; Ansari, Anum; Niazi, Sobia

    2016-08-20

    Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development.

  5. Equal health, equal work? The role of disability benefits in employment after controlling for health status.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Eva Maria Lopez; Castello, Judit Vall

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, an individual can be considered legally disabled in one of the following two ways: by either receiving a disability support benefit and/or holding a certificate of disability. Having at least one of these official sanctions entitles the disabled person to a number of financial and tax advantages. However, only support benefits entail a monthly allowance and, at the same time, the individual is required to undertake a different job to that of his/her previous one. To jointly estimate (after controlling for the health characteristics of the disabling condition and for unobserved factors) the probability of receiving disability benefits and the probability of working, we make use of a newly released database of individuals with a certificate of disability. Additionally, we exploit the rich set of health measures that this database also provides. Our results show that the probability of working is 5% lower (average treatment effect, ATE) for those disabled individuals receiving benefits. However, when we perform the estimation for individuals with differing degrees of disability, the disincentive effects of the benefits are only significant for individuals with the mildest level of disability (33-44%) i.e. those who are on the threshold of being disabled.

  6. Restructuring Employee Benefits to Meet Health Care Needs in Retirement.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard M; Weinman, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Health care expenses in retirement are the proverbial elephant in the room. Most employees don't know how big the elephant is. As Medicare solvency and retiree health care issues receive increasing attention, it is time to rethink overall benefit approaches and assess what is appropriate and affordable for an organization to help achieve workforce renewal goals and solve delayed retirement challenges. Just as Medicare was never designed to cover all of the post-65 retiree health care costs, neither is a workplace retirement plan designed to cover 100% of preretiree income. Now employers can consider strategies that may better equip retirees to meet both income needs and health care expenses in the most tax-efficient way. By combining defined contribution retirement and health care plans, employers have the power to increase benefits for employees while maintaining total benefits cost. PMID:26666088

  7. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...). (4) A health plan may not offer an incentive for a health care provider to conduct a transaction... health plan that operates as a health care clearinghouse, or requires an entity to use a health care... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for health plans....

  8. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). (4) A health plan may not offer an incentive for a health care provider to conduct a transaction... health plan that operates as a health care clearinghouse, or requires an entity to use a health care... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for health plans....

  9. Desert ecosystems: similarities, characteristics, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Carpio-Obeso, M P; Shorr, M; Valdez-Salas, B

    1999-01-01

    Salty bodies of water in desert zones are known worldwide. The Salton Sea in California, USA, and the Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan are located in arid areas at approximately the same latitude, which might explain some similarities. Both the Salton and Dead Seas have ecosystems consisting of a singular saline sea/hot desert interface. The Salton Sea, the largest inland body of water in California, is a saline lake in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The Imperial Valley is one of the 10 top agricultural areas in the United States. Several thermoelectric plants exploiting geothermal wells operate around the Salton Sea, and some areas comprise a National Wildlife Refuge. The Dead Sea (Sea of Salt in Hebrew), the lowest saline lake on earth, contains high concentrations of salts and is a reservoir of minerals with a unique evaporation regime. The Dead Sea salts are the raw materials for the production of several chemical and health products. Magnesium salts and sulfur-containing mud are used for treating human skin disorders, allergies, arthritis, and respiratory diseases. After visiting both zones, we recorded, analyzed, and compared the similarities and differences between the areas. Some differences were found in the geographic, orographic, hydraulic, and climatic properties, but the main difference is in the economic-industrial aspect. The characteristics and health aspects are described in this report. PMID:10746738

  10. Desert ecosystems: similarities, characteristics, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Carpio-Obeso, M P; Shorr, M; Valdez-Salas, B

    1999-01-01

    Salty bodies of water in desert zones are known worldwide. The Salton Sea in California, USA, and the Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan are located in arid areas at approximately the same latitude, which might explain some similarities. Both the Salton and Dead Seas have ecosystems consisting of a singular saline sea/hot desert interface. The Salton Sea, the largest inland body of water in California, is a saline lake in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The Imperial Valley is one of the 10 top agricultural areas in the United States. Several thermoelectric plants exploiting geothermal wells operate around the Salton Sea, and some areas comprise a National Wildlife Refuge. The Dead Sea (Sea of Salt in Hebrew), the lowest saline lake on earth, contains high concentrations of salts and is a reservoir of minerals with a unique evaporation regime. The Dead Sea salts are the raw materials for the production of several chemical and health products. Magnesium salts and sulfur-containing mud are used for treating human skin disorders, allergies, arthritis, and respiratory diseases. After visiting both zones, we recorded, analyzed, and compared the similarities and differences between the areas. Some differences were found in the geographic, orographic, hydraulic, and climatic properties, but the main difference is in the economic-industrial aspect. The characteristics and health aspects are described in this report.

  11. Benefits and entitlements in the Hungarian health care system

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This contribution considers entitlements and benefits in the Hungarian health care system. After a brief introduction to the organizational structure of the system the decision-making processes are discussed in detail, including the most important actors, types and pieces of legislation, formal structures, decision-making criteria, and outputs in terms of benefit catalogues. Within the two main public financing systems (social insurance and tax-funded services) there are four types of regulatory regimes: (a) traditional political decision making, (b) price negotiations, (c) updating of classification systems for payment purposes, and (d) the procedure for the inclusion of registered medicines in the scope of the social health insurance system. As an example we discuss the benefit regulations and benefit catalogues in the category of services of curative care (HC.1) of the OECD classification of health services. PMID:16267656

  12. Benefits for Infants and Toddlers in Health Care Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Routine health care can spell the difference between a strong beginning and a fragile start. After much public and Congressional debate, President Obama signed into law landmark health care reform legislation. Although many provisions will not go into effect this year, several important changes could benefit children within a few months. The…

  13. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities,…

  14. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  15. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  16. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  17. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  18. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  19. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  20. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  1. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  2. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  3. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE...

  4. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  5. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  6. A model for understanding benefit segmentation in preventive health care.

    PubMed

    John, J; Miaoulis, G

    1992-01-01

    The marketing of traditional health care services, such as hospital and physician services, has matured with the integration of research from the medical sociology discipline and the marketing literature. In this article, we present a model to illustrate how an understanding of predispositions to health care behavior, integrated with benefit segmentation analysis, can contribute to more focused and effective marketing strategies for health-related products and services.

  7. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  8. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  9. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  10. Benefits and drawbacks of electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    Menachemi, Nir; Collum, Taleah H

    2011-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 that was signed into law as part of the “stimulus package” represents the largest US initiative to date that is designed to encourage widespread use of electronic health records (EHRs). In light of the changes anticipated from this policy initiative, the purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the literature on the benefits and drawbacks of EHR systems. Much of the literature has focused on key EHR functionalities, including clinical decision support systems, computerized order entry systems, and health information exchange. Our paper describes the potential benefits of EHRs that include clinical outcomes (eg, improved quality, reduced medical errors), organizational outcomes (eg, financial and operational benefits), and societal outcomes (eg, improved ability to conduct research, improved population health, reduced costs). Despite these benefits, studies in the literature highlight drawbacks associated with EHRs, which include the high upfront acquisition costs, ongoing maintenance costs, and disruptions to workflows that contribute to temporary losses in productivity that are the result of learning a new system. Moreover, EHRs are associated with potential perceived privacy concerns among patients, which are further addressed legislatively in the HITECH Act. Overall, experts and policymakers believe that significant benefits to patients and society can be realized when EHRs are widely adopted and used in a “meaningful” way. PMID:22312227

  11. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  12. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  13. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  14. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. PMID:26792873

  15. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  16. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  17. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  18. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  19. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  20. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  1. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for health plans. 162.925 Section 162.925 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... requirements for health plans. (a) General rules. (1) If an entity requests a health plan to conduct...

  2. Health benefits of seafood; is it just the fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Lund, Elizabeth K

    2013-10-01

    There is a considerable body of literature suggesting a wide range of health benefits associated with diets high in seafood. However, the demand for seafood across the world now exceeds that available from capture fisheries. This has created a rapidly increasing market for aquaculture products, the nutrient composition of which is dependent on feed composition. The use of fishmeal in this food chain does little to counteract the environmental impact of fisheries and so the on-going development of alternative sources is to be welcomed. Nevertheless, an in-depth understanding as to which nutrients in seafood provide benefit is required to permit the production of foods of maximal health benefit to humans. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the beneficial nutrient composition of seafood, in particular omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, taurine, vitamins D and B12, in the context of the development of environmentally sustainable aquaculture.

  3. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant. PMID:26602573

  4. Health benefits of encore careers for baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Topiwala, Anya; Patel, Shivani; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-05-01

    Baby boomers now represent an aging population group at risk of the diseases of older age. Their relatively high education, amongst other attributes, means that they can make a significant contribution to the work force beyond the statutory retirement age. On an individual level, potential health benefits may motivate them to pursue encore careers. We review some of the evidence supporting such a trend.

  5. Assessing the public health benefits of reduced ozone concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Carrothers, T J; Tuomisto, J T; Hammitt, J K; Evans, J S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine scientific evidence and related uncertainties in two steps of benefit-cost analyses of ozone reduction: estimating the health improvements attributable to reductions in ozone and determining the appropriate monetary values of these improvements. Although substantial evidence exists on molecular and physiologic impacts, the evidence needed to establish concentration-response functions is somewhat limited. Furthermore, because exposure to ozone depends on factors such as air conditioning use, past epidemiologic studies may not be directly applicable in unstudied settings. To evaluate the evidence likely to contribute significantly to benefits, we focus on four health outcomes: premature mortality, chronic asthma, respiratory hospital admissions, and minor restricted activity days. We determine concentration-response functions for these health outcomes for a hypothetical case study in Houston, Texas, using probabilistic weighting reflecting our judgment of the strength of the evidence and the possibility of confounding. We make a similar presentation for valuation, where uncertainty is due primarily to the lack of willingness-to-pay data for the population affected by ozone. We estimate that the annual monetary value of health benefits from reducing ozone concentrations in Houston is approximately $10 per person per microgram per cubic meter (24-hr average) reduced (95% confidence interval, $0.70-$40). The central estimate exceeds past estimates by approximately a factor of five, driven by the inclusion of mortality. We discuss the implications of our findings for future analyses and determine areas of research that might help reduce the uncertainties in benefit estimation. PMID:11748028

  6. Self-employment and Health: Barriers or Benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; van Kippersluis, Hans; Thurik, A. Roy

    2016-01-01

    The self-employed are often reported to be healthier than wage workers; however, the cause of this health difference is largely unknown. The longitudinal nature of the US Health and Retirement Study allows us to gauge the plausibility of two competing explanations for this difference: a contextual effect of self-employment on health (benefit effect), or a health-related selection of individuals into self-employment (barrier effect). Our main finding is that the selection of comparatively healthier individuals into self-employment accounts for the positive cross-sectional difference. The results rule out a positive contextual effect of self-employment on health, and we present tentative evidence that, if anything, engaging in self-employment is bad for one’s health. Given the importance of the self-employed in the economy, these findings contribute to our understanding of the vitality of the labor force. PMID:25048640

  7. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2005-06-01

    Tea, in the form of green or black tea, is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Extracts of tea leaves also are sold as dietary supplements. However, with the increasing interest in the health properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and noncancer health benefits of both green and black tea. In Part II, a review of anticancer properties of green tea extracts is presented. Green tea contains a unique set of catechins that possess biological activity in antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, and antiproliferative assays potentially relevant to the prevention and treatment of various forms of cancer. Although there has been much focus on the biological properties of the major tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and its antitumor properties, tea offers other health benefits; some due to the presence of other important constituents. Characteristics unrelated to the antioxidant properties of green and black teas may be responsible for tea's anticancer activity and improvement in cardiac health and atherosclerosis. Theanine in green tea may play a role in reducing stress. Oxidized catechins (theaflavins in black tea) may reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Synergistic properties of green tea extracts with other sources of polyphenolic constituents are increasingly recognized as being potentially important to the medicinal benefits of black and green teas. Furthermore, due to presumed antioxidant and antiaging properties, tea is now finding its way into topical preparations. Each of these aspects is surveyed.

  8. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  9. Retiree health care benefits: strategies for a changing workforce.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, D

    1998-01-01

    Demographic, economic and cultural trends foretell a dramatically different environment for retiree health care coverage. This article will focus on the redesign of retiree health benefits to meet the retirement objectives of employers and employees, anticipate changing demographics, and respond to changes in Medicare and other government initiatives, including the Consumer Bill of Rights. The material will discuss recent design trends, including managed care, and present results of a study the author co-authored for the Kaiser Family Foundation on changes in retiree health plans.

  10. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  11. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  12. A four-year comparison of physical health benefit expenditures of mental and physical health claimants.

    PubMed

    Harlow, K

    1997-06-01

    The pattern of covered physical health benefit expenditures before and after initiation of mental health treatment for a cohort of individuals with mild to moderate mental health problems was examined in this study. The results indicated the mental health treatment group (MHTG) began to have higher total covered benefits expenditures about one year prior to starting mental health treatment. Statistically significant differences between the MHTG and comparison groups (groups with no mental health treatments during the study period and matched on age and gender) began at the quarter just before treatment and continued through the seventh quarter after treatment initiation. The higher pattern of total health benefit expenditures of the MHTG declined gradually for two years before it returned to pretreatment levels. The study suggests the need for a better understanding of the types of physical health benefits expenditures preceding and following mental health treatment. It further indicates that the integration of physical and mental health benefits case management may have potential for reducing overall health benefit costs.

  13. Taking benefits for granted. Community benefits and market-driven health care.

    PubMed

    Pratt, P; Baragar, L

    1997-01-01

    No one used to question the value of hospitals to their communities. Hospitals simply took good care of the residents of the cities in which they were located. They did the little things that endear an institution to its neighbors. Perhaps this was a luxury of hardier economic times, when the pressure to control health care costs was not so pronounced. Perhaps everyone took for granted the many benefits hospitals provide for communities.

  14. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  15. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans §...

  16. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  17. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  18. Necessary health care and basic needs: health insurance plans and essential benefits.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-12-01

    According to HealthCare.gov, by improving access to quality health for all Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will reduce disparities in health insurance coverage. One way this will happen under the provisions of the ACA is by creating a new health insurance marketplace (a health insurance exchange) by 2014 in which "all people will have a choice for quality, affordable health insurance even if a job loss, job switch, move or illness occurs". This does not mean that everyone will have whatever insurance coverage he or she wants. The provisions of the ACA require that each of the four benefit categories of plans (known as bronze, silver, gold and platinum) provides no less than the benefits available in an "essential health benefits package". However, without a clear understanding of what criteria must be satisfied for health care to be essential, the ACA's requirement is much too vague and open to multiple, potentially conflicting interpretations. Indeed, without such understanding, in the rush to provide health insurance coverage to as many people as is economically feasible, we may replace one kind of disparity (lack of health insurance) with another kind of disparity (lack of adequate health insurance). Thus, this paper explores the concept of "essential benefits", arguing that the "essential health benefits package" in the ACA should be one that optimally satisfies the basic needs of the people covered.

  19. Weighing health benefit and health risk information when consuming sport-caught fish.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Barbara A; A Connelly, Nancy; Sheeshka, Judy; Patterson, Jacqueline

    2003-12-01

    Fish consumers may incur benefits and risks from eating fish. Health advisories issued by states, tribes, and other entities typically include advice about how to limit fish consumption or change other behaviors (e.g., fish cleaning or cooking) to reduce health risks from exposure to contaminants. Eating fish, however, may provide health benefits. Risk communicators and fish consumers have suggested the importance of including risk comparison information, as well as health risk-benefit comparisons in health advisory communications. To improve understanding about how anglers fishing in waters affected by health advisories may respond to such risk-risk or risk-benefit information, we surveyed Lake Ontario (NY, USA) anglers. We interviewed by telephone 4,750 anglers, 2,593 of which had fished Lake Ontario in the past 12 months and were sent a detailed mail questionnaire (1,245 responded). We posed questions varying the magnitude of health risks and health benefits to be gained by fish consumption, and varied the population affected by these risks and benefits (anglers, children, women of childbearing age, and unborn children). Respondents were influenced by health benefit and health risk information. When risks were high, most respondents would eat less fish regardless of the benefit level. When risks were low, the magnitude of change in fish consumption was related to level of benefit. Responses differed depending on the question wording order, that is, whether "risks" were posed before "benefits." For a given risk-benefit level, respondents would give different advice to women of childbearing age versus children, with more conservative advice (eat less fish) provided to women of childbearing age. Respondents appeared to be influenced more strongly by risk-risk comparisons (e.g., risks from other foods vs. risks from fish) than by risk-benefit comparisons (e.g., risks from fish vs. benefits from fish). Risk analysts and risk communicators should improve efforts to

  20. Health benefits of improving air quality in Taiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deliang; Wang, Cuicui; Nie, Jiesheng; Chen, Renjie; Niu, Qiao; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng; Perera, Frederica

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the government in Shanxi province has mounted several initiatives and mandated factory shutdowns with the goal of reducing coal burning emissions and the environmental impacts of industrialization. We estimated the health benefits associated with air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and monetized the health benefits using value of statistical life (VOSL). Data were collected on annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and relevant health outcomes in Taiyuan from 2001 to 2010. Selected exposure-response functions were used to calculate the cases of death or disease attributable to PM10 annually over a 10-year period. These were summed to calculate the DALYs lost and their monetary value associated with PM10 each year between 2001 and 2010. Air quality improvement from 2001 to 2010 was estimated to have prevented 2810 premature deaths, 951 new cases of chronic bronchitis, 141,457 cases of outpatient visits, 969 cases of emergency-room visits and 31,810 cases of hospital admissions. The DALYs (VOSL) decreased by 56.92% (52.68%) from 52,937 (7274 million Yuan) in 2001 to 22,807 (3442 million Yuan) in 2010. Premature deaths accounted for almost 95% of the total DALYs. Our analysis demonstrates that air pollution abatement during the last decade in Taiyuan has generated substantial health benefits. PMID:25168129

  1. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  2. Health benefits of Kung Fu: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tracey Wai Man; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu) have existed for centuries and are generally accepted as being beneficial for health without much empirical data. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the health effects of "hard" Kung Fu styles by performing electronic and manual searches of the literature. The aspects of health and the Kung Fu style examined varied between most studies; in some cases, the martial art group consisted of practitioners of other martial art styles also. Of 2103 references identified, only nine papers were eligible and reviewed. All were observational studies, observing a range of health aspects possibly related to Kung Fu training or performance. Our findings suggest that there is no evidence that Kung Fu practice is associated with the prevention or treatment of any health condition. However, as a moderate- to high-intensity form of aerobic exercise, it may confer benefits similar to those attributed to other aerobic training modalities. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested in clinical trials. Physiological benefits (e.g., aerobic capacity and bone density) may be associated with long-term Kung Fu practice. Future research in this area should adopt experimental designs, clearly identifying eligibility criteria, testing and training protocols, and include health-related outcomes and documentation of adverse events, to advance knowledge in this field.

  3. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  4. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  5. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  6. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  7. 20 CFR 408.808 - What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens to your SVB payments if you begin receiving additional benefit income? 408.808 Section 408.808 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension §...

  8. Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care.

  9. [Privacy and public benefit in using large scale health databases].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, large scale heath databases were constructed in a few years, such as National Claim insurance and health checkup database (NDB) and Japanese Sentinel project. But there are some legal issues for making adequate balance between privacy and public benefit by using such databases. NDB is carried based on the act for elderly person's health care but in this act, nothing is mentioned for using this database for general public benefit. Therefore researchers who use this database are forced to pay much concern about anonymization and information security that may disturb the research work itself. Japanese Sentinel project is a national project to detecting drug adverse reaction using large scale distributed clinical databases of large hospitals. Although patients give the future consent for general such purpose for public good, it is still under discussion using insufficiently anonymized data. Generally speaking, researchers of study for public benefit will not infringe patient's privacy, but vague and complex requirements of legislation about personal data protection may disturb the researches. Medical science does not progress without using clinical information, therefore the adequate legislation that is simple and clear for both researchers and patients is strongly required. In Japan, the specific act for balancing privacy and public benefit is now under discussion. The author recommended the researchers including the field of pharmacology should pay attention to, participate in the discussion of, and make suggestion to such act or regulations.

  10. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  11. A Comparison of Benefit Limits in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Olesiuk, William Joseph; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Seiber, Eric E; Zhu, Hong; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Shoben, Abigail B; Tam, Kwok Kwan

    2016-07-01

    This study provides insight to policy makers and stakeholders on how three types of benefits limits on Medicaid-covered mental health services might affect access for consumers diagnosed with severe mental illness. The study used a retrospective cohort design with data for Medicaid-covered, community-based mental health services provided in Ohio during fiscal year 2010. Log-binomial regression was used for the analysis. Results indicate that limits compared have significant, varying consequences based on Medicaid coverage and diagnoses. When constraining Medicaid costs, policy makers should consider how limits will disrupt care and include clinicians in discussions prior to implementation. PMID:25966651

  12. 78 FR 33450 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...) Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard Form 2812); Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health...

  13. Xylooligosaccharides: an economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits. PMID:25872243

  14. Benefits and Systems of Care for Maternal and Child Health under Health Care Reform: Workshop Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Cynthia H., Ed.

    This report discusses the health care needs of and benefits for women, children, and adolescents in light of national health care reform proposals put forth in 1994, and is based on presentations and discussions at an invitational workshop on maternal and child health. The report asserts that since women and children are disproportionately…

  15. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  16. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. PMID:26414085

  17. No Detectable Fertility Benefit from a Single Additional Mating in Wild Stalk-Eyed Flies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Elisabeth; Fowler, Kevin; Cotton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s) for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof), and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species. PMID:21179210

  18. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals.

  19. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, L; Cantisani, V; Jenssen, C; Sidhu, P S; Baum, U; Dietrich, C F

    2015-09-01

    Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  20. Review of the Additional Support for Learning Act: "Adding Benefits for Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the Minister for Children and Early Years, gave a commitment to Parliament to establish a working group to report on how the "Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004" (the Act) is affecting children and young people who: (1) are looked after; (2) are young carers; (3) have mental health disorders; and (4) have…

  1. Affordable health benefits for workers without employer coverage.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1998-02-01

    With 42 million individuals lacking health insurance in 1996, an increase of 1.1 million uninsured from the previous year, new initiatives to deal with health insurance problems merit a high priority among domestic policy initiatives. This paper examines the opportunities for assisting full-time workers (and their families) who do not receive employer-paid health insurance-a group that now includes 49 million individuals-by using three policy tools that Congress and President Clinton have already agreed to use in recent healthcare legislation: (a) equitable tax assistance; (b) market reforms; and (c) competition among health plans that offer economical benefits. Estimates for a model plan illustrate that such strategies could make decent private health insurance more affordable and more accessible for workers and their families who want to purchase it; family insurance protection, with guaranteed issue of insurance and large-group-rated premiums, could be offered at potential savings of 42% (or more). Premiums for worker's coverage, after tax assistance, would be below $1,200 per year, i.e., less than 60 cents per hour. These market-oriented reforms can be accomplished with a limited government role, and, after start-up costs, ongoing federal expenses would be modest, predictable, and controllable. When combined with the new $24 billion child health initiative to assist low-income families, the proposed plan would provide considerable progress toward universal access to affordable insurance coverage.

  2. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act. PMID:26395215

  3. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

  4. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  5. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  6. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. PMID:17159275

  7. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  8. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits. PMID:27003322

  9. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  10. The Benefit Aftereffects of ACA--Accelerating Toward a New Health Economy.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Greg; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) focused largely on improving access to health care coverage for the uninsured, its broader and longer-term influence may have been its impact on accelerating key trends and strategies that major employers and other stakeholders have been targeting for years. This article looks at some of these trends, where we were pre-ACA and how ACA (through benefit mandates, shared responsibility penalties, Cadillac plan tax, health information technology, accountable care organizations, etc.) has helped to accelerate and refocus efforts. In addition, the public exchange paradigm has given rise to a private exchange movement that is helping further accelerate the transformation of the New Health Economy.

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-07-20

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms.

  12. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms. PMID:27447602

  13. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  14. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-06-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  15. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  16. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  17. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  18. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem. PMID:22208748

  19. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem.

  20. Serving within the British Army: research into mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Ashford, Robert; Simpson, Robin

    The mental health (MH) of soldiers remains extremely newsworthy and is regularly featured in high profile media forums that focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the authors feel that there are distinct benefits to serving within the Army, and that it provides effective occupational medical, MH and welfare support. This research study explores potential benefits and stressors of being in the Army and provides an overview of Army mental health services (AMHS) through the perspectives of AMHS personnel, 84% of which were nurses. The study indicated that the Army can provide a protective community, sharing a bond based on common values and experiences. The Army can provide soldiers with career opportunities that are not available in civilian life, and there are opportunities to develop an employment profile, enhanced by internal and external educational training, and encapsulated within a progressive career pathway. The Army can also be seen to offer an escape route, preventing soldiers entering a life of crime, and supplying the stable family these soldiers had never experienced. The provision of leadership, within an environment where soldiers are valued and stigma is not tolerated can potentially shield against MH problems.

  1. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  2. Serving within the British Army: research into mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Ashford, Robert; Simpson, Robin

    The mental health (MH) of soldiers remains extremely newsworthy and is regularly featured in high profile media forums that focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the authors feel that there are distinct benefits to serving within the Army, and that it provides effective occupational medical, MH and welfare support. This research study explores potential benefits and stressors of being in the Army and provides an overview of Army mental health services (AMHS) through the perspectives of AMHS personnel, 84% of which were nurses. The study indicated that the Army can provide a protective community, sharing a bond based on common values and experiences. The Army can provide soldiers with career opportunities that are not available in civilian life, and there are opportunities to develop an employment profile, enhanced by internal and external educational training, and encapsulated within a progressive career pathway. The Army can also be seen to offer an escape route, preventing soldiers entering a life of crime, and supplying the stable family these soldiers had never experienced. The provision of leadership, within an environment where soldiers are valued and stigma is not tolerated can potentially shield against MH problems. PMID:22067839

  3. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  4. Potential health benefits of controlling dust emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Kang, Chuyun; Yi, Kan; Cheng, Yanli; Shen, Xing; Tao, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Although the adverse impact of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) on human health has been well acknowledged, little is known of the health effects of its specific constituents. Over the past decade, the annual average dust concentrations in Beijing were approximately ∼14 μg m(-3), a value that poses a great threat to the city's 20 million residents. In this study, we quantify the potential long-term health damages in Beijing resulting from the dust exposure that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Each year in Beijing, nearly 4000 (95% CI: 1000-7000) premature deaths may be associated with long-term dust exposure, and ∼20% of these deaths are attributed to lung cancer. A decomposition analysis of the inter-annual variability of premature deaths in Beijing indicates that dust concentrations determine the year-to-year tendency, whereas population growth and lung cancer mortality rates drive the increasing tendency of premature death. We suggest that if Beijing takes effective measures towards reducing dust concentrations (e.g., controlling the resuspension of road dust and the fugitive dust from construction sites) to a level comparable to that of New York City's, the associated premature deaths will be significantly reduced. This recommendation offers "low-hanging fruit" suggestions for pollution control that would greatly benefit the public health in Beijing. PMID:27038572

  5. Potential health benefits of controlling dust emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Kang, Chuyun; Yi, Kan; Cheng, Yanli; Shen, Xing; Tao, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Although the adverse impact of fine particulate matter (i.e., PM2.5) on human health has been well acknowledged, little is known of the health effects of its specific constituents. Over the past decade, the annual average dust concentrations in Beijing were approximately ∼14 μg m(-3), a value that poses a great threat to the city's 20 million residents. In this study, we quantify the potential long-term health damages in Beijing resulting from the dust exposure that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Each year in Beijing, nearly 4000 (95% CI: 1000-7000) premature deaths may be associated with long-term dust exposure, and ∼20% of these deaths are attributed to lung cancer. A decomposition analysis of the inter-annual variability of premature deaths in Beijing indicates that dust concentrations determine the year-to-year tendency, whereas population growth and lung cancer mortality rates drive the increasing tendency of premature death. We suggest that if Beijing takes effective measures towards reducing dust concentrations (e.g., controlling the resuspension of road dust and the fugitive dust from construction sites) to a level comparable to that of New York City's, the associated premature deaths will be significantly reduced. This recommendation offers "low-hanging fruit" suggestions for pollution control that would greatly benefit the public health in Beijing.

  6. Health Benefits 101: The University of Kentucky's Effort to Improve Lives, Control Costs and Offer a Sustainable Benefits Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Joey

    2008-01-01

    A few years ago, the University of Kentucky found itself faced with unsustainable trends in retiree health care costs, as well as the rising cost of health care in general. This article provides an overview of the process and decisions made by the University of Kentucky to effect positive change in its health benefits for employees, retirees and…

  7. Analysis of the benefits of carbon credits to hydrogen addition to midsize gas turbine feedstocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Towns, B.; Keller, Jay O.; Schefer, Robert W.; Skolnik, Edward G.

    2006-02-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the natural gas feedstocks of midsize (30-150 MW) gas turbines was analyzed as a method of reducing nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and CO{sub 2} emissions. In particular, the costs of hydrogen addition were evaluated against the combined costs for other current NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions control technologies for both existing and new systems to determine its benefits and market feasibility. Markets for NO{sub x} emissions credits currently exist in California and the Northeast States and are expected to grow. Although regulations are not currently in place in the United States, several other countries have implemented carbon tax and carbon credit programs. The analysis thus assumes that the United States adopts future legislation similar to these programs. Therefore, potential sale of emissions credits for volunteer retrofits was also included in the study. It was found that hydrogen addition is a competitive alternative to traditional emissions abatement techniques under certain conditions. The existence of carbon credits shifts the system economics in favor of hydrogen addition.

  8. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440.335 Section 440.335 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.335 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  9. Fundamentals and health benefits of xanthohumol, a natural product derived from hops and beer.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Paulo J; Carvalho, Daniel O; Cruz, José M; Guido, Luís F; Barros, Aquiles A

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in phenolic compounds and their presumed role in the prevention of various degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hops and beer, is among the phenolic compounds which have received the most attention in recent years. This compound has a range of interesting biological properties that may have therapeutic utility. Based on the health-promoting properties of xanthohumol, the production of a beer enriched in this substance would be of huge interest to the brewing industry, for the benefits this could bring to consumer's health. This paper reviews recent and important data with respect to the health benefits or biological activities of xanthohumol and beer. In addition, an overview of the chemistry and biotechnological aspects of xanthohumol is presented. PMID:19445313

  10. Charcoal addition to soils in NE England: a carbon sink with environmental co-benefits?

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Worrall, F

    2011-04-01

    Interest in the application of biochar (charcoal produced during the pyrolysis of biomass) to agricultural land is increasing across the world, recognised as a potential way to capture and store atmospheric carbon. Its interest is heightened by its potential co-benefits for soil quality and fertility. The majority of research has however been undertaken in tropical rather than temperate regions. This study assessed the potential for lump-wood charcoal addition (as a substitute for biochar) to soil types which are typically under arable and forest land-use in North East England. The study was undertaken over a 28 week period and found: i) No significant difference in net ecosystem respiration (NER) between soils containing charcoal and those without, other than in week 1 of the trial. ii) A significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils containing large amounts of charcoal than from those untreated, when planted with ryegrass. iii) That when increased respiration or DOC loss did occur, neither was sufficiently large to alter the carbon sink benefits of charcoal application. iv) That charcoal incorporation resulted in a significantly lower nitrate flux in soil leachate from mineral soils. v) That charcoal incorporation caused significant increases in soil pH, from 6.98 to 7.22 on bare arable soils when 87,500 kg charcoal/ha was applied. Consideration of both the carbon sink and environmental benefits observed here suggests that charcoal application to temperate soils typical of North East England should be considered as a method of carbon sequestration. Before large scale land application is encouraged, further large scale trials should be undertaken to confirm the positive results of this research.

  11. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... business practice in the management or administration of a health benefits plan is cause for OPM's... health benefits carriers. 1609.7001 Section 1609.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE...

  12. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.335 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  13. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... health benefits carriers. 1609.7001 Section 1609.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION...

  14. Employer purchasing of health care benefits: marketing implications of an organizational buying perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J M; Hurley, R E

    1996-01-01

    While health care providers recognize employers as key purchasers of health benefits, there is little understanding of how employers make these important buys. We propose a model of health benefits acquisition using an organizational buying perspective, and discuss findings from a study of employee benefits managers. Critical marketing implications are presented. PMID:10158489

  15. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.335 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  16. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion. PMID:26075546

  17. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  18. The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science.

    PubMed

    Reinwald, Susan; Weaver, Connie M; Kester, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation into the health benefits of calcium citrate malate (CCM) since it was first patented in the late 1980s. This chapter is a comprehensive summary of the supporting science and available evidence on the bioavailability and health benefits of consuming CCM. It highlights the important roles that CCM can play during various life stages. CCM has been shown to facilitate calcium retention and bone accrual in children and adolescents. In adults, it effectively promotes the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass. In conjunction with vitamin D, CCM also decreases bone fracture risk in the elderly, slows the rate of bone loss in old age, and is of benefit to the health and well-being of postmenopausal women. CCM is exceptional in that it confers many unique benefits that go beyond bone health. Unlike other calcium sources that necessitate supplementation be in conjunction with a meal to ensure an appreciable benefit is derived, CCM can be consumed with or without food and delivers a significant nutritional benefit to individuals of all ages. The chemistry of CCM makes it a particularly beneficial calcium source for individuals with hypochlorydia or achlorydia, which generally includes the elderly and those on medications that decrease gastric acid secretion. CCM is also recognized as a calcium source that does not increase the risk of kidney stones, and in fact it protects against stone-forming potential. The versatile nature of CCM makes it a convenient and practical calcium salt for use in moist foods and beverages. The major factor that may preclude selection of CCM as a preferred calcium source is the higher cost compared to other sources of calcium commonly used for fortification (e.g., calcium carbonate and tricalcium phosphate). However, formation of CCM directly within beverages or other fluid foods and/or preparations, and the addition of a concentrated CCM solution or slurry, are relatively cost-effective methods by

  19. Condensed catechins and their potential health-benefits.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-10-15

    Condensed catechins are commonly present in fermented tea, and are produced by the oxidation of monomeric catechins. Due to their auto-oxidation, catechins have diverse structural features, including different binding modes and degrees of polymerization. Because of their structural complexity, their physiological functions and possible health-benefits have not yet been fully investigated. This review focuses on the physiological potentials of dimeric and trimeric catechins in the intestine (regulation of absorption across the intestinal membrane), blood vessels (vasorelaxation in vessel regulation), and muscle organs (promotion of glucose uptake resulting in an anti-diabetic effect). Furthermore, the roles of non-absorbable theaflavins (dimeric catechins), absorbable theasinensins (dimeric catechins), and absorbable procyanidins (dimeric and trimeric catechins) on target organs are discussed. PMID:26386288

  20. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  1. The “Health Benefit Basket” in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2005-01-01

    This contribution describes the entitlements in Dutch health care and explores how these entitlements are determined and to whom they apply. The focus is on services of curative care. No comprehensive positive or negative list of individual services is included in formal laws. Instead, the legislation states only what general types of medical services are covered and generally the “usual care” criterion determines to which interventions patients are entitled. This criterion is not very restrictive and yields local variations in service provision, which are moderated by practice guidelines. It is conceivable, however, that the recent introduction of the DBC financing system will change the reimbursement and therefore benefit-setting policy. PMID:16270209

  2. Possible Health Benefits From Reducing Occupational Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Joseph D.; Ray, Tapas K.; Park, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic fields (MF) from AC electricity are a Possible Human Carcinogen, based on limited epidemiologic evidence from exposures far below occupational health limits. Methods To help formulate government guidance on occupational MF, the cancer cases prevented and the monetary benefits accruing to society by reducing workplace exposures were determined. Life-table methods produced Disability Adjusted Life Years, which were converted to monetary values. Results Adjusted for probabilities of causality, the expected increase in a worker’s disability-free life are 0.04 year (2 weeks) from a 1 microtesla (μT) MF reduction in average worklife exposure, which is equivalent to $5,100/worker/μT in year 2010 U.S. dollars (95% confidence interval $1,000–$9,000/worker/μT). Where nine electrosteel workers had 13.8 μT exposures, for example, moving them to ambient MFs would provide $600,000 in benefits to society (uncertainty interval $0–$1,000,000). Conclusions When combined with the costs of controls, this analysis provides guidance for precautionary recommendations for managing occupational MF exposures. PMID:23129537

  3. Who pays and who benefits from health care? An assessment of equity in health care financing and benefit distribution in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mtei, Gemini; Makawia, Suzan; Ally, Mariam; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Meheus, Filip; Borghi, Josephine

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about health system equity in Tanzania, whether in terms of distribution of the health care financing burden or distribution of health care benefits. This study undertook a combined analysis of both financing and benefit incidence to explore the distribution of health care benefits and financing burden across socio-economic groups. A system-wide analysis of benefits was undertaken, including benefits from all providers irrespective of ownership. The analysis used the household budget survey (HBS) from 2001, the most recent nationally representative survey data publicly available at the time, to analyse the distribution of health care payments through user fees, health insurance contributions [from the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) for the formal sector and the Community Health Fund (CHF), for the rural informal sector] and taxation. Due to lack of information on NHIF and CHF contributions in the HBS, a primary survey was administered to estimate CHF enrollment and contributions; assumptions were used to estimate NHIF contributions within the HBS. Data from the same household survey, administered to 2224 households in seven districts/councils, was used to analyse the distribution of health care benefits across socio-economic groups. The health financing system was mildly progressive overall, with income taxes and NHIF contributions being the most progressive financing sources. Out-of-pocket payments and contributions to the CHF were regressive. The health benefit distribution was fairly even but the poorest received a lower share of benefits relative to their share of need for health care. Public primary care facility use was pro-poor, whereas higher level and higher cost facility use was generally pro-rich. We conclude that health financing reforms can improve equity, so long as integration of health insurance schemes is promoted along with cross-subsidization and greater reliance on general taxation to finance health care for the poorest.

  4. As health care technology advances: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Funk, Marjorie

    2011-07-01

    Technology permeates every dimension of critical care. Bedside technology is integral to the assessment and monitoring of patients and to the provision of treatment. It also helps with access to vital information and can enhance communication. Although it offers extraordinary benefits to patients and clinicians, technology may also create problems. Our research addresses the wise use of technology in the care of critically ill patients. It examines the appropriate and safe use of technology, its equitable distribution, and the human-machine interface. Given that some devices are more effective and safe than others, it is important to assess the appropriateness of a specific technology in a specific situation. Just because a particular device is available, is it necessary to use it in every possible situation? Do we use it just because it is there? Do we employ "heroic" measures sometimes when it would be kinder not to? Studies on the safe use of technology in patient care lead to a consideration of the risk-benefit ratio. Our research on gender and racial differences in the use of cardiac procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction focused on the equitable distribution of technology. The results of this line of research, along with those of numerous other studies, suggest possible racism in our health care practices. The human-machine interface, or how clinicians and patients interact with health care technology, is a crucial focus of research. Technology is at the heart of critical care. It allows clinicians to perform miracles, but is also a seductive and self-perpetuating force that needs careful monitoring by those who use it.

  5. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  6. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored.

  7. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. PMID:27348699

  8. Hereditary Cancer: Example of a Public Health Approach to Ensure Population Health Benefits of Genetic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cragun, Deborah; Lewis, Courtney; Camperlengo, Lucia; Pal, Tuya

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the identification, prevention, and treatment of hereditary cancer as an important public health concern. Hereditary cancer research and educational outreach activities are used to illustrate how public health functions can help to achieve health benefits of genetic and genomic medicine. First, we evaluate genetic service delivery through triangulating patient and provider survey results which reveal variability among providers in hereditary cancer knowledge and genetic service provision. Second, we describe efforts we have made to assure competency among healthcare providers and to inform, educate and empower patients with regard to the rapidly evolving field of genomics and hereditary cancer. Lastly, key policy-issues raised by our experiences are discussed in the context of how they may help us to more effectively translate future genomic technologies into practice in order to attain population health benefits from genetic and genomic medicine.

  9. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits available under base-benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. (2) If the benchmark coverage... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440.335 Section 440.335 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  10. Designing food structures for nutrition and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jennifer E; Wallis, Gareth A; Spyropoulos, Fotis; Lillford, Peter J; Norton, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    In addition to providing specific sensory properties (e.g., flavor or textures), there is a need to produce foods that also provide functionality within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, over and above simple nutrition. As such, there is a need to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in addition to the food structure-physiology interactions. In vivo techniques and in vitro models have allowed us to study and simulate these processes, which aids us in the design of food microstructures that can provide functionality within the human body. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the health or nutritional needs of different groups of consumers when designing food structures, to provide targeted functionality. Examples of three groups of consumers (elderly, obese, and athletes) are given to demonstrate their differing nutritional requirements and the formulation engineering approaches that can be utilized to improve the health of these individuals. Eating is a pleasurable process, but foods of the future will be required to provide much more in terms of functionality for health and nutrition.

  11. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Smith, Steven J; Silva, Raquel A; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies(1-6) typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants(7-9), long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality(10-12). Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter(13) and ozone(14), global modeling methods(15), and new future scenarios(16). Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50-380 (ton CO2)(-1), which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  12. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Smith, Steven J; Silva, Raquel A; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies(1-6) typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants(7-9), long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality(10-12). Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter(13) and ozone(14), global modeling methods(15), and new future scenarios(16). Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.5, and 2.2±0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $50-380 (ton CO2)(-1), which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future. PMID:24926321

  13. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing...

  15. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  16. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... from providing any benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one...

  17. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to... benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the...

  18. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to... benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  20. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to... benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the...

  1. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical... shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in...

  2. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident... discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner which...

  3. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 106.39... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident... discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner which...

  4. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical... shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in...

  5. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 2555... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  6. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 25.440... from providing any benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one...

  7. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to... benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing...

  9. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  10. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  11. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 15a.39... RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing...

  13. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to... benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the...

  14. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical... shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in...

  15. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 196... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in... students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service,...

  16. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical... shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in...

  17. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  18. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  19. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  20. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  1. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  3. 10 CFR 1042.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1042.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  4. 29 CFR 36.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 36.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440...

  5. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 25.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  6. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  7. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  8. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440...

  9. Apoptosis inhibitors and mini-agrin have additive benefits in congenital muscular dystrophy mice

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Sarina; Lin, Shuo; Thurnherr, Raphael; Erb, Michael; Meier, Thomas; Rüegg, Markus A

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in LAMA2 cause a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A. Studies in mouse models have shown that transgenic expression of a designed, miniaturized form of the extracellular matrix molecule agrin (‘mini-agrin’) or apoptosis inhibition by either overexpression of Bcl2 or application of the pharmacological substance omigapil can ameliorate the disease. Here, we tested whether mini-agrin and anti-apoptotic agents act on different pathways and thus exert additive benefits in MDC1A mouse models. By combining mini-agrin with either transgenic Bcl2 expression or oral omigapil application, we show that the ameliorating effect of mini-agrin, which acts by restoring the mechanical stability of muscle fibres and, thereby, reduces muscle fibre breakdown and concomitant fibrosis, is complemented by apoptosis inhibitors, which prevent the loss of muscle fibres. Treatment of mice with both agents results in improved muscle regeneration and increased force. Our results show that the combination of mini-agrin and anti-apoptosis treatment has beneficial effects that are significantly bigger than the individual treatments and suggest that such a strategy might also be applicable to MDC1A patients. PMID:21674808

  10. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition.

  11. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates. PMID:25037820

  12. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.

  13. D-002 (Beeswax Alcohols): Concurrent Joint Health Benefits and Gastroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Vivian; Mas, R.; Carbajal, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection. PMID:26009643

  14. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    PubMed

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  15. mTOR and the health benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kurt; Baar, Keith

    2014-12-01

    Exercise is the greatest physiological stress that our bodies experience. For example, during maximal endurance exercise in elite athlete's cardiac output can increase up to 8-fold and the working muscles receive 21-times more blood each minute than at rest. Given the physiological stress associated with exercise and the adaptations that occur to handle this stress, it is not surprising that exercise training is known to prevent or effectively treat a multitude of degenerative conditions including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and many others. Many of the health benefits of exercise are mediated by the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), either in complex 1 or 2, not only within the working muscle, but also in distant tissues such as fat, liver, and brain. This review will discuss how exercise activates mTOR in diverse tissues and the ways that mTOR is important in the adaptive response that makes us bigger, stronger, and healthier as a result of exercise. PMID:25218794

  16. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases.

  17. 45 CFR 147.150 - Coverage of essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... January 1, 2014. (b) Cost-sharing under group health plans. (c) Child-only plans. If a health insurance... CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS... package. A health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in the individual or small......

  18. The benefits of e-health support for older family caregivers in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Blusi, Madeleine; Dalin, Rolf; Jong, Mats

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a pragmatic, mixed methods study comparing rural family caregivers receiving e-health caregiver support (n = 35) with a control group (n = 21) receiving conventional, non-e-health, caregiver support. After 18 months, the benefits of support were evaluated using the Care Effectiveness Scale (40-items exploring the domains of preparedness, enrichment and predictability). In all domains the e-health group scored significantly higher than the control group. The adjusted difference for overall benefits was 3.0 (P = 0.02) on the scale 0-10. In addition, semi structured interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of the caregivers. For the e-health group flexibility, availability and being able to individualise the support were essential factors. All caregivers in the control group found conventional support to be beneficial, but also stressed unmet needs related to the conventional support being standardised and non-flexible. The study suggests that providers of caregiver support should offer e-health support as an alternative to conventional caregiver support, as it can be more beneficial to family caregivers.

  19. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  20. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  1. 32 CFR 199.20 - Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP...) § 199.20 Continued Health Care Benefit Program (CHCBP). (a) Purpose. The CHCBP is a premium-based temporary health care coverage program that will be available to beneficiaries who meet the eligibility...

  2. 78 FR 58291 - TRICARE; Fiscal Year 2014 Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Fiscal Year 2014 Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated Continued Health Care Benefit Program Premiums for Fiscal Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated Continued Health Care...

  3. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  4. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  5. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 29 CFR 2560.503-1 for group health plans complies with the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder... Benefits § 146.136 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms....

  6. 45 CFR 147.160 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. 147.160 Section 147.160 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS... INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.160 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) In general....

  7. Benefits in Cash or in Kind? A Community Consultation on Types of Benefits in Health Research on the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Njue, Maureen; Molyneux, Sassy; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Kamuya, Dorcas; Marsh, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing benefits and payments to participants in health research, either in cash or in kind, is a common but ethically controversial practice. While much literature has concentrated on appropriate levels of benefits or payments, this paper focuses on less well explored ethical issues around the nature of study benefits, drawing on views of community members living close to an international health research centre in Kenya. Methods The consultation, including 90 residents purposively chosen to reflect diversity, used a two-stage deliberative process. Five half-day workshops were each followed by between two and four small group discussions, within a two week period (total 16 groups). During workshops and small groups, facilitators used participatory methods to share information, and promote reflection and debate on ethical issues around types of benefits, including cash, goods, medical and community benefits. Data from workshop and field notes, and voice recordings of small group discussions, were managed using Nvivo 10 and analysed using a Framework Analysis approach. Findings and Conclusions The methods generated in-depth discussion with high levels of engagement. Particularly for the most-poor, under-compensation of time in research carries risks of serious harm. Cash payments may best support compensation of costs experienced; while highly valued, goods and medical benefits may be more appropriate as an ‘appreciation’ or incentive for participation. Community benefits were seen as important in supporting but not replacing individual-level benefits, and in building trust in researcher-community relations. Cash payments were seen to have higher risks of undue inducement, commercialising relationships and generating family conflicts than other benefits, particularly where payments are high. Researchers should consider and account for burdens families may experience when children are involved in research. Careful context-specific research planning

  8. A systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Craig S.; Luo, Anna Y.; Krägeloh, Chris; Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor health consequences of stress are well recognized, and students in higher education may be at particular risk. Tai Chi integrates physical exercise with mindfulness techniques and seems well suited to relieve stress and related conditions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the health benefits of Tai Chi for students in higher education reported in the English and Chinese literature, using an evidence hierarchy approach, allowing the inclusion of studies additional to randomized controlled trials. Results Sixty eight reports in Chinese and 8 in English were included — a combined study sample of 9263 participants. Eighty one health outcomes were extracted from reports, and assigned evidence scores according to the evidence hierarchy. Four primary and eight secondary outcomes were found. Tai Chi is likely to benefit participants by increasing flexibility, reducing symptoms of depression, decreasing anxiety, and improving interpersonal sensitivity (primary outcomes). Secondary outcomes include improved lung capacity, balance, 800/1000m run time, quality of sleep, symptoms of compulsion, somatization and phobia, and decreased hostility. Conclusions Our results show Tai Chi yields psychological and physical benefits, and should be considered by higher education institutions as a possible means to promote the physical and psychological well-being of their students. PMID:26844196

  9. The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Karoly, David; Wiseman, John

    2016-01-01

    Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies. PMID:27657098

  10. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  11. Health systems ownership: can regulation preserve community benefits?

    PubMed

    Pauly, M V

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses two questions. What determines the amount of community benefit a nonprofit firm will provide? What would be the expected effect of legal rules requiring nonprofit firms to provide more community benefit than they would otherwise have chosen? The amount of community benefit provided, it is argued, depends on the desires of the donors who endow the nonprofit firm with its equity capital and control its corporate board. The effect of a law requiring the provision of community benefit depends on the degree of competition in the local market. In competitive markets, such a rule is like a hidden tax. In markets in which nonprofit firms have market power, it may divert resources from types of benefit valued highly by the board toward activities valued highly by the political process. The definition of community benefit and the future of nonprofit hospitals are also discussed. PMID:10157360

  12. Soy foods and supplementation: a review of commonly perceived health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Sahin, Azize

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of soy foods and supplements upon human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public. No one has conducted a broad evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting or refuting popular perceptions of the health effects of soy consumption. In this article, the authors have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the literature surrounding the health effects of soy consumption that are of greatest interest. This review has focused on 5 health benefits- relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis, and 5 health risks-increased risk of breast cancer, male hormonal and fertility problems, hypothyroidism, antinutrient content, and harmful processing by-products. Systematic reviews of human trials, prospective human trials, observational human studies, animal models, in vitro studies, and laboratory analyses of soy components were included for review. This literature review revealed that soy foods and isoflavones may provide relief from menopausal symptoms and protect against breast cancer and heart disease. Soy does not appear to offer protection against osteoporosis. The evidence on male fertility and reproductive hormones was conflicting; some studies demonstrated a deleterious impact caused by soy consumption and others showed no effect. Soy supplementation also appears to affect thyroid function in an inconsistent manner, as studies have shown both increases and decreases in the same parameters of thyroid activity. Soaking, fermentation, and heating may reduce problematic antinutrients contained in soy. The authors found that consuming moderate amounts of traditionally prepared and minimally processed soy foods may offer modest health benefits while minimizing potential for adverse health effects. However, additional studies are necessary to elucidate the variable thyroid response to soy supplementation, and more rigorous studies are required to

  13. The Benefit Aftereffects of ACA--Accelerating Toward a New Health Economy.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Greg; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) focused largely on improving access to health care coverage for the uninsured, its broader and longer-term influence may have been its impact on accelerating key trends and strategies that major employers and other stakeholders have been targeting for years. This article looks at some of these trends, where we were pre-ACA and how ACA (through benefit mandates, shared responsibility penalties, Cadillac plan tax, health information technology, accountable care organizations, etc.) has helped to accelerate and refocus efforts. In addition, the public exchange paradigm has given rise to a private exchange movement that is helping further accelerate the transformation of the New Health Economy. PMID:26540940

  14. Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter in Mental Health: A Theoretical Review.

    PubMed

    Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, fierce competition and socioeconomic interaction stress the quality of life, causing a negative influence on a person's mental health. Laughter is a positive sensation, and seems to be a useful and healthy way to overcome stress. Laughter therapy is a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapies that could make physical, psychological, and social relationships healthy, ultimately improving the quality of life. Laughter therapy, as a non-pharmacological, alternative treatment, has a positive effect on the mental health and the immune system. In addition, laughter therapy does not require specialized preparations, such as suitable facilities and equipment, and it is easily accessible and acceptable. For these reasons, the medical community has taken notice and attempted to include laughter therapy to more traditional therapies. Decreasing stress-making hormones found in the blood, laughter can mitigate the effects of stress. Laughter decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (a major dopamine catabolite), indicating a reversal of the stress response. Depression is a disease, where neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, are reduced, and there is something wrong in the mood control circuit of the brain. Laughter can alter dopamine and serotonin activity. Furthermore, endorphins secreted by laughter can help when people are uncomfortable or in a depressed mood. Laughter therapy is a noninvasive and non-pharmacological alternative treatment for stress and depression, representative cases that have a negative influence on mental health. In conclusion, laughter therapy is effective and scientifically supported as a single or adjuvant therapy.

  15. Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter in Mental Health: A Theoretical Review.

    PubMed

    Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, fierce competition and socioeconomic interaction stress the quality of life, causing a negative influence on a person's mental health. Laughter is a positive sensation, and seems to be a useful and healthy way to overcome stress. Laughter therapy is a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapies that could make physical, psychological, and social relationships healthy, ultimately improving the quality of life. Laughter therapy, as a non-pharmacological, alternative treatment, has a positive effect on the mental health and the immune system. In addition, laughter therapy does not require specialized preparations, such as suitable facilities and equipment, and it is easily accessible and acceptable. For these reasons, the medical community has taken notice and attempted to include laughter therapy to more traditional therapies. Decreasing stress-making hormones found in the blood, laughter can mitigate the effects of stress. Laughter decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (a major dopamine catabolite), indicating a reversal of the stress response. Depression is a disease, where neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, are reduced, and there is something wrong in the mood control circuit of the brain. Laughter can alter dopamine and serotonin activity. Furthermore, endorphins secreted by laughter can help when people are uncomfortable or in a depressed mood. Laughter therapy is a noninvasive and non-pharmacological alternative treatment for stress and depression, representative cases that have a negative influence on mental health. In conclusion, laughter therapy is effective and scientifically supported as a single or adjuvant therapy. PMID:27439375

  16. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457.430 Section 457.430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  17. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457.430 Section 457.430 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS...

  18. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-benchmark plans described in 45 CFR 156.100. ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark...

  19. What You Should Know about Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... HAT Y OU S HOULD K NOW A BOUT Hormone Therapy Health Risks and Benefits V aginal dryness ... Women _ s Health Ini- tiative in 1993 to study hormone effects. Researchers were expecting to find that hormones ...

  20. Intelligent use and clinical benefits of electronic health records in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Robert J; Eyler, Anne E; Denny, Joshua C

    2015-03-01

    In the past 10 years, electronic health records (EHRs) have had growing impact in clinical care. EHRs efficiently capture and reuse clinical information, which can directly benefit patient care by guiding treatments and providing effective reminders for best practices. The increased adoption has also lead to more complex implementations, including robust, disease-specific tools, such as for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, the data collected through normal clinical care is also used in secondary research, helping to refine patient treatment for the future. Although few studies have directly demonstrated benefits for direct clinical care of RA, the opposite is true for EHR-based research - RA has been a particularly fertile ground for clinical and genomic research that have leveraged typically advanced informatics methods to accurately define RA populations. We discuss the clinical impact of EHRs in RA treatment and their impact on secondary research, and provide recommendations for improved utility in future EHR installations.

  1. The effect of health benefit information on consumers health value, attitudes and intentions.

    PubMed

    Tudoran, Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C

    2009-06-01

    This research explored the effect of health benefit information on individuals' stated health value, attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, expectations, perceptions, and intentions to purchase a new fibre-enriched fish product. The study used a randomized design involving an experimental group receiving fibre and health information on the product and a control group who did not receive such information. The results indicated that consumers in the experimental group scored higher on the average attitudes towards functional/enriched foods than did consumers in the control group. No significant differences were observed for other variables. Following a value-attitude-behaviour approach, the study proposed a model relating consumers' health value to their attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, attitudes towards the new functional product and intention to purchase the product, and tested how information affected the structural model. Four of the seven relationships in the structural model proved to be moderated by information. For example, the results indicated that information constrained the association between the health value and product-related health perceptions or hedonic expectations, when individuals had negative attitudes towards the functional/enriched food products. Overall, the study advances the existing literature on the effects of information on consumer behaviour by adding insights into how information simultaneously influenced the mean values and the relationships among the health value, attitudinal factors and intention. PMID:19501752

  2. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  3. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  4. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....440(b)(4) if its ACRs (calculated in accordance with § 417.594) are less than the average per capita... benefits and reduced payment is equivalent to the difference between the average of its per capita rates of...— (i) Elects to receive reduced payment so that there is no difference between the average of its...

  5. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... benefits and services. Subject to § 146.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  6. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... benefits and services. Subject to § 17.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  7. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... benefits and services. Subject to § 41.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  8. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... benefits and services. Subject to § 229.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  9. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 28.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  10. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 8a.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  11. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... age who are also eligible for or entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD. If an aged individual is, or could upon filing an application become, entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD,...

  12. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... age who are also eligible for or entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD. If an aged individual is, or could upon filing an application become, entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD,...

  13. 42 CFR 411.172 - Medicare benefits secondary to group health plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disability benefits under title II of the Act and 20 CFR 404.315 of the SSA regulations. (2) For services... age who are also eligible for or entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD. If an aged individual is, or could upon filing an application become, entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD,...

  14. Medical benefits in young adulthood: a population-based longitudinal study of health behaviour and mental health in adolescence and later receipt of medical benefits

    PubMed Central

    Sagatun, Åse; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the extent to which smoking, alcohol, physical activity and mental health problems in 15–16-year-olds are associated with receipt of medical benefits in young adulthood, after adjustment for confounders. Design Prospective population-based cohort survey linked to national registers. Participants In the ‘Youth studies’ from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 15 966 10th graders in 6 Norwegian counties answered a health behaviour and mental health questionnaire; 88% were linked to National Insurance Administration Registers (FD-Trygd). Outcome measure Time to receipt of medical benefits, based on FD-Trygd. Follow-up was from age 18 years until participants were aged 22–26 years. Method We performed Cox regression analyses to examine the extent to which variations in health behaviour and mental health problems during 10th grade were associated with receipt of medical benefits during follow-up. Results Daily smoking at age 15–16 years was associated with a significant increase in hazard of receiving health benefits at follow-up compared with not smoking for boys, HR (95% CI) 1.56 (1.23 to 1.98), and for girls 1.47 (1.12 to 1.93). Physical activity was associated with a decrease in hazard compared with inactivity from 23% to 53% in boys and from 21% to 59% in girls, while use of alcohol showed a mixed pattern. The hazard for benefits use rose with increasing levels of emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity–inattention problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at 15–16 years among both genders. Conclusions Health behaviour and mental health problems in adolescence are independent risk factors for receipt of medical benefits in young adulthood. PMID:25967994

  15. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB. PMID:24456350

  16. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  17. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations.

  18. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M. C.; Giner, R. M.; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects. PMID:23150750

  19. 48 CFR 1604.7101 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health benefit... System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL... at 5 CFR 890.105 and 890.107, respectively. The contract clause at 1652.204-72 of this...

  20. Advances in berry research: the sixth biennial berry health benefits symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies to advance the potential health benefits of berries continue to increase as was evident at the sixth biennial meeting of the Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS). The two and a half-day symposium was held on October 13-15, 2015, in Madison, Wisconsin, United States. The 2015 BHBS feature...

  1. Cost-Shifting and Health Care Benefits: A Study of Selected Ohio School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisci, Pat E.; Penning, James

    1986-01-01

    Data supplied by 18 of the 30 largest school districts in Ohio illustrate that (1) health care benefits have increased drastically; (2) cost-shifting is an efficacious method for reducing health care benefit costs; and (3) costs increase at a lower rate when cost-shifting is adopted. (18 references). (MLF)

  2. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  3. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a... recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health and...

  4. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  5. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  6. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  7. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  8. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  9. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a... recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and...

  10. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  11. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would violate §§...

  12. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  13. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  14. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  15. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  16. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  17. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  18. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would violate §§...

  19. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical... shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and...

  20. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  1. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a... recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and...

  2. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  3. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  4. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.440 Health and insurance... the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would...

  5. 78 FR 50119 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014 AGENCY: U.S... Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year..., Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Wyoming. The...

  6. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    .... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated... appeared in the Federal Register of June 23, 2011 (76 FR 36857). The document amends the Federal...

  7. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  8. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  9. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits... Requirements § 2590.712 Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits. (a) Meaning of terms. For..., however, is not a treatment limitation. (b) Parity requirements with respect to aggregate lifetime...

  10. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  11. Employer-Sponsored Postretirement Health Benefits: Not Your Mother's Medigap Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gail A.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Use nationally representative data to examine retiree health insurance. Concluded that retiree health coverage was widespread and typical benefits were more generous than those in medigap policies. Overlay of typical retiree plan on Medicare resulted in more generous total insurance benefits that those held by working nonelderly or beneficiaries…

  12. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  13. 78 FR 52579 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard Form 2812); Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits... the Federal Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33450) allowing for a 60-day public comment period....

  14. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical...

  15. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and...

  16. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and...

  19. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance...

  20. 77 FR 43127 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013 AGENCY: U.S... Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar...

  1. 75 FR 32972 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011 AGENCY: Office of... Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2011. This is necessary to comply with...

  2. 76 FR 31998 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012 AGENCY: U.S... the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2012. This is necessary...

  3. Perceptions of the risks and benefits of fish consumption: Individual choices to reduce risk and increase health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption often focus on awareness of and adherence to advisories, how much fish people eat, and contaminant levels in those fish. This paper examines knowledge and accuracy of risks and benefits of fish consumption among fishers and other recreationists in the New York Bight, indicative of whether they could make sound dietary decisions. While most respondents knew about health risks (70%) and benefits (94%) of consuming fish, far fewer could name specific risks and benefits. Less than 25% of respondents mentioned mercury and less than 15% mentioned that pregnant women and children were at risk. Far fewer people mentioned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nearly 70% said it was healthy to eat fish, and 45% were aware that fish were rich in healthful oils. Despite the lack of details about what specific risks and benefits of fish, well over a third did not feel they needed more information. Other respondents had basic questions, but did not pose specific questions about the fish they caught or ate that would have clarified their individual risk-balancing decisions. Knowledge of which fish were high in contaminants did not match the mercury or PCB levels in those fish. There was a disconnect between the information base about specific risks and benefits of fish consumption, levels of mercury and PCBs in fish, and the respondent’s desire for more information. These data indicate that respondents did not have enough accurate information about contaminants in fish to make informed risk-balancing decisions. PMID:19193369

  4. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  5. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  6. 45 CFR 156.120 - Collection of data from certain issuers to define essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Standards for Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and Cost... through the purchase of insurance or otherwise. Health insurance product has the meaning given to the...

  7. The next big thing in health benefits: consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Consumers are the only ones who can affect all decision points that drive health care cost and quality. As a result, consumers' health and financial security depend on their taking more responsibility for their health care decisions and having the tools and information needed to do so successfully. This article explains the five key decision points that drive health care cost and quality, how technology aids marketplace innovations, and how employers can help advance consumer choice in order to push the health care system to deliver better care and keep inflation in check. PMID:11881142

  8. Corporate health benefits and the indexing of the personal income tax.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A

    1983-01-01

    This note focuses on the role of the personal income tax in reducing the effective price of health care benefits. Tax-bracket creep is shown to provide a cushion that absorbs relatively large increases in health benefit costs, thus reducing the impetus for employer initiatives to control health care costs. It is hypothesized that the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, with its provision for the indexing of tax brackets, will increase employer concern, and may therefore spur the development of effective employer initiatives to reduce the costs of health benefits.

  9. Retiree health benefits in the United States: a strategic critical management review.

    PubMed

    Asubonteng, P; Bumpus, M; Munchus, G

    1997-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of studies associated with retiree health benefits in the United States. An attempt is made to determine if logical conclusions or trends could be identified regarding this issue of health care policy debate. The forms of retiree health benefits are covered, as is a discussion of Medigap policies and insurance coverage for the elderly. Employer-sponsored retiree benefits and the effects of supplemental coverage on the use of services are also reviewed. Lastly, a discussion and conclusion regarding this research agenda is presented with a critical analysis of the health care policy management debate for the future.

  10. What are the benefits and risks of using return on investment to defend public health programs?

    PubMed

    Brousselle, Astrid; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Benhadj, Lynda

    2016-06-01

    Return on investment (ROI) is an economic measure used to indicate how much economic benefit is derived from a program in relation to its costs. Interest in the use of ROI in public health has grown substantially over recent years. Given its potential influence on resource allocation, it is crucial to understand the benefits and the risks of using ROI to defend public health programs. In this paper, we explore those benefits and risks. We present two recent examples of ROI use in public health in the United States and Canada and conclude with a series of proposals to minimize the risks associated with using ROI to defend public health interventions.

  11. Revisiting the Dialogue on the Transition from Coteaching to Inservice Teaching: New Frameworks, Additional Benefits and Emergent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassell, Beth; LaVan, Sarah Kate

    2009-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we respond to the major points made by Gallo-Fox (this forum), Beers (this forum), Carambo and Stickney (this forum), and Murphy, Carlisle and Beggs (this forum). We focus primarily on the benefits and considerations that stem from employing additional theoretical frameworks for analyzing research in coteaching. We also address…

  12. The erosion of retiree health benefits and retirement behavior: implications for the disability insurance program.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, P

    2000-01-01

    The effects of retiree health insurance on the decision to retire have not been examined until recently. It is an area of increasing significance because of rising health care costs for retirees, the uncertain future of Medicare, and increased life expectancy. In general, studies suggest that individual retirement decisions are strongly responsive to the availability of retiree health insurance. Early retiree benefits and retirement behavior are also important because they may affect the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program. It is not apparent that if a person loses retiree health benefits, or if fewer people are eligible for retiree health benefits in general, claims for DI will increase. The potential 2-year loss of health benefits may be a deterrent to leaving the labor force and claiming DI, although persons who are unable to work would leave the labor force even without health benefits. In order to understand how the decline in retiree health benefits may affect enrollment in DI, analysts must at least incorporate the role of coverage under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA). That act provides many people with access to health insurance during the 2-year gap between eligibility for DI and Medicare. In fact, persons with sufficient means to retire early could use the income from Disability Insurance to buy COBRA coverage during the first 2 years of DI coverage. Determining the effect of the erosion of retiree health benefits on DI must account properly for the role of other factors that affect DI eligibility and participation. The financial incentives of Social Security, pension plans, retirement savings programs, health status, the availability of health insurance, and other factors influencing retirement decisions must be taken fully into account in order to isolate the precise effect of retiree health benefits.

  13. Practical thoughts on cost-benefit analysis and health services.

    PubMed

    Burchell, A; Weeden, R

    1982-08-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is fast becoming--if it is not already--an essential tool in decision making. It is, however, a complex subject, and one in which few doctors have been trained. This paper offers practical thoughts on the art of cost-benefit analysis, and is written for clinicians and other medical specialists who, though inexpert in the techniques of accountancy, nevertheless wish to carry out their own simple analyses in a manner that will enable them, and others, to take effective decisions.

  14. Community benefit: beyond health fairs and form 990.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marty

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals that are committed to a population health strategy should take five steps to address the strategic, cultural, technical, and structural challenges involved in such an effort: Adopt wellness as a strategic priority for the hospital. Challenge those responsible for community health to become more actively involved in actually improving the health of the population the hospital serves. Adopt a wellness philosophy and demonstrate to the community that the organization is committed to that philosophy. Leverage limited charitable resources by collaborating and partnering with community stakeholders. Integrate the agenda, policies, procedures, and systems of clinical care management, quality, and population health functions. PMID:23360059

  15. Audit of health benefit costs at the Department`s Management and Operating Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-23

    The audit disclosed that the Department and certain of its contractors had initiated several positive actions to contain health benefit costs: improving data collection, increasing training, reviewing changes to health plans, improving the language in one contract, increasing the employees, share of health costs at one contractor, and initiating self-insurance at another contractor. Despite these actions, further improvements are needed in the administration of the contractor employee health benefit plans. It was found that the Department did not have the policies and procedures necessary to ensure that the health benefit costs met the tests for reasonableness. The audit of $95 million in health benefit costs incurred at six Management and Operating contractors showed that $15.4 million of these costs were excessive compared to national norms.

  16. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account system? 1002.171 Section 1002.171 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE,...

  17. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  18. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  19. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health. PMID:24479235

  20. A Golden Opportunity to Review Higher Education Retiree Health Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Ed; Straker, Garry

    2004-01-01

    Many higher education institutions today are struggling with the costs of their retiree health plans. The answer to controlling these costs may come in the form of a defined contribution retiree health plan for both current and future retirees. This article examines how such a plan can maximize availability of Medicare Part D prescription…

  1. Health benefits from devolution in England: international lessons.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Yvonne; Johnstone, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Chancellor of the Exchequer's recent announcements to devolve decision making power from Whitehall to 30 English regions provide a challenge to use devolution to deliver more favourable health outcomes. However evaluation of devolved health models internationally is scarce, because it is rarely considered. Evidence from countries with long-standing experience of devolution finds that the best approaches are holistic, seeking fiscal freedoms to sustain the environment, promote health, well-being and citizen engagement. Overall, international outcomes are mixed, with some evidence of greater efficiency of care delivery but little hard evidence of better clinical outcomes or health status. Handling specialised services in a devolved health system is challenging. Regulation by national authorities is important to avoid gaming of the system by providers. Information from the devolved area is important in demonstrating equitable access. We present an evaluation framework and recommend that evaluation continues through governance of these deals during implementation.

  2. What is a health benefit? An evaluation of EFSA opinions on health benefits with reference to probiotics.

    PubMed

    Binnendijk, K H; Rijkers, G T

    2013-09-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. However, before these effects can be referred to as beneficial to human health, such claims need to be evaluated by regulatory institutes such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and allergies (NDA) has published their opinions regarding health claims including probiotics, most of which were rejected in the past years. Using the EFSA database, the NDA dossiers published between 2005 and 2013 were analysed to provide an overview on what grounds certain health effects were accepted as beneficial and others not. The NDA Panel distinguishes between claims that are definitely beneficial, possibly beneficial or non-beneficial to human health. Overall, 78% of all analysed health claims are considered by the NDA Panel as (possibly) beneficial to human health, in particular the gut health effects. Since, in many cases, the scientific substantiation of a particular health claim was deemed insufficient, most applications were turned down. For future health claim applications concerning probiotics to be successful, they should include specific statements on what exactly the microorganism affects, and the scientific substantiation of the particular health claim should be based on the targeted (general) population.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Revisiting the ACA's Essential Health Benefits Requirements.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin W; Corlette, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act broadens and strengthens the health insurance benefits available to consumers by requiring insurers to provide coverage of a minimum set of medical services known as "essential health benefits." Federal officials implemented this reform using transitional policies that left many important decisions to the states, while pledging to reassess that approach in time for the 2016 coverage year. This issue brief examines how states have exercised their options under the initial federal essential health benefits framework. We find significant variation in how states have developed their essential health benefits packages, including their approaches to benefit substitution and coverage of habilitative services. Federal regulators should use insurance company data describing enrollees' experiences with their coverage--information called for under the law's delayed transparency requirements--to determine whether states' differing strategies are producing the coverage improvements promised by reform. PMID:26259257

  5. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  6. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  7. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    PubMed

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  8. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  9. Health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Luckow, Patrick; Fisher, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2016-07-01

    Electricity from fossil fuels contributes substantially to both climate change and the health burden of air pollution. Renewable energy sources are capable of displacing electricity from fossil fuels, but the quantity of health and climate benefits depend on site-specific attributes that are not often included in quantitative models. Here, we link an electrical grid simulation model to an air pollution health impact assessment model and US regulatory estimates of the impacts of carbon to estimate the health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities of different sizes in two different locations. We find that offshore wind in the Mid-Atlantic is capable of producing health and climate benefits of between 54 and 120 per MWh of generation, with the largest simulated facility (3000 MW off the coast of New Jersey) producing approximately 690 million in benefits in 2017. The variability in benefits per unit generation is a function of differences in locations (Maryland versus New Jersey), simulated years (2012 versus 2017), and facility generation capacity, given complexities of the electrical grid and differences in which power plants are offset. This work demonstrates health and climate benefits of offshore wind, provides further evidence of the utility of geographically-refined modeling frameworks, and yields quantitative insights that would allow for inclusion of both climate and public health in benefits assessments of renewable energy.

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  11. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  12. Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare. PMID:21893777

  13. Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare.

  14. A Review of the Health Benefits of Greenness

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Banay, Rachel F.; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly exploring how neighborhood greenness, or vegetation, may affect health behaviors and outcomes. Greenness may influence health by promoting physical activity and social contact; decreasing stress; and mitigating air pollution, noise, and heat exposure. Greenness is generally measured using satellite-based vegetation indices or land-use databases linked to participants’ addresses. In this review, we found fairly strong evidence for a positive association between greenness and physical activity, and a less consistent negative association between greenness and body weight. Research suggests greenness is protective against adverse mental health outcomes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, though most studies were limited by cross-sectional or ecological design. There is consistent evidence that greenness exposure during pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, though findings for other birth outcomes are less conclusive. Future research should follow subjects prospectively, differentiate between greenness quantity and quality, and identify mediators and effect modifiers of greenness-health associations. PMID:26185745

  15. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: choosing an essential health benefits benchmark plan.

    PubMed

    Corlette, Sabrina; Lucia, Kevin W; Levin, Max

    2013-03-01

    To improve the adequacy of private health insurance, the Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover a minimum set of medical benefits, known as "essential health benefits." In implementing this requirement, states were asked to select a "benchmark plan" to serve as a reference point. This issue brief examines state action to select an essential health benefits benchmark plan and finds that 24 states and the District of Columbia selected a plan. All but five states will have a small-group plan as their benchmark. Each state, whether or not it made a benchmark selection, will have a set of essential health benefits that reflects local, employer-based health insurance coverage currently sold in the state. States adopted a variety of approaches to selecting a benchmark, including intergov­ernmental collaboration, stakeholder engagement, and research on benchmark options. PMID:23547335

  16. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: choosing an essential health benefits benchmark plan.

    PubMed

    Corlette, Sabrina; Lucia, Kevin W; Levin, Max

    2013-03-01

    To improve the adequacy of private health insurance, the Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover a minimum set of medical benefits, known as "essential health benefits." In implementing this requirement, states were asked to select a "benchmark plan" to serve as a reference point. This issue brief examines state action to select an essential health benefits benchmark plan and finds that 24 states and the District of Columbia selected a plan. All but five states will have a small-group plan as their benchmark. Each state, whether or not it made a benchmark selection, will have a set of essential health benefits that reflects local, employer-based health insurance coverage currently sold in the state. States adopted a variety of approaches to selecting a benchmark, including intergov­ernmental collaboration, stakeholder engagement, and research on benchmark options.

  17. The essential health benefits provisions of the Affordable Care Act: implications for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Teitelbaum, Joel; Hayes, Katherine

    2011-03-01

    In establishing minimum coverage standards for health insurance plans, the Affordable Care Act includes an "essential health benefits" statute that directs the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services not to make coverage decisions, determine reimbursement rates, establish incentive programs, or design benefits in ways that discriminate against individuals because of their age, disability, or expected length of life. This issue brief examines how this statute will help Americans with disabilities, who currently are subject to discrimination by insurers based on health status and health care need. The authors also discuss the complex issues involved in implementing the essential benefits provision and offer recommendations to federal policymakers for ensuring that people with disabilities receive the full insurance benefits to which they are entitled.

  18. Self-reported health and sickness benefits among parents of children with a disability

    PubMed Central

    Wendelborg, Christian; Tøssebro, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article investigates the possible consequences in self-reported health and receipt of sickness benefits when parenting a child with a disability This study uses data from the population health study, The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 2), and the historical event database, FD-Trygd, which contains Social Security and national insurance data for the Norwegian population. In the analysis, we compare 1587 parents of a child with a disability to other parents. Results indicate that parenting a disabled child impacts on self-reported health, particularly among mothers; however, being a parent to a disabled child has a much stronger effect in explaining the variance in received sickness benefits, and also length of time and frequency of having received sickness benefits. Parents with disabled children report just slightly lower self-reported health but are on sickness benefits more often than other parents which may be attributed to their extended care responsibilities. PMID:27635119

  19. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 86.39 Section 86.39 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  20. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 86.39 Section 86.39 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  1. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... the enrollment, in accordance with this part, and without regard to age, race, sex, health status, or... the organization on account of the prohibited factors (age, race, sex, health status, or...

  2. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... the enrollment, in accordance with this part, and without regard to age, race, sex, health status, or... the organization on account of the prohibited factors (age, race, sex, health status, or...

  3. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... withdrawal of approval of the plan in accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. A health benefits plan shall: (1) Comply... the enrollment, in accordance with this part, and without regard to age, race, sex, health status, or... the organization on account of the prohibited factors (age, race, sex, health status, or...

  4. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... chargeable to the contract; (2) Using fraudulent or unethical business or health care practices or...

  5. Low-Income Employees’ Choices Regarding Employment Benefits Aimed at Improving the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Lovett, Francis; Sabik, Lindsay; Adikes, Katherin; Cheng, Glen; Aomo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Socioeconomic factors are associated with reduced health status in low-income populations. We sought to identify affordable employment benefit packages that might ameliorate these socioeconomic factors and would be consonant with employees’ priorities. Methods. Working in groups (n = 53), low-income employees (n = 408; 62% women, 65% Black) from the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Md, metropolitan area, participated in a computerized exercise in which they expressed their preference for employment benefit packages intended to address socioeconomic determinants of health. The hypothetical costs of these benefits reflected those of the average US benefit package available to low-income employees. Questionnaires ascertained sociodemographic information and attitudes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to examine benefit choices. Results. Groups chose offered benefits in the following descending rank order: health care, retirement, vacation, disability pay, training, job flexibility, family time, dependent care, monetary advice, anxiety assistance, wellness, housing assistance, and nutrition programs. Participants varied in their personal choices, but 78% expressed willingness to abide by their groups’ choices. Conclusions. It is possible to design employment benefits that ameliorate socioeconomic determinants of health and are acceptable to low-income employees. These benefit packages can be provided at the cost of benefit packages currently available to some low-income employees. PMID:17666702

  6. Evaluating the Benefits of Collaboration in Simulation Games: The Case of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organizations have used simulation games for health promotion and communication. To evaluate how simulation games can foster collaboration among stakeholders, this paper develops two social network measures. Objective The paper aims to initiate two specific measures that facilitate organizations and researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based simulation games in fostering collaboration. Methods The two measures are: (1) network density and (2) network diversity. They measure the level of connectedness and communication evenness within social networks. To illustrate how these measures may be used, a hypothetical game about health policy is outlined. Results Web-based games can serve as an effective platform to engage stakeholders because interaction among them is quite convenient. Yet, systematic evaluation and planning are necessary to realize the benefits of these games. The paper suggests directions for testing how the social network dimension of Web-based games can augment individual-level benefits that stakeholders can obtain from playing simulation games. Conclusions While this paper focuses on measuring the structural properties of social networks in Web-based games, further research should focus more attention on the appropriateness of game contents. In addition, empirical research should cover different geographical areas, such as East Asian countries where video games are very popular. PMID:25658851

  7. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  8. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  9. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  10. 75 FR 76615 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... INFORMATION: On April 19, 2010, OPM published proposed regulations (75 FR 20314) with miscellaneous changes... additional administrative inconvenience because the Open Season will end immediately after the...

  11. How to anticipate the assessment of the public health benefit of new medicines?

    PubMed

    Massol, Jacques; Puech, Alain; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The Public Health Benefit (PHB) of new medicines is a recent and French-specific criterion (October 1999 decree) which is often only partially documented in the transparency files due to a lack of timely information. At the time of the first reimbursement application for a new medicine to the "Transparency Committee", the file is exclusively based on data from randomised clinical trials. These data are generated from a global clinical development plan which was designed a long time before the new medicine's submission for reimbursement. And this plan does not systematically provide the data needed to assess the PHB. Thus, one easily understands the difficulty to anticipate and document this recent French criterion. In France, the PHB is both one of the necessary criteria for the reimbursement submission and an indicator for the national health policy management. Its assessment also helps to identify the needs and objectives of the post-registration studies (nowadays in the scope of responsibilities of the "Drug Economics Committee"). The assessment of the PHB criterion is carried through after the marketing authorization process and is an addition to it. To understand how to anticipate the assessment of the new medicines' PHB, one needs to consider how it differs from the preliminary step of the marketing authorization process. Whereas the evaluation for marketing authorization seeks to determine if the new medicine could be useful in a specific indication, the PHB assessment aims at quantifying the therapeutic benefit in a population, taking into account the reference treatments in this population. A new medicine receives a marketing authorization based on the data of the registration file which provides information on the clinical benefit of the new medicine in the populations of the trials and in the context of the trials. On the other side, the PHB looks at the effects of the new medicine at the scale of the general population, in real practice. The PHB

  12. The Benefits of Deploying Health Physics Specialists to Joint Operation Areas.

    PubMed

    Mower, Scott; Bast, Joshua D; Myers, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Preventive Medicine Specialists (military occupational specialty [MOS] 68S) with the health physics specialist (N4) qualification identifier possess a unique force health protection skill set. In garrison, they ensure radiation exposures to patients, occupational workers and the public from hospital activities such as radioisotope therapy and x-ray machines do not to exceed Federal law limits and kept as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining sufficient numbers of health physics specialists (HPSs) to fill authorizations has been a consistent struggle for the Army Medical Department due to the rigorous academic requirements of the additional skill identifier-producing program. This shortage has limited MOS 68SN4 deployment opportunities in the past and prevented medical planners from recognizing the capabilities these Soldiers can bring to the fight. In 2014, for the first time, HPSs were sourced to deploy as an augmentation capability to the 172nd Preventive Medicine Detachment (PM Det), the sole PM Det supporting the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan. Considerable successes in bettering radiation safety practices and improvements in incident and accident response were achieved as a result of their deployment. The purposes of this article are to describe the mission services performed by HPSs in Afghanistan, discuss the benefits of deploying HPSs with PM Dets, and demonstrate to senior medical leadership the importance of maintaining a health physics capability in a theater environment.

  13. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Danielle F.; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J.; Lin, Brenda B.; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense.

  14. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J; Lin, Brenda B; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense. PMID:27334040

  15. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Danielle F.; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J.; Lin, Brenda B.; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense. PMID:27334040

  16. News Note: Addition of drug to standard chemo for prostate cancer shows no benefit

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer patients in a phase 3 trial who were non-responsive to hormone therapy and received the investigational agent atrasentan in addition to a standard chemotherapy regimen, did not have longer survival or longer progression-free survival compared to the patients on the same chemotherapy regimen and a placebo. This determination was made by the trial’s Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) based on a planned interim analysis of the trial.

  17. Multiplicity of effects and health benefits of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kuršvietienė, Lolita; Stanevičienė, Inga; Mongirdienė, Aušra; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is mainly found in grapes and red wine, also in some plants and fruits, such as peanuts, cranberries, pistachios, blueberries and bilberries. Moreover, nowadays this compound is available as purified preparation and dietary supplement. Resveratrol provides a wide range of benefits, including cardiovascular protective, antiplatelet, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and anticancer activities, hence it exhibits a complex mode of action. During the recent years, these properties have been widely studied in animal and human models, both in vitro and in vivo. This paper is intended to present information published during the recent years on the biological activities and multiple effects of resveratrol. PMID:27496184

  18. State-based coverage solutions: the California Health Benefit Exchange.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Micah; Haase, Leif Wellington

    2011-05-01

    California was the first state to create its own health insurance exchange after the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Because of its front-runner status and the sheer size of its coverage expansion, California's choices will have implications for other states as they address difficult issues, including minimizing adverse selection, promoting cost-conscious consumer choice, and seamlessly coordinating with public programs. California took advantage of the flexibility in the federal health reform law to create an exchange that will function as an active purchaser in the marketplace; take significant steps to combat adverse selection both against and within the exchange, including requiring all insurers to sell all tiers of products and making exchange participation a condition of selling catastrophic plans; and allow community-based health plans to develop commercial offerings for the exchange. This brief examines these decisions, which will provide a roadmap for other states as they set up their exchanges. PMID:21630546

  19. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  20. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  1. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  2. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    PubMed

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region.

  3. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  4. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  5. Affordable Health Benefits for Part-Time School Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhart, Russ

    2005-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 45 million Americans do not have health insurance. What's surprising is the majority of those individuals are actually employed. Part-time workers make up a full 15 percent of the uninsured population and school systems have a share of that group. Every day in the United States, approximately 10 percent…

  6. Co-benefits of climate mitigation and health protection in energy systems: scoping methods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Haigler, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Interventions in the energy sector offer significant opportunities for reducing both greenhouse and other health-damaging pollution, resulting in what are called "co-benefits." The health community plays a critical role in evaluating such interventions to optimize progress of both sorts because both affect health. In detail, analyses require sophisticated modeling and specific local information. As a starting point, however, we offer here a set of scoping methods for obtaining a quick assessment of these co-benefits for interventions in the energy sector, the arena with the highest potential for significant co-benefits. Thus we combine relevant methods developed separately in recent years for cost-effectiveness assessments in the climate change, health, and development communities. We offer sample calculations, which illustrate the apparent high degree of co-benefit effectiveness for targeted interventions in the household energy sector in developing countries.

  7. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages. PMID:26462418

  8. Medicare and Other Health Benefits: Your Guide to Who Pays First

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. The group health plan may be a fee-for-service plan or a managed care plan, ... Medicare & Veterans’ benefits (continued) I have a VA fee-basis identification (ID) card. Who pays first? The ...

  9. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research That Benefits Everyone's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins on Medical Research ... Our goal is to advance biomedical research in new, innovative ways that will benefit everyone's health." — NIH ...

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and the ischemic heart: Additional benefits beyond glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-01-01

    Obese-insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become global health problems, and they are both associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease. Although reperfusion therapy is the treatment to increase blood supply to the ischemic myocardium, this intervention potentially causes cardiac tissue damage and instigates arrhythmias, processes known as reperfusion injury. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are glycemic control drugs commonly used in T2DM patients. Growing evidence from basic and clinical studies demonstrates that a DPP-4 inhibitor could exert cardioprotection and improve left ventricular function by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and increasing reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) activity. However, recent reports also showed potentially adverse cardiac events due to the use of a DPP-4 inhibitor. To investigate this disparity, future large clinical trials are essential in verifying whether DPP-4 inhibitors are beneficial beyond their glycemic control particularly for the ischemic heart in obese-insulin resistant subjects and T2DM patients.

  11. The health benefits of mechanization at the Nigerian Coal Corporation.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, S E

    1988-04-01

    Nigerian Coal Corporation started operations in 1916 and in October 1977 introduced full mechanization at its coal mine in Enugu. An appraisal of the mining accidents between 1975-1980 showed an overall downward trend following mechanization, from 1073 per 1000 in 1975 to 425 in 1980 (a 60% reduction). The underground accidents were reduced from a monthly average of 63 to 26 but those at the surface remained basically unaffected. Changes were also recorded in sickness absences indices, with the most significant occurring with respect to the severity index which dropped from 9.2 in 1975 to 3.0 in 1980. The distribution of injury remained essentially the same except that injuries to the upper limbs became more common than the more serious pelvic injury prior to mechanization. The impact of mechanization in industries in developing countries are discussed and ways of ensuring optimum benefits from this transfer of technology suggested.

  12. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... company, health maintenance organization, or any agent or entity that administers benefit plans, or similar organizations may underwrite risks, classify risks, or administer such risks that are based on or... terms of a bona fide benefit plan that are based on underwriting risks, classifying risks,...

  13. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... company, health maintenance organization, or any agent or entity that administers benefit plans, or similar organizations may underwrite risks, classify risks, or administer such risks that are based on or... terms of a bona fide benefit plan that are based on underwriting risks, classifying risks,...

  14. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medical service company, health maintenance organization, or any agent or entity that administers benefit... based on or not inconsistent with State law. (b) The contractor may establish, sponsor, observe, or administer the terms of a bona fide benefit plan that are based on underwriting risks, classifying risks,...

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis In Mental Health Services: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Richard

    1981-01-01

    A definition and discussion of cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis and its applications and limitations are presented. Case studies of cost-benefit analysis are given which apply to the mental health field. Includes a brief annotated biliography. (Author/RC)

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of the Costs and Benefits of Engaging in Health-Compromising Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Costs and benefits that adolescents perceive for engaging or not engaging in potentially health-harming behaviors of alcohol use and nonmarital sexual intercourse were studied for over 2,400 seventh through twelfth graders. Perceptions of costs and benefits are related to gender, age, and the behaviors themselves. (SLD)

  17. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-250.25 Section 60-250.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  18. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-300.25 Section 60-300.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  19. 41 CFR 101-4.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 101-4.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and...

  20. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618.440 Section 618.440 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE..., hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...

  1. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 618.440 Section 618.440 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE..., hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a...

  2. Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

  3. 77 FR 67743 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Intermittent Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Program (FEHBP) regulations to make certain employees who work on intermittent schedules eligible to be enrolled in a health benefits plan under the FEHBP. This rule is intended to allow agencies such as the... Benefits program (FEHBP) to temporary firefighters and fire protection personnel. 77 FR 42417. In...

  4. Nurse-midwives in federally funded health centers: understanding federal program requirements and benefits.

    PubMed

    Carter, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Midwives are working in federally funded health centers in increasing numbers. Health centers provide primary and preventive health care to almost 20 million people and are located in every US state and territory. While health centers serve the entire community, they also serve as a safety net for low-income and uninsured individuals. In 2010, 93% of health center patients had incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, and 38% were uninsured. Health centers, including community health centers, migrant health centers, health care for the homeless programs, and public housing primary care programs, receive grant funding and enjoy other benefits due to status as federal grantees and designation as federally qualified health centers. Clinicians working in health centers are also eligible for financial and professional benefits because of their willingness to serve vulnerable populations and work in underserved areas. Midwives, midwifery students, and faculty working in, or interacting with, health centers need to be aware of the regulations that health centers must comply with in order to qualify for and maintain federal funding. This article provides an overview of health center regulations and policies affecting midwives, including health center program requirements, scope of project policy, provider credentialing and privileging, Federal Tort Claims Act malpractice coverage, the 340B Drug Pricing Program, and National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment programs.

  5. Recent progress in studies on the health benefits of pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Nakano, Masahiko; Ikemoto, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an aromatic tricyclic o-quinone, was identified initially as a redox cofactor for bacterial dehydrogenases. Although PQQ is not biosynthesized in mammals, trace amounts of PQQ have been found in human and rat tissues because of its wide distribution in dietary sources. Importantly, nutritional studies in rodents have revealed that PQQ deficiency exhibits diverse systemic responses, including growth impairment, immune dysfunction, and abnormal reproductive performance. Although PQQ is not currently classified as a vitamin, PQQ has been implicated as an important nutrient in mammals. In recent years, PQQ has been receiving much attention owing to its physiological importance and pharmacological effects. In this article, we review the potential health benefits of PQQ with a focus on its growth-promoting activity, anti-diabetic effect, anti-oxidative action, and neuroprotective function. Additionally, we provide an update of its basic pharmacokinetics and safety information in oral ingestion.

  6. Recent progress in studies on the health benefits of pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Nakano, Masahiko; Ikemoto, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an aromatic tricyclic o-quinone, was identified initially as a redox cofactor for bacterial dehydrogenases. Although PQQ is not biosynthesized in mammals, trace amounts of PQQ have been found in human and rat tissues because of its wide distribution in dietary sources. Importantly, nutritional studies in rodents have revealed that PQQ deficiency exhibits diverse systemic responses, including growth impairment, immune dysfunction, and abnormal reproductive performance. Although PQQ is not currently classified as a vitamin, PQQ has been implicated as an important nutrient in mammals. In recent years, PQQ has been receiving much attention owing to its physiological importance and pharmacological effects. In this article, we review the potential health benefits of PQQ with a focus on its growth-promoting activity, anti-diabetic effect, anti-oxidative action, and neuroprotective function. Additionally, we provide an update of its basic pharmacokinetics and safety information in oral ingestion. PMID:26168402

  7. Probiotics as Additives on Therapy in Allergic Airway Diseases: A Systematic Review of Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Sushree Samiksha; Singh, Meenu

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review to find out the role of probiotics in treatment of allergic airway diseases.  Methods. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases was done till March 2013. Trials comparing the effect of probiotics versus placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as standardized mean difference with 95% CI. Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. A total of 12 studies were included. Probiotic intake was associated with a significantly improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis (SMD −1.9 (95% CI −3.62, −0.19); P = 0.03), though there was a high degree of heterogeneity. No improvement in quality of life score was noted in asthmatics. Probiotic intake also improved the following parameters: longer time free from episodes of asthma and rhinitis and decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Adverse events were not significant. Conclusion. As the current evidence was generated from few trials with high degree of heterogeneity, routine use of probiotics as an additive on therapy in subjects with allergic airway diseases cannot be recommended. PMID:23956972

  8. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  9. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Overweight Employees about Lifestyle-Related Health Benefit Changes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Tate, Deborah; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated overweight state employees’ perceptions about health insurance benefit changes designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who were obese or smoked. Methods Prior to implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] state employees enrolled in a weight loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs of the new benefit plan changes. Results Thirty-one percent of employees with a BMI≥40 kg/ m2 were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher risk benefit plan. More than half reported that the new benefit change would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but less than half felt confident in making changes. Respondents with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 were more likely to oppose the new changes focused on BMI categories compared to respondents in lower BMI categories (P<0.0001). Current smokers were more likely to oppose the new benefit change focused on tobacco use than former smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). Limitations Participants represented a sample of employees enrolled in a weight loss study, limiting generalizability to the larger population of state employees. Conclusions Benefit plan changes that require employees who are obese or smoke to pay more for health care may motivate some, but not all, individuals to change their behaviors. Since confidence to lose weight was lowest among those in the highest weight categories, health plan benefit modifications may be required to achieve desired health behavior changes. PMID:21901911

  11. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption. PMID:10847930

  12. Benefits of Water Safety Plans: microbiology, compliance, and public health.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Elliott, Mark; Sigmundsdottir, Gudrun; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-07-17

    The Water Safety Plan (WSP) methodology, which aims to enhance safety of drinking water supplies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004. WSPs are now used worldwide and are legally required in several countries. However, there is limited systematic evidence available demonstrating the effectiveness of WSPs on water quality and health. Iceland was one of the first countries to legislate the use of WSPs, enabling the analysis of more than a decade of data on impact of WSP. The objective was to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea. Surveillance data on water quality and diarrhea were collected and analyzed. The results show that HPC (heterotrophic plate counts), representing microbiological growth in the water supply system, decreased statistically significant with fewer incidents of HPC exceeding 10 cfu per mL in samples following WSP implementation and noncompliance was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001 in both cases). A significant decrease in incidence of diarrhea was detected where a WSP was implemented, and, furthermore, the results indicate that population where WSP has been implemented is 14% less likely to develop clinical cases of diarrhea.

  13. Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Watkins, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

  14. Mental health and substance abuse benefits in carve-out plans and the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996.

    PubMed

    Sturm, R; McCulloch, J

    1998-01-01

    Legislation passed in the fall of 1996 required employers and insurers offering mental health benefits to raise dollar coverage limits on mental health services to the level of medical services. We analyze the benefit designs of 4,000 current behavioral health carve-out plans and contrast them to medical benefits. We find that almost 90 percent of all plans are inconsistent with the current legislation and need to be rewritten in the coming year. The restructuring of designs required by the Parity Act provides a unique opportunity because plans often are inconsistent and unnecessarily complex, a legacy of past attempts by employers to contain costs and control adverse selection and moral hazard in an unmanaged fee-for-service environment. Under managed care, the need for deductibles, limits, or other demand-side cost-sharing mechanisms may have diminished and restructuring outdated designs could benefit both enrollees and employers. PMID:9502060

  15. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group.

  16. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group. PMID:27492152

  17. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A.; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group. PMID:27492152

  18. Is there a health benefit of reduced tobacco consumption? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2007-06-01

    This review presents the available evidence on the health effects of reduced smoking. Smoking reduction was defined as reduction of the daily intake of tobacco without quitting. Only published papers were reviewed. Case reports and studies without a thorough definition of smoking reduction or health outcome were excluded. We searched in personal databases, BioMail Medline Search, Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE. We followed the QUORUM standards for systematic reviews, and both authors read and discussed all publications. A total of 25 studies (31 publications) were identified: 8 articles reported on effects on the cardiovascular system; 11 on the airways; 7 on carcinogens, DNA damage, and lung cancer; 3 on birth weight; and 4 on other health effects. Some papers assessed more than one outcome. In most studies, reduction was defined as less than 50% of baseline tobacco consumption. Most of the studies were small, with the populations selected and short follow-up periods. The limited data suggest that a substantial reduction in smoking improves several cardiovascular risk factors and respiratory symptoms. In addition, smoking reduction is associated with a 25% decline in biomarkers and incidence of lung cancer and a small, mostly nonsignificant, increase in birth weight. There seem to be no substantial beneficial effects on lung function. The evidence on other health effects and mortality is too limited to draw conclusions. A substantial reduction in smoking seems to have a small health benefit, but more studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of smoking reduction. PMID:17558820

  19. Urban governance and the systems approaches to health-environment co-benefits in cities.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jose A Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N H; Siri, José; Dreyfus, Magali; Farzaneh, Hooman; Capon, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities.

  20. Urban governance and the systems approaches to health-environment co-benefits in cities.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jose A Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N H; Siri, José; Dreyfus, Magali; Farzaneh, Hooman; Capon, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities. PMID:26648361

  1. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Blomhoff, Rune; Carlsen, Monica H; Andersen, Lene Frost; Jacobs, David R

    2006-11-01

    A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and minimally refined cereals is associated with lower risk for chronic degenerative diseases. Since oxidative stress is common in chronic degenerative disease, it has been assumed that dietary antioxidants may explain this protective effect. Every dietary plant contains numerous types of antioxidants with different properties. Many of these antioxidants cooperate in oxidative stress reduction in plants, and we hypothesize that many different antioxidants may also be needed for the proper protection of animal cells. To test this hypothesis, it is useful to identify dietary plants with high total antioxidant content. Several nuts are among the dietary plants with the highest content of total antioxidants. Of the tree nuts, walnuts, pecans and chestnuts have the highest contents of antioxidants. Walnuts contain more than 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g, mostly in the walnut pellicles. Peanuts (a legume) also contribute significantly to dietary intake of antioxidants. These data are in accordance with our present extended analysis of an earlier report on nut intake and death attributed to various diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. We observed that the hazard ratio for total death rates showed a U-shaped association with nut/peanut butter consumption. Hazard ratio was 0.89 (CI = 0.81-0.97) and 0.81 (CI = 0.75-0.88) for nut/peanut butter intake once per week and 1-4 times per week, respectively. Death attributed to cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases showed strong and consistent reductions with increasing nut/peanut butter consumption. Further studies are needed to clarify whether antioxidants contribute to this apparent beneficial health effect of nuts. PMID:17125534

  2. High-value, cost-conscious health care: concepts for clinicians to evaluate the benefits, harms, and costs of medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Owens, Douglas K; Qaseem, Amir; Chou, Roger; Shekelle, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing unsustainably, and further efforts to control costs are inevitable and essential. Efforts to control expenditures should focus on the value, in addition to the costs, of health care interventions. Whether an intervention provides high value depends on assessing whether its health benefits justify its costs. High-cost interventions may provide good value because they are highly beneficial; conversely, low-cost interventions may have little or no value if they provide little benefit. Thus, the challenge becomes determining how to slow the rate of increase in costs while preserving high-value, high-quality care. A first step is to decrease or eliminate care that provides no benefit and may even be harmful. A second step is to provide medical interventions that provide good value: medical benefits that are commensurate with their costs. This article discusses 3 key concepts for understanding how to assess the value of health care interventions. First, assessing the benefits, harms, and costs of an intervention is essential to understand whether it provides good value. Second, assessing the cost of an intervention should include not only the cost of the intervention itself but also any downstream costs that occur because the intervention was performed. Third, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates the additional cost required to obtain additional health benefits and provides a key measure of the value of a health care intervention.

  3. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A

    2012-12-01

    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information.

  4. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A

    2012-12-01

    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information. PMID:23204361

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs. PMID:24077445

  6. Cost-benefit Analysis of Comprehensive Mental Health Prevention Programs in Japanese Workplaces: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    IIJIMA, Sachiko; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; KITAMURA, Fumihiko; FUKUDA, Takashi; INABA, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program’s average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27–16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs. PMID:24077445

  7. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. Results: We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health bene-fits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 bene-fits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that significant health and

  8. Improved cost, health, and satisfaction with a health home benefit plan for self-insured employers and small physician practices.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Jerry; Kapp, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We compared the impacts on total costs, health, and satisfaction among 615 adults enrolled 2 years in an employer's health home benefit plan to their baseline year in a standard preferred provider organization plan. The new plan combined strong continuity care incentives with nurse coaching support. After 24 months, total medical costs were 23% lower than the baseline year, biometric measures improved for more than 85% of members, and patient satisfaction exceeded 85%. Emergency department visits decreased by 16% and hospital days decreased by 48%. Health home benefit plans engaging small primary care physician practices and members in coordinated continuity care can deliver high value. PMID:23448916

  9. Perceived safety and benefit of community water fluoridation: 2009 HealthStyles survey

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Nathan; Griffin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe perceived benefits and safety of community water fluoridation (CWF) and investigate factors associated with those perceptions of CWF among respondents to a proprietary survey in the United States. Methods We obtained data from the 2009 HealthStyles survey, a convenience sample of 4,556 respondents. Pearson's chi-squared and logistic regression were used to determine the associations between certain socio-demographic factors and perceptions regarding the safety and health benefits of CWF. Results The majority of respondents (55.3 percent) strongly agreed/agreed that CWF was safe, while 31.5 percent were neutral, and 13.2 percent disagreed/strongly disagreed. Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported CWF had no health benefit, 57.3 percent reported some benefit, and 15.5 percent reported great benefit. Perceived CWF safety and benefit in the bivariate analyses were associated with gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, sealant knowledge, CWF knowledge, past year dental utilization, and perceived vaccine safety. Respondents with knowledge of CWF (47.9 percent) were more likely to agree that it was safe (69.8 percent) than those who reported no knowledge (41.3 percent). Among respondents who said childhood vaccines were not safe (4.0 percent), almost half disagreed that CWF was safe. Logistic regression results indicated that perceived CWF safety and benefits increased with CWF knowledge, perceived vaccine safety, and income. Conclusions Although only a minority of the US population perceived CWF as unsafe or providing no benefit to health, perceptions regarding CWF varied by knowledge of CWF and socio-demographic factors. Oral health promotion activities should consider these differing perceptions of CWF among groups to tailor oral health messaging appropriately. PMID:26147330

  10. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 CFR 890.204. (1) It must be lawfully engaged in the business of supplying health benefits... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... (EHB) Fund less amounts set aside for the administrative and contingency reserves prescribed in 5...

  11. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  12. Ensuring Children's Access to Comprehensive Health Benefits: Effective Arguments for Child Advocates. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checkoway, Amy

    Under Title XXI, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), states have considerable flexibility to define the scope of benefits available to eligible children. Noting the importance of policymakers, advocates, service providers, and parents speaking out in support of children's need for the full range of necessary health care, this…

  13. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.440 Health and insurance... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  14. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Health and insurance benefits and...

  15. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.440 Health and insurance... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  16. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  17. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and...

  18. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  19. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.440 Health and insurance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and...

  20. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.440 Health and insurance... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits...