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Sample records for additional heat treatment

  1. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behaviors of GTA-Additive Manufactured 2219-Al After an Especial Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. Y.; Fan, C. L.; Lin, S. B.; Yang, C. L.; Dong, B. L.

    2017-03-01

    2219-Al parts were produced by gas tungsten arc-additive manufacturing and sequentially processed by an especial heat treatment. In order to investigate the effects of heat treatment on its mechanical properties, multiple tests were conducted. Hardness tests were carried out on part scale and layer scale along with tensile tests which were performed on welding and building directions. Results show that compared to conventional casting + T6 2219-Al, the current deposit + T6 2219-Al exhibits satisfying properties with regard to strength but unsatisfying results in plasticity. Additionally, anisotropy is significant. Fractures were observed and the cracks' propagating paths in both directional specimens are described. The effects of heat treatment on the cracks' initiation and propagation were also investigated. Ultimately, a revised formula was developed to calculate the strength of the deposit + T6 2219-Al. The aforementioned formula, which takes into consideration the belt-like porosities-distributing feature, can scientifically describe the anisotropic properties in the material.

  2. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  4. Feasibility of in situ controlled heat treatment (ISHT) of Inconel 718 during electron beam melting additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Sames, William J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Helmreich, Grant W.; ...

    2016-10-07

    A novel technique was developed to control the microstructure evolution in Alloy 718 processed using Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In situ solution treatment and aging of Alloy 718 was performed by heating the top surface of the build after build completion scanning an electron beam to act as a planar heat source during the cool down process. Results demonstrate that the measured hardness (478 ± 7 HV) of the material processed using in situ heat treatment similar to that of peak-aged Inconel 718. Large solidification grains and cracks formed, which are identified as the likely mechanism leading to failure ofmore » tensile tests of the in situ heat treatment material under loading. Despite poor tensile performance, the technique proposed was shown to successively age Alloy 718 (increase precipitate size and hardness) without removing the sample from the process chamber, which can reduce the number of process steps in producing a part. Lastly, tighter controls on processing temperature during layer melting to lower process temperature and selective heating during in situ heat treatment to reduce over-sintering are proposed as methods for improving the process.« less

  5. Feasibility of in situ controlled heat treatment (ISHT) of Inconel 718 during electron beam melting additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, William J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Helmreich, Grant W.; Kirka, Michael M.; Medina, Frank; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-10-07

    A novel technique was developed to control the microstructure evolution in Alloy 718 processed using Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In situ solution treatment and aging of Alloy 718 was performed by heating the top surface of the build after build completion scanning an electron beam to act as a planar heat source during the cool down process. Results demonstrate that the measured hardness (478 ± 7 HV) of the material processed using in situ heat treatment similar to that of peak-aged Inconel 718. Large solidification grains and cracks formed, which are identified as the likely mechanism leading to failure of tensile tests of the in situ heat treatment material under loading. Despite poor tensile performance, the technique proposed was shown to successively age Alloy 718 (increase precipitate size and hardness) without removing the sample from the process chamber, which can reduce the number of process steps in producing a part. Lastly, tighter controls on processing temperature during layer melting to lower process temperature and selective heating during in situ heat treatment to reduce over-sintering are proposed as methods for improving the process.

  6. Effect of additional heat treatment of 2024-T3 on the growth of fatigue crack in air and in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louwaard, E. P.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of ductility on the fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum alloys, fatigue tests were carried out on central notched specimens of 2024-T3 and 2024-T8 sheet material. The 2024-T8 material was obtained by an additional heat treatment applied on 2024-T3 (18 hours at 192 C), which increased the static yield strength from 43.6 to 48.9 kgf/sq mm. A change in the ultimate strength was not observed. Fatigue tests were carried out on both materials in humid air and in high vacuum. According to a new crack propagation model, crack extension is supported to be caused by a slip-related process and debonding triggered by the environment. This model predicts an effect of the ductility on the crack growth rate which should be smaller in vacuum than in humid air; however, this was not confirmed. In humid air the crack-growth rate in 2024-T8 was about 2 times faster than in 2024-T3, while in vacuum the ratio was about 2.5. Crack closure measurements gave no indications that crack closure played a significant role in both materials. Some speculative explanations are briefly discussed.

  7. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  8. Effects of heat treatments and Sn, Ga and In additives on mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Goto, Shin-ichi; Ogura, Hideo

    2004-12-01

    The mechanical properties of six 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloys containing different contents (2% and 4%) of Sn, Ga, or In and a 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy without additives were evaluated. These alloys were subjected to four different heat treatments before a mechanical test. The distribution of the elements and their contents were analyzed. The mechanical properties of 35Ag-30Pd-20Au-15Cu alloy changed in wide-ranging ways with different heat treatments and with different additive contents. The effects of heat treatment on tensile strength and hardness significantly varied with different additives and their contents. These different changes could be attributed to the formation of different phases in these alloys. Based on the high strength and wide-ranging changes in the mechanical properties when subjected to softening and hardening heat treatments, the 2% Sn-added, 2% In-added, and 4% Ga-added alloys can be recommended for different dental restorations such as crown & bridges, inlays, and denture frameworks.

  9. Additional heat treatment of non-porous coatings obtained on medium carbon steel substrates by electron beam cladding of a Ti-Mo-C powder composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, D. O.; Drobyaz, E. A.; Zimoglyadova, T. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Shevtsova, L. I.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and microhardness of surface layers, obtained by non-vacuum electron beam cladding of Ti-Mo-C powder mixture on a steel substrate after different types of heat treatment, were investigated. After cladding samples were heat treated in a furnace at 200...500 °C, as well as quenched at 860 ° C and then underwent high-temperature tempering. Heat treatment of cladded coatings induced tempering of martensite and precipitation of cementite particles (Fe3C). Transmission electron microscopy of the samples after heating and holding at 300 ° C revealed precipitation of nanosized cubical TiC particles. The formation of hard nanosized particles led to the surface layer microhardness growth. The highest level of microhardness (which was 1.2...1.5-fold higher in comparison with coating microhardness after heat treatment) was achieved after heating of the claded material at 300 °C and 400 °C Additional quenching of samples at 860 °C did not increase the microhardness level.

  10. Effects of Al Content and Addition of Third Element on Fabrication of Ti-Al Intermetallic Coatings by Heat Treatment of Warm-Sprayed Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Kuroda, S.; Minagawa, K.; Murakami, H.; Araki, H.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    Four powder mixtures of titanium and aluminum with 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, and 20:80 atomic ratios were used as feedstock for Warm Spray process to produce composite coatings. A two-stage heat treatment at 600 and 1000 °C was applied to the deposits in order to obtain titanium aluminide intermetallic phases. The microstructure, chemical, and phase composition of the as-deposited and heat-treated coatings were investigated using SEM, EDS, and XRD. It was found that the Al content affects on the thickness expansion of the heat-treated Ti-Al coatings significantly and also has a major influence on the porosity development, which is caused by the Kirkendall effect. The effects of adding a third element Si and heat treatment with pressure to produce denser Ti-Al intermetallic coating were also examined. The investigated hot-pressed coatings with addition of Si exhibited much denser microstructure and contained Ti-Al intermetallic phases with titanium silicide precipitates.

  11. Microstructural evolution and mechanical property of Ti-6Al-4V wall deposited by continuous plasma arc additive manufacturing without post heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianjun; Lv, Yaohui; Liu, Yuxin; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Kaibo; Li, Zhuguo; Wu, Yixiong; Xu, Binshi

    2017-05-01

    Plasma arc additive manufacturing (PAM) is a novel additive manufacturing (AM) technology due to its big potential in improving efficiency, convenience and being cost-savings compared to other AM processes of high energy bea\\m. In this research, several Ti-6Al-4V thin walls were deposited by optimized weld wire-feed continuous PAM process (CPAM), in which the heat input was gradually decreased layer by layer. The deposited thin wall consisted of various morphologies, which includes epitaxial growth of prior β grains, horizontal layer bands, martensite and basket weave microstructure, that depends on the heat input, multiple thermal cycles and gradual cooling rate in the deposition process. By gradually reducing heat input of each bead and using continuous current in the PAM process, the average yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation reach about 877MPa, 968MPa and 1.5%, respectively, which exceed the standard level of forging. The mechanical property was strengthened and toughened due to weakening the aspect ratio of prior β grains and separating nano-dispersoids among α lamellar. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that the CPAM process has a potential to manufacture or remanufacture in AM components of metallic biomaterials without post-processing heat treatment.

  12. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  13. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  14. Heat treatment furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  15. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  16. Improvement of virus safety of a S/D-treated factor VIII concentrate by additional dry heat treatment at 100 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dichtelmüller, H; Rudnick, D; Breuer, B; Kotitschke, R; Kloft, M; Darling, A; Watson, E; Flehmig, B; Lawson, S; Frösner, G

    1996-06-01

    In order to increase the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated Factor VIII concentrate in regard to non-lipid coated viruses and to respond to the continuous discussion about reports on hepatitis A transmission by Factor VIII preparations, we have investigated the effect of a terminal dry heat treatment (30 min 100 degrees C) on HAV and various other viruses. By this treatment Hepatitis A virus was inactivated below detectable level after a few minutes (> 5.3 log10). Other RNA viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (> 6.6 log10), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (> 6.6 log10) and vesicular stomatitis virus (> 5.8 log10) were also inactivated below detectable level. Pseudo rabies virus and reovirus Type 3 are inactivated by 5.7 and > 6.0 log10, respectively. SV40 and bovine parvo virus showed significant resistance to dry heat treatment. We conclude that the involvement of two strong virus inactivation steps, acting by different mechanisms, improves the virus safety of Factor VIII concentrates without destroying the Factor VIII activity. Moreover, the terminal 100 degrees C heat treatment for 30 min represents an effective measure to inactivate non-lipid enveloped viruses, in particular hepatitis A, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  17. Heat Exchange, Additive Manufacturing, and Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick

    2015-02-23

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured undistorted snapshots of refrigerants flowing through small heat exchangers, helping them to better understand heat transfer in heating, cooling and ventilation systems.

  18. Heat Exchange, Additive Manufacturing, and Neutron Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Geoghegan, Patrick

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured undistorted snapshots of refrigerants flowing through small heat exchangers, helping them to better understand heat transfer in heating, cooling and ventilation systems.

  19. Hyperbaric post weld heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Saunderson, S.; Waller, D.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a sub-sea hyperbaric Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) system developed jointly by SHELL UK EXPLORATION and PRODUCTION and COMEX DIVING. It discusses: assessment of power requirements and equipment, initial tests conducted in the COMEX hydrosphere and in shallow water in Marseille, and full scale North Sea trials at - 150 m, comparing the performance and results of two separate power sources and control units. Particular attention is drawn to the importance of the elements, insulation and controls used to achieve uniform distribution of heat at the required temperature in a HELIOX environment.

  20. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall...

  2. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out...

  4. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

    2004-04-29

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  5. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, Robert C.; Charles, Mariol; Deskevich, Nicholas; Varkey, Vipin; Wollenburg, Angela

    2004-10-15

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  6. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  7. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other... material other than wrought iron or steel shall be heat treated when necessary in accordance with §...

  8. Cholesterol transformations during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Derewiaka, D; Molińska née Sosińska, E

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the study was to characterise products of cholesterol standard changes during thermal processing. Cholesterol was heated at 120°C, 150°C, 180°C and 220°C from 30 to 180 min. The highest losses of cholesterol content were found during thermal processing at 220°C, whereas the highest content of cholesterol oxidation products was observed at temperature of 150°C. The production of volatile compounds was stimulated by the increase of temperature. Treatment of cholesterol at higher temperatures i.e. 180°C and 220°C led to the formation of polymers and other products e.g. cholestadienes and fragmented cholesterol molecules. Further studies are required to identify the structure of cholesterol oligomers and to establish volatile compounds, which are markers of cholesterol transformations, mainly oxidation.

  9. Non-additive model for specific heat of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Silva, R.; Mello, V. D.

    2016-10-01

    By using non-additive Tsallis entropy we demonstrate numerically that one-dimensional quasicrystals, whose energy spectra are multifractal Cantor sets, are characterized by an entropic parameter, and calculate the electronic specific heat, where we consider a non-additive entropy Sq. In our method we consider an energy spectra calculated using the one-dimensional tight binding Schrödinger equation, and their bands (or levels) are scaled onto the [ 0 , 1 ] interval. The Tsallis' formalism is applied to the energy spectra of Fibonacci and double-period one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We analytically obtain an expression for the specific heat that we consider to be more appropriate to calculate this quantity in those quasiperiodic structures.

  10. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  11. HEAT TREATMENT OF ELECTROPLATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hoglund, P.F.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for improving electroplated coatings on uranium. Such coatings are often porous, and in an effort to remedy this, the coatings are heat treated by immersing the coated specimen ln a bath of fused salt or molten methl. Since the hase metal, uranium, is an active metal, such a procedure often results in reactions between the base metal and the heating medium. This difficulty can be overcome by using liquid organopolysiloxanes as the heating medium.

  12. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  13. Two-Dimensional, Supersonic, Linearized Flow with Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard

    1959-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the forces on a thin supersonic wing underneath which the air is heated. The analysis is limited principally to linearized theory but nonlinear effects are considered. It is shown that significant advantages to external heating would exist if the heat were added well below and ahead of the wing.

  14. Maraging superalloys and heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.; Gelles, David S.; Thomas, Larry E.

    1986-01-01

    Described herein are nickel-chromium-iron maraging, gamma prime strengthened superalloys containing about 18 to 25 weight percent nickel, about 4 to 8 weight percent chromium, gamma prime forming elements such as aluminum and/or titanium, and a solid solution strengthening element, such as molybdenum. After heat treatment, which includes at least one ausaging treatment and at least one maraging treatment, a microstructure containing gamma prime phase and decomposed Fe-Ni-Cr type martensite is produced.

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not... be attached before postweld heat treatment. Welds securing the following need not be postweld...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the...

  17. Behavior of Sandstones Under Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppert, M.; Fořt, J.; Trník, A.; Koňáková, D.; Vejmelková, E.; Pokorný, J.; Svora, P.; Pavlík, Z.; Černý, R.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of materials behavior under heat treatment is of high importance in construction and safety engineering; tunnels represent a special field because of their specific safety issues. In the case of fire, tunnel structure and surrounding rock are subjected to extreme temperatures which induces irreversible changes in the material's microstructure and consequently its mechanical properties. Significant portion of the Earth's crust is formed by sandstones; this group of sedimentary rocks is highly variable in structure, composition and engineering properties. Quartz grains (alternatively together with other minerals) form the clastic part of sandstones; the space between clasts is filled by variable amount of cement and matrix which can contain particularly clay minerals, quartz and calcite. The porosity of sandstones is again highly variable from a nearly compact material to a highly porous one. The paper aims to find out and explain differences in response of various kinds of sandstones to heat treatment. The behavior of a representative set of sandstones under heat treatment was studied by TG/DSC, thermodilatometry and residual strength measurement. These experiments were accompanied by SEM and porosimetry measurement. The effect of increased temperature on the compressive strength was found to be crucially dependent on the nature of the cement and matrix present in the individual rock. The rocks with calcite cement which had high initial strength and low porosity were damaged by calcite decomposition. The siliceous sandstones were damaged by cracking due to thermally induced volume changes. In contrary, the strength of the clayey sandstones was even improved after the heat treatment. It can be concluded that behavior of sandstone under heat treatment is controlled by its composition and diagenesis.

  18. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  19. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  20. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

  1. 10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Water treatment plant, view to S. 1965 addition is in the foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  2. Assessment of NASA Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment Method for Multiple Forging Batch Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Technical Monitor); Lemsky, Joe

    2004-01-01

    NASA dual microstructure heat treatment technology previously demonstrated on single forging heat treat batches of a generic disk shape was successfully demonstrated on a multiple disk batch of a production shape component. A group of four Rolls-Royce Corporation 3rd Stage AE2100 forgings produced from alloy ME209 were successfully dual microstructure heat treated as a single heat treat batch. The forgings responded uniformly as evidenced by part-to-part consistent thermocouple recordings and resultant macrostructures, and from ultrasonic examination. Multiple disk DMHT processing offers a low cost alternative to other published dual microstructure processing techniques.

  3. 7 CFR 305.29 - Vacuum heat treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum heat treatment schedule. 305.29 Section 305.29... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.29 Vacuum heat treatment schedule. T111-a-1. Place bay leaves in a vacuum chamber. Starting at 0 hour, gradually reduce to 0.133...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg... monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  5. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  6. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  7. Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    James, L A; Mills, W J

    1980-04-01

    The fatigue-crack growth behavior of seven heats of Alloy 718 was studied at five different test temperatures. These seven heats represented at least four different producers, four different product forms, two melt practices, and most of the heats were tested in two different heat-treated conditions. Heat-to-heat variations were noted; these were most obvious in material given the conventional heat treatment. 8 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    The fatigue-crack growth behavior of seven heats of Alloy 718 was studied at five different test temperatures. These seven heats represented at least four different producers, four different product forms, two melt practices, and most of the heat were tested in two different heat-treated conditions. Heat-to-heat variations were noted; these were most obvious in material given the conventional heat-treatment. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 7 CFR 305.25 - Dry heat treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry heat treatment schedules. 305.25 Section 305.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.25 Dry heat...

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-11 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b)...

  11. Cryosurgery as Additional Treatment in Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, A.; van der Geest, I. C. M.; Hannink, G.; Schreuder, H. W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) emerge from the synovium and can behave aggressively. Surgical resection is the standard treatment. However, up to half of the patients with diffuse type show recurrences. Several additional treatments have been applied to reduce recurrences; none of these treatments was proven to be superior to surgical resection solely. This article describes the results of additional cryosurgery to surgical resection. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 141 TGCT patients, between 1999 and 2007. Twelve patients had additional cryosurgery. The knee (n = 8), hip (n = 2), ankle (n = 1), and elbow (n = 1) were affected. Primary outcome variables were treatment indications, recurrences, and complications. Results. Indications for additional cryosurgery were extended disease, bone involvement, and locations that are difficult to surgically get disease-free such as cruciate ligaments. Five patients had recurrent disease, all of which had prior treatments. None of the primary treated patients had recurrent disease. One patient had a deep infection. Discussion. Cryosurgery may serve as an additional treatment for diffuse TCGT in selected cases. However, because of the small number of patients and the heterogeneous group we could not prove an advantage of additional cryosurgery over surgical resection only. Cryosurgery should be considered for further evaluation in a prospective study. If there is any effect it would be helpful, especially in patients with multiple TGCT recurrences. PMID:28115910

  12. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. When specified in § 179.201-1, after welding is complete, postweld heat...

  14. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-10 Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be postweld heat...

  15. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients.

  16. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg mass emissions using a Hg concentration monitoring system and a flow monitoring system shall...

  17. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  18. Influence of supplemental heat addition on performance of pilot-scale bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa; Sartaj, Majid

    2014-02-01

    Implementation of supplemental heat addition as a means of improving bioreactor landfill performance was investigated. The experimental work was conducted with two pilot-scale bioreactor setups (control cell and heated cell) operated for 280 days. Supplemental heat was introduced by recirculating leachate heated up to 35 °C compared to the control which used similar quantities of leachate at room temperature (21 ± 1 °C). The temporal and spatial effects of recirculating heated leachate on the landfill internal temperature were determined, and performance was assessed in terms of leachate parameters and biogas production. Recirculation of heated leachate helped establish balanced anaerobic microbial consortia that led to earlier (70 days) and greater (1.4-fold) organic matter degradation rates, as well as threefold higher methane production compared to the non-heated control. Despite the significant enhancements in performance resulting from supplemental heat addition, heated leachate recirculation did not significantly impact waste temperatures, and the effects were mainly restricted to short periods after recirculation and mostly at the upper layers of the waste. These findings suggest that improvements in bioreactor landfill performance may be achieved without increasing the temperature of the whole in-place waste, but rather more economically by raising the temperature at the leachate/waste interface which is also exposed to the maximum moisture levels within the waste matrix.

  19. New heat treatment process for advanced high-strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bublíková, D.; Jeníček, Š.; Vorel, I.; Mašek, B.

    2017-02-01

    Today’s advanced steels are required to possess high strength and ductility. It can be achieved by choosing an appropriate steel chemistry which has a substantial effect on the properties obtained by heat treatment. Mechanical properties influenced the presence of retained austenite in the final structure. Steels of this group typically require complicated heat treatment which places great demands on the equipment used. The present paper introduces new procedures aimed at simplifying the heat treatment of high-strength steels with the use of material-technological modelling. Four experimental steels were made and cast, whose main alloying additions were manganese, silicon, chromium, molybdenum and nickel. The steels were treated using the Q-P process with subsequent interrupted quenching. The resulting structure was a mixture of martensite and retained austenite. Strength levels of more than 2000 MPa combined with 10-15 % elongation were obtained. These properties thus offer potential for the manufacture of intricate closed-die forgings with a reduced weight. Intercritical annealing was obtained structure not only on the basis of martensite, but also with certain proportion of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite.

  20. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements....

  1. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements....

  2. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179...-10 Postweld heat treatment. (a) After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded... treatment is prohibited. (c) Tank and welded attachments, fabricated from ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see §...

  3. Design optimization of heat transfer and fluidic devices by using additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nikhil

    After the development of additive manufacturing technology in the 1980s, it has found use in many applications like aerospace, automotive, marine, machinery, consumer and electronic applications. In recent time, few researchers have worked on the applications of additive manufacturing for heat transfer and fluidic devices. As the world has seen a drastic increase in population in last decades which have put stress on already scarce energy resources, optimization of energy devices which include energy storing devices, heat transfer devices, energy capturing devices etc. is need for the hour. Design of energy devices is often constrained by manufacturing constraints thus current design of energy devices is not an optimized one. In this research we want to conceptualize, design and manufacture optimized heat transfer and fluidic devices by exploiting the advantages provided by additive manufacturing. We want to benefit from the fact that very intricate geometry and desired surface finish can be obtained by using additive manufacturing. Additionally, we want to compare the efficacy of our designed device with conventional devices. Work on usage of Additive manufacturing for increasing efficiency of heat transfer devices can be found in the literature. We want to extend this approach to other heat transfer devices especially tubes with internal flow. By optimizing the design of energy systems we hope to solve current energy shortage and help conserve energy for future generation. We will also extend the application of additive manufacturing technology to fabricate "device for uniform flow distribution".

  4. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ∼2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output.

  5. Effects of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of SiC p/6061 Al composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldun, D.; Martin, P.; Sun, J.

    1992-10-01

    Metal-matrix composites have been receiving considerable attention as light-weight materials for use in many advanced technology applications. Silicon carbide (SiC) particles and whiskers have several advantages over other discontinuous reinforcements. Studies have shown that heat treatment can change the mechanical properties of metal-matrix composites. Modified heat treatments were developed for SiC p/6061 Al composites through a series of heat treatment with varied solution temperatures and aging time. Mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the composites in three conditions; as-received, annealed, and heat treated. The modified heat treatments resulted in increases in the yield strength of up to 12% over the manufacturer’s reported yield strength for the standard T6 heat treatment. The trends which occur during heat treatment of SiC p/6061 Al are simular to those which occur during heat treatment of aluminum alloys. In addition, the relationship between the mechanical properties and the heat treatment parameters was documented. Throughout this study, the values of elastic modules were rather erratic compared to the strength values. Scanning Electron Microscope fractographic analysis revealed various fracture initiation sites, such as particle clusters and iron inclusions.

  6. Heat transfer characteristics for some coolant additives used for water cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ziyan, H.Z.; Helali, A.H.B.

    1996-12-31

    Engine coolants contain certain additives to prevent engine overheating or coolant freezing in cold environments. Coolants, also, contain corrosion and rust inhibitors, among other additives. As most engines are using engine cooling solutions, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of engine coolants on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. This has its direct impact on radiator size and environment. This paper describes the apparatus and the measurement techniques. Also, it presents the obtained boiling heat transfer results at different parameters. Three types of engine coolants and their mixtures in distilled water are evaluated, under sub-cooled and saturated boiling conditions. A profound effect of the presence of additives in the coolant, on heat transfer, was clear since changes of heat transfer for different coolants were likely to occur. The results showed that up to 180% improvement of boiling heat transfer coefficient is experienced with some types of coolants. However, at certain concentrations other coolants provide deterioration or not enhancement in the boiling heat transfer characteristics. This investigation proved that there are limitations, which are to be taken into consideration, for the composition of engine coolants in different environments. In warm climates, ethylene glycol should be kept at the minimum concentration required for dissolving other components, whereas borax is beneficial to the enhancement of the heat transfer characteristics.

  7. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan...

  8. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan...

  9. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan...

  10. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan...

  11. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan...

  12. Effects of mass addition on blunt-body boundary-layer transition and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaattari, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The model bodies tested at Mach number 7.32 were hemispheres, blunt cones, and spherical segments. The mass addition consisted of air ejected through porous forward surfaces of the models. The experimental data consisted of heat transfer measurements from which boundary layer transitions were deduced. The data verified various applicable boundary layer codes in the laminar and transitional flow regimes. Empirical heating rate data correlations were developed for the laminar and turbulent flow regimes.

  13. Effect of media, additives, and incubation conditions on the recovery of high pressure and heat-injured Clostridium botulinum spores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N R; Tetzloff, R C; Skinner, G E

    2010-08-01

    The effect of additives and post-treatment incubation conditions on the recovery of high pressure and heat-injured (i.e., processed at 620 MPa and 95 and 100 degrees C for 5 min) spores of Clostridium botulinum strains, 62-A (proteolytic type A) and 17-B (nonproteolytic type B) was studied. High pressure and heat-injured spores were inoculated into TPGY (Trypticase-Peptone-Glucose-Yeast extract) anaerobic broth media containing additives (lysozyme, L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, dipicolonic acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium lactate) at various concentrations (0-10 microg/ml) individually or in combination. The spore counts of high pressure and heat-injured 62-A and 17-B recovered from TPGY broth containing lysozyme (10 microg/ml) incubated for 4 months versus that recovered from peptone-yeast extract-glucose-starch (PYGS) plating agar containing lysozyme (10 microg/ml) incubated under anaerobic conditions for 5 days were also compared. None of the additives either individually or in combination in TPGY broth improved recovery of injured spore enumeration compared to processed controls without additives. Addition of lysozyme at concentrations of 5 and 10 microg/ml in TPGY broth improved initial recovery of injured spores of 17-B during the first 4 days of incubation but did not result in additional recovery at the end of the 4 month incubation compared to the processed control without lysozyme. Adding lysozyme at a concentration of 10 microg/ml to PYGS plating agar resulted in no effect on the recovery of high pressure and heat-injured 62-A and 17-B spores. The recovery counts of high pressure and heat-injured spores of 62-A and 17-B were lower (i.e., <1.0 log units) with PYGS plating agar compared to the MPN method using TPGY broth as the growth medium.

  14. Promoting Bacillus cereus spore germination for subsequent inactivation by mild heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Løvdal, Irene Stranden; Hovda, Maria Befring; Granum, Per Einar; Rosnes, Jan Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Sublethal heat treatment may activate dormant spores and thereby potentiate the conversion of spores to vegetative cells. As the germinated spore is known to possess lower heat resistance than its dormant counterpart, it has been postulated that double heat treatment, i.e., spore heat activation followed by germination and then by heat inactivation, can be used to control spores in foods. Production of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability often includes more than one heat treatment of the food components. This work simulates conventional heat treatment procedures and evaluates double heat treatment as a method to improve spore control in model food matrixes of meat broth and cream sauce. Bacillus cereus NVH 1230-88 spores were supplemented in food model matrixes and heat activated at 70°C and then heat inactivated at 80 or 90°C. The samples were held at 29 to 30°C for 1 h between primary and secondary heat treatments, to allow spore germination. Nutrients naturally present in the food matrixes, e.g., amino acids and inosine, could act as germinants that induce germination. The levels of germinants could be too low to produce effective germination within 1 h. Following primary heat treatment, some samples were therefore supplemented with a combination of L-alanine and inosine, a germinant mixture known to be effective for B. cereus spores. In both matrixes, a combination of double heat treatment (heat activation, germination, and inactivation) and addition of germinants gave a reduction in spore counts equivalent to or greater than that obtained with a single heat treatment for 12 min at 90°C. Addition of germinants was essential to induce effective germination in cream sauce during 1 h at 29 to 30°C, and germinants were therefore a crucial supplement to obtain an effect of double heat treatment in this matrix. These data will be valuable when setting up temperature-time-germinant combinations for an optimized spore reduction in mild-heat

  15. Effectiveness of sanitizers, dry heat, hot water, and gas catalytic infrared heat treatments to inactivate Salmonella on almonds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Latiful; Nei, Daisuke; Sotome, Itaru; Nishina, Ikuo; Isobe, Seiichi; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-10-01

    The majority of almond-related foodborne outbreaks have been associated with Salmonella. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on raw almond prior to market distribution. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sanitizers (strong or mild electrolyzed water, ozonated water, and distilled water), dry heat treatment, and hot water treatments followed by catalytic infrared (IR) heat treatment to inactivate Salmonella populations on raw almond. Raw almonds inoculated with four-strain cocktails of Salmonella were treated either by soaking in different chemical sanitizers or with dry heat and/or hot water for various periods of time followed by catalytic IR heat treatment for 70 seconds. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens. After inoculation and air-drying, 5.73 +/- 0.12 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g Salmonella were detected in nonselective medium. Sanitizer treatment alone did not show significant reduction in the Salmonella population, but in combination with IR drying it reduced the population to 3.0 log CFU/g. Dry heating at 60 degrees C for 4 days followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced the Salmonella population an additional 1.0 log CFU/g. Hot water treatments at 85 degrees C for 40 seconds followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced pathogens to an undetectable level by direct plating, but not by enrichment.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on FVIII:C recovery from freeze dried cryoprecipitate.

    PubMed Central

    Benny, A G; Ockelford, P A; Johns, A S; Scott, R H; Woodfield, D G; Berry, E W

    1988-01-01

    A standard lyophilised triple cryoprecipitate preparation, stabilised by the addition of Synthamin 17, was heat treated at 60 degrees C for 48 hours. The total protein content, factor VIII concentration, and factor VIII recovery were not affected by the heat treatment procedure. Heat treatment did not influence the reconstitution characteristics of the freeze dried preparation and there were no side effects during or after administration. The mean in vivo rise of factor VIII from infused heat treated triple cryoprecipitate was 2.5 (SD 0.9)%/unit/kg with a half life of 13.1 (3.1) hours. These results compare favourably with those obtained using non-heated triple cryoprecipitate. Cryoprecipitate can be heat treated without adversely influencing factor VIII recovery, and the ability to prepare a heat treated cryoprecipitate means that a small pool high yield factor VIII preparation can again be used in routine clinical practice. PMID:3142936

  17. Detailed Specifications for Global Heat Treatment Sourcing and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponzilli, Jared; Sponzilli, John

    2013-07-01

    The very nature of global sourcing means that components must carry clear and detailed specifications for material, heat treatment, and test methods. Qualified global heat treat facilities can achieve good control of not only the common features such as surface and gradient hardness, but also of microstructure, core hardness, residual stress, and other critical metallurgical parameters. This paper will discuss a new concept for material specifications and more detailed heat treatment specifications for the global marketplace.

  18. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179.300-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required. (b)...

  20. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.17 - Exemptions from heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions from heat treatment. 1919.17 Section 1919.17... from heat treatment. Gear made of steel, or gear which contains (as in ball bearings swivels), or is permanently attached to (as with blocks) equipment made of materials which cannot be subjected to...

  2. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, William G.; Rios, Orlando; Akers, Ronald R.; Morrison, William A.

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  3. Effects of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Soykut, Esra Acar; Ertaş, Nusret

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg (LWE) proteins by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Heat treatment (at 60-68°C for 1-5min) was applied to LWE. Treated LWE was centrifuged and supernatant was taken for measurement of UV-VIS spectroscopy and CE. The change in UV absorbance showed loss of protein solubility depending on heat treatments parameters. Electropherograms of samples demonstrated the effect of treatment parameters on composition of LWE proteins. It was found that conalbumin and lysozyme were influenced by the treatment, while ovalbumin and ovomucoid were not affected. CE combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of samples untreated or treated and treated at different treatment parameters. The results of the study revealed that the extent of heat treatment in LWE samples could be determined with PCA of the CE measurements.

  4. Heat treatment of cobalt-chromium alloy wire.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, G M; Tomlinson, J L

    1976-04-01

    This study shows that the ability of cobalt-chromium wire to resist permanent deformation is definitely affected by the temperature of heat treatment. For each temperature of heat treatment up to 1200 degrees F there is progressively greater resistance to permanent deformation; at temperatures of heat treatment above 1200 degrees F, however, there is a rapid decline in resistance to permanent deformation due to partial annealing. The maximum resistance to permanent deformation occurs from heat treatment in the temperature range of 1100 degrees to 1200 degrees F. A clinician desiring maximum resistance to permanent deformation from a .016 inches x .022 inches cobalt-chromium archwire should heat-treat the wire at 1100 degrees to 1200 degrees F for 5 minutes in a dental furnace. If the wire was in a highly work-hardened condition as were the wire specimens of this study, he could expect an increase in resistance to permanent deformation of approximately 174 percent. Heat treatment at lower temperatures could be used in situations requiring less than maximum resistance to permanent deformation. Heat treatment at 900 degrees F would give approximately a 95 percent increase in resistance to permanent deformation. Of course, heat treatment would not be indicated when the desired level of resistance to permanent deformation was not greater than the amount exhibited in the untreated wires of this study. When an electrical resistance heat-treatment unit and 950 degrees F temper-indicating paste were used, the clinician would expect increased resistance to permanent deformation similar to that seen in the wires heat-treated with a dental furnace at 800 degrees and 900 degrees F, i.e., about half of that obtained by the 1200 degrees F treatment. This study has determined the effects that various temperatures of heat treatment have on the resistance to permanent deformation of cobalt-chromium wire specimens which were formed into a specific pattern of loops. The following

  5. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  6. Heat Treatment of Friction-Stir-Welded 7050 Aluminum Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petter, George E.; Figert, John D.; Rybicki, Daniel J.; Burns, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A method of heat treatment has been developed to reverse some of the deleterious effects of friction stir welding of plates of aluminum alloy 7050. This alloy is considered unweldable by arc and high-energy-density beam fusion welding processes. The alloy can be friction stir welded, but as-welded workpieces exhibit low ductility, low tensile and yield strengths, and low resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Heat treatment according to the present method increases tensile and yield strengths, and minimizes or eliminates stress corrosion cracking. It also increases ductility. This method of heat treatment is a superior alternative to a specification-required heat treatment that caused the formation of large columnar grains, which are undesired. Workpieces subjected to the prior heat treatment exhibited elongations <2 percent, and standard three-point bend specimens shattered. The development of the present heat treatment method was guided partly by the principles that (1) by minimizing grain sizes and relieving deformation stresses, one can minimize or eliminate stress corrosion cracking and (2) the key to maximizing strength and eliminating residual stresses is to perform post-weld solution heating for as long a time as possible while incurring little or no development of large columnar grains in friction stir weld nuggets. It is necessary to perform some of the solution heat treatment (to soften the alloy and improve machine welding parameters) before welding. The following is an example of thickness- dependent pre- and post-weld heat treatments according to the present method: For plates 0.270 in. (approx.6.86 mm) thick milled from plates 4.5 in. (114.3 mm) thick, perform pre-weld solution heating at 890 F (477 C) for 1 hour, then cool in air. After friction stir welding, perform solution heating for 10 minutes, quench, hold at room temperature for 96 hours, then age at 250 F (121 C) for 5 hours followed by 325 F (163 C) for 27 hours.

  7. Heating Location Control of HIFU Treatment Enhanced with Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, T.; Utashiro, H.; Ichiyanagi, M.; Yoshinaka, K.; Takagi, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment using ultrasound contrast microbubbles for enhancing the heating effect has been developed with the aim of realising a less invasive tumor therapy. The focused sound waves result in an increase in temperature and increased thermal absorption, which necroses tumor cells. In addition, microbubbles are used as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging, and, in a previous study, we used microbubbles to enhance the heating effect. However, when microbubbles exist in the ultrasound pathway, they disturb ultrasound propagation and distort the acoustic field. Distortion of the acoustic field leads to defocusing and causes unexpected damage to tissue in the body. The objective of the present study is to propose a method by which to destroy microbubbles in the ultrasound pathway and to focus the thermal energy only at the focal point. The proposed method consists of two steps. The first step is to use repetitive high-intensity, short-burst waves (20 waves) to destroy the microbubbles in the pathway. In the second step, low amplitude continuous waves are sent in order to heat the focal point. This method was successful for a gel containing microbubbles with a void fraction on the order of 10-4. The results of the present study indicate that more microbubbles were destroyed as the non-exposure time and the pulse number were increased during the first step.

  8. Overview of Heat Addition and Efficiency Predictions for an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Reid, Terry V.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. Microporous bulk insulation is used in the ground support test hardware to minimize the loss of thermal energy from the electric heat source to the environment. The insulation package is characterized before operation to predict how much heat will be absorbed by the convertor and how much will be lost to the environment during operation. In an effort to validate these predictions, numerous tasks have been performed, which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs. This test and modeling effort included: (a) making thermophysical property measurements of test setup materials to provide inputs to the numerical models, (b) acquiring additional test data that was collected during convertor tests to provide numerical models with temperature profiles of the test setup via thermocouple and infrared measurements, (c) using multidimensional numerical models (computational fluid dynamics code) to predict net heat input of an operating convertor, and (d) using validation test hardware to provide direct comparison of numerical results and validate the multidimensional numerical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This effort produced high fidelity ASC net heat input predictions, which were successfully validated using

  9. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Tufte, S. L.

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of ~1×10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne<~0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S II]/[N II], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply ~10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-08-01

    Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500-800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment.

  13. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-07

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  14. Differences in the effects of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryouta; Noguchi, Takumi; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of low-molecular-weight additives have been developed to suppress protein aggregation, it is unclear whether these aggregation suppressors affect various aggregation processes in the same manner. In this study, we evaluated the differences in the effect of solution additives on heat- and refolding-induced aggregation in the presence of guanidine (Gdn), arginine (Arg), and spermidine (Spd), and the comparable analysis showed the following differences: (i) Gdn did not suppress thermal aggregation but increased the yield of oxidative refolding. (ii) Spd showed the highest effect for heat-induced aggregation suppression among tested compounds, although it promoted aggregation in oxidative refolding. (iii) Arg was effective for both aggregation processes. Lysozyme solubility assay and thermal unfolding experiment showed that Spd was preferentially excluded from native lysozyme and Arg and Gdn solubilized the model state of intermediates during oxidative refolding. This preference of additives to protein surfaces is the cause of the different effect on aggregation suppression.

  15. Functional properties of whey proteins affected by heat treatment and hydrodynamic high-pressure shearing.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, M; Vasiljevic, T

    2009-04-01

    Two batches of native whey proteins (WP) were subjected to microfluidization or heat denaturation accompanied by microfluidization, followed by spray drying. Powders were assessed for their solubility, heat stability, coagulation time, and emulsifying and foaming properties. Effects of denaturation and shearing were examined by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, reducing and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC. Heat treatment significantly decreased solubility, whereas the number of microfluidization passes markedly improved solubility. The combined effect of heat and pressure significantly increased heat coagulation time. Emulsifying activity index substantially increased upon heat denaturation and was further enhanced by microfluidization. Emulsion stability appeared unaffected by the combined treatment, but the concentration of adsorbed protein on fat droplets was significantly increased. Foaming properties were diminished by heating. Particle size distribution patterns, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC revealed disappearance of major WP and creation of relatively higher, as well as smaller, molecular weight aggregates as a result of the 2 treatments. The use of heat and microfluidization in combination could be used to stabilize WP against heat by producing microparticulated species that have different surface and colloidal properties compared with native WP. These results have implications for the use of WP as an additive in heat-processed foods.

  16. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  17. The myocardial heat shock response following sodium salicylate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Marius; Atance, Joel

    2000-01-01

    In cultured cells, salicylate has been shown to potentiate the induction of Hsp72 so that a mild heat stress (40°C) in the presence of salicylate induces an Hsp72 response that is similar to a severe heat stress (42°C). To determine whether salicylate can potentiate the myocardial Hsp70 response in vivo and confer protection from an ischemic stress, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g) were placed into 5 groups: (1) control, (2) salicylate only (400 mg/kg), (3) mild heat stress (40°C for 15 minutes), (4) mild heat stress plus salicylate, and (5) severe heat stress (42°C for 15 minutes). Twenty-four hours following salicylate treatment and/or heat stress, animals were anesthetized, their hearts rapidly isolated, and hemodynamic function evaluated using the Langendorff technique. Hsp72 content was subsequently assessed by Western blotting. Although salicylate in combination with a mild heat stress induced heat shock factor activation, only the hearts from severely heat-stressed animals (42°C) demonstrated a significantly elevated myocardial Hsp72 content and a significantly enhanced postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure and rates of contraction and relaxation. These results support the role for Hsp72 as a protective protein and suggest that neither salicylate treatment alone nor salicylate in combination with a mild heat stress potentiates the myocardial Hsp72 response. PMID:11048658

  18. 13. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. HEAT TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR MIDDLE BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTHWEST. HEAT TREATMENT EQUIPMENT ABANDONED ON SITE. ALSO, TRACKS ALONG EQUIPMENT FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIAL. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels... sound metal by grinding and the surface exposed shall be blended smoothly into the surrounding area....

  20. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  1. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  2. Increasing thermomagnetic stability of composite superconductors with additives of extremely-large-heat-capacity substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lupanov, D. É.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the thermomagnetic stability (with respect to magnetic flux disturbances) of composite superconductors screened by additives of rare earth compounds possessing extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. Three tubular composite structures have been manufactured and studied with respect to screening of the central region from variations of an external magnetic field. The effect of large-heat-capacity substances (LHCSs) was evaluated by measuring a jump in the magnetic flux in response to the rate of variation (ramp) of the external magnetic field. It is established that the adiabatic criterion of stability (magnetic-flux jump field) in the sample structures containing LHCSs significantly increases—by 20% for HoCu2 intermetallic compound and 31% for Gd2O2S ceramics—as compared to the control structure free of such additives.

  3. Heat Treatment. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Herb; Broste, Dale

    This lesson was developed for a course in sludge treatment and disposal. The lesson describes the Porteous heat treatment method of sludge conditioning and compares that system to the Zimpro wet air oxidation process. The theory of heat treatment, system of components and functions, and concepts of operation are addressed in the lesson. The…

  4. Does betahistine treatment have additional benefits to vestibular rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Karapolat, Hale; Celebisoy, Nese; Kirazli, Yesim; Bilgen, Cem; Eyigor, Sibel; Gode, Sercan; Akyuz, Aycan; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose betahistine treatment added to vestibular rehabilitation (VR) on the disability, balance and postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular disorder. The VR group (group 1, n = 24) and the VR + betahistine group (group 2, n = 23) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated before and after an 8-week customized VR in terms of disability (Dizziness Handicap Inventory, DHI), dynamic balance [Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)] and postural stability (static posturography). In group 1 and group 2, differences between DHI, DGI and falling index score on static posturography before and after the exercise program were significant (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant difference was detected only in group 2 in the variables evaluated in static posturography-Fourier 4 analysis (p < 0.05). Both VR and betahistine + VR have a positive effect on disability and balance in patients with unilateral vestibular disorder. Betahistine treatment added to VR was effective in increasing postural stability.

  5. Heat shock proteins: in vivo heat treatments reveal adipose tissue depot-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Wheatley, Joshua L; Wright, David C; Geiger, Paige C

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatments (HT) and the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) improve whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity while decreasing white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. However, HSPs in WAT have been understudied. The purpose of the present study was to examine patterns of HSP expression in WAT depots, and to examine the effects of a single in vivo HT on WAT metabolism. Male Wistar rats received HT (41°C, 20 min) or sham treatment (37°C), and 24 h later subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal WAT depots (SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT, respectively) were removed for ex vivo experiments and Western blotting. SCAT, eWAT, and rpWAT from a subset of rats were also cultured separately and received a single in vitro HT or sham treatment. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was greatest in more metabolically active WAT depots (i.e., eWAT and rpWAT) compared with the SCAT. Following HT, HSP72 increased in all depots with the greatest induction occurring in the SCAT. In addition, HSP25 increased in the rpWAT and eWAT, while HSP60 increased in the rpWAT only in vivo. Free fatty acid (FFA) release from WAT explants was increased following HT in the rpWAT only, and fatty acid reesterification was decreased in the rpWAT but increased in the SCAT following HT. HT increased insulin responsiveness in eWAT, but not in SCAT or rpWAT. Differences in HSP expression and induction patterns following HT further support the growing body of literature differentiating distinct WAT depots in health and disease.

  6. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting's overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions of

  7. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Ian P.; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J.; Younger, John G.; VanEpps, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature. PMID:26501916

  8. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  9. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  10. Optical fiber temperature sensors: applications in heat treatments for foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-10-01

    Heat treatments are important methods to provide safe foods. Conventional heat treatments involve the application of steam and recently microwave treatments have been studied and applied as they are considered as fast, clean and efficient. Optical fiber sensing is an excellent tool to measure the temperature during microwave treatments. This paper shows the application of optical fiber temperature sensing during the heat treatment of different foods such as vegetables (jalapeño pepper and cilantro), cheese and ostrich meat. Reaching the target temperature, important bacteria were inactivated: Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli. Thus, the use of optical fiber sensors has resulted be a useful way to develop protocols to inactivate microorganisms and to propose new methods for food processing.

  11. An Energy Savings Model for the Heat Treatment of Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Rong; R. Sisson; J. Morral; H. Brody

    2006-12-31

    An integrated system of software, databases, and design rules have been developed, verified, and to be marketed to enable quantitative prediction and optimization of the heat treatment of aluminum castings to increase quality, increase productivity, reduce heat treatment cycle times and reduce energy consumption. The software predicts the thermal cycle in critical locations of individual components in a furnace, the evolution of microstructure, and the attainment of properties in heat treatable aluminum alloy castings. The model takes into account the prior casting process and the specific composition of the component. The heat treatment simulation modules can be used in conjunction with software packages for simulation of the casting process. The system is built upon a quantitative understanding of the kinetics of microstructure evolution in complex multicomponent alloys, on a quantitative understanding of the interdependence of microstructure and properties, on validated kinetic and thermodynamic databases, and validated quantitative models.

  12. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  13. Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haijing; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 strains can grow an average of 2.3 log CFU/g over 2 days during seed germination, and Salmonella can achieve an average growth of 3.7 log CFU/g. Therefore, it is important to find an effective method to reduce possible pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds prior to sprouting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of various dry heat treatments on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. Mung beans were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella serovars harboring the green fluorescent protein gene and then air dried overnight. Heat treatments were performed by incubating the seeds at 55 degrees C for various periods of time. Heat-treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the heat treatment and the effects of heat treatment on germination rates. After inoculation and drying, 6 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 4 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. Following heat treatment, pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds were below detectable levels (<1 log CFU/g), but the germination rate of the seed was not affected. Thus, the risk of contamination and the presence of pathogens in the finished sprouts were greatly reduced via the seed heat treatment process.

  14. Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jie; Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wen; Ma, Li-Juan; Lei, Xiao-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.

  15. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-09-28

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  16. High pressure homogenization versus heat treatment: effect on survival, growth, and metabolism of dairy Leuconostoc strains.

    PubMed

    Guglielmotti, D M; Patrignani, F; Lanciotti, R; Guerzoni, M E; Reinheimer, J A; Quiberoni, A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) with respect to a traditional heat treatment on the inactivation, growth at 8°C after treatments, and volatile profile of adventitious Leuconostoc strains isolated from Cremoso Argentino spoiled cheeses and ingredients used for their manufacture was evaluated. Most Leuconostoc strains revealed elevated resistance to HPH (eight passes, 100 MPa), especially when resuspended in skim milk. Heat treatment was more efficient than HPH in inactivating Leuconostoc cells at the three initial levels tested. The levels of alcohols and sulfur compounds increased during incubation at 8°C in HPH-treated samples, while the highest amounts of aldehydes and ketones characterized were in heated samples. Leuconostoc cells resuspended in skim milk and subjected to one single-pass HPH treatment using an industrial-scale machine showed remarkable reductions in viable cell counts only when 300 and 400 MPa were applied. However, the cell counts of treated samples rose rapidly after only 5 days of storage at 8°C. The Leuconostoc strains tested in this work were highly resistant to the inactivation treatments applied. Neither HPH nor heat treatment assured their total destruction, even though they were more sensitive to the thermal treatment. To enhance the inhibitory effect on Leuconostoc cells, HPH should be combined with a mild heat treatment, which in addition to efficient microbial inactivation, could allow maximal retention of the physicochemical properties of the product.

  17. Test of the Additivity Principle for Current Fluctuations in a Model of Heat Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2009-06-01

    The additivity principle allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional (1D) nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we confirm this conjecture in the 1D Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of heat conduction for a wide current interval. The current distribution shows both Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, and obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. We verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation. This profile is independent of the sign of the current, and this symmetry extends to higher-order profiles and spatial correlations. We also show that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  18. Test of the additivity principle for current fluctuations in a model of heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2009-06-26

    The additivity principle allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional (1D) nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we confirm this conjecture in the 1D Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of heat conduction for a wide current interval. The current distribution shows both Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, and obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. We verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation. This profile is independent of the sign of the current, and this symmetry extends to higher-order profiles and spatial correlations. We also show that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  19. Oxidative stress in E. coli cells upon exposure to heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Marcén, María; Ruiz, Virginia; Serrano, Mª Jesús; Condón, Santiago; Mañas, Pilar

    2017-01-16

    Heat treatments are widely used by the food industry to inactivate microorganisms, however their mode of action on microbial cells is not fully known. In the last years, it has been proposed that the generation of oxidative species could be an important factor contributing to cell death by heat and by other stresses; however, investigations in this field are scarce. The present work studies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon heat treatment in E. coli, through the use of cell staining with specific fluorochromes. Results obtained demonstrate that ROS are detected in E. coli cells when they are subjected to heat exposure, and the amount of fluorescence increases with temperature and time, as does the cellular inactivation. The addition of glutathione or tiron, a potent antioxidant and a superoxide quencher, respectively, to the heating medium protected E. coli against heat inactivation and concurrently reduced the detection of ROS, especially in the case of glutathione. Finally, recovery of heated cells under conditions that relief oxidative stress produced an increase in cell survival. Data presented in this work support the view that ROS generation and subsequent control in bacterial cells could be an essential factor determining inactivation and survival upon exposure to heat, and it could be a potential target to increase the efficacy of current treatments.

  20. Vaporization Mechanisms of Water-Insoluble Cs in Ash During Thermal Treatment with Calcium Chloride Addition.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Facun; Iwata, Norie; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kawaguchi, Masato; Asada, Motoyuki; Honda, Maki; Sueki, Keisuke; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-20

    The vaporization mechanisms of water-insoluble Cs in raw ash and Cs-doped ash during thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition was systematically examined in a lab-scale electrical heating furnace over a temperature range of 500-1500 °C. The results indicate that the water-insoluble Cs in the ash was associated with aluminosilicate as pollucite. Addition of 10% CaCl2 caused the maximum vaporization ratio of Cs in the raw ash to reach approximately 80% at temperatures higher than 1200 °C, whereas approximately 95% of Cs was vaporized at temperatures higher than 1300 °C when 30% CaCl2 was added. The formation of an intermediate compound, CsCaCl3, through the chemical reaction of Cs with CaCl2 was responsible for Cs vaporization by means of the subsequent decomposition of this intermediate upon the increase in temperature. The indirect chlorination of Cs by the gaseous chlorine released from the decomposition of CaCl2 was insignificant. A high CaCl2 content in the resulting annealed products with 30% CaCl2 addition delayed the decomposition of CsCaCl3 and thus lowered the Cs vaporization ratio compared to that with 10% CaCl2 addition at 900-1250 °C. Thermal treatment with CaCl2 addition is a proposed method to remove Cs from Cs-contaminated incineration ash.

  1. Heat in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, E; Vazquez, R

    2001-03-01

    The paper presents the results of heat treatment in three cases of anorexia nervosa (AN), in which marked overactivity and/or strenuous exercising were prominent clinical features. Heat was supplied in three ways: continuous exposure to a warm environment, wearing a thermal waistcoat, and sauna baths in an infrared cabin. The outcomes went far beyond what had been expected, as the disappearance of hyperactivity was followed by progressive recovery.

  2. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  3. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  4. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Henh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  5. Evaluation of heat-cured resin bases following the addition of denture teeth using a second heat cure.

    PubMed

    Polukoshko, K M; Brudvik, J S; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1992-04-01

    This study compared heat-cured acrylic resin denture baseplate distortions following a second heat cure used to add the denture teeth. The second heat cure was done with three different water-bath curing temperatures. The distortions were evaluated in three planes by use of a measuring microscope. Recorded distortions were not clinically significant.

  6. Effect of heat treatment and storage conditions on mead composition.

    PubMed

    Kahoun, David; Řezková, Soňa; Královský, Josef

    2017-03-15

    The effects of heat treatment and storage conditions on the composition of pure mead (honey wine) made from only honey and water were investigated. Heat treatment experiments were performed at 7 different temperatures ranging from 40°C to100°C with 10°C increments for 60min. Storage condition experiments were performed at room temperature (20-25°C) in daylight without direct sunlight and in darkness in a refrigerator at 4°C for 1, 2, 4 and 12weeks. The parameters evaluated were phenolic compounds, peak area of unidentified compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and antioxidant capacity. Significant changes in compound content were observed in the case of 6 identified compounds and 9 unidentified compounds. However, the antioxidant activity was not affected by the heat treatments or storage at room temperature.

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on nitinol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Daymond, M. R.; Yu, C.; Ren, Y.

    2014-08-01

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study the influence of the heat treatment temperature on the subsequent micromechanical behavior of nitinol wire. It was found that increase in the heat treatment temperature rotated the austenite texture from the {332}B2 fiber towards the {111}B2 fiber, and the texture of the Stress-Induced Martensite phase changed from the ( 1 ¯ 40)B19' to the ( 1 ¯ 20)B19' fiber accordingly. Heat treatment at a low temperature reduces the internal residual strains in the austenite during super-elastic deformation and therefore improves the materials fatigue performance. The development of internal residual strains in austenite is controlled by transformation induced plasticity and the reversal martensite to austenite transformation.

  8. Ultrasonic verification of microstructural changes due to heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for polycrystalline samples of nickel and copper with various grain-size distributions produced by heat treatment. Attenuation as a function of frequency was determined for a sample having a known mean grain diameter. Once this function was determined, it could be scaled to determine the mean grain size of other samples of the same material with different mean grain diameters. These results were obtained by using broadband pulse-echo ultrasound in the 25 to 100 MHz frequency range. The results suggest an ultrasonic, nondestructive approach for verifying heat treatment of metals.

  9. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Lethal effects of heat and use of localized heat treatment for control of bed bug infestations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G; Pfiester, Margie; Walker, Wayne

    2009-06-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., hide in cracks and crevices in furniture and are difficult to control. The bed bug thermal death kinetics were examined to develop a heat treatment method to eliminate bed bug infestations in room contents. High temperatures caused temporary immobilization (knockdown) of bed bugs even with exposures that did not have lethal effects. Exposure of bed bug adults to 39 degrees C for 240 min caused no mortality; however, as temperatures increased from 41 to 49 degrees C, exposure times that caused 100% mortality decreased. The temperature difference to provide a 10-fold change in the mortality was estimated at 4 degrees C, and the estimated activation energy (EA) was between 484 and 488.3 kJ/mol. This demonstrates that bed bugs are not more resistant or susceptible to changes in temperature than other tested insects and that the temperatures needed to kill bed bugs are relatively low. In room treatment tests, heat treatment times varied from 2 to 7 h with complete mortality of exposed bed bugs within the treatment envelope created by surrounding the treated furniture with polystyrene sheathing boards. Containment and circulation of heat around the treated material were crucial factors in an efficient heat treatment for bed bug control. The room floor material greatly affected containment of the heat. The tested method for limited heat treatment of furniture and other room contents required equipment costing less than US$400 and provided opportunity for residual pesticide application around the room with minimal disruption in use of treated room.

  11. Effect of heat treatments on aminoglycosides in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2009-06-01

    The presence of antibiotic residues in milk not only is a potential consumer risk but also may cause serious problems in the fermentation processes used in the dairy industry. There is very limited information available on the effect of heat treatments on aminoglycoside activity in milk. For this reason, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different heat treatments (60 degrees C for 30 min, 120 degrees C for 20 min, and 140 degrees C for 10 s) on milk samples spiked with four aminoglycosides (gentamicin, 50, 100, and 200 microg/liter; kanamycin, 300, 600, and 1200 microg/liter, neomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter; and streptomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter). The method used was a bioassay based on the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis BGA. Statistical analysis of the three heat treatments studied showed that the one at 60 degrees C for 30 min did not inactivate the aminoglycosides, the treatment at 140 degrees C for 10 s produced inactivation levels of between 17% for kanamycin and 40% for neomycin, and the classic sterilization (120 degrees C for 20 min) showed a high heat inactivation (>95%) for all the concentrations of aminoglycosides tested with respect to the samples without treatment (control group).

  12. Effects of heat treatment on hair structure.

    PubMed

    Bories, M F; Martini, M C; Et, M F; Cotte, J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis The influence of increasing temperature from 20 to 200 degrees C was studied at the superficial level by electron microscopy and in depth by differential colorimetry and X-ray defraction. The results have been related to moisture content in order to establish the influence of hair-drying treatment which would respect the integrity of the keratin fibre whilst encouraging the deformation of the hair. A critical temperature of 140 degrees C resulted from the studies. Below this temperature little modification of the hair structure was observed which was reversible and linked to the progressive loss of free water. Above 140 degrees C the structural modifications were profound and irreversible. This was accompanied by a change in the appearance of a folding of the cuticle and the gradual disappearance of the scale of the cuticle. After elimination of bound water, a total degradation of the structure was observed around 200 degrees C. From the point of view of these structure studies, a drying temperature of 60 degrees C would appear optimal since a subsequent moisture pick-up is slower, leaving the hair less sensitive to atmospheric humidity variations.

  13. The effect of heat treatment on the morphology of D-Gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Erkmen, Z E

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the morphology of the Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings sprayed on Ti alloy samples by Detonation Gun Spray (D-Gun) and the effect of aging before and after heat treatment in physiological solution were observed. Cross-sectional porosity and percentages of amorphous and crystal phase were measured using optical, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Differential Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA) was performed to estimate the glass-crystalline phase transformation temperatures. Heat-treatment at 300, 500, 700, 800 and 1200 degrees C were carried out to confirm DTA results. As a final analysis, the aging effect using Ringer's solution for 1 week on heat-treated and non-heat-treated samples was measured. It was observed that, in D-Gun sprayed samples, the cross-sectional porosity stayed in the accepted 5% range as reported for other spraying techniques.(1-5) On the other hand, surface porosity measured using the water immersion method remained in the conventional porosity limit of 15% for non-heat-treated samples. Heat-treatment had a small influence on the porosity while the crystallinity increased considerably; in addition, aging had little effect on HA crystallinity for heat treated samples. This work showed that D-gun sprayed HA coatings had lower porosity and better integrity than other coatings, due to which we can expect better performance during in vivo applications.

  14. Structural changes of synthetic opal by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasuna, Akane; Okuno, Masayuki; Okudera, Hiroki; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Arai, Shoji; Katayama, Shin'ichi; Koyano, Mikio; Ito, Nobuaki

    2013-10-01

    The structural changes of synthetic opal by heat treatment up to 1,400 °C were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The results indicate that the dehydration and condensation of silanol in opal are very important factors in the structural evolution of heat-treated synthetic opal. Synthetic opal releases water molecules and silanols by heat treatment up to 400 °C, where the dehydration of silanol may lead to the condensation of a new Si-O-Si network comprising a four-membered ring structure of SiO4 tetrahedra, even at 400 °C. Above 600 °C, water molecules are lost and the opal surface and internal silanol molecules are completely dehydrated by heat effect, and the medium-temperature range structure of opal may begin to thermally reconstruct to six-membered rings of SiO4 tetrahedra. Above 1,000 °C, the opal structure almost approaches that of silica glass with an average structure of six-membered rings. Above 1,200 °C, the opal changes to low-cristobalite; however, minor evidence of low-tridymite stacking was evident after heat treatment at 1,400 °C.

  15. Evaluating the addition of activated carbon to heat-treated mushroom casing for grain-based and compost-based substrates.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Mark A; Heinemann, P H; Walker, P N; Demirci, A; Romaine, C P

    2009-10-01

    Two substrates, a non-composted grain spawn substrate and a traditional composted substrate, each covered with peat-based casing that contained varying amounts of activated carbon (AC) and each receiving different heat-treatment durations, were tested for Agaricus bisporus mushroom production. The amounts of AC were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% v/v, and the heat treatments were 0, 60, and 180 min at 121 degrees C and 103.4 kPa. Overall, the addition of AC up to 10-15% of casing for a grain spawn substrate increased mushroom yield. However, the addition of AC to the casing for compost substrates had no significant effect on yield, whereas heat-treating the casing increased yield. The onset of fruiting was retarded in grain spawn treatments not receiving AC with heat-treatment durations of 60 and 180 min, whereas this effect was not as apparent for the compost substrates. On average, mushroom yield was greater for the grain spawn substrate (366 g) than for compost substrate (287 g). For grain spawn substrate, the results show that the addition of AC ranging from 5% to 10% was adequate for maximum mushroom production.

  16. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  17. Increased prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in canine samples after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Luisa; Blagburn, Byron L; Duncan-Decoq, Rebecca; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Meinkoth, James; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Little, Susan E

    2014-11-15

    Canine serum samples may contain factors that prevent detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis on commercial assays, precluding accurate diagnosis. To determine the degree to which the presence of blocking antibodies or other inhibitors of antigen detection may interfere with our ability to detect circulating antigen in canine samples, archived plasma and serum samples (n=165) collected from dogs in animal shelters were tested for D. immitis antigen before and after heat treatment. Negative samples were also evaluated for their ability to block detection of D. immitis antigen in a sample from a positive dog. All 165 samples were negative prior to heating, but 11/154 (7.1%) became positive after heat treatment, a conversion that was documented and quantified on spectrophotometric plate assays, and 7/165 (4.2%) samples decreased detection of antigen when mixed with a known positive sample, suggesting some blocking ability was present. An additional 103 plasma and serum samples that tested positive prior to heating also were evaluated; the optical density of 14/101 (13.9%) increased by ≥50%, and one sample by as much as 15-fold, after heat treatment. Our results suggest that canine serum and plasma samples from dogs in the southeastern United States can contain inhibitors of D. immitis antigen detection, and that prevalence estimates of heartworm infection based on these assays would benefit from heat treatment of samples prior to testing.

  18. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    specified as an added element to a standard steel. • Silicon: Because of the technological nature of the process , acid bessemer steels are not...Heat treatment of steels 9 5.1. Annealing ~ 10 a. Full annealing I__ 10 b. Process annealing 10 c. Spheroidizing . 10 5.2. Normalizing 10...treatment of iron and steel and for directions and explanations of such processes . This Monograph has been prepared to answer such inquiries and to give

  19. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  20. The effect of heat treatment of wood on osteoconductivity.

    PubMed

    Rekola, J; Aho, A J; Gunn, J; Matinlinna, J; Hirvonen, J; Viitaniemi, P; Vallittu, P K

    2009-06-01

    Wood is a natural porous fibre composite, which has some structural similarities to bone. Recently, it has been used as a modelling material in developing synthetic fibre-reinforced composite to be used as load-bearing non-metallic artificial bone material. In this study, the behaviour of wood implanted into bone was studied in vivo in the femur bone of the rabbit. Wood was pre-treated by heat, which altered its chemical composition and structure, as well as the biomechanical properties. In the heat treatment, wood's dimensional stability is enhanced, equilibrium moisture content reduces and the biological durability increases. Cone-shaped implants were manufactured from heat-treated (at 200 and 140 degrees C) birch wood (Betula pubescens) and from untreated birch. A total of 62 implants were placed in the distal femur of 50 white New Zealand rabbits. The behaviour of the implants was studied at 4, 8 and 20 weeks with histological and histometrical analysis. Osteoconductive contact line and the presence of fibrous tissue and foreign body reaction were determined. The amount of fibrous tissue diminished with time, and the absence of foreign body reaction was found to be in correlation to the amount of heat treatment. Histologically found contact between the implant and the host bone at the interface was significantly more abundant in the 200 degrees C group (avg. 12.8%) vs. the 140 degrees C (avg. 2.7%) and the untreated groups (avg. 0.6%). It was observed that the heat treatment significantly modified the biological behaviour of the implanted wood. The changes of the wood by heat treatment showed a positive outcome concerning osteoconductivity of the material.

  1. Pre-weld heat treatment improves welds in Rene 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of Rene 41 prior to welding reduces the incidence of cracking during post-weld heat treatment. The microstructure formed during the slow cooling rate favors elevated temperature ductility. Some vestiges of this microstructure are apparently retained during welding and thus enhance strain-age crack resistance in air.

  2. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proper inspection. (b) To check uniformity of heat treatment, Brinnel hardness tests shall be made at 18 inch intervals on the entire longitudinal axis. The hardness shall not vary more than 35 points in the length of the tank. No hardness tests need be taken within 12 inches from point of head to shell...

  3. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proper inspection. (b) To check uniformity of heat treatment, Brinnel hardness tests shall be made at 18 inch intervals on the entire longitudinal axis. The hardness shall not vary more than 35 points in the length of the tank. No hardness tests need be taken within 12 inches from point of head to shell...

  4. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... proper inspection. (b) To check uniformity of heat treatment, Brinnel hardness tests shall be made at 18 inch intervals on the entire longitudinal axis. The hardness shall not vary more than 35 points in the length of the tank. No hardness tests need be taken within 12 inches from point of head to shell...

  5. Heat treatment procedure to increase ductility of degraded nickel alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Tests demonstrate the room temperature ductility of degraded Rene 41 can be increased to acceptable values by solution heat treatment at a temperature of 2050 degrees to 2150 degrees F /1 to 2 hours/ and cooling through a controlled temperature range followed by normal aging in air /16 hours at 1400 degrees F/.

  6. Research Findings on Heat Treatment of Pathogens and Indicator Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat or thermal treatment has been used for many years for reducing the densities of pathogens in food and beverages. Its application for disinfection of municipal sludges has occurred only recently. One method for achieving Class A biosolids is to thermally treat sludges either ...

  7. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  9. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179.100-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  10. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179.100-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  11. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  12. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179.220-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  13. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179.100-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  14. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179.100-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  16. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  17. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  20. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  1. Variation of Mechanical Properties of High RRR And Reactor Grade Niobium With Heat Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapati Myneni; H. Umezawa

    2003-06-01

    Superconducting rf cavities used as accelerating structures in particle accelerators are made from high purity niobium with residual resistance ratios greater than 250. Reactor grade niobium is also used to make wave-guide and/or end group components for these accelerating structures. The major impurities in this type of niobium are interstitially dissolved gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to carbon. After fabricating the niobium accelerating structures, they are subjected to heat treatments for several hours in vacuum at temperatures of up to 900 C for degassing hydrogen or up to 1400 C for improving the thermal conductivity of niobium considerably. These heat treatments are affecting the mechanical properties of niobium drastically. In this paper the variation of the mechanical properties of high purity and reactor grade niobium with heat treatments in a vacuum of {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr and temperatures from 600 C to 1250 C for periods of 10 to 6 hours are presented.

  2. Tool Steel Heat Treatment Optimization Using Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornik, Bojan; Belič, Igor; Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaz

    2016-11-01

    Optimization of tool steel properties and corresponding heat treatment is mainly based on trial and error approach, which requires tremendous experimental work and resources. Therefore, there is a huge need for tools allowing prediction of mechanical properties of tool steels as a function of composition and heat treatment process variables. The aim of the present work was to explore the potential and possibilities of artificial neural network-based modeling to select and optimize vacuum heat treatment conditions depending on the hot work tool steel composition and required properties. In the current case training of the feedforward neural network with error backpropagation training scheme and four layers of neurons (8-20-20-2) scheme was based on the experimentally obtained tempering diagrams for ten different hot work tool steel compositions and at least two austenitizing temperatures. Results show that this type of modeling can be successfully used for detailed and multifunctional analysis of different influential parameters as well as to optimize heat treatment process of hot work tool steels depending on the composition. In terms of composition, V was found as the most beneficial alloying element increasing hardness and fracture toughness of hot work tool steel; Si, Mn, and Cr increase hardness but lead to reduced fracture toughness, while Mo has the opposite effect. Optimum concentration providing high KIc/HRC ratios would include 0.75 pct Si, 0.4 pct Mn, 5.1 pct Cr, 1.5 pct Mo, and 0.5 pct V, with the optimum heat treatment performed at lower austenitizing and intermediate tempering temperatures.

  3. Modular system for studying tonal sound excitation in resonators with heat addition and mean flow.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Konstantin I; Hernandez, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    An educational experimental system has been developed for studying tonal sound generation in acoustic resonators. Tones are excited by either heat addition or vortex shedding in the presence of mean flow. The system construction is straightforward and inexpensive. Several test arrangements and experimental data are described in this paper. The experimental setups include a modified Rijke tube, a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine, a baffled tube with mean flow, and an acoustic energy harvester with a piezoelement. Simplified mathematical models for interpreting data are discussed, and references are provided to literature with more advanced analyses. The developed system can assist both graduate and undergraduate students in understanding acoustic instabilities via conducting and analyzing interesting experiments.

  4. Microwave heat treatment of natural ruby and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, S.; Pradhan, S. K.; Jeevitha, M.; Acharya, P.; Debata, M.; Dash, T.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-03-01

    Natural ruby (in the form of gemstone) collected from Odisha has been heat-treated by microwave (MW). A 3-kW industrial MW furnace with SiC susceptors was used for the heat treatment. The ruby samples showed noticeable improvements (qualitative), may be attributed to account for the improvement in clarity and lustre. Optical absorption in 200-800 nm range and photoluminescence peak at 693 nm (with 400 nm λ ex) clearly show that subtle changes do take place in the ruby after the heat treatment. Further, inorganic compound phases and valence states of elements (impurities) in the ruby were studied by X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence states of the main impurities such as Cr, Fe, and Ti, in the untreated and MW heat-treated ruby, as revealed from XPS, have been discussed in depth. The overall results demonstrate for the first time the effect of fast heating like MW on the microstructural properties of the gemstone and various oxidation states of impurity elements in the natural ruby.

  5. Heat treatment in high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, A. F.; Crnkovic, O. R.; Canale, L. C. F.

    2001-02-01

    Wear resistance of high Cr white cast irons can be improved by means of heat treatment. This type of cast iron alloy may present a microstructure with retained austenite. The amount of retained austenite changes with the applied heat treatment, which will have an influence on wear properties. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of several parameters such as quenching and tempering temperatures and subzero treatment in the wear performance of the high Cr white cast iron Nb alloy. In this way, the performance was evaluated using pin-on-disc abrasion test. The worn surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the main wear mechanisms were identified. The microstructural characterization was also performed with carbide identification. This Fe alloy has proven to be good for applications in mining and alcohol-sugar industries.

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella senftenberg in liquid whole egg using generally recognized as safe additives, ionizing radiation, and heat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ignacio; Niemira, Brendan A; Fan, Xuetong; Sommers, Christopher H

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining irradiation and heat (i.e., irradiation followed by heat [IR-H]) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Senftenberg inoculated into liquid whole egg (LWE) with added nisin, EDTA, sorbic acid, carvacrol, or combinations of these GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives was investigated. Synergistic reductions of Salmonella populations were observed when LWE samples containing GRAS additives were treated by gamma radiation (0.3 and 1.0 kGy), heat (57 and 60 degrees C), or IR-H. The presence of additives reduced the initial radiation Dgamma -values (radiation doses required to eliminate 90% of the viable cells) by 1.2- to 1.5-fold, the thermal decimal reduction times (D,-values) by up to 3.5- and 1.8-fold at 57 and 60 degrees C, respectively, and the thermal D,-values after irradiation treatments by up to 3.4- and 1.5-fold at 57 and 60 degrees C, respectively, for both Salmonella serovars. Of all the additives investigated, nisin at a concentration of 100 IU/ml was the most effective at reducing the heat treatment times needed to obtain a 5-log reduction of Salmonella. Thus, while treatments of 21.6 min at 57 degrees C or of 5 min at 60 degrees C should be applied to achieve a 5-log reduction for Salmonella in LWE, only 5.5 min at 57 degrees C or 2.3 min at 60 degrees C after a 0.3-kGy radiation pretreatment was required when nisin at a concentration of 100 IU/ml was used. The synergistic reduction of Salmonella viability by IR-H treatments in the presence of GRAS additives could enable LWE producers to reduce the temperature or processing time of thermal treatments (current standards are 60'C for 3.5 min in the United States) or to increase the level of Salmonella inactivation.

  7. Additions to compact heat exchanger technology: Jet impingement cooling & flow & heat transfer in metal foam-fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstad, Andrew J.

    Compact heat exchangers have been designed following the same basic methodology for over fifty years. However, with the present emphasis on energy efficiency and light weight of prime movers there is increasing demand for completely new heat exchangers. Moreover, new materials and mesoscale fabrication technologies offer the possibility of significantly improving heat exchanger performance over conventional designs. This work involves fundamental flow and heat transfer experimentation to explore two new heat exchange systems: in Part I, large arrays of impinging jets with local extraction and in Part II, metal foams used as fins. Jet impingement cooling is widely used in applications ranging from paper manufacturing to the cooling of gas turbine blades because of the very high local heat transfer coefficients that are possible. While the use of single jet impingement results in non-uniform cooling, increased and more uniform mean heat transfer coefficients may be attained by dividing the total cooling flow among an array of smaller jets. Unfortunately, when the spent fluid from the array's central jets interact with the outer jets, the overall mean heat transfer coefficient is reduced. This problem can be alleviated by locally extracting the spent fluid before it is able to interact with the surrounding jets. An experimental investigation was carried out on a compact impingement array (Xn/Djet = 2.34) utilizing local extraction of the spent fluid (Aspent/Ajet = 2.23) from the jet exit plane. Spatially resolved measurements of the mean velocity field within the array were carried out at jet Reynolds numbers of 2300 and 5300 by magnetic resonance velocimetry, MRV. The geometry provided for a smooth transition from the jet to the target surface and out through the extraction holes without obvious flow recirculation. Mean Nusselt number measurements were also carried out for a Reynolds number range of 2000 to 10,000. The Nusselt number was found to increase with the

  8. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Thomas David

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  9. Effect of alkali and heat treatments for bioactivity of TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seo young; Kim, Yu kyoung; Park, Il song; Jin, Guang chun; Bae, Tae sung; Lee, Min ho

    2014-12-01

    In this study, for improving the bioactivity of titanium used as an implant material, alkali and heat treatments were carried out after formation of the nanotubes via anodization. Nanotubes with uniform length, diameter, and thickness were formed by anodization. The alkali and heat-treated TiO2 nanotubes were covered with the complex network structure, and the Na compound was generated on the surface of the specimens. In addition, after 5 and 10 days of immersion in the SBF, the crystallized OCP and HAp phase was significantly increased on the surface of the alkali-treated TiO2 nanotubes (PNA) and alkali and heat-treated TiO2 nanotubes (PNAH) groups. Cell proliferation was decreased due to the formation of amorphous sodium titanate (Na2TiO3) layer on the surface of the PNA group. However, anatase and crystalline sodium titanate were formed on the surface of the PNAH group after heat treatment at 550 °C, and cell proliferation was improved. Thus, PNA group had higher HAp forming ability in the simulated body fluid. Additional heat treatment affected on enhancement of the bioactivity and the attachment of osteoblasts for PNA group.

  10. The effects of heat treatment and composition on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of inconel alloy X-750

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floreen, S.; Nelson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of 24 heats of INCONEL* alloy X-750 was measured in high purity pH 10 water at 360 °C. An overaging heat treatment of 96 hours at 760 °C produced an improved combination of strength and cracking resistance because of the homogenization of slip in the matrix. Examination of residual elements showed that Zr additions further improved the cracking resistance by stabilizing theγ' precipitate in the grain boundary region. Combining the new heat treatment with the Zr addition produced approximately a 50 pct improvement in stress corrosion cracking resistance at a 10 pct lower yield strength.

  11. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G

    2016-05-15

    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated.

  12. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli

    2016-10-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  13. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    D’Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  14. Effects of heat treatment and moisture contents on interactions between lauric acid and starch granules.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengdan; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Jane, Jay-lin

    2014-08-06

    This study aimed to understand the effects of the moisture content of granular normal cornstarch (NC), heat treatment at 80 °C, and order of adding lauric acid (LA) to starch before or after the heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of the starch. LA was added to NC priority heated with different moisture contents (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) or added to dried NC and then heated with different moisture contents. The hydrothermal/LA treatments increased the pasting temperature but decreased the peak viscosity of the NC. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the addition of LA retarded gelatinization. The hydrothermal/LA treatments changed the X-ray pattern of the NC to a mixture of A- and V-type patterns. The thermal property and digestibility analysis showed that 40% was the optimum moisture content for the formation of the amylose-LA complex and adding LA prior to heating the NC favored the formation of slowly digestible starch.

  15. Deposition, Heat Treatment And Characterization of Two Layer Bioactive Coatings on Cylindrical PEEK.

    PubMed

    Durham, John W; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2016-09-15

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods were coated via ion beam asssited deposition (IBAD) at room temperature. The coating consists of a two-layer design of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a heat-protection layer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a top layer to increase bioactivity. A rotating substrate holder was designed to deposit an even coating on the cylindrical surface of PEEK rods; the uniformity is verified by cross-sectional measurements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition is followed by heat treatment of the coating using microwave annealing and autoclaving. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a dense, uniform columnar grain structure in the YSZ layer that is well bonded to the PEEK substrate, while the calcium phosphate layer was amorphous and pore-free in its as-deposited state. Subsequent heat treatment via microwave energy introduced HA crystallization in the calcium phosphate layer and additional autoclaving further expanded the crystallization of the HA layer. Chemical composition evaluation of the coating indicated the Ca/P ratios of the HA layer to be near that of stoichiometric HA, with minor variations through the HA layer thickness. The adhesion strength of as-deposited HA/YSZ coatings on smooth, polished PEEK surfaces was mostly unaffected by microwave heat treatment, but decreased with additional autoclave treatment. Increasing surface roughness showed improvement of bond strength.

  16. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p < 0.001) and 77% (p < 0.001), respectively. No differences in the PM2.5 emissions were observed when other additives were added to soybean oil. Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  17. Effect of dry heat treatment with xanthan on waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Huien; Shoemaker, Charles F; Xu, Zhiting; Zhu, Song; Zhong, Fang

    2013-02-15

    Waxy rice starch was impregnated with xanthan and heat-treated in a dry state. The effects on the pasting and rheological properties of the treated starch-xanthan mixture were evaluated. Swelling of the granule was restricted, and a continuous rise of the viscosity during pasting was provided for the treated sample. After pasting, the gel forming ability of the treated starch was strengthened, as both storage and loss modulus increased and tan δ decreased. The paste also owned the highest zero order Newtonian viscosity and yield stress. An increase in starch particle size of the dry heated starch-xanthan mixture suggested a cross linking of the starch granules by the xanthan polymers. An increase of crystallinity was observed for the starch after dry heat treatment, but with the addition of xanthan the amorphous region of the granule became more resistant to dry-heating. The melting enthalpy was found to be correlated with the crystallinity.

  18. Effect of mechanical surface and heat treatments on erosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of mechanical surface treatments as well as heat treatments on the erosion resistance of 6061 aluminum alloy and 1045 steel were studied. Mechanical surface treatments were found to have little or no effect on the erosion resistance. This is due to the formation by particle impact of a work hardened surface layer regardless of the initial surface condition. The erosion resistance of Al single crystals is found to be independent of orientation. This is due to destruction of the surface microstructure and formation of a polycrystalline surface layer by the impact of erodant particles as observed by X-ray diffraction. While upon solution treatment of annealed 6061 aluminum the increase in hardness is accompanied by an increase in erosion resistance, precipitation treatment which causes a further increase in hardness results in slightly lower erosion resistance. Using two types of erodant particles, glass beads and crushed glass, the erosion rate is found to be strongly dependent on erodant particle shape, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass as compared to glass beads. While for erosion with glass beads heat treatment of 1045 steel had a profound effect on its erosion resistance, little or no such effect was observed for erosion with crushed glass.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Characteristics of Laser Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yuanbin; Li, Yajiang; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Yan; Ren, Guocheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and wear properties of laser alloying (LA) composites is investigated. LA of the T-Co50/FeSi/TiC/TiN/CeO2 mixed powders on substrate of 45 steel can form the hard composites, which increased the wear resistance of substrate greatly. Such LA composites were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tempering promoted the growth of the block-shape hard phases, favoring an enhancement of the integrity of block-shape hard phases; and tempering also improved greatly the formation mechanism, guarantying the composites to have enough ability of intensity transfer. This research provided essential experiment and theoretical basis to promote the application of the laser and heat treatment technologies in the field of surface modification.

  20. Treatment of acute puerperal metritis with flunixin meglumine in addition to antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Drillich, M; Voigt, D; Forderung, D; Heuwieser, W

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this field trial was to evaluate effects of a single administration of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of flunixin meglumine (FM) in addition to a systemic antibiotic treatment in cows with acute puerperal metritis (APM). Outcome variables tested were proportion of cows with a fever, prevalence of chronic endometritis 18 to 22 and 32 to 35 d in milk (DIM), and reproductive performance measures in the current lactation. In addition, serum concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen were analyzed. Daily milk yield within 6 d after the first treatment was recorded. Cows were examined 4 to 5 DIM by rectal palpation and vaginoscopy, and rectal temperature was measured. Fetid vulvar discharge and a body temperature > or = 39.5 degrees C were signs of APM. Cows with APM were treated in the reference group with 1.0 mg/kg of BW of ceftiofur on 3 to 5 consecutive days (CEF, n = 119). In the study group, cows received the same antibiotic treatment as in CEF and 2.2 mg/kg of BW of FM on treatment d 1 (CEF + FM, n = 119). Blood samples were collected 4, 6, and 10 DIM and analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen. A group of cows without APM remained untreated and served as controls (n = 9). There were no significant differences between CEF and CEF + FM in the proportion of cows with fever 1 d after the first treatment (33.6 vs. 46.2%), milk yield per milking 10 DIM (7.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.3 kg in primiparous, 9.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.6 +/- 0.4 kg in multiparous cows), prevalence of chronic endometritis 32 to 35 DIM (64.3 vs. 52.2%), and in reproductive performance (31.5 vs. 34.3% conception to first AI, 58.0 vs. 54.6% pregnancy rate, 107.8 +/- 36.9 vs. 101.6 +/- 41.4 d open). Compared with the control, CEF and CEF + FM had significantly greater concentrations of haptoglobin (1.1 +/- 0.28 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.06 and 1.8 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 4 DIM; 0.3 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.06 and 1.2 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 10 DIM) and fibrinogen (2.2 +/- 0.17 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.14 and

  1. Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.

    PubMed

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

    2012-01-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).

  2. Effect of heat treatment on precipitation on V-5Cr-5Ti heat BL63

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Li, H.

    1996-04-01

    The microstructures of V-5Cr-5Ti heat BL63 are compared following heat treatments at 1125{degrees}C for 1 h and 1125{degrees}C for 1 h followed by 890{degrees}C for 24 h. Following the 890{degrees}C treatment, precipitate density was increased due to the presence of a moderate density of highly elongated particles. Microchemical analysis showed that these particles often contained both Ti and V, some particles showed minor amounts of Si, S, and P, but it was also possible to show that these precipitates were enriched in O rather than C or N. Following the 1125{degrees}C heat treatment, only Si was found as a minor impurity in large particles, but S could be identified at grain boundaries, which were coated with a fine distribution of precipitates. The embrittlement observed is ascribed to a combination of interstitial solid solution hardening and grain boundary embrittlement, with interstitial hardening likely the dominant factor.

  3. Physical aspects of thermotherapy: A study of heat transport with a view to treatment optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsrud, Johan Karl Otto

    1998-12-01

    Local treatment with the aim to destruct tissue by heating (thermotherapy) may in some cases be an alternative or complement to surgical methods, and has gained increased interest during the last decade. The major advantage of these, often minimally-invasive methods, is that the disease can be controlled with reduced treatment trauma and complications. The extent of thermal damage is a complex function of the physical properties of tissue, which influence the temperature distribution, and of the biological response to heat. In this thesis, methods of obtaining a well-controlled treatment have been studied from a physical point of view, with emphasis on interstitial laser-induced heating of tumours in the liver and intracavitary heating as a treatment for menorrhagia. Hepatic inflow occlusion, in combination with temperature-feedback control of the output power of the laser, resulted in well defined damaged volumes during interstitial laser thermotherapy in normal porcine liver. In addition, phantom experiments showed that the use of multiple diffusing laser fibres allows heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes in a single session. Methods for numerical simulation of heat transport were used to calculate the temperature distribution and the results agreed well with experiments. It was also found from numerical simulation that the influence of light transport on the damaged volume may be negligible in interstitial laser thermotherapy in human liver. Finite element analysis, disregarding light transport, was therefore proposed as a suitable method for 3D treatment planning. Finite element simulation was also used to model intracavitary heating of the uterus, with the purpose of providing an increased understanding of the influence of various treatment parameters on blood flow and on the depth of tissue damage. The thermal conductivity of human uterine tissue, which was used in these simulations, was measured. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was

  4. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p < 0.05 and a fold change of ≥1.2) between the non-heated and heated milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  5. Effect of Change of Aging Heat Treatment Pattern on the JK2LB Jacket for the ITER Central Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Hidemasa; Saito, Toru; Kawano, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Toru; Isono, Takaaki

    Following the recent improvement of the heat treatment pattern for the ITER CS conductor from 250 hour at 650 °C to 250 hour at 570 °C and then 100 hour at 650 °C, the mechanical properties at 4K and the material structure of the conductor jacketmade of JK2LB after heat treatment including the 570 °C phasewere studied. The mechanical test results at 4K showed no noticeable difference with the jacket heat-treated only at 650 °C to the one additionally heat-treatedat 570 °C.Both satisfied the ITER requirement. The metallographic test results also did not show large difference. In conclusion the 570 °C step does not affect noticeably the JK2LB jacket and the improved heat treatment pattern is applicable.

  6. Regeneration of pyrolyzed photoresist film by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andrew J; Downard, Alison J

    2011-03-15

    A simple, time-, and cost-effective procedure is described for regenerating film-modified or deactivated pyrolyzed photoresist film (PPF) surfaces. Heating for 30 min at 545 ± 25 °C in argon at a flow rate of 1 L min(-1) removes covalently bound thin organic films, attached via electrografting from aryldiazonium salt solutions. The heat-treated surfaces exhibit improved electrochemical characteristics compared to those prior to modification and can be reused for solution-based electrochemical measurements and for electrografting. The same treatment reactivates PPF electrodes that have been deactivated by exposure to adsorbates from air or solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, and water contact angle measurements establish that the regeneration procedure does not lead to significant changes in oxygen content, roughness, or hydrophobicity of PPF surfaces. XPS measurements also confirm the complete removal of covalently attached organic films after heat treatment but reveal a specific interaction between grafted nitrophenyl films and PPF which results in a small amount of N incorporation in the surface.

  7. Grain refinement of 2Mn-0.1C steel by repetitive heat treatment and recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. H.; Shibata, A.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-08-01

    Grain refinement in metals is well-known as one of the most effective methods to enhance their strength without addition of other elements. In this study, repetitive heat treatment combined with subsequent cold-rolling and recrystallization were investigated to obtain ultrafine-grained ferrite. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) ferritic structure having a mean grain size smaller than 1 μm was fabricated by repetitive heat treatment at 810 °C for 180 s and cold rolling by 90% plus a recrystallization heat treatment at 600 °C. Starting from this UFG ferrite, finegrained dual phase (DP) steel composed of ferrite and martensite phases with grain sizes smaller than 3 pm could be also obtained by intercritical heat treatment at 740 °C for 30 minutes followed by water-quenching. The mechanical properties of the ultrafine-grained ferritic and DP structured specimens were evaluated by tensile test. Results of the tensile test showed that finegrained ferritic and DP structures had higher yield and tensile strength than the coarse-grained ferritic and DP structures of the same steel.

  8. IMPACT OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2007-12-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique porous walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with porous walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the porous walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the

  9. High temperature heat treatment of 3GHz niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Diete, W. ); Rusnak, B.; Bennett, B.L.; Clark, W.L.; Maggs, R.G.; Shapiro, A.H.; Wright, P.V. )

    1992-01-01

    We applied high temperature heat treatment to 3GHz cavities to determine the preparation of niobium cavities using the titanium solid-state gettering process. Some preliminary results showed peak surface electric fields of up to 65MV/m at a Q-factor of 2{times}lO{sup 10}. We evaluated improvement in the purity of the niobium by measuring the residual resistance ratio (RRR) at 10K. The purest niobium we prepared reached a RRR of 670. To study the potential application to large-scale accelerator structures at lower frequencies, we are testing the possibility of heat treating the cavity half-cells before welding them. Therefore, we investigated the influence of electron beam welding on the RRR of high-purity niobium.

  10. Pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients associated with heat addition to supersonic air stream adjacent to two-dimensional supersonic wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Serafini, John S; Gregg, John L

    1952-01-01

    The modifications in the pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients associated with additions of heat to the two-dimensional supersonic in viscid flow field adjacetnt to the lower surface of of a 5-percent-thickness symmetrical circular-arc wing are presented in this report. The pressure distributions are obtained by the use of graphical method which gives the two-dimensional supersonic inviscid flow field obtained with moderate heat addition. The variation is given of the lift-drag ratio and of the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and moment with free stream Mach number, angle of attack, and parameters defining extent and amount of heat addition. The six graphical solutions used in this study included Mach numbers of 3.0 and 5.0 and angles of attack of 0 degrees and 2 degrees.

  11. Overview of Heat Addition and Efficiency Predictions for an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Reid, Terry; Schifer, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    Past methods of predicting net heat input needed to be validated. Validation effort pursued with several paths including improving model inputs, using test hardware to provide validation data, and validating high fidelity models. Validation test hardware provided direct measurement of net heat input for comparison to predicted values. Predicted value of net heat input was 1.7 percent less than measured value and initial calculations of measurement uncertainty were 2.1 percent (under review). Lessons learned during validation effort were incorporated into convertor modeling approach which improved predictions of convertor efficiency.

  12. Effect of Weight Loss and Microstructure by Heat Treatment and Fabrication of Lps-Sic Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han-Ki; Park, Joon Soo; Kohyama, Akira

    In the present work, monolithic LPS-SiC was fabricated by hot press method with the addition of Al2O3, Y2O3 and SiO2 and annealed at different temperatures to observe microstructure evolution. Process temperature was varied from 1760°C to 1800°C. Process pressure and maturing time are 20MPa and 1h respectively. Hot pressed samples were cut into rectangular bars. Three-point flexural strength was measured at room temperature in air with a cross-head speed of 0.1 mm/min and a lower span of 18 mm. Flexural strength and elastic modulus measurement was performed using a universal test machine (INSTRON 5581, USA). The apparent density of the sintered body was measured by the Archimedes method. The specimen dimension of the heat treatments is 4W×25L×1.5T mm. The specimens used for weight-loss measurement were set into an open carbon crucible to avoid nonuniform temperature distribution within the furnace. Post-fabrication heat treatment was performed in vacuum atmosphere (PO2 ≈ 0.01 Pa). The temperature was increased at a rate of 20 K/min to the heat-treatment temperature and maintained for 10 hours, after which the specimens were furnace cooled. After heat-treatment, weight of heat-treated specimens was carefully measured by an electronic balance. In order to reveal the microstructural change in heat-treated specimen, X-ray diffractometry and microstructure observation were performed and compared with those of the as-fabricated one.

  13. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  14. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  15. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... following filtration treatment in full compliance with subparts H, P, and T of this part (as applicable), then the additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements are . . . Conventional filtration...

  16. Growth of TiO2 nanoparticles under heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, J.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Sastry, P. U.; Paul, B.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment, on growth of NiO doped TiO2, have been investigated. The nanoparticle size has been estimated by small-angle x-ray scattering. The average particle size increases with increasing temperature. The growth of crystallite size has been probed by X-ray diffraction. A polymorphic phase transition of TiO2 is observed beyond 600°C due to growth of TiO2 nanoparticles beyond 14 nm of size.

  17. Process Integrated Heat Treatment of a Microalloyed Medium Carbon Steel: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Sebastian; Schledorn, Mareike; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Milenin, Andrij; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Air-water spray cooling was employed during a heat treatment to enhance the mechanical properties of microalloyed medium carbon steel test cylinders (38MnVS6, 88 mm diameter). Using appropriate cooling times and intensities, the test cylinders' surfaces could be quenched and subsequently self-tempered by the residual heat of the core. Simultaneously, it was possible to keep the core regions of the cylinders in the bainitic regime and carry out a quasi-isothermal holding. The resulting microstructures consisted of tempered martensite (near-surface) and bainite with pearlite and ferrite (core). Compared to the standard heat treatment (controlled air cooling), the tensile properties (proof stress and ultimate tensile strength) could be improved for both near-surface and core regions with the adapted spray cooling. A hardness profile with 450 HV10 surface hardness and a hardening depth of more than 11 mm could be realized. In addition, an increase of the impact toughness for the core was achieved, resulting in approximately 25 J charpy impact energy. This is a substantial improvement compared to standard heat treatment procedure and values reported in the literature and can be attributed to the reduced pearlite volume fraction and the increased amount of fine bainite.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Four Different Heats of ASTM A710 Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES t AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF FOUR DIFFERENT HEATS OF ASTM A710 STEEL by G.E. Hicho, C.H. Brady, L.C. Smith, and...Properties and Microstructure of Four Different Heats of ASTM A710 Steel I.E Hicho, C.H. Brady, L.C. Smith and R.J. Fields (" REPORT 13lb TIM E COVERED 14DATE...necessary and Identify by block number) iD GROUP SUBGROUP A710 HSLA Steel Heat Treatment Tensile Properties Grain Size Impact Properties Frnr-ngrphy Mi

  19. The Effects of Heat Treatment and Microstructure Variations on Disk Superalloy Properties at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Telesman, Jack; Garg, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment and resulting microstructure variations on high temperature mechanical properties were assessed for a powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR. Blanks were consistently supersolvus solution heat treated and quenched at two cooling rates, than aged at varying temperatures and times. Tensile, creep, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests were then performed at 704 C. Gamma' precipitate microstructures were quantified. Relationships between heat treatment-microstructure, heat treatment-mechanical properties, and microstructure-mechanical properties were assessed.

  20. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installation. (g) Austenitic stainless-steel pipe that has been heated for bending or other forming may be used... components. (a) Carbon-steel piping that has been heated to at least 1,650 °F (898 °C) for bending or other forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated...

  1. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installation. (g) Austenitic stainless-steel pipe that has been heated for bending or other forming may be used... components. (a) Carbon-steel piping that has been heated to at least 1,650 °F (898 °C) for bending or other forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated...

  2. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys.

    PubMed

    Morris, H F; Asgar, K; Rowe, A P; Nasjleti, C E

    1979-04-01

    Four removable partial denture alloys, Vitallium (Co-Cr alloy), Dentillium P.D. (Fe-Cr alloy), Durallium L.G. (Co-Cr-Ni alloy), and Ticonium 100 (Ni-Cr alloy), were evaluated in the as-cast condition and after heat treatment for 15 minutes at 1,300 degrees, 1,600 degrees, 1,900 degrees, and 2,200 degrees F followed by quenching in water. The following properties were determined and compared for each alloy at each heat treatment condition: the yield strengths at 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.2% offsets, the ultimate tensile strength, the percent elongation, the modulus of elasticity, and the Knoop microhardness. The results were statistically analyzed. Photomicrographs were examined for each alloy and test condition. The following conclusions were made: 1. The "highest values" were exhibited by the as-cast alloy. 2. Heat treatment of the partial denture alloys tested resulted in reductions in strength, while the elongations varied. This study demonstrates that, in practice, one should avoid (a) prolonged "heat-soaking" while soldering and (b) grinding or polishing of the casting until the alloy is "red hot". 3. Durallium L.G. was the least affected by the various heat treatment conditions. 4. Conventional reporting of the yield strength at 0.2% offset, the ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation are not adequate to completely describe and compare the mechanical behavior of alloys. The reporting of the yield strength at 0.01% offset, in addition to the other reported properties, will provide a more complete description of the behavior of the dental alloys.

  3. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira; Vinegar; Harold J.; Baker, Ralph Sterman; Heron, Goren

    2010-11-30

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  4. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory to investigate the absorption of water vapor into a falling-film of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). A mini-absorber test stand was used to test smooth tubes and a variety of advanced tube surfaces placed horizontally in a single-row bundle. The bundle had six copper tubes; each tube had an outside diameter of 15.9-mm and a length of 0.32-m. A unique feature of the stand is its ability to operate continuously and support testing of LiBr brine at mass fractions {ge} 0.62. The test stand can also support testing to study the effect of the failing film mass flow rate, the coolant mass flow rate, the coolant temperature, the absorber pressure and the tube spacing. Manufacturers of absorption chillers add small quantities of a heat and mass transfer additive to improve the performance of the absorbers. The additive causes surface stirring which enhances the transport of absorbate into the bulk of the film. Absorption may also be enhanced with advanced tube surfaces that mechanically induce secondary flows in the falling film without increasing the thickness of the film. Several tube geometry's were identified and tested with the intent of mixing the film and renewing the interface with fresh solution from the tube wall. Testing was completed on a smooth tube and several different externally enhanced tube surfaces. Experiments were conducted over the operating conditions of 6.5 mm Hg absorber pressure, coolant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 C and LiBr mass fractions ranging from 0.60 through 0.62. Initially the effect of tube spacing was investigated for the smooth tube surface, tested with no heat and mass transfer additive. Test results showed the absorber load and the mass absorbed increased as the tube spacing increased because of the improved wetting of the tube bundle. However, tube spacing was not a critical factor if heat and mass transfer additive was active in the mini-absorber. The additive dramatically affected

  5. Effect of mass-addition distribution and injectant on heat transfer and transition criteria.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, J. J.; Mccloskey, M. H.; Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Wright, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Surface pressures, heat-transfer rates, and transition locations for a sharp cone (whose semivertex angle is 12 deg) were obtained in a hypervelocity wind tunnel at a free-stream Mach number of 12 and a free-stream Re/ft range of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000. The effects of injecting either methane, nitrogen, or Freon-22 (at rates up to 2.1% of free-stream rate) were studied for a uniform injection-distribution and for a variable injection-distribution. Gaseous injection had little effect on the surface pressure measurements. For a given mass injection distribution, the laminar region heat-transfer decreases as the injection rate increases or as the molecular weight of the injectant decreases. For a given mass-injection rate (integrated over the surface of the entire cone), the transition location and heat-transfer rates were sensitive to the injection distribution. The transition Reynolds numbers were significantly greater when the local injection rate was constant over the surface of the cone.

  6. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-05

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  7. Characterization and dissolution behavior of sputtered calcium phosphate coatings after different postdeposition heat treatment temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Agrawal, C M; Kim, K H; Martin, H; Schulz, K; Bumgardner, I D; Ong, J L

    2003-01-01

    There is a lack of correlation between specific properties of hydroxyapatite coating surfaces, osseointegration processes, and implant success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between well-characterized structural and chemical properties of radio-frequency sputtered calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings and their dissolution behavior. Sputtered CaP coatings were evaluated as-sputtered (non-heat treated) or after 1 hour of postsputter heat treatments at 400 degrees C or 600 degrees C. All coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. The dissolution behavior of CaP coatings in the presence and absence of proteins was also investigated. It was observed from this study that as-sputtered CaP coatings were amorphous. The 400 degrees C heat-treated CaP coatings exhibited low crystallinity (1.9% +/- 0.4%), whereas the 600 degrees C heat-treated CaP coatings were highly crystalline (67.0% +/- 2.4%). The increase of Ca/P ratio, PO4/HPO4 ratio, and the number of PO4 peaks were observed to be consistent with the increase in heating temperature and the degrees of coating crystallinity. Phosphorus ions released from CaP coatings decreased with the increase of crystallinity of CaP coatings. In addition, immersion of CaP coatings in media containing proteins resulted in an increase in P ions released as compared with coatings immersed in media without proteins. It was concluded that the degree of CaP coating crystallinity can be controlled by varying the postdeposition heat-treatment temperature. It was also concluded that, aside from coating crystallinity, dissolution and reprecipitation of the coatings can be controlled by knowing the presence of proteins in the media and PO4/HPO4 ratio within the coatings.

  8. Tolerance of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to heated controlled atmosphere treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combination heat and controlled atmosphere (CA) postharvest phytosanitary treatments are environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical fumigants. A controlled atmosphere/ heating block system (CA-HBS) was used to rapidly assess tolerances of adult maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, both under reg...

  9. Influence of various heat treatment stages on evolution of microstructure and grain in H407 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Ji, Kai; Jiang, Chen Wei; Zhang, Yun Chang

    2016-09-01

    Regarding heat treatment as one of the main methods for improving property of die steel, dead annealing, quenching, once tempering, twice tempering, and thrice tempering treatment of H407 die steel were conducted in this thesis. Microstructure conversion and grain size development in various stages of heat treatment were analyzed, and then magnitude, shape, and distribution of secondary phase during heat treatment were investigated to explore the function mechanism of microalloyed elements on evolution of microstructure and grain during heat treatment. The steel achieves homogeneous microstructure and composition after this heat treatment. The final phase constituent is α and γ phase as well as the final microstructure consists of tempered martensite, trace retained austenite and granular carbides. A large number of fine and dispersive MC as well as M7C3 type granular carbides containing V, Mo and Cr precipitate in trice tempered microstructure. After this heat treatment grain is finer with grain size of 5.96 μm.

  10. Effects of heat treatment on physical, microstructural and optical characteristics of PbS luminescent nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Vashaee, Dayoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2012-04-01

    The oxidation of lead sulfide (PbS) luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) considerably changes their luminescence characteristics. Hence, an understanding of the oxidation mechanism, the structure and properties of oxidized moieties is important. In this research, well-defined spherical PbS NCs were synthesized via a simple, effective and surfactant-free method and characterized. Then, the effects of heat treatment (at 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C) on the PbS NCs were investigated. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the synthesized PbS NCs revealed that they had a well-defined spherical morphology. In addition, the average crystallite size using Scherrer's formula was about 13 nm and the calculated lattice constant using Bragg's equation was 0.5950 nm, which was very close to the value in the standard card (JCPDS No. 5-592). Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the heat treatment of samples at temperatures of 250, 350,450 and 550 °C in air results in the formation of oxide sulfate phase of the compositions PbSO4 and PbO·PbSO4. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress, micro-strain and optical properties of PbS NCs were calculated and correlated with the heat-treatment temperature.

  11. Influence of heat treatment on spray-dried mixtures of Amioca starch and Carbopol 974P used as carriers for nasal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Coucke, D; Pringels, E; Foreman, P; Adriaensens, P; Carleer, R; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2009-08-13

    A mucoadhesive spray-dried starch/poly(acrylic acid) powder underwent different heat treatments in order to induce cross-linking between the functional groups of starch (Amioca) and poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol 974P). After heat treatment the water-absorbing capacity, viscosity and elasticity of the mucoadhesive powder increased. NMR analysis in combination with FT-IR indicated that heat treatment induced a low degree of cross-linking between the polymers. Nasal administration of Amioca/Carbopol 974P powders without heat treatment resulted in an absolute bioavailability in rabbits of 8.2+/-3.0% for insulin. Due to the difference in water-absorbing capacity (which opened the tight junctions of the nasal mucosa), elasticity and plasticity (which reduced mucociliairy clearance and prolonged residence time) heat treatment at 120 degrees C improved the bioavailability: 26.4+/-21.9, 36.5+/-11.0 and 19.3+/-17.3% after heat treatment during 30 min, 1 h and 4 h, respectively. Heat treatment at 60 degrees C was less efficient. This study demonstrated that the nasal insulin absorption improved via heat treatment of the Amioca/Carbopol 974P powder (prior to the addition of insulin). The bioavailability-enhancing effect of a 1 h heat treatment at 120 degrees C was confirmed using the same polymer matrix in combination with different drugs (salmon calcitonin, human growth hormone and metoprolol tartrate).

  12. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  13. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  14. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.76 Additional...

  15. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.76 Additional...

  16. Surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide solutions containing 1-octanol as a heat-transfer additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Kenji; Mori, Y.H.

    1996-11-01

    The surface tension of simulated heat-pump working fluids, aqueous solutions of lithium bromide containing 1-octanol, has been measured, for the first time using a recently developed technique (Ishida et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1,324 (1993)) which is inherently suitable for characterizing the surfactant solution surfaces from the aspects of thermodynamic adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The measurement has revealed that even the highest-grade reagents of lithium bromide commercially available are not necessarily free from surfactant impurities. Obtained data on the surface tension vs 1-octanol concentration have been examined on the basis of an equilibrium adsorption model. Through the optimal fitting of the Langmuir-type surface equation of state to the data, they have calculated the surface tension vs surface excess relation and also the variation in surface tension vs 1-octanol concentration relation with the surface area per unit volume of a given solution.

  17. Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling of water by use of a volatile additive

    SciTech Connect

    Pabisz, R.A. Jr.; Bergles, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation considers the effect of a 1-pentanol additive in water on the critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop in forced subcooled boiling. A small quantity of 1-pentanol was added to distilled water with the objective of getting an approximate 2% by weight mixture, which had been found to give superior performance in previous studies of pool and flow boiling. Experiments were performed using stainless steel tubes with internal diameters of 4.4 and 6.1 mm. Tests were conducted with mass fluxes of 4,400 kg/m{sup 2}s, exit pressures of 9 bar, length-to-diameter ratios of 25, and exit subcoolings from 65 to 90 C. Test sections were heated directly by DC power, and critical heat flux data were inferred from test-section burnout. The alcohol concentration was periodically checked by draining off a sample and performing a Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scan on the mixture. At high subcoolings, the mixture exhibited an increase in the critical heat flux over that of pure water. However at low subcoolings there is a decrease in the critical heat flux. The increases in critical heat flux noted with the 1-pentanol mixture in this experiment were not as large as would be expected from saturated pool boiling results published by Van Stralen (1959). Pressure drop data for both the mixture and the pure water also were recorded. The 1-pentanol mixture, in general, exhibited larger pressure drops for the same conditions. Subcooled flow boiling has a wide array of commercial cooling applications, including blades in gas turbines, high power laser optics, plasma-facing components in fusion reactors, supercomputers, etc.

  19. Laser-heat puncturing as highly effective method of post-tuberculous cystalgia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

    1999-07-01

    The tuberculosis of an urine bladder in men develops is authentic less often, and recovery is authentic more often, than in the women. In 39,1 percent of the women with nephrotuberculosis and urocystis and urocystis tuberculosis a specific cystitides is finished in development of post- tuberculous cystalgia. One of starting mechanism of dysuria after the transferred urocystis tuberculosis in the women in menopause is hormonal insufficiency. The method of laser heat puncturing, developed by us, for the treatment this complication is highly effective, does not require additional introduction of medicines, can be executed as in hospitals, and in our-patient.

  20. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  1. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  2. Effect of heat treatment on stiffness and damping of SiC/Ti-15-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on material properties of SiC/Ti-15-3 was measured by vibration tests. Heat treatment changes the microstructure, which was found to stiffen the matrix and reduce its damping capacity. Test results indicate how these changes in the matrix affect the corresponding properties of the composite. Measurements show that heat treatment affects damping properties of the composite to a greater extent than stiffness properties. The extent of change in mechanical properties is shown to depend on heat treatment temperature and exposure time.

  3. Temperature Profile Measurements During Heat Treatment of BSCCO 2212 Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, Alvin; /Fermilab

    2011-04-14

    The temperature profile of two different BSCCO 2212 coils has been analyzed. The profiles are obtained from thermocouples imbedded in the windings during the heat treatment that activates the 2212. The melting and freezing of the 2212 is clearly observed. A model that describes the data and can be used to guide the processing of new coils has been developed. We have obtained the thermal history of two BSCCO coils, one from NHMFL (1) that had 10 layers of 1 mm diameter wire with 0.15 mm insulation and a second coil from OST that had 24 layers with similar insulation and conductor size. Both coils had thermocouples imbedded in the windings and excellent recordings of the temperature over the whole reaction cycle were available for analysis. There are several features that we will address in this note. Measurements have shown that the I{sub c} of the conductor is a sensitive function of its thermal history. This brings up the question of the absolute accuracy of the thermometry in the range around 882 C, the MP of 2212. The reference for the treatment profile is really related to this MP and to small deviations around it. Since the heat of fusion of 2212 is rather large, it generates a clear signal during the melting and cooling transition that automatically generates the relative temperature markers. The physics is the same as the way ice in water maintains an isothermal environment until it is all melted. A related question is the thermal response time of the coil package. The temperature cycles that are being used to optimize strand and small coils can have rapid changes easily implemented whereas a large coil may have such a large thermal time constant that the optimum cycle may not be attainable. A simple analytical model that works well for small solenoids has been developed and an ANSYS (5) program that works for larger coils with more complicated geometry has been set up but will not be discussed in this note.

  4. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-02-01

    The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9-4.0 g/cm3. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R1 and R2 - peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment.

  5. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  6. Effect of crystallization heat treatment on the microstructure of niobium-doped fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Denry, I; Holloway, J A; Gupta, P K

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to study the effect of heat treatment temperature and heating rate on the microstructure and crystalline phases and assess the domain of existence of submicrometer fluorapatite crystals in niobium-doped fluorapatite glass-ceramics for biomedical applications. Glass-ceramic specimens were prepared by casting and heat treatment between 700 and 1200°C using a fast or a slow heating rate. The microstructure was characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. AFM of the as-cast glass revealed that amorphous phase separation occurred in this system. XRD confirmed the presence of fluorapatite in all specimens, together with forsterite and enstatite at higher temperatures. Both heating rate and heat treatment temperature strongly influenced microstructure and crystallinity. A dual microstructure with submicrometer fluorapatite crystals and polygonal forsterite crystals was obtained when slow heating rates and crystallization temperatures between 950 and 1100°C were used. Needle-shaped fluorapatite crystals appeared after heat treatment above 1100°C. Fast heating rates led to an increase in crystal size. Heat treatment temperatures should remain below 1100°C, together with slow heating rates, to prevent crystal dissolution, and preserve a dual microstructure of finely dispersed submicrometer crystals without growth of needle-shaped crystals.

  7. Observational Estimates of Wave Heating and Momentum Addition in the Outer Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, S. R.; Kortenkamp, P. S.

    2004-05-01

    Theoretical models of the outer solar corona and inner solar wind require heating and acceleration by turbulence to achieve the observed flow speed and plasma temperature at 1 astronomical unit. Observational tests of these models require knowledge of the turbulent magnetic field amplitude as a function of heliocentric distance (r), but direct measurements are not available. In this paper, we present a new method of estimating the spatial power spectrum and fluctuation amplitude of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind acceleration region. We utilize a set of 38 measurements of density fluctuations in the slow solar wind, for heliocentric distances in the range 5 - 60 R⊙. These data result from VLBI phase scintillation measurements made between 1991 and 2002. These observations give the density fluctuation parameter CN2(r). We also utilize a recent result on the relative magnitude of density and magnetic field fluctuations in slow solar wind turbulence at 1 a.u. (Spangler and Spitler, Physics of Plasmas, May 2004). We can then estimate the magnetic field fluctuation parameter CB2 and the magnetic field fluctuation amplitude as a function of heliocentric distance. These estimates of turbulence amplitudes are compared with those required by slow solar wind models. For illustration, the estimated turbulent energy flux at a heliocentric distance of 16 R⊙ is 6 - 23 % of the kinetic energy flux. The higher portion of this range is consistent with a significant dynamical role for turbulence. Future improvements in this technique will utilize global MHD models of the solar wind at the times of observations. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation via grants ATM99-86887 and ATM-0311825.

  8. Phase Transformation of Calcium Phosphates by Electrodeposition and Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Szu-Hao; Li, Wang-Long; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the calcium phosphate deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using an electrolytic process is investigated. The calcium phosphate was deposited in a 0.04 M Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (MCPM) solution on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate at 333 K (60 °C), 10 V, and 80 Torr for 1 hour, and calcined at various temperatures for 4 hours. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that the phases are dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4, DCPD) and hydroxyapatile [Ca(PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP] for the as-deposited samples. When the deposited sample was calcined at 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours, the XRD results show that the transformation of DCPD to HAP occurs. Moreover, HAP converts to β-TCP, CPP, and CaO. For the sample calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph reveals that the crack of the calcined sample propagates with a width of about 3 μm. This result is due to HAP becoming decomposed and converting to β-TCP, CPP, CaO, and H2O. The vaporization of H2O within the calcined sample promotes the crack propagation and growth.

  9. Assessing heat treatment of chicken breast cuts by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franciny C; Fuentes, Ana; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Laurindo, João B; Barat, José M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new system based on impedance spectroscopy to assess the heat treatment of previously cooked chicken meat by two experiments; in the first, samples were cooked at different temperatures (from 60 to 90 ℃) until core temperature of the meat reached the water bath temperature. In the second approach, temperature was 80 ℃ and the samples were cooked for different times (from 5 to 55 min). Impedance was measured once samples had cooled. The examined processing parameters were the maximum temperature reached in thermal centre of the samples, weight loss, moisture and the integral of the temperature profile during the cooking-cooling process. The correlation between the processing parameters and impedance was studied by partial least square regressions. The models were able to predict the studied parameters. Our results are essential for developing a new system to control the technological, sensory and safety aspects of cooked meat products on the whole meat processing line.

  10. Effects of Various Heat Treatments on the Ballistic Impact Properties of Inconel 718 Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2000-01-01

    Uncontained failures of aircraft engine fan blades are serious events that can cause equipment damage and loss of life. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requires that all engines demonstrate the ability to contain a released fan blade with the engine running at full power. However, increased protection generally comes at the expense of weight. Proper choice of materials is therefore imperative to an optimized design. The process of choosing a good casing material is done primarily through trial and error. This costly procedure could be minimized if there was a better understanding of the relationships among static material properties, impact properties, and failure mechanisms. This work is part of a program being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to study these relationships. Ballistic impact tests were conducted on flat, square sheets of Inconel 718 that had been subjected to different heat treatments. Two heat treatments and the as-received condition were studied. In addition, results were compared with those from an earlier study involving a fourth heat treatment. The heat treatments were selected on the basis of their effects on the static tensile properties of the material. The impact specimens used in this study were 17.8-cm square panels that were centered and clamped over a 15.2-cm square hole in a 1.27-cm-thick steel plate. Three nominal plate thickness dimensions were studied, 1.0, 1.8, and 2.0 mm. For each thickness, all the specimens were taken from the same sheet of material. The projectile was a Ti-6Al-4V cylinder with a length of 25.4 mm, a diameter of 12.7 mm, and a mass ranging from 14.05 to 14.20 g. The projectiles were accelerated toward the specimens at normal incidence using a gas gun with a 2-m-long, 12.7-mm inner-diameter barrel. The ballistic limit for each heat treatment condition and thickness was determined by conducting a number of impact tests that bracketed as closely as possible the velocity

  11. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Hsu, Julia

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  12. Enhanced boiling performance of a nanoporous copper surface by electrodeposition and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiao; Lu, Long-Sheng; Sun, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Biao

    2017-03-01

    A nanoporous structure was fabricated on the surface of a copper block by electrodeposition and heat treatment compound technology. The influence of the heat treatment parameters on the binding force of a structure was analyzed, and a platform was set up to test the pool boiling heat transfer performance. By observing the SEM morphology, the effect of electrodeposition parameters on the formation of nanoporous structure was determined, and the heat transfer coefficient and wall superheat between different surfaces were compared. At the same time, by means of visualization, the bubble behavior of a smooth surface and a nanoporous surface under different heat fluxes was studied. The results show that the surface structure of nanoporous copper prepared by electrodeposition and heat treatment can improve the bonding strength by 77 %, decrease the wall superheat by 45 %, and increase the heat transfer coefficient by 80 %.

  13. Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Prinsloo, Linda C

    2014-05-01

    Siliceous rocks that were not heated to high temperatures during their geological formation display improved knapping qualities when they are subjected to controlled heating. Experimental heat treatment of South African silcrete, using open fires of the kind used during the Middle Stone Age, shows that the process needed careful management, notwithstanding recent arguments to the contrary. Silcrete blocks fractured when heated on the surface of open fires or on coal beds, but were heated without mishap when buried in sand below a fire. Three silcrete samples, a control, a block heated underground with maximum temperature between 400 and 500 °C and a block heated in an open fire with maximum temperature between 700 and 800 °C, were analysed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, and both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the volume expansion during the thermally induced α- to β-quartz phase transformation and the volume contraction during cooling play a major role in the heat treatment of silcrete. Rapid heating or cooling through the phase transformation at 573 °C will cause fracture of the silcrete. Successful heat treatment requires controlling surface fire temperatures in order to obtain the appropriate underground temperatures to stay below the quartz inversion temperature. Heat treatment of rocks is a transformative technology that requires skilled use of fire. This process involves analogical reasoning, which is an attribute of complex cognition.

  14. Optimization of the Process of Carburizing and Heat Treatment of Low-Carbon Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Greben'kov, S. K.; Bogdanova, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Steel 24Kh2G2NMFB is studied after carburizing and different heat treatments. The hardness and microhardness of the surface layer and of the matrix are measured. The content of retained austenite is determined by the method of x-ray diffraction analysis. Heat treatment modes improving the structure of the surface layer after carburizing are suggested.

  15. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly... tested to demonstrate that they possess the corrosion resistance specified in § 179.200-7(d), Footnote...

  16. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly... tested to demonstrate that they possess the corrosion resistance specified in § 179.200-7(d), Footnote...

  17. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly... tested to demonstrate that they possess the corrosion resistance specified in § 179.200-7(d), Footnote...

  18. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly... tested to demonstrate that they possess the corrosion resistance specified in § 179.200-7(d), Footnote...

  19. 49 CFR 179.201-5 - Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance....201-5 Postweld heat treatment and corrosion resistance. (a) Tanks and attachments welded directly... tested to demonstrate that they possess the corrosion resistance specified in § 179.200-7(d), Footnote...

  20. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for... ferritic-alloy pipe in nominal pipe sizes of 4 inches and larger, or one-half-inch wall thickness or heavier, will require a stress-relieving treatment. (d) Cold bending of carbon-steel and...

  1. 46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for... ferritic-alloy pipe in nominal pipe sizes of 4 inches and larger, or one-half-inch wall thickness or heavier, will require a stress-relieving treatment. (d) Cold bending of carbon-steel and...

  2. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  3. Performance of a CEBAF production cavity after high-temperature heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, P.; Rao, M.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF`s production cavities are tested in a vertical configuration after appropriate chemical surface treatment prior to installation into the accelerator. The performance of these cavities is excellent, often exceeding the specifications of E{sub acc}=5 MV/m at 2 K by factors of 2 to 3. In such cases the cavities are often limited by thermal-magnetic breakdown. A cavity that exhibited a limiting gradient of E{sub acc} {le} 16.4 MV/m has been heat-treated at 1400{degrees}C for 6 hours in the presence of titanium as a solid state gettering material to improve the thermal stability of the niobium. After the heat treatment a gradient of E{sub acc}=20.5 MV/m corresponding to a peak surface electric field of E{sub peak}=52 MV/m has been measured. In addition to the cavity results, data on thermal conductivity and tensile properties of samples which have undergone the same treatments as the cavity are reported.

  4. Predicting heat inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus under nonisothermal treatments at different pH.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mounir; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago; Pagán, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    The aim was to assess whether heat resistance data obtained from isothermal treatments allow the estimation of survivors of Staphylococcus aureus under nonisothermal conditions and to find a model that accurately predicts its heat inactivation at constantly rising heating rates (0.5-9 degrees C/min) in media of different pH (4.0-7.4). S. aureus showed a higher heat resistance under isothermal treatments at pH 4.0 than at pH 5.5-7.4. However, under nonisothermal treatments S. aureus increased its heat resistance at pH 5.5-7.4 and became more thermotolerant than at pH 4.0. Estimations of survival curves under nonisothermal treatments obtained from heat resistance parameters of isothermal treatments did not adequately fit experimental values. Whereas the number of survivors was much higher than estimated at pH 5.5-7.4, that obtained at the slower heating rates at pH 4.0 was lower. An equation based on the Weibullian-like distribution (log10 S(t) = (t/delta)p) accurately described survival curves obtained under nonisothermal conditions. A nonlinear relationship was observed among the scale parameter (delta) and the heating rate which allowed the development of two equations capable of predicting the inactivation rate of S. aureus under nonisothermal treatments. This study might contribute to prevent public health risks in foods requiring long heating lag phases during their processing.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Trugo, L C; Donangelo, C M; Trugo, N M; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2000-06-01

    The effect of heat treatment of germinated soybean, lupin, and black bean on chemical composition and protein utilization in rats was evaluated. Heat treatment caused complete inactivation of trypsin inhibitors whereas it did not affect phytic acid levels. Proximate components, minerals, and amino acids did not change, but low molecular weight sugars were affected by heat treatment differently for each germinated legume. The sugar digestibility ratio (total digestible sugars/total nondigestible sugars) in germinated black beans doubled after heat treatment. True protein digestibility (TD) increased with heat treatment only in germinated soybean. Net protein utilization was markedly improved (20%) with heat treatment in germinated soybean and lupin. Utilizable protein of heat-treated germinated legumes was 289, 236, and 132 g/kg of legume dry weight for soybean, lupin, and black bean, respectively. Supplementation with methionine did not alter TD but improved all other indices of protein utilization in the germinated legumes, particularly in black bean. All three germinated legumes become equivalent in protein quality when heating and supplementation with methionine are combined with germination. The use of germinated heat-treated soybean, lupin, and black bean on their own and/or as food ingredients is nutritionally advantageous due to the low content of nondigestible oligosaccharides and the high protein utilization.

  6. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-03-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  7. Synergetic Surface and Chemical Durability Study of the Aesthetically Enhanced Natural Quartz by Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Rout, Prajna P.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2017-01-01

    The change in surface behavior of natural quartz stone before and after heat treatment with metal oxides such as: cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and copper oxide (Cu2O) under vacuum and open atmosphere has been investigated. The surface feature, bulk density and hardness value of quartz changed after heat treatment, converting to a high value product. Difference in crystallinity of quartz, pre- and post-heat treatment was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The electron probe microanalysis results clearly explicated the diffusion of metal ion in quartz matrix exposed under vacuum atmosphere but as coating on the surface under open atmosphere. The structural transformation of quartz after heat treatment has been observed from the XRD data and well corroborated with the nanoindentation results. Durability of such quartz to chemical hazardous environment was observed. Thus, this communication demonstrates the change in physical and chemical characteristics of natural quartz stone after heat treatment under different atmosphere.

  8. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  9. The Tensile Properties of Advanced Nickel-Base Disk Superalloys During Quenching Heat Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete T.; Biles, Tiffany; Konkel, William

    2001-01-01

    There is a need to increase the temperature capabilities of superalloy turbine disks. This would allow full utilization of higher temperature combustor and airfoil concepts under development. One approach to meet this goal is to modify the processing and chemistry of advanced alloys, while preserving the ability to use rapid cooling supersolvus heat treatments to achieve coarse grain, fine gamma prime microstructures. An important step in this effort is to understand the key high temperature tensile properties of advanced alloys as they exist during supersolvus heat treatments. This could help in projecting cracking tendencies of disks during quenches from supersolvus heat treatments. The objective of this study was to examine the tensile properties of two advanced disk superalloys during simulated quenching heat treatments. Specimens were cooled from the solution heat treatment temperatures at controlled rates, interrupted, and immediately tensile tested at various temperatures. The responses and failure modes were compared and related to the quench cracking tendencies of disk forgings.

  10. Heat Treatments of ZnSe Starting Materials for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Palosz, W.; Feth, S.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different heat treatments on stoichiometry and residual gas pressure in ZnSe physical vapor transport system was investigated. The dependence of the amount and composition of the residual gas on various heat treatment procedures is reported. Heat treatment of ZnSe starting materials by baking under the condition of dynamic vacuum to adjust its stoichiometry was performed and the effectiveness of the treatment was confirmed by the measurements of the partial pressure of Se2, P(sub Se2), in equilibrium with the heat treated samples. Optimum heat treatment procedures on the ZnSe starting material for the physical vapor transport process are discussed and verified experimentally.

  11. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes.

  12. The Effect of Post-Heat Treatment on Microstructure of 316L Cold-Sprayed Coatings and Their Corrosion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikici, B.; Yilmazer, H.; Ozdemir, I.; Isik, M.

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of process gases and post-heat treatment temperature on the microstructure of 316L cold-sprayed coatings on Al5052 substrates have been investigated in this study. The stainless steel coatings were subjected to heat treatment at four different temperatures (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C) to study the effect of heat treatment. In addition, the corrosion performances of the coatings at different process temperatures have been compared using the potentiodynamic scanning technique. Microstructural characterization of the coatings was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results of present study showed that cold-sprayed stainless steel coatings processed with helium exhibited higher corrosion resistance than those of coatings sprayed with nitrogen process gas. This could partially be attributed to the reduction in porosity level (4.9%) and improvement of particle-particle bonding. In addition, evaluation of the mechanical and microstructural properties of the coatings demonstrated that subsequent heat treatment has major influence on the deposited layers sprayed with He process gas.

  13. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  14. Preparation and Heat-Treatment of DWPF Simulants With and Without Co-Precipitated Noble Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, David C.:Eibling, Russel E

    2005-08-01

    simulants were visually very viscous compared to the traditional SB3 simulant. (4) Heat-treatment reduced the viscosity of the two new simulants with and without coprecipitated noble metals, though they were still more viscous than the traditional SB3. (5) The approach of using a 97 C heat-treatment step to qualitatively simulate tank farm aging may not be optimal. A significant change in the base equivalent molarities of both simulants was observed during heat-treatment. (6) Heat-treatment appeared to make phosphates insoluble in water. The following recommendations came out of the work: (1) Washed slurry should be checked for TIC and base equivalents before calculating the final trim chemical additions of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. (2) Final insoluble trim chemicals should be added to the slurry in the cross-flow filtration unit mixing tank, since significant slurry is lost in the CUF equipment. Adding the chemicals here would keep them in the correct proportion relative to the precipitated insoluble solids. (3) A composite wash and decant sample should be prepared containing proportionally weighted masses of each aqueous stream removed during preparation of a co-precipitated noble metal simulant. This sample should then be checked for noble metal losses. This would reduce the sample load, while still confirming that there was no significant noble metal loss. (4) A study of the impact of heat-treatment on existing simulants should be undertaken. If there is a shift in base equivalents, then SRNL acid stoichiometries may be biased relative to real waste. The study should be extended to several real wastes as well.

  15. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Gaoqiang; Chen, Jian; Yu, Xinghua; Frederick, David Alan; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  16. Heat treatment effects in Cu2S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahrenbruch, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of single crystal Cu2S-CdS photovoltaic cells were investigated. In these cells trapped charge near the interface which is manifested by a persistent increase in junction capacitance (the photocapacitance) plays a significant role in determining the carrier transport properties. It was found that the severe degradation in short-circuit current observed in heat-treated cells can be separated into two components: (1) a relatively small thermal component occurring on heat-treatment in the dark, and (2) a much larger degradation caused by exposure to light at room temperature. By a short additional heat-treatment above approximately 100 C the cell can be completely restored to its condition before the optically caused degradation with no effect on the depletion layer width.

  17. Effect of heat treatment on absorption and fluorescence properties of PbS-doped silica optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fu; Dong, Yanhua; Wen, Jianxiang; Pang, Fufei; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the optical properties of a PbS-doped silica optical fibre was investigated. The experimental results showed that the absorption peak of the fibre red shifted from 1032 to 1133 nm when the heat treatment temperatures were carried out at 900, 950, 1000, and 1100 °C for 1 h, respectively. At the same time, when the heat treatment at 900 °C was carried out for 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 h, the absorption spectra of the fibre showed a red shift from 1074 to 1143 nm. In addition, the intensity of the absorption peak increased from 0.258 to 1.384 dB/m and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) became narrower (from 130 to 50 nm) as the heat treatment proceeded. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the wavelength range of 1100-1500 nm decreased with an increase in the heat treatment temperature. The theoretical analysis, using an effective mass method, showed that the effective band gap energy and average size of the lead sulphide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) in the silica fibre core varied from 1.199 to 1.083 eV and from 4.28 to 4.81 nm, respectively. The results indicate that the size of the PbS QDs present in the silica fibre core could be controlled by a proper heat treatment, which is of great interest in optical fibre amplifiers and other fibre optic devices.

  18. Weld repair of carbon-moly coke drums without postweld heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Investigations to evaluate weld repair of C-{1/2}Mo coke drums without postweld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed in this paper. These investigations showed that shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) without PWHT produced heat-affected zones (HAZ) and weld deposits with Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact toughness that exceeded the toughness of ex-service plate material. PWHT de-embrittles strain age-embrittled ex-service plate material. However, warming of drums to 200 F before putting in feed compensates for the omission of the de-embrittling PWHT. Additional testing showed that the de-embrittling PWHT did not significantly improve the fatigue properties of the ex-service plate material. As-welded SMAW repairs were found to be feasible for coke drums, and repairs have now been in service successfully for up to 2 years. The as-welded SMAW repairs were qualified on the basis of a 300 F preheat using small diameter electrodes for the first pass followed by larger diameter electrodes to temper the HAZ of the first pass. A half-bead technique was not used. Heat input is not precisely controlled as would be required for controlled deposition welding. Following the implementation of SMAW repairs without PWHT, the author extended the work to include as-welded repairs with automatic gas metal-arc welding (GMAW).

  19. Carbonated aqueous media for quench heat treatment of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, U. Vignesh; Rao, K. M. Pranesh; Pai, M. Ashwin; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-09-01

    Distilled water and polyalkylene glycol (PAG)-based aqueous quenchants of 5 and 10 vol.% with and without carbonation were prepared and used as heat transfer media during immersion quenching. Cooling curves were recorded during quenching of an inconel 600 cylindrical probe instrumented with multiple thermocouples. It was observed that the vapor stage duration was prolonged and the wetting front ascended uniformly for quenching with carbonated media. The cooling data were analyzed by determining the critical cooling parameters and by estimating the spatially dependent probe/quenchant interfacial heat flux transients. The study showed significantly reduced values of heat transfer rate for carbonated quenchants compared to quenchants without carbonation. Further, the reduction was more pronounced in the case of PAG-based carbonated quenchants than carbonated distilled water. The results also showed the dependence of heat transfer characteristics of the carbonated media on polymer concentration. The effect of quench uniformity on the microstructure of the material was assessed.

  20. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat.... Cracks shall be removed to sound metal by grinding and the surface exposed shall be blended smoothly...

  1. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing.

  2. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing. PMID:28316470

  3. High-Temperature Heat Treatment Study on a Large-Grain Nb Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati, P. Dhakal, R. Myneni, P. Maheshwari, F.A. Stevie

    2011-07-01

    Improvement of the cavity performance by a high-temperature heat-treatment without subsequent chemical etching have been reported for large-grain Nb cavities treated by buffered chemical polishing, as well as for a fine-grain cavity treated by vertical electropolishing. Changes in the quality factor, Q{sub 0}, and maximum peak surface magnetic field achieved in a large-grain Nb single-cell cavity have been determined as a function of the heat treatment temperature, between 600 °C and 1200 °C. The highest Q{sub 0} improvement of about 30% was obtained after heat-treatment at 800 °C-1000 °C. Measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry on large-grain samples heat-treated with the cavity showed large reduction of hydrogen concentration after heat treatment.

  4. Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on the Latent Heat Release of Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junfeng; Dang, Bo; Fan, Dandan; Jian, Zengyun

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy of the baseline evaluation is of importance for calculating the transition enthalpy such as the latent heat of the crystallization. This study demonstrates the modified method of the equivalent non-latent heat baseline, by which the transition enthalpy can be measured accurately according to the transition peak in differential scanning calorimetric curve. With this method, the effect of melt superheating treatment time on the latent heat release upon the solidification of tin is investigated. The results show that the latent heat increases by increasing the treatment time, and is close to a constant when the treatment time is large enough, indicating the homogeneous system. And then, a simple model is established to describe the changes of the crystallization latent heat with the treatment time, which is confirmed by the experimental data of Sn.

  5. Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on the Latent Heat Release of Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junfeng; Dang, Bo; Fan, Dandan; Jian, Zengyun

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of the baseline evaluation is of importance for calculating the transition enthalpy such as the latent heat of the crystallization. This study demonstrates the modified method of the equivalent non-latent heat baseline, by which the transition enthalpy can be measured accurately according to the transition peak in differential scanning calorimetric curve. With this method, the effect of melt superheating treatment time on the latent heat release upon the solidification of tin is investigated. The results show that the latent heat increases by increasing the treatment time, and is close to a constant when the treatment time is large enough, indicating the homogeneous system. And then, a simple model is established to describe the changes of the crystallization latent heat with the treatment time, which is confirmed by the experimental data of Sn.

  6. Hardening by cooling rate control and post-firing heat treatment in Pd-Ag-Sn alloy for bonding porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Jun; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.

  7. 19 CFR 10.248 - Additional requirements for preferential treatment of brassieres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act Apparel and Other Textile Articles Under the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act § 10.248 Additional requirements for preferential treatment of brassieres... United States means: (i) The price of the fabrics when last purchased, f.o.b. port of exportation, as...

  8. Potential of furan formation in hazelnuts during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, H Z; Gökmen, V

    2007-01-01

    The formation of furan as influenced by temperature and time of heating was studied in hazelnuts. Temperature was noted as the important processing parameter on the formation of furan in hazelnuts. The formation of furan was noticeably increased at temperatures exceeding 120 degrees C. Furan concentrations tended to increase linearly at 100 and 150 degrees C up to 60 min of heating. Detailed examination of the composition of different hazelnut varieties showed that certain precursors such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid), amino acids (threonine and alanine), and sugars (glucose) were present in hazelnut at amounts sufficient to generate significant amounts of furan upon heating. The composition of the lipid fraction in terms of relative percentages of fatty acids was relatively stable during heating at 150 degrees C for 30 min, but the concentrations of amino acids and sugars decreased significantly at the end of the heating period. This led to the conclusion that the Maillard reaction is possibly the primary mechanism responsible for the formation of furan in hazelnuts during heating.

  9. A study on the effect of heat treatment temperature on mesophase development in coal tar pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Neha; Shah, Raviraj K.; Shrivastava, Rakesh; Datar, Manoj

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a zero quinoline insoluble (QI) isotropic coal tar pitch was taken for the preparation of mesophase pitch. The pitch was heated in inert atmosphere at different heat treatment temperatures keeping same heating rate and soaking time to study the formation, growth and coalescence of mesophase spheres in the pitch. Such pitches were characterized for insoluble content (QI & TI), mesophase content, sulphur content, weight loss in inert atmosphere, softening point, coking value (CVC), C/H ratio etc. Results show that the insoluble content (QI & TI) and mesophase content of pitch increase with increase of heat treatment temperature.

  10. The effects of heat treatments on the transport properties of Cu/x/S thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmurcik, L.; Allen, L.; Serway, R. A.

    1982-12-01

    The resistivity and Hall effect of Cu(x)S (x = 1.995-2) thin films, which are used in the CdS/Cu(x)S solar cell currently investigated as an alternate source of electrical energy, has been measured as a function of temperature and heat treatment time. It is found that initial heat treatments cause copper in grain boundaries to diffuse irreversibly into the bulk. Further heating in hydrogen causes the resistivity to increase and the charge density and the mobility to decrease as surface oxides break up and free copper diffuses into the copper sulfide. Heating in oxygen reverses this process.

  11. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  12. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    and Heat-Inducible Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yunbo Liu...Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Yunbo Liu Pei Zhong...therapy (via the control of hsp70B-heat shock promoter) to improve the overall efficiency of breast cancer treatment . In the first year of the project

  13. Sintering and properties of Si3N4 with and without additives by HIP treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuratani, S.; Shimada, M.; Koizumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of Si3N4 powders with and without additives was performed using a glass container, and various kinds of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 were HIP'ed without a container. The effects of HIP treatment on density, microstructure, flexural strength, microhardness, and fracture toughness on Si3N4 ceramics were studied. Using a glass container it was difficult to reach theoretical density. The microhardness of HIP'ed Si3N4 without additives was low, and the fracture toughness of HIP'ed Si3N4 with and without additives was 22 to 25 W/m-K, and it decreased with increasing the amount of additives. The density and flexural strength, and hardness of pressureless-sintered Si3N4 which contained Al2O and Y2O3 as oxide additives were remarkably improved by HIP treatment using nitrogen as a pressure transmitting gas. It is very important to select the sintering conditions for fabricating the presintered body of Si3N4 in order to improve the mechanical properties of Si3N4 by HIP treatment.

  14. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

  15. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  16. Effects of Heat and Momentum Addition Inside and Outside the Compound Sonic Point of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Webb, G. M.; McKenzie, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the effect of heat and momentum addition to the solar wind for a model including the effects of Alfven waves and plasma pressure (proton plus electron pressure). The mass flux per unit area in 1D flow maximizes when the flow speed equals the compound sound speed, including the effects of the Alfven wave pressure. We discuss the analogue of the Laval nozzle for the solar wind flow, and the dependence of the effective nozzle area as a function of radial distance, and the relationship of the nozzle area to the momentum equation and the Mach number of the flow. An analysis is carried out of the effects of heat and momentum addition to the wind, using a thin slice approximation, which leads to Rankine Hugoniot relations for weak deflagrations and detonations (i.e. the combustion Hugoniot). The linearized Hugoniot is used to analyze the effects of small momentum and energy addition to the wind in the thin slice approximation. We obtain the fully nonlinear Rankine Hugoniot equation solutions. The analysis also holds in the presence of Alfven waves, in which the wave energy exchange equation yields the wave action flux conservation law when their contribution to the compound sound speed is taken into account. The effective polytropic index γgamma and flow speed relative to the compound flow speed ahead of the slice play crucial roles in determining whether local acceleration or deceleration results. Some results are at first sight unexpected since γgamma for Alfven waves ranges from -1/2 (in sub-Alfvenic flow) to 3/2 in super-Alfvenic flow.

  17. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Residual Stress and Machining Distortions in Advanced Nickel Base Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of NASA's AST and IDPAT Programs which sought to predict the effect of stabilization heat treatments on residual stress and subsequent machining distortions in the advanced disk alloy, ME-209. Simple "pancake" forgings of ME-209 were produced and given four heat treats: 2075F(SUBSOLVUS)/OIL QUENCH/NO AGE; 2075F/OIL QUENCH/1400F@8HR;2075F/OIL QUENCH/1550F@3HR/l400F@8HR; and 2160F(SUPERSOLVUS)/OIL QUENCH/1550F@3HR/ 1400F@8HR. The forgings were then measured to obtain surface profiles in the heat treated condition. A simple machining plan consisting of face cuts from the top surface followed by measurements of the surface profile opposite the cut were made. This data provided warpage maps which were compared with analytical results. The analysis followed the IDPAT methodology and utilized a 2-D axisymmetric, viscoplastic FEA code. The analytical results accurately tracked the experimental data for each of the four heat treatments. The 1550F stabilization heat treatment was found to significantly reduce residual stresses and subsequent machining distortions for fine grain (subsolvus) ME209, while coarse grain (supersolvus) ME209 would require additional time or higher stabilization temperatures to attain the same degree of stress relief.

  18. Dimensional changes of Nb3Sn Rutherford cables during heat treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Rochepault, E.; Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; ...

    2016-06-01

    In high field magnet applications, Nb3Sn coils undergo a heat treatment step after winding. During this stage, coils radially expand and longitudinally contract due to the Nb3Sn phase change. In order to prevent residual strain from altering superconducting performances, the tooling must provide the adequate space for these dimensional changes. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of cable dimensions during heat treatment and to provide estimates of the space to be accommodated in the tooling for coil expansion and contraction. In addition, this paper summarizes measurements of dimensional changes on strands, single Rutherford cables, cable stacks,more » and coils performed between 2013 and 2015. These samples and coils have been performed within a collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program to develop Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets for the HiLumi LHC. The results are also compared with other high field magnet projects.« less

  19. Dimensional changes of Nb3Sn Rutherford cables during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rochepault, E.; Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Ballarino, A.; Bonasia, A.; Bordini, B.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Fajardo, L. Garcia; Ghosh, A.; Holik, E. F.; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Perez, J. C.; Pong, I.; Schmalzle, J.; Yu, M.

    2016-06-01

    In high field magnet applications, Nb3Sn coils undergo a heat treatment step after winding. During this stage, coils radially expand and longitudinally contract due to the Nb3Sn phase change. In order to prevent residual strain from altering superconducting performances, the tooling must provide the adequate space for these dimensional changes. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of cable dimensions during heat treatment and to provide estimates of the space to be accommodated in the tooling for coil expansion and contraction. In addition, this paper summarizes measurements of dimensional changes on strands, single Rutherford cables, cable stacks, and coils performed between 2013 and 2015. These samples and coils have been performed within a collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program to develop Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets for the HiLumi LHC. The results are also compared with other high field magnet projects.

  20. Randomised comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. S.; Lau, J. Y.; Sung, J. J.; Chan, A. C.; Lai, C. W.; Ng, E. K.; Chan, F. K.; Yung, M. Y.; Li, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe for the treatment of actively bleeding peptic ulcers. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study of patients admitted with actively bleeding peptic ulcers. SETTING: One university hospital. SUBJECTS: 276 patients with actively bleeding ulcers detected by endoscopy within 24 hours of admission: 136 patients were randomised to endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and 140 to adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial endoscopic haemostasis; clinical rebleeding; requirement for operation; requirement for blood transfusion; hospital stay, ulcer healing at four weeks; and mortality in hospital. RESULTS: Initial haemostasis was achieved in 131/134 patients (98%) who received adrenaline injection alone and 135/136 patients (99%) who received additional heat probe treatment (P = 0.33). Outcome as measured by clinical rebleeding (12 v 5), requirement for emergency operation (14 v 8), blood transfusion (2 v 3 units), hospital stay (4 v 4 days), ulcer healing at four weeks (79.1% v 74%), and in hospital mortality (7 v 8) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the subgroup of patients with spurting haemorrhage 8/27 (29.6%; 14.5% to 50.3%) patients from the adrenaline injection alone group and 2/31 (6.5%; 1.1% to 22.9%) patients from the dual treatment group required operative intervention. The relative risk of this was lower in the dual treatment group (0.17; 0.03 to 0.87). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the dual treatment group than the adrenaline injection alone group (4 v 6 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of heat probe treatment after endoscopic adrenaline injection confers an advantage in ulcers with spurting haemorrhage. PMID:9158465

  1. Characterization of Machine Variability and Progressive Heat Treatment in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T.; Tilson, W.; Jones, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an economy of scale in spaceflight hardware makes additive manufacturing an immensely attractive option for propulsion components. As additive manufacturing techniques are increasingly adopted by government and industry to produce propulsion hardware in human-rated systems, significant development efforts are needed to establish these methods as reliable alternatives to conventional subtractive manufacturing. One of the critical challenges facing powder bed fusion techniques in this application is variability between machines used to perform builds. Even with implementation of robust process controls, it is possible for two machines operating at identical parameters with equivalent base materials to produce specimens with slightly different material properties. The machine variability study presented here evaluates 60 specimens of identical geometry built using the same parameters. 30 samples were produced on machine 1 (M1) and the other 30 samples were built on machine 2 (M2). Each of the 30-sample sets were further subdivided into three subsets (with 10 specimens in each subset) to assess the effect of progressive heat treatment on machine variability. The three categories for post-processing were: stress relief, stress relief followed by hot isostatic press (HIP), and stress relief followed by HIP followed by heat treatment per AMS 5664. Each specimen (a round, smooth tensile) was mechanically tested per ASTM E8. Two formal statistical techniques, hypothesis testing for equivalency of means and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), were applied to characterize the impact of machine variability and heat treatment on six material properties: tensile stress, yield stress, modulus of elasticity, fracture elongation, and reduction of area. This work represents the type of development effort that is critical as NASA, academia, and the industrial base work collaboratively to establish a path to certification for additively manufactured parts. For future

  2. Thermal treatment of low permeability soils using electrical resistance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Udell, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by increasing the soil and ground water temperature. Electrical heating with AC current is one method of increasing the soil and groundwater temperature and has particular applicability to low permeability soils. Several mechanisms have been identified that account for the enhanced removal of the contaminants during electrical heating. These are vaporization of liquid contaminants with low boiling points, temperature-enhanced evaporation rates of semi-volatile components, and removal of residual contaminants by the boiling of residual water. Field scale studies of electrical heating and fluid extraction show the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found both above and below the water table and within low permeability soils. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    Gas-tungsten-arc weldments in Alloy 718 were studied in fatigue-crack growth test conducted at five temperatures over the range 24--649{degree}C. In general, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, and weldments given the conventional'' post-weld heat-treatment generally exhibited crack growth rates that were higher than for weldments given the modified'' (INEL) heat-treatment. Limited testing in the as-welded condition revealed crack growth rates significantly lower than observed for the heat-treated cases, and this was attributed to residual stresses. Three different heats of filler wire were utilized, and no heat-to-heat variations were noted. 23 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Specific heat treatment of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Ranran; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2015-12-01

    The ductility of as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V falls far short of the requirements for biomedical titanium alloy implants and the heat treatment remains the only applicable option for improvement of their mechanical properties. In the present study, the decomposition of as-fabricated martensite was investigated to provide a general understanding on the kinetics of its phase transformation. The decomposition of asfabricated martensite was found to be slower than that of water-quenched martensite. It indicates that specific heat treatment strategy is needed to be explored for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V. Three strategies of heat treatment were proposed based on different phase transformation mechanisms and classified as subtransus treatment, supersolvus treatment and mixed treatment. These specific heat treatments were conducted on selective laser melted samples to investigate the evolutions of microstructure and mechanical properties. The subtransus treatment leaded to a basket-weave structure without changing the morphology of columnar prior β grains. The supersolvus treatment resulted in a lamellar structure and equiaxed β grains. The mixed treatment yielded a microstructure that combines both features of the subtransus treatment and supersolvus treatment. The subtransus treatment is found to be the best choice among these three strategies for as-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V to be used as biomedical implants.

  5. Effects of heat treatment on shape-setting and non-linearmechanical properties of Nitinol stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yinong; Qi, Min; Yang, Dazhi

    2007-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a temperature sensitive material with non-linear mechanical properties and good biocompatibility, which can be used for medical devices such as stent, catheter guide wire and orthodontic wire. The majority of nitinol stents are of the self-expanding type basing on the superelasticity. Nitinol stents are shape set into the open condition and compressed and inserted into the delivery catheter. Additional the shape-setting treatment can be used as a tool to accurately tune the transformation temperatures and mechanical properties. In this study, different heat treatments have been performed on the Ti-50.7at%Ni alloy wires. And results of shape-setting, austenite transformation finish temperature and non-linear mechanical property of NiTi shape memory alloy at body temperature have been investigated. The experimental results show that the proper shape-setting temperature should be chosen between 450-550 °C. And the shape-setting results were stabilization when the NiTi wires were constrain-treated at 500 and 550°C and ageing time longer than 10 minutes. The austenite finish temperatures increased with ageing time and increased first and then decreased with ageing temperature. The peak values were obtained at 400°C. When the heat treatments was performed at the same temperature, both the upper plateau stresses and lower plateau stresses decreased with the ageing time. Most of treated nitinol wires owned good recovery ability at body temperature and the permanent sets were less than 0.05% when short time ageing treatment was performed at 500°C.

  6. Amantadine as an additive treatment in patients suffering from drug-resistant unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Daniel, Władysława A; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Dudek, Dominika; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of amantadine addition to imipramine therapy in patients suffering from treatment-resistant unipolar depression who fulfilled DSM IV criteria for major (unipolar) depression. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study on the basis of their histories of illness and therapy. After a 2-week drug-free period, 25 subjects belonging to the first group were treated only with imipramine twice daily (100 mg/day) for 12 weeks, and 25 subjects belonging to the second group were treated with imipramine twice daily (100 mg/day) for 6 weeks and then amantadine was introduced (150 mg/day, twice daily) and administered jointly with imipramine for the successive 6 weeks. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy. Imipramine did not change the HDRS score after 3, 6 or 12 weeks of treatment when compared with the washout (before treatment). The addition of amantadine to the classic antidepressant reduced HDRS scores after 6-week joint treatment. Moreover, the obtained pharmacokinetic data indicated that amantadine did not significantly influence the plasma concentration of imipramine and its metabolite desipramine in patients treated jointly with imipramine and amantadine, which suggests lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction. The obtained results indicate that joint therapy with an antidepressant and amantadine may be effective in treatment-resistant unipolar depression.

  7. The effect of temperature and length of heat shock treatment on the thermal tolerance and cell leakage of Cronobacter sakazakii BCRC 13988.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-09-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with life-threatening illnesses in infants, with infant formula serving as the principal mode of transmission. In the present study, C. sakazakii (formely E. sakazakii) BCRC 13988 was subjected to various heat shock treatments (42-48 degrees C for 5-15 min). Its subsequent survival at 51 degrees C and the leakage of intracellular materials was investigated. It was found that 47 degrees C was the maximum growth temperature of the test organism. In addition, heat shock enhanced the thermal tolerance of C. sakazakii BCRC 13988. Within heat shock temperatures between 42 and 47 degrees C, the thermal tolerance enhancing effect increased as the length or temperature of the heat shock treatment was increased. However, increasing the heat shock temperature to 48 degrees C reduced the thermal tolerance enhancing effect. Among the various heat shocked cells examined, the 47 degrees C-15 min-heat shocked C. sakazakii exhibited the highest thermal tolerance. Moreover, electron micrograph analysis showed that heat shock treatment caused damage and disruption in C. sakazakii cells. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the leakage of nucleic acid and protein in the supernatant of the heat shocked cell suspension that increased as the temperature and duration of heat shock increased.

  8. Structure and nanomechanical characteristics of Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy with partly liquated grain boundaries upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikova, O. A.; Reznik, P. L.; Ovsyannikov, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical characteristics of the structural constituents of an Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy in which the liquation of grain boundaries occurred during heat treatment have been studied. Bands of the (Al + Al15(Fe, Mn)3Si2) eutectics have been observed at the grain boundaries. An algorithm for calculating the additional pressure, which results from mechanical impact on the metal containing these bands has been described.

  9. Surface hardening by anodizing and heat treatments of Ti6Al4V alloys for articular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the surface hardening of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by electrochemical anodizing and by different heat treatments, in addition to studying the annealing of the martensitic structure. Results of the combination of both methods produce hardening over 1300 HV and an important improvement on the tribological behaviour. These values could improve wear resistance of this alloy in applications like articular prostheses.

  10. Fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy processed using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Qi, Ting; Hu, Zhiheng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The proposed paper illustrates the fabrication and heat treatment of high strength Al-Cu-Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) process. Al-Cu-Mg alloy is one of the heat treatable aluminum alloys regarded as difficult to fusion weld. SLM is an additive manufacturing technique through which components are built by selectively melting powder layers with a focused laser beam. The process is characterized by short laser-powder interaction times and localized high heat input, which leads to steep thermal gradients, rapid solidification and fast cooling. In this research, 3D Al-Cu-Mg parts with relative high density of 99.8% are produced by SLM from gas atomized powders. Room temperature tensile tests reveal a remarkable mechanical behavior: the samples show yield and tensile strengths of about 276 MPa and 402 MPa, respectively, along with fracture strain of 6%. The effect of solution treatment on microstructure and related tensile properties is examined and the results demonstrate that the mechanical behavior of the SLMed Al-Cu-Mg samples can be greatly enhanced through proper heat treatment. After T4 solution treatment at 540°C, under the effect of precipitation strengthening, the tensile strength and the yield strength increase to 532 MPa and 338 MPa, respectively, and the elongation increases to 13%.

  11. Influence of dimethyl dicarbonate on the resistance of Escherichia coli to a combined UV-Heat treatment in apple juice

    PubMed Central

    Gouma, Maria; Gayán, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Condón, Santiago; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Commercial apple juice inoculated with Escherichia coli was treated with UV-C, heat (55°C) and dimethyl dicarbonate – DMDC (25, 50, and 75 mg/L)-, applied separately and in combination, in order to investigate the possibility of synergistic lethal effects. The inactivation levels resulting from each treatment applied individually for a maximum treatment time of 3.58 min were limited, reaching 1.2, 2.9, and 0.06 log10 reductions for UV, heat, and DMDC (75 mg/L), respectively. However, all the investigated combinations resulted in a synergistic lethal effect, reducing the total treatment time and UV dose, with the synergistic lethal effect being higher when larger concentrations of DMDC were added to the apple juice. The addition of 75 mg/L of DMDC prior to the combined UV-C light treatment at 55°C resulted in 5 log10 reductions after only 1.8 min, reducing the treatment time and UV dose of the combined UV-Heat treatment by 44%. PMID:26042117

  12. Phase transitions of hydroxyapatite coatings during post-heat treatment and their performances under ultrasonic tests.

    PubMed

    Tong, W; Li, X; Feng, J; Chen, J; Zhang, X

    2001-07-01

    Highly or completely crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings can be obtained by post-heat treatment. We have developed a high-temperature (490 degrees C) and a low-temperature (125 degrees C) heat treatment to improve the crystallinity of HA coatings. Both methods transform entirely the amorphous phase into crystalline HA. However, the microstructure of the coating is dependent on the post-heating method. Nanocrystalline HA is about half of the component of the low-temperature heated coating while highly crystalline HA dominates the high-temperature heated coating, as detected by X-ray diffraction. The effects of both methods on the disintegration of the coatings were tested by ultrasonic treatment. The high-temperature heated coatings exhibited poor integrity while the low-temperature heated coatings exhibited better integrity, possibly due to their different microstructure. SEM revealed that the coatings disintegrated via different mechanisms: the high-temperature heated coatings failed via crack initiation and propagation while the low-temperature heated coatings failed via pit formation and subsequent widening.

  13. Milk protein-gum tragacanth mixed gels: effect of heat-treatment sequence.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Masoud; Nejatian, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Pourmand, Hanieh

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the heat-treatment sequence of biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter on the acid-induced gelation of tri-polymeric systems composed of sodium caseinate (Na-caseinate), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and gum tragacanth (GT). This was studied by applying four sequences of heat treatment: (A) co-heating all three biopolymers; (B) heating the milk-protein dispersion and the GT dispersion separately; (C) heating the dispersion containing Na-caseinate and GT together and heating whey protein alone; and (D) co-heating whey protein with GT and heating Na-caseinate alone. According to small-deformation rheological measurements, the strength of the mixed-gel network decreased in the order: C>B>D>A samples. SEM micrographs show that the network of sample C is much more homogenous, coarse and dense than sample A, while the networks of samples B and D are of intermediate density. The heat-treatment sequence of the biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter thus offers an opportunity to control the microstructure and rheological properties of mixed gels.

  14. Heat treatment effect on microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of Cr26 white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaoping; Shen, Yehui; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Dequan

    2015-01-01

    High chromium cast iron(HCCI) is taken as material of coal water slurry pump impeller, but it is susceptible to produce serious abrasive wear and erosion wear because of souring of hard coal particles. The research on optimization of heat treatments to improve abrasive wear properties of HCCI is insufficient, so effect of heat treatments on the microstructure, hardness, toughness, and wear resistance of Cr26 HCCI is investigated to determine the optimal heat treatment process for HCCI. A series of heat treatments are employed. The microstructures of HCCI specimens are examined by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and impact fracture toughness of as-cast and heat treated specimens are measured. The wear tests are assessed by a Type M200 ring-on block wear tester. The results show the following: With increase of the quenching temperature from 950 °C to 1050 °C, the hardness of Cr26 HCCI increased to a certain value, kept for a time and then decreased. The optimal heat treatment process is 2 h quenching treatment at 1000 °C, followed by a subsequent 2 h tempering at 400 °C. The hardness of HCCI is related to the precipitation and redissolution of secondary carbides in the process of heat treatment. The subsequent tempering treatment would result in a slight decrease of hardness but increase of toughness. The wear resistance is much related to the "supporting" effect of the matrix and the "protective" effect of the hard carbide embedded in the matrix, and the wear resistance is further dependent on the hardness and the toughness of the matrix. This research can provide an important insight on developing an optimized heat treatment method to improve the wear resistance of HCCI.

  15. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  16. Dry heat and hot water treatments for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of low- and high-temperature dry heat, and hot water treatments, for disinfesting cottonseed of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was investigated. Naturally infected seeds from Louisiana were air-heated in incubators set at temperatures of 30, 35, and 40 degrees C for up to 24 we...

  17. Preparation, heat treatment, and mechanical properties of the uranium-5 weight percent chromium eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, A. B.

    1980-10-01

    The eutectic alloy of uranium-5 wt % chromium (U-5Cr) was prepared from high-purity materials and cast into 1-in.-thick ingots. This material was given several simple heat treatments, the mechanical properties of these heat-treated samples were determined; and the microstructure was examined. Some data on the melting point and transformation temperatures were obtained.

  18. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  19. Effects of heat treatment on the bioactivity of surface-modified titanium in calcium solution.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Razia; Hamada, Kenichi; Ichikawa, Tetsuo; Asaoka, Kenzo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heat treatment on the bioactivity of hydrothermal-modified titanium in CaO solution for improved bioactivity by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The hydrothermal treatment of titanium in CaO solution was performed at 121 degrees C at 0.2 MPa for 1 h in an autoclave followed by 1 h heat treatments at 200, 400, 600 and 800 degrees C simultaneously. The bioactivity of titanium was evaluated by hydroxyapatite precipitation during immersion in SBF. Surface microstructure changes after the heat treatments and immersion in SBF were determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Heat treatments at high temperatures (600 and 800 degrees C) promoted the synthesis of anatase, increased the thickness of the titanium oxide layer on the modified titanium surface and promoted the synthesis of calcium titanate, which possibly promoted the precipitation of apatite in SBF. The extent of precipitations increased with the time of immersion in SBF and the temperature of the heat treatment. Island-like deposits of needle-like crystals were observed only on the surface of the 600 and 800 degrees C heat-treated specimens after two or four week immersions in SBF. The results suggested that treatments of the surface of hydrothermal-treated titanium specimens at high temperatures (600 and 800 degrees C) could be effective for the surface modification of titanium as an implant material offering better osseointegration.

  20. Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.

  1. No Major Differences Found between the Effects of Microwave-Based and Conventional Heat Treatment Methods on Two Different Liquid Foods

    PubMed Central

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well. PMID

  2. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  3. Influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Rong, Haiqin; Ryu, Zhenyu; Zheng, Jingtang; Zhang, Yuanli

    2003-05-15

    The influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption behavior of formaldehyde was studied. Heat treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen for rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) resulted in a significant increase in the adsorption capacities and prolongation of breakthrough time on removing of formaldehyde. The effect of different heat-treatment conditions on the adsorption characteristics was investigated. The porous structure parameters of the samples under study were investigated using nitrogen adsorption at the low temperature 77.4 K. The pore size distributions of the samples under study were calculated by density functional theory. With the aid of these analyses, the relationship between structure and adsorption properties of rayon-based ACFs for removing formaldehyde was revealed. Improvement of their performance in terms of adsorption selectivity and adsorption rate for formaldehyde were achieved by heat post-treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen.

  4. Heat-treatment of Colostrum on Commercial Dairy Farms: Effects on Colostrum Characteristics and Calf Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Colostrum provides immunoglobulins (Ig) and nutrients essential for calf health and performance. However, colostrum may be a source of exposure to significant pathogens including Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Pilot studies have suggested that heat-treatment of colostrum...

  5. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    PubMed

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  6. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-07-01

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  7. Effects of heat treatment of wood on hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation and biomechanical properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Hirvonen, J; Lahdenperä, M; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2010-08-01

    Wood is a natural fiber reinforced composite. It structurally resembles bone tissue to some extent. Specially heat-treated birch wood has been used as a model material for further development of synthetic fiber reinforced composites (FRC) for medical and dental use. In previous studies it has been shown, that heat treatment has a positive effect on the osteoconductivity of an implanted wood. In this study the effects of two different heat treatment temperatures (140 and 200 degrees C) on wood were studied in vitro. Untreated wood was used as a control material. Heat treatment induced biomechanical changes were studied with flexural and compressive tests on dry birch wood as well as on wood after 63 days of simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion. Dimensional changes, SBF sorption and hydroxylapatite type mineral formation were also assessed. The results showed that SBF immersion decreases the biomechanical performance of wood and that the heat treatment diminishes the effect of SBF immersion on biomechanical properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis it was shown that hydroxylapatite type mineral precipitation formed on the 200 degrees C heat-treated wood. An increased weight gain of the same material during SBF immersion supported this finding. The results of this study give more detailed insight of the biologically relevant changes that heat treatment induces in wood material. Furthermore the findings in this study are in line with previous in vivo studies.

  8. Synergistic effects of water addition and step heating on the formation of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin films: towards high-mobility polycrystalline transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genmao; Duan, Lian; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yunge; Dong, Guifang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility and good uniformity are attractive for next-generation flat panel displays. In this work, solution-processed polycrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film with well-ordered microstructure is prepared, thanks to the synergistic effect of water addition and step heating. The step heating treatment other than direct annealing induces crystallization, while adequate water added to precursor solution further facilitates alloying and densification process. The optimal polycrystalline ZTO film is free of hierarchical sublayers, and featured with an increased amount of ternary phases, as well as a decreased fraction of oxygen vacancies and hydroxides. TFT devices based on such an active layer exhibit a remarkable field-effect mobility of 52.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, a current on/off ratio of 2 × 105, a threshold voltage of 2.32 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.36 V dec-1. Our work offers a facile method towards high-performance solution-processed polycrystalline metal oxide TFTs.

  9. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  10. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  11. Nanoparticles for cancer treatment: role of heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Avedisian, C Thomas; Cavicchi, Richard E; McEuen, Paul L; Zhou, Xinjian

    2009-04-01

    An overview is presented of an approach for treating cancer that uses nanoparticles to deliver heat to diseased areas after absorbing energy from a laser of the appropriate wavelength. The implications are discussed of the relationship of parameters necessary to raise the temperature to therapeutically beneficial levels. Tight focusing is required for a continuous-wave laser to sufficiently heat individual nanoparticles because of heat loss to the surrounding fluid during the period of exposure. The natural thermal confinement of pulse lasers minimizes this effect because of the finite thermal diffusion time, which restricts the absorbed energy to a region around the particle, that offers the potential for achieving high temperatures that can promote phase change on the surface of a nanoparticle or even melting of the particle. A discussion of a way to potentially measure temperature on the scale of an individual nanoparticle is included based on using a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) of carbon as a thermistor. The challenges of this undertaking are that SWNTs do not always follow Ohm's law, they may exhibit metallic or semiconductor behavior with an often unpredictable result in manufacturing, and no two SWNTs behave identically, which necessitates calibration for each SWNT. Some results are presented that show the electrical characteristics of SWNTs and their potential for exploitation in this application.

  12. Tailoring of Microstructure and Properties of Titanium Parts with Local Rapid Heat Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    frequency of specimens’ rotation during fatigue testing; 8) kWt – power of induction heating in kilowatts; 9) N sec – duration of LRHT in seconds...REFERENCES FR PAGE 47 List of Figures Fig.1 Installation for Local Rapid Heat Treatment (LRHT, induction heating method); (1) – 440 kHz, 5 kWt...types of specimens tested. FR PAGE 8 Fig.5 Influence of induction heating (5 kWt) duration on the relative thickness of treated layers. FR PAGE 9

  13. Enhancement of the Stress Corrosion Sensitivity of AA5083 by Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Quesnel, David J.

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of AA5083 is intentionally degraded by a series of progressively longer annealing treatments at 448 K (175 °C) that create a two-phase microstructure. Precipitation of strongly anodic Mg2Al3, known as β-phase, occurs heterogeneously with substantial precipitation along the grain boundaries, as observed by differential interference microscopy. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and strain to failure of AA5083 alloy were found to be independent of the amount of β-phase precipitates, making AA5083 an ideal system to study the relative contributions of anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement. Open circuit dropwise exposure SCC tests with precracked double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens made from the AA5083 alloy with different heat treatment conditions were conducted using 3.5 pct NaCl solution at an initial stress intensity factor ( K I ) of 1 5 {{ksi}}sqrt {{in}} .( { 1 6. 5 {{MPa}}sqrt {{m}} } ). Two SCC characteristics, initial crack growth rate and incubation time, were found to be strongly dependent on the amount of β-phase precipitates. Initial crack growth rate increased sigmoidally as a function of heat treatment time with an inflection point between 120 and 240 hours of sensitization time, while the incubation time decreases monotonically with sensitization time. Additionally, fracture surfaces investigated by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated characteristics of intergranular cracking with multiple crack tips. Discussion centers on the evidence supporting anodic dissolution of β-phase grain boundary precipitates as a primary mechanism of SCC in severely sensitized AA5083 alloy and the potential contribution of hydrogen embrittlement in the failure of grain boundary ligaments between β-phase grain boundary precipitates in less severely sensitized conditions.

  14. Heat treatment mechanism and biodegradable characteristics of ZAX1330 Mg alloy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Jun; Hung, Fei-Yi; Lui, Truan-Sheng; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-06-01

    Heat treatments are key processes in the development of biodegradable magnesium implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors of microstructures and metallurgical segregation on the functionality of biodegradable magnesium alloy. The solid solution heat treatment and strain induced melting activation heat treatment were employed to alter the microstructures of ZAX1330 alloy in this study. Heat treatments caused a significant change on grain size and distribution of secondary phases. The fine-grained microstructure enhanced the mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and achieved the lowest degradation rate in simulated body fluid solution. In coarse-grained microstructure systems, grain growth followed liquid phase formation. The corrosion rate increased due to a larger cathodic region. The status of micro-alloyed calcium (in solid solution or segregated) influenced the microstructural evolution mechanisms, mechanical strength, and degradation properties. A cytotoxicity test and a live/dead assay showed that ZAX1330 had good cytocompatibility, which varied with heat treatment, and no cell toxicity. The results suggest that heat treatment should be controlled precisely in order to improve the cytocompatibility of magnesium alloys for application in orthopedic implants.

  15. The effect of heat treatment on the hardness and impact properties of medium carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazni Ismail, Noor; Khatif, Nurul Aida Amir; Aliff Kamil Awang Kecik, Mohamad; Hanafiah Shaharudin, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper covers the effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of medium carbon steel. The main objective of this project is to investigate the hardness and impact properties of medium carbon steel treated at different heat treatment processes. Three types of heat treatment were performed in this project which are annealing, quenching and tempering. During annealing process, the specimens were heated at 900°C and soaked for 1 hour in the furnace. The specimens were then quenched in a medium of water and open air, respectively. The treatment was followed by tempering processes which were done at 300°C, 450°C, and 600°C with a soaking time of 2 hours for each temperature. After the heat treatment process completed, Rockwell hardness test and Charpy impact test were performed. The results collected from the Rockwell hardness test and Charpy impact test on the samples after quenching and tempering were compared and analysed. The fractured surfaces of the samples were also been examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope. It was observed that different heat treatment processes gave different hardness value and impact property to the steel. The specimen with the highest hardness was found in samples quenched in water. Besides, the microstructure obtained after tempering provided a good combination of mechanical properties due to the process reduce brittleness by increasing ductility and toughness.

  16. Smoothing of surface of silica glass by heat treatment in wet atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Kenta; Katayama, Keiichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuno, Atsunobu; Zhang Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki; Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira; Tawarayama, Hiromasa; Kawazoe, Hiroshi

    2011-05-15

    The effect of heat treatment on the surface morphology of fused silica glass substrates was investigated. It was found that the water vapor pressure during heat treatment had a strong influence on the flattening of the silica glass surface. The surface of the frosted glass changed into a transparent and lustrous surface after heat treatment with water vapor at 1200 deg. C for 48 h, whereas surface irregularities remained for heat treatment under a dry atmosphere. It was suggested that the difference in surface flattening was caused by changes in surface viscosity that depended on the concentration of OH groups on the surface. In order to quantitatively understand the effect of the heat treatment atmosphere, power spectral density (PSD) analysis and a novel peak and valley method were applied to the experimental results. From the PSD analysis, it was found that the Mullins' model could not explain the smoothing behavior by heat treatment. The peak and valley method, which could separate the surface morphology into the surface irregularities and the background undulation, revealed that the Mullins' model limitation was mainly for the surface and the background undulation could be understood within the model. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms between for the surface smoothing and for the relaxation of the background undulation.

  17. Towards the quantification of the effect of acid treatment on the heat tolerance of Escherichia coli K12 at lethal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Velliou, E G; Van Derlinden, E; Cappuyns, A M; Nikolaidou, E; Geeraerd, A H; Devlieghere, F; Van Impe, J F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of acid treatment -before and during heat inactivation- on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 cells at lethal temperatures. E. coli cells were grown in Brain Heart Infusion broth until they reached the stationary phase (≈10(9) cfu/mL). Approximately 30 min before thermal inactivation the early stationary phase cells were added in Brain Heart Infusion broth with a specific pH value, achieved with addition of either acetic (50% (v/v)), lactic (50% (v/v)) or hydrochloric acid (30% (v/v)), and inactivation experiments took place at 54 °C and 58 °C. The inactivation dynamics are analysed using the inactivation model of Geeraerd et al. (2000). This enables to define the induced thermotolerance of E. coli as a prolongation of the shoulder and/or a reduction of the inactivation rate. Generally, addition of acids increased the heat resistance of E. coli. The induced resistance depends on the type of acid and on the quantity added, i.e. different levels of acidification lead to a different level of heat resistance. This work provides additional knowledge on the reaction of bacterial cultures to heat after acid treatment -before and during heat treatment- and, therefore, it contributes to an improved understanding of the effect of acid exposure on the bacterial heat resistance.

  18. Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Sujith, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L.

    1995-05-01

    The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition H1150, using different heat treatment procedures. Microstructural investigations and room-temperature tensile properties were determined to study the combined effects of prior microstructural and PWHT procedures.

  19. Effects of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film reinforced with nanocrystalline cellulose and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Rubentheren, V; Ward, Thomas A; Chee, Ching Yern; Nair, Praveena; Salami, Erfan; Fearday, Christopher

    2016-04-20

    This article presents an analysis of the influence of heat treatment on chitosan nanocomposite film. A series of samples comprising: pure chitosan film, chitosan film embedded with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), chitosan film crosslinked with tannic acid and chitosan film with a blend of NCC and tannic acid were heat treated using a convection oven. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction test (XRD) shows the changes in chemical interaction of the heat treated films. The heat treated films show significant improvements in moisture absorption. Tensile strength and Young's Modulus were increased up to 7MPa and 259MPa, respectively when the samples were subjected to heat treatment. For the NCC particles, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to inspect the structural properties of cellulose particle in suspension form.

  20. Treatment-resistant depression in adolescents: is the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy of benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Sarah E; Cox, Georgina R; Merry, Sally N

    2011-01-01

    Background Many young people with major depression fail first-line treatments. Treatment-resistant depression has various definitions in the literature but typically assumes nonresponse to medication. In young people, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the recommended first-line intervention, thus the definition of treatment resistance should be expanded. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize the existing evidence of any interventions for treatment-resistant depression, broadly defined, in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness of CBT in this context. Methods We used Cochrane Collaboration methodology, with electronic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials registers. Only randomized controlled trials were included, and were assessed for risk of bias. Meta- analysis was undertaken where possible and appropriate. Results Of 953 articles retrieved, four trials were eligible for inclusion. For one study, only the trial registration document was available, because the study was never completed. All other studies were well conducted with a low risk of bias, although one study had a high dropout rate. Two studies assessed the effect of adding CBT to medication. While an assertive trial of antidepressants does appear to lead to benefit, when compared with placebo, there was no significant advantage, in either study, or in a meta-analysis of data from these trials, that clearly demonstrated an additional benefit of CBT. The third trial showed little advantage of a tricyclic antidepressant over placebo in the context of an inpatient admission. Conclusion Few randomized controlled trials have investigated interventions for treatment-resistant depression in young people, and results from these show modest benefit from antidepressants with no additional benefit over medication from CBT. Overall, there is a lack of evidence about effective interventions to treat young people who have failed to

  1. The impact of bismuth addition to sequential treatment on Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Basyigit, Sebahat; Kefeli, Ayse; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Yeniova, Abdullah Ozgür; Asilturk, Zeliha; Hokkaomeroglu, Murat; Uzman, Metin; Nazligul, Yasar

    2015-10-25

    The success of the current anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment protocols is reported to decrease by years, and research is needed to strengthen the H. pylori eradication treatment. Sequential treatment (ST), one of the treatment modalities for H. pylori eradication, includes amoxicillin 1 gr b.i.d and proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for first 5 days and then includes clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d and a proton pump inhibitor b.i.d for remaining 5 days. In this study, we investigated efficacy and tolerability of bismuth addition in to ST. We included patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in which H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histological examination of antral and corporal gastric mucosa biopsy. Participants were randomly administered ST or bismuth containing ST (BST) protocols for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. Participants have been tested by urea breath test for eradication success 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. One hundred and fifty patients (93 female, 57 male) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in eradication rates for both intention to treat population (70.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-74.1% vs. 71.8%, 95% CI: 61.8-81.7%, for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05) and per protocol population (74.6%, 95% CI: 63.2-85.8% vs. 73.7%, 95% CI: 63.9-83.5% for ST and BST, respectively, p>0.05). Despite the undeniable effect of bismuth, there may be several possible reasons of unsatisfactory eradication success. Drug administration time, coadministration of other drugs, possible H. pylori resistance to bismuth may affect the eradication success. The addition of bismuth subcitrate to ST regimen does not provide significant increase in eradication rates.

  2. The Effect of Post-heat Treatment on the Microstructures of Single Crystal DD6 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfan; Gao, Hangshan; Wen, Zhixun; Li, Zhenwei; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-09-01

    Various thermal cycles at the end of solution heat treatment and their influences on microstructure of single crystal superalloy DD6 were studied by experiments. During various thermal cycles, the qualitative and quantitative microstructure of samples quenched of the transformations is microscopically characterized. This completely includes the large changes in volume fraction, size distribution and morphology of gamma prime precipitate experienced in the upper temperature transformation. Noticeable deviation from the equilibrium volume fraction of γ' phase is detected in both the dissolution and precipitation processes above 1,120°C for both moderate cooling and heating rate; differences were mainly attributed to the unsteady nature of the turbulent flow. The growth and alignment of the γ' precipitates are deeply influenced by several factors, e.g. ageing time, cooling rate and quenching temperature. In addition, interesting findings such as "labyrinth" and "cluster" morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope. During precipitation processes, the complicated microstructure evolution is illustrated by considering the consecutive equilibrium shapes of a coherent precipitate, which grows under the interaction with its neighbors and the coherency of the precipitates improves their potential to resist dissolution.

  3. Improvement of activated sludge resistance to shock loading by fungal enzyme addition during textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Manai, Imène; Miladi, Baligh; El Mselmi, Abdellatif; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the additions of the fungal enzymatic extract were investigated in relation to the treatment of real textile wastewater (RTW) by the activated sludge process (ASP). The used enzyme cocktail was produced by a new isolated fungal Chaetomium globosum IMA1. The system that was operated with enzyme addition showed a better chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (95%) compared to the control system (75%). In addition, the improvement of color removal (OD620) efficiencies was around 15%, when the newly consortium fungal enzymes was added. As the organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 g to 0.66 g COD L(-1) d(-1), a decrease in the performance of the two reactors was observed by monitoring the quality of treated effluents. However, the ASP working with enzyme addition showed a strong resistance to shock loadings and restored after few days compared to the control system, which was strongly inhibited. In fact, the enzyme addition improved the sludge volume index (SVI) and the activity of microorganisms. A high activity of laccase (300 U.L(-1)) enzyme was observed throughout the decolorization process in the improved system.

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as additional treatment in deep sternal wound infections – a single center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryndza, Magdalena; Chrapusta, Anna; Kobielska, Ewa; Kapelak, Bogusław; Grudzień, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is one of the most serious complications after cardiac surgery procedures, observed in 5% of patients. Current standard medical therapy for DSWI includes antibiotics, surgical debridement, resuturing or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Unfortunately, in some cases these methods are insufficient, and additional therapeutic options are needed. Aim To assess the effects and usefulness of additional hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in patients with DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 10 patients after cardiac surgery who developed DSWI in the period 2010–2012 was performed. After 3 months of ineffective conventional therapy including targeted antibiotic, surgical sternal debridement and NPWT, patients were qualified for additional HBO2 therapy. A total of 20 sessions of HBO2 therapy were performed, each 92 minutes long. Results After 4 weeks of HBO2 treatment, 7 patients presented complete wound healing with fibrous scar formation. One patient was qualified for the another cycle of HBO2 therapy with 20 additional sessions, and complete wound healing was observed. In 2 cases, after 5 and 19 sessions, HBO2 was interrupted because of improper qualifications. Conclusions The HBO2 as an additional therapy in DSWI was successful in 80% of cases, and no complications were observed. However, due to the small number of published studies with a small number of patients, randomized, clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical results of HBO2 in DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. PMID:27785131

  5. Additional Treatments for High-Risk Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Hoxha, Ariela; Favaro, Maria; Tonello, Marta; Colpo, Anna; Cucchini, Umberto; Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    Most investigators currently advocate prophylactic-dose heparin plus low-dose aspirin as the preferred treatment of otherwise healthy women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, whilst women with a history of vascular thrombosis alone or associated with pregnancy morbidity are usually treated with therapeutic heparin doses in association with low-dose aspirin in an attempt to prevent both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. However, the protocols outlined above fail in about 20 % of pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome. Identifying risk factors associated with pregnancy failure when conventional therapies are utilized is an important step in establishing guidelines to manage these high-risk patients. Some clinical and laboratory risk factors have been found to be related to maternal-foetal complications in pregnant women on conventional therapy. However, the most efficacious treatments to administer to high-risk antiphospholipid syndrome women in addition to conventional therapy in order to avoid pregnancy complications are as yet unestablished. This is a comprehensive review on this topic and an invitation to participate in a multicentre study in order to identify the best additional treatments to be used in this subset of antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

  6. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    PubMed Central

    Gouma, M.; Gayán, E.; Raso, J.; Condón, S.; Álvarez, I.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment) to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion) of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature) that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd's model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min) and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min) to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C. PMID:26539493

  7. Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-12-01

    The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages.

  8. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  9. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

  10. Effect of Heat-Treatment on Metallic Collection for Used Printed Circuit Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agawa, Ryuichi; Tsugita, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Minoru; Araki, Takao

    In this research, we examined the method that separates the material from the printed circuit board by the proof scale heat-treatment. The size of the printed circuit board (PCB) used for the examination was about 150 mm × 200 mm, and PCB was executed heat-treatment by two kinds of shape as received (Sample-A) and crushed (Sample-B) by hammarcrasher. The following result was obtained. The organic resin and also omine were removed by the heat treatment in both cases. In Sample-B heat-treatment, though combustion was done with stability, however, the temperature rises locally so that the organism in the board crushed by the high contact with oxygen may burn instantaneously and the combustion residue melted solidifies. In Sample-A heat-treatment, the metallic collection rate in the combustion residue was higher than Sample-B, especially Cu and Ni are collected by 90mass% or more, and Ag, Au and Pb collected were twice larger compared with Sample-B. The residue in Sample-A could be crushed comparatively easily with hammarcrasher. Therefore, to make the crushing combustion residue concentrated of the metal in the printed circuit board adjust to metallic refinement process, it is thought that we should heat-treat the printed circuit board near as received.

  11. Dependence of Dynamic Tensile Strength of Longyou Sandstone on Heat-Treatment Temperature and Loading Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wei; Kanopolous, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    As a material for famous historical underground rock caverns, Longyou sandstone (LS) may fail under the combination of high loading rate and high temperature. The thermal damage induced by various heat-treatment temperatures (150, 250, 350, 450, 600 and 850 °C) is first characterized by X-ray Micro-computed tomography (CT) method. The damage variable derived from the average CT value for heat-treated LS specimen and reference specimen without heat treatment was used to quantify the thermal damage. The dynamic tensile strengths of these LS samples under different dynamic loading rates (ranging from 24 to 540 GPa/s) were then obtained using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The dynamic tensile strength of LS increases with the loading rate at a given heat-treatment temperature, and the tensile strength at the same loading rate decreases with the heat-treatment temperature except for 450 °C. Based on the experimental data, an empirical equation was established to relate the dynamic tensile strength of LS to the loading rate and the heat-treatment temperature.

  12. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure.

  13. Heat treatment induced bacterial changes in irrigation water and their implications for plant disease management.

    PubMed

    Hao, W; Hong, C X

    2014-05-01

    A new heat treatment for recycled irrigation water using 48 °C for 24 h to inactivate Phytophthora and bacterial plant pathogens is estimated to reduce fuel cost and environmental footprint by more than 50 % compared to current protocol (95 °C for 30 s). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of this new heat treatment temperature regime on bacterial community structure in water and its practical implications. Bacterial communities in irrigation water were analyzed before and after heat treatment using both culture-dependent and -independent strategies based on the 16S ribosomal DNA. A significant shift was observed in the bacterial community after heat treatment. Most importantly, bacteria with biological control potential--Bacillus and Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas species became more abundant at both 48 and 42 °C. These findings imply that the new heat treatment procedure not only controls existing plant pathogens but also may make the heat-treated irrigation water a more antagonistic environment against plant pathogens, promoting sustainable disease management.

  14. Silver nanoparticles enhanced luminescence properties of Er3+ doped tellurite glasses: Effect of heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Hssen; Elhouichet, Habib; Gelloz, Bernard; Férid, Mokhtar

    2014-09-01

    Tellurite glasses doped Er3+ ions and containing Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are prepared using melt quenching technique. The nucleation and growth of Ag NPs were controlled by a thermal annealing process. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows no sharp peak indicating an amorphous nature of the glasses. The presence of Ag NPs is confirmed from transmission electron microscopy micrograph. Absorption spectra show typical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs within the 510-550 nm range in addition to the distinctive absorption peaks of Er3+ ions. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters, oscillator strengths, spontaneous transition probabilities, branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes were successfully calculated based on the experimental absorption spectrum and the J-O theory. It was found that the presence of silver NPs nucleated and grown during the heat annealing process improves both of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the PL lifetime relative to the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition. Optimum PL enhancement was obtained after 10 h of heat-treatment. Such enhancements are mainly attributed to the strong local electric field induced by SPR of silver NPs and also to energy transfer from the surface of silver NPs to Er3+ ions, whereas the quenching is ascribed to the energy transfer from Er3+ ions to silver NPs. Using the Mc Cumber method, absorption cross-section, calculated emission cross-section, and gain cross-section for the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition were determined and compared for the doped and co-doped glasses. The present results indicate that the glass heat-treated for 10 h has good prospect as a gain medium applied for 1.53 μm band broad and high-gain erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

  15. Characterization of precipitates in X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xingang; Gu, Jianfeng; Han, Lizhan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization of precipitates in X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel during the heat treatment was carried out for revealing the evolution of the precipitates. In addition to other microstructural parameters (such as dislocation and subgrains), the precipitate also plays an important role for microstructural stability which is a prerequisite for long term creep strength. In this paper, the precipitates during the heat treatment for this steel were characterized using physicochemical phase analyses and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the Fe-rich M3C carbides and Nb-rich MX particles were detected in the samples cooled in furnace from austenitization at 1080 °C for 16 h. However, after water cooling, only Nb-rich MX particles existed. During tempering at 570 °C for 18 h, the formation of Cr-rich M7C3 was detected but was replaced partially by Cr-rich M23C6. Additional Cr-rich M2N nitride was also found. After two successive tempering (570 °C + 690 °C) for 24 h, Cr-rich M7C3 was completely replaced. The microchemical analyses of the extracted residues during heat treatment were also discussed. The results gave rise to an indication that the precipitation of precipitates nearly completed in first tempering and the transformation from Cr-rich M7C3 to Cr-rich M23C6 mainly occurred in the second tempering.

  16. Heat treatment of nitrided layer formed on X37CrMoV5-1 hot working tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciski, A.; Wach, P.; Tacikowski, J.; Babul, T.; Šuchmann, P.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the technology consisting of combination of the nitriding process with subsequent austenitizing at temperature above eutectoid temperature of the Fe-C system and further rapid cooling. Such treatment will cause formation of the martensite in the area of the primarily nitrided layer and the additional precipitation hardening by tempering of heat treated steel. The article shows that the heat treatment process of nitrided layer formed on X37CrMoV5-1 steel leads to strengthening of surface layer, the substrate and the core of nitrided part. Heat treatment of nitrided steel with the tempering in inert (nitrogen) or active (ammonia) atmosphere can increase the thickness of the layer formed by short-term nitriding process. After the nitriding process of X37CrMoV5-1 steel the nitrided layer had a thickness of about 160 μm, while a subsurface layer of iron nitrides had a thickness of 7 μm. After subsequent quenching and tempering processes, the nitrided layer undergoes additional diffusion and its thickness is increased to about 220 μm (inert atmosphere) or 280 μm (active atmosphere). If the tempering process is carried out in an inert atmosphere, the primarily formed layer of iron nitrides disappears. Tempering in an active atmosphere leads to forming of white layer with a thickness of 7 μm. Basic properties of nitrided layers formed in such way, like the hardness and the wear resistance, are presented.

  17. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  18. Additive effect of ketoconazole and octreotide in the treatment of severe adrenocorticotropin-dependent hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Vignati, F; Loli, P

    1996-08-01

    Over the last few years ketoconazole and octreotide have been employed in the treatment of pituitary-dependent or ectopic Cushing's syndrome. In four patients (two men and two women, aged 25-64 yr) with severe ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism in whom medical treatment with ketoconazole showed limited effectiveness and/or tolerability, we tried the association with octreotide. In all patients ketoconazole (200-1000 mg) induced a marked decrease in urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion, but normalization could not be achieved. After ketoconazole discontinuation, three patients received octreotide alone (300-1500 micrograms/day, sc). This drug caused a dramatic decrease in UFC excretion, although not normalization; in all patients, escape from treatment occurred. Combined treatment was carried out for 10-180 days. Urinary cortisol excretion normalized and remained steadily within normal limits in three of four patients in whom normal UFC excretion had never been attained with both single drug regimens; in the fourth patient, UFC excretion decreased to levels lower than those achieved with ketoconazole or octreotide alone. The association with octreotide allowed a reduction in the daily dose of ketoconazole in three patients. Consistent with the steady reduction of cortisol production, a striking clinical improvement occurred in all patients after starting combined treatment. The normalization of UFC in three of four patients treated with both agents suggests that this approach may be useful in the long term treatment of severe forms of hypercortisolism of both pituitary and ectopic origin. In contrast to the limited effectiveness of each drug taken singularly at the same or higher doses, the association of the two drugs had an additive effect in the attainment of normal urinary cortisol excretion.

  19. Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of condenser wa- ter treatment with a key ingredient being polyaspartate (PASP). Polyaspar- tic acid was the 1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge...cooling water biocide tetrakis (hy- droxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS). THPS won the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1997. The...Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which causes Legion- naire’s Disease. 2.3 Steam Line Treatment The third and final product in the Green Chemistry project

  20. Menu driven heat treatment control of thin walled bodies

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Booth, Jr., Russell R.; Grimm, Noel P.; Batenburg, Abram; Thomas, Vaughn M.

    1992-01-01

    A process for controlling the heating of a thin-walled body according to a predetermined temperature program by means of electrically controllable heaters, comprising: disposing the heaters adjacent one surface of the body such that each heater is in facing relation with a respective zone of the surface; supplying heat-generating power to each heater and monitoring the temperature at each surface zone; and for each zone: deriving (16,18,20), on the basis of the temperature values obtained in the monitoring step, estimated temperature values of the surface at successive time intervals each having a first selected duration; generating (28), on the basis of the estimated temperature values derived in each time interval, representations of the temperature, THSIFUT, which each surface zone will have, based on the level of power presently supplied to each heater, at a future time which is separated from the present time interval by a second selected duration; determining (30) the difference between THSIFUT and the desired temperature, FUTREFTVZL, at the future time which is separated from the present time interval by the second selected duration; providing (52) a representation indicating the power level which sould be supplied to each heater in order to reduce the difference obtained in the determining step; and adjusting the power level supplied to each heater by the supplying step in response to the value of the representation provided in the providing step.

  1. A heat treatment procedure to produce fine-grained lamellar microstructures in a P/M titanium aluminide alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Peter

    A process for fabricating advanced aerospace titanium aluminide alloys starting from metal powders (the hot isostatically consolidated P/M process) is presented in this thesis. This process does not suffer the difficulties of chemical inhomogeneities and coarse grain structure of castings. In addition heat treatments which take advantage of the refined structure of HIP processed materials are developed to achieve microstructure control and subsequent mechanical property control. It is shown that a better "property balance" is possible after the heat treatment of HIP consolidated materials than it is with alternative processing. It is well understood that the standard microstructures (near-gamma, duplex, nearly lamellar, and fully lamellar) do not have the balanced mechanical properties (tensile, yield, creep and fatigue strength, ductility and fracture toughness) necessary for optimal performance in aero engine and automotive applications. In this work a fine-grained fully lamellar (FGFL) microstructure is developed for property control and in particular for achieving a much improved property balance. A heat treatment procedure for this purpose which consists of cyclic processing in the alpha transus temperature region to achieve an FGFL structure with grain sizes in the range of 50 mum to 150 mum is presented. Compared with conventional duplex structured materials, the minimum creep rate is an order of magnitude lower with only a 10% loss in tensile yield strength. Moreover, a three-fold increase in tensile elongation is possible by converting to an FGFL structure with only a 30% loss in minimum creep rate. These are attractive trade-offs when considering the use of these alloys for aerospace purposes. A thorough literature review of the mechanisms of formation of standard microstructures and their deformation under mechanical loading is contained in the thesis. In addition, conventional techniques to produce FGFL microstructures in wrought and cast materials are

  2. Effect of Multistage Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingdong; Wen, Haiming; Zhang, Han; Gu, Jianfeng; Li, Chuanwei; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and reverted austenite (RA) on the strength and impact toughness of a Cu-containing 3.5 wt pct Ni high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after various heat treatments involving quenching (Q), lamellarization (L), and tempering (T) is studied using electron back-scatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The QT sample exhibits high strength but low impact toughness, whereas the QL samples mostly possess improved impact toughness but moderate strength, but the QLT samples again have degraded impact toughness due to additional tempering. The dispersion of nanoscale CRPs, which are formed during tempering, is responsible for the enhanced strength but simultaneously leads to the degraded impact toughness. The RA formed during lamellarization contributes to the improved impact toughness. Based on the present study, new heat treatment schedules are proposed to balance strength and impact toughness by optimizing the precipitation of CRPs and RA.

  3. Modeling and simulation of cooling-induced residual stresses in heated particulate mixture depositions in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2015-10-01

    One key aspect of many additive manufacturing processes is the deposition of heated mixtures of particulate materials onto surfaces, which then bond and cool, leading to complex microstructures and possible residual stresses. The overall objective of this work is to construct a straightforward computational approach that researchers in the field can easily implement and use as a numerically-efficient simulation and design tool. Specifically because multifield coupling is present, a recursive, staggered, temporally-adaptive, finite difference time domain scheme is developed to resolve the internal microstructural thermal and mechanical fields, accounting for the simultaneous elasto-plasticity and damage. The time step adaptation allows the numerical scheme to iteratively resolve the changing physical fields by refining the time-steps during phases of the process when the system is undergoing large changes on a relatively small time-scale and can also enlarge the time-steps when the processes are relatively slow. The spatial discretization grids are uniform and dense. The deposited microstructure is embedded into spatial discretization. The regular grid allows one to generate a matrix-free iterative formulation which is amenable to rapid computation and minimal memory requirements, making it ideal for laptop computation. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the approach. This formulation is useful for material scientists who seek ways to deposit such materials while simultaneously avoiding inadvertent excessive residual stresses.

  4. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A,; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Adderley, Philip A.; Poelker, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  5. Effects of heat treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen production, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. Heat treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of heat treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. Heat treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen production of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each heat treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen productions. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that heat treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.

  6. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  7. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (˜120 °C) and high (˜800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ˜1 × 10-5 Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ˜2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  8. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  9. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John

    2012-06-15

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  10. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  11. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  12. Bone-bonding properties of Ti metal subjected to acid and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    The effects of surface treatment on the bone-bonding properties of Ti metal were examined by both mechanical detaching test and histological observation after implantation into rabbit tibiae for various periods ranging from 4 to 26 weeks. The bone-bonding ability of Ti metal, which is extremely low as it is abraded, was hardly increased by simple heat treatment at 600 °C or treatment with H(2)SO(4)/HCl mixed acid alone, but was markedly increased by the heat treatment after the acid treatment. Even Ti metal that had been previously subjected to NaOH treatment showed considerably high bone-bonding ability after acid and heat treatments. Such high bonding abilities were attributed to their high apatite-forming ability in the body environment. Their high apatite-forming abilities were attributed to a high positive surface charge, and not to the type of crystalline phase or specific roughness of their surfaces. The present study has demonstrated that acid and subsequent heat treatments are effective for conferring stable fixation properties on Ti metal implants.

  13. Cyclic Deformation Behavior of a Rare-Earth Containing Extruded Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, F. A.; Chen, D. L.; Li, D. J.; Zeng, X. Q.

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating strain-controlled cyclic deformation behavior of a rare-earth (RE) element containing Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) alloy in different states (as-extruded, peak-aged (T5), and solution-treated and peak-aged (T6)). The addition of RE elements led to an effective grain refinement and weak texture in the as-extruded alloy. While heat treatment resulted in a grain growth modestly in the T5 state and significantly in the T6 state, a high density of nano-sized and bamboo-leaf/plate-shaped β' (Mg7(Gd,Y)) precipitates was observed to distribute uniformly in the α-Mg matrix. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, as well as the maximum and minimum peak stresses during cyclic deformation in the T5 and T6 states were significantly higher than those in the as-extruded state. Unlike RE-free extruded Mg alloys, symmetrical hysteresis loops in tension and compression and cyclic stabilization were present in the GW103K alloy in different states. The fatigue life of this alloy in the three conditions, which could be well described by the Coffin-Manson law and Basquin's equation, was equivalent within the experimental scatter and was longer than that of RE-free extruded Mg alloys. This was predominantly attributed to the presence of the relatively weak texture and the suppression of twinning activities stemming from the fine grain sizes and especially RE-containing β' precipitates. Fatigue crack was observed to initiate from the specimen surface in all the three alloy states and the initiation site contained some cleavage-like facets after T6 heat treatment. Crack propagation was characterized mainly by the characteristic fatigue striations.

  14. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan.

    PubMed

    Sarup, P; Sørensen, P; Loeschcke, V

    2014-02-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, i.e. the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. This effect, which depends on the heat shock factor, decreases the log mortality rate weeks after the stress has ceased. To identify candidate genes that mediate this lifespan-prolonging effect late in life, we treated flies with mild heat stress (34 °C for 2 h) 3 times early in life and compared the transcriptomic response in these flies versus non-heat-treated controls 10-51 days after the last heat treatment. We found significant transcriptomic changes in the heat-treated flies. Several hsp70 probe sets were up-regulated 1.7-2-fold in the mildly stressed flies weeks after the last heat treatment (P<0.01). This result was unexpected as the major Drosophila heat shock protein, Hsp70, is reported to return to normal levels of expression shortly after heat stress. We conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life.

  15. Effects of 35 C Heat Treatments on Photosensitive Grand Rapids Lettuce Seed Germination 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1976-01-01

    Grand Rapids lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds were given 35 C heat treatments to increase photodormancy in a subsequent 20 C dark period. Short heat treatments (1-5 hours) induced a significant germination percentage increase of from 16% to over 50% depending on seed lot. With longer heat treatments dark germination percentage was gradually reduced to zero. If given at the end of 35 C, far red or red followed by far red further increased the amount of dark germination. Thermodormancy also delayed red-stimulated germination by 10 hours or more when red was given following a long 35 C treatment. The presence of Pfr was required during this time since far red light remained effective in reversing at least 50% of the red stimulation for up to 16 hours compared to only 4 hours in nonheat-treated seeds. PMID:16659537

  16. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment. Bin 2 1-log treatment 1.5-log treatment 1-log treatment (1) Bin 3 2-log treatment 2.5-log treatment 2-log treatment (2) Bin 4 2.5-log treatment 3-log treatment 2.5-log treatment (3) 1 As determined by the State such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log. 2...

  17. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment. Bin 2 1-log treatment 1.5-log treatment 1-log treatment (1) Bin 3 2-log treatment 2.5-log treatment 2-log treatment (2) Bin 4 2.5-log treatment 3-log treatment 2.5-log treatment (3) 1 As determined by the State such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log. 2...

  18. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment. Bin 2 1-log treatment 1.5-log treatment 1-log treatment (1) Bin 3 2-log treatment 2.5-log treatment 2-log treatment (2) Bin 4 2.5-log treatment 3-log treatment 2.5-log treatment (3) 1 As determined by the State such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log. 2...

  19. 40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment. Bin 2 1-log treatment 1.5-log treatment 1-log treatment (1) Bin 3 2-log treatment 2.5-log treatment 2-log treatment (2) Bin 4 2.5-log treatment 3-log treatment 2.5-log treatment (3) 1 As determined by the State such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log. 2...

  20. 7 CFR 305.24 - Vapor heat treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be sized before treatment. Temperature probes must be placed in the center of the largest fruits.... Temperature probes must be placed in the center of the largest fruits. (2) The temperature of the fruit must... placed in the approximate center of the largest fruits at the seed's surface. (2) The......

  1. Influence of heat treatments on microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of weld alloy 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortial, F.; Corrieu, J. M.; Vernot-Loier, C.

    1995-05-01

    The effects of heat treatments of the industrial type (eight-hour hold times at temperatures between 600 °C and 1000 °C) on the structural, mechanical, and corrosion resistance characteristics of weld alloy 625 have been studied. During the heat treatment, the mean concentration ratios of Nb, Mo, Si, Cr, Ni, and Fe elements between the interdendritic spaces and dendrite cores show little evolution up to 850 °C. Beyond that temperature, this ratio approximates 1, and the composition heterogeneity has practically disappeared at 1000 °C. An eight-hour heat treatment at temperatures between 650 °C and 750 °C results in increased mechanical strength values and reduced ductility and impact strength linked to the precipitation of body-centered tetragonal metastable intermetallic γ″ Ni3Nb phase in the interdendritic spaces. An eight-hour treatment in the temperature range between 750 °C and 950 °C has catastrophic effects on all mechanical characteristics in relation with the precipitation, in the interdendritic spaces, of the stable orthorhombic intermetallic δ Ni3(Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Ti) phase. At 1000 °C, the ductility and impact strength are restored. However, the higher the heat treatment temperature, the weaker the mechanical strength. Heat treatments have no effect on the pitting resistance of weld alloy 625 in sea water. The comparison of the results of this study on weld alloy 625 with those previously obtained on forged metal 625 shows that heat treatments below 650 °C and above 1000 °C are the sole treatments to avoid embrittlement and impairment of the corrosion resistance characteristics of alloy 625.

  2. Nitrification in lake sediment with addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Liu, Juanfeng; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), non-hazardous by-products generated during potable water production, can effectively reduce the lake internal phosphorus (P) loading and improve water quality in lakes. It stands to reason that special attention regarding the beneficial reuse of WTRs should be given not only to the effectiveness of P pollution control, but also to the effects on the migration and transformation of other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen (N)). In this work, based on laboratory enrichment tests, the effects of WTRs addition on nitrification in lake sediment were investigated using batch tests, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis techniques. The results indicated that WTRs addition had minor effects on the morphologies of AOB and NOB; however, the addition slightly enhanced the sediment nitrification potential from 12.8 to 13.2 μg-N g(-1)-dry sample h(-1) and also increased the ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundances, particularly the AOB abundances (P < 0.05), which increased from 1.11 × 10(8) to 1.31 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-dry sample. Moreover, WTRs addition was beneficial to the enrichment of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira multiformis and promoted the emergence of a new Nitrospira cluster, causing the increase in AOB and NOB diversities. Further analysis showed that the variations of nitrification in lake sediment after WTRs addition were primarily due to the decrease of bioavailable P, the introduction of new nitrifiers and the increase of favorable carriers for microorganism attachment in sediments. Overall, these results suggested that WTRs reuse for the control of lake internal P loading would also lead to conditions that are beneficial to nitrification.

  3. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  4. Improving the bond strength between steel rebar and concrete by ozone treatment of rebar and polymer addition to concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Ozone treatment of steel rebar, together with latex addition (20% by weight of cement) to concrete, resulted in a 39% increase in the shear bond strength between rebar and concrete, compared to a 25% increase resulted from either ozone treatment alone or latex addition alone. Ozone treatment and latex addition resulted in similarly small increases in the contact electrical resistivity between rebar and concrete. Methylcellulose addition (0.4% by weight of cement) to concrete gave slightly less bond strength increase than the latex addition, but did not affect the contact resistivity.

  5. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Nanostructural Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, M.; Tyurin, Yu.; Vasilik, N.; Kolisnichenko, O.; Prozorova, M.; Arseenko, M.; Sirota, V.; Pavlenko, I.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructural Al2O3 coatings were formed on a steel substrate surface using a multichamber detonation sprayer. The Al2O3 coatings were characterized by a dense microstructure with porosity below 1% and hardness of 1300 ± 25 HV0.3. The transition layer between the coating and substrate was up to 15 μm thick, containing Fe-Al-type intermetallic compounds (FeAl3, Fe2Al5). Postdeposition heat treatment of the samples at 850 °C for 3 h was carried out in air and argon environments. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microhardness of the Al2O3 coatings was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray phase analysis, and Vickers hardness testing. A positive impact of postcoating heat treatment on the coating microstructure and microhardness was observed. Heat treatment resulted in an increase in the coating hardness from 1300, to 1350 ± 25 HV0.3 and 1600 ± 25 HV0.3 after annealing in air and argon, respectively. Heat treatment in argon led to a more significant increase in the α-Al2O3 phase from 47 to 81%.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on caustic stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, J.K.

    1999-12-01

    Constant elongation rate tests (CERT) were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of alloy 600 (UNS NO6600) in 140 C and 50% caustic solution at {minus}900 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Results showed: (1) Heat treatment at low temperature for a long time (600 C for 260 h) led to a material that was not susceptible to caustic intergranular (IG) cracking. Increase in heat treatment temperature enhanced IG cracking susceptibility. Caustic IGSCC susceptibility was at maximum near the carbon solubility limit. However, when the heat treatment temperature was higher than the carbon solubility limit, a significant decrease in crack growth rate was observed. (2) Grain boundaries acted as a preferential crack path when grain boundary carbon segregation was likely. Thermodynamic considerations suggested that severe caustic IGSCC susceptibility near the carbon solubility limit could be explained in terms of carbon segregation at the grain boundaries. (3) IGSCC in caustic solution did not seem to be caused by chromium depletion. (4) Although formation of semi-continuous IG carbides and IGSCC resistance seemed to exhibit a similar chronological response with heat treatment, it was unlikely that grain boundary IG carbides played a role in caustic IGSCC susceptibility.

  7. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Vacuum Heat Treatment of Nickel-based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Francesco; Warnken, Nils; Gebelin, Jean-Christophe; Reed, Roger C.

    2013-11-01

    Numerical modeling is carried out of the heat transfer effects arising during heat treatment of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys, of the type used for high pressure turbine blades in jet engines. For these components, fine control of the thermal history during processing is needed to avoid incipient melting and to develop the properties needed for service applications. Computational fluid dynamics methods are employed for the analysis. The modeling is used to predict the temporal evolution of the temperature distribution inside the treated component, to calculate heat transfer coefficients, and to analyze the homogeneity of heat transfer. The impact of the boundary conditions is investigated with particular emphasis on the temperature of the heating elements. Its value was derived from an analytical model of the furnace using effective view factors. The predictions of the modeling are tested against measurements made on laboratory-scale apparatus containing features of production-scale equipment.

  9. Heat-treatment studies on thin-film CdS/Cu/x/S solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmurcik, L.; Serway, R. A.

    1982-12-01

    CdS/CuS polycrystalline solar cells were heat treated in different mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen and examined for the resultant I-V curves. Ten cells were studied, six which were heat treated, then kept in storage for one year. Monitoring was also carried out on the short-circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, the fill factor, and the cell efficiency. Several episodes of heat treatment were performed, with measurements carried out after each. It was determined that changes in the copper-sulfide stoichiometry were the cause of changes in the short-circuit current. Monitoring the changes in the short-circuit current during heating in a hydrogen atmosphere permitted optimization of the cell efficiency to within 5% of its theoretical value. The hydrogen-atmosphere heating is noted to increase the CuS layer stoichiometry.

  10. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  11. Heat Exchange through Cutaneous Vasodilation After Atropine Treatment in Two Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    anticholinergic effect of systemic atropine treatment on the eccrine sweat gland is well known and the inhibition of sweat secretion during exercise and heat...anticholinergic, dry heat exchange, sweating , I thermoregulation, vasodilation 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block...local sweating rate (-60%) occurred in both environments in the atropine treated subjects.’ During exercise, FBF was 85% greater at 30C and 95% greater at

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores using various combinations of ultraviolet treatment with addition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Zhang, Yongji; Tan, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by various combinations of UV treatment and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition. The combinations included sequential (UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV) and simultaneous (UV/H2O2) processes. Results showed that B. subtilis spores achieved a certain inactivation effect through UV treatment. However, hardly any inactivation effect by H2O2 alone was observed. H2O2 had a significant synergetic effect when combined with UV treatment, while high irradiance and H2O2 concentration both favored the reaction. When treated with 0.60 mm H2O2 and 113.0 μW/cm(2) UV irradiance for 6 min, the simultaneous UV/H2O2 treatment showed significantly improved disinfection effect (4.13 log) compared to that of UV-H2O2 (3.03 log) and H2O2-UV (2.88 log). The relationship between the inactivation effect and the exposure time followed a typical pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were 0.478, 0.447 and 0.634 min(-1), for the UV-H2O2, H2O2-UV and UV/H2O2 processes, respectively, further confirming the optimal disinfection effect of the UV/H2O2 process. The disinfection could be ascribed to the OH radicals, as verified by the level of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA).

  13. Alpha/Beta Heat Treatment of a Titanium Alloy with a Non-Uniform Microstructure (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Experiments comprising induction heating to a peak temperature of 971 or 982 °C followed by cooling at a rate of 11 or 42 °C/min revealed that the...starting microstructure of equiaxed + remnant lamellar alpha was established. Experiments comprising induction heating to a peak temperature of 971...were met via a series of induction heat treatments and accompanying diffusion analyses using Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti6242Si) as the program

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment on Silicon Carbide Based Joining Materials for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Nozawa, T.; Kotani, M.; Kishimoto, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2001-10-01

    Two general approaches to obtaining silicon carbide-based joint materials were used. The first method relies on reactions between silicon and carbon to form silicon carbide, or to bond silicon carbide powders together. The second method consists of pyrolysing a polycarbosilane polymer to yield an amorphous, covalently bonded material. In order to assess the long-term durability of the joint materials, various heat treatments were performed and the effects on the mechanical properties of the joints were measured. Although the joints derived from the polycarbosilane polymer were not the strongest, the value of strength measured was not affected by heat treatment. On the other hand, the value of the strength of the reaction-based joints was affected by heat treatment, indicating the presence of residual stresses or unreacted material subsequent to processing. Further investigation of reaction-based joining should consist of detailed microscopic studies; however, continued study of joints derived from polymers is also warranted.

  15. Fffect of heat treatment conditions on structure and properties of high-speed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, E. P.; Vlasov, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed steels made by powder and traditional metallurgical technology have been investigated. These steels are used for manufacturing of metalworking tools. Powder high-speed steels have a large safety margin and a high level of mechanical properties. Mechanical properties and the structure of steels S390 MICROCLEAN® and Fe-9%W-4%Mo-8%Co were compared after their hardening heat treatment. The composition of the carbides was determined by x-ray phase analysis. Residual stresses of the finished cutters were determined. It was shown that the mechanical properties of steels have been determined by the phase composition and the degree of carbides dispersion. The dependence of the microstructure and the high-speed steels phase composition on heat treatment conditions was identified. The conclusion about structure control effectiveness in the adjustment of heat treatment conditions of high speed steels was made.

  16. Effects of heat treatment on crystallographic and magnetic properties of magnetic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistini, L.; Benasciutti, R.; Tassi, A.

    1994-05-01

    The keeper and the head of a modern electrovalve for electronic injection can be succesfully realized using AISI 430 ferromagnetic steel. Important improvements in the performance of the device, mainly in terms of its regularity and energy savings, are possible by means of a better comprehension of the origins of the steel's magnetic properties. The magnetic behaviour of the AISI 430 steel upon different heat treatments was investigated, looking for the best compromise between time saving in the heat treatments and the ensuing magnetic properties of the material. In particular, the relationships between the structural effects of the heat treatments and the magnetic behaviour of the samples were studied. Values of the coercive force Hc, residual induction Br, maximum permeability μ max and the approach to saturation values for H and B were determined by mean of a computerized permeameter, based on a Sanford-Bennet closed yoke for differently shaped samples.

  17. Hydrogen Degassing Study During the Heat Treatment of 1.3-GHZ SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Mijoung; Kim, H. J.; Rowe, A.; Wong, M.

    2013-10-02

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities undergo a number of processes as part of its manufacturing procedure in order to optimize their performance. Among these processes is a high temperature hydrogen degas heat treatment used to prevent 'Q' decrease. The heat treatment occurs in the processing sequence after either chemically or mechanically polishing the cavity. This paper summarizes the hydrogen measurements during the heat treatment of a sample of chemically and mechanically polished single-cell and nine-cell 1.3-GHz cavities. The hydrogen measurements are analyzed according the polishing method, the polishing history, the amount of time that the cavity was baked at 800°C, and the temperature ramp rate.

  18. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sonigra, Dhiren E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R. E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in

    2014-04-24

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O−9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−38TiO{sub 2}−39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  19. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonigra, Dhiren; Soman, Swati; Kulkarni, Ajit R.

    2014-04-01

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li2O-9Al2O3-38TiO2-39P2O5 glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi2(PO4)3 from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  20. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  1. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  2. [Neckpain: additional investigations only when there is an indication--treatment is rarely necessary].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, M Rien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe the case of a 44-year-old secretary who developed neck pain. Without first having consulted her general practitioner, she visited a chiropractor who concluded that she had 'irritation of the nerves', which the patient interpreted as a herniation of a cervical disc. She believed an MRI to be necessary. She underwent a total body scan at a commercial facility which revealed degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine and an arachnoid cyst in the brain. We could not reassure this patient; however, unnecessary investigations and treatment in a different patient could be prevented. Additional investigations for neck pain without neurological signs on examination are only necessary for a few patients. Chiropractic may have serious side effects. Confusing information about neck pain appearing on the Internet and in medical journals should be contested with information based on the solid, critical appraisal of studies.

  3. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kesse, Mary L.

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  4. Global DNA methylation variations after short-term heat shock treatment in cultured microspores of Brassica napus cv. Topas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Huang, Qian; Sun, Mengxiang; Zhang, Tianyao; Li, Hao; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Kun; Gao, Guizhen; Li, Feng; Yan, Guixin; Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Yongping; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress can induce the cultured microspores into embryogenesis. In this study, whole genome bisulphite sequencing was employed to study global DNA methylation variations after short-term heat shock (STHS) treatments in cultured microspores of Brassica napus cv. Topas. Our results indicated that treatment on cultured Topas microspores at 32 °C for 6 h triggered DNA hypomethylation, particularly in the CG and CHG contexts. And the total number of T32 (Topas 32 °C for 6 h) vs. T0 (Topas 0 h) differentially methylated region-related genes (DRGs) was approximately two-fold higher than that of T18 (Topas 18 °C for 6 h) vs. T0 DRGs, which suggested that 32 °C might be a more intense external stimulus than 18 °C resulting in more changes in the DNA methylation status of cultured microspores. Additionally, 32 °C treatment for 6 h led to increased CHG differential methylations of transposons (DMTs), which were mainly constituted by overlaps between the hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (hypo-DMRs) and transposon elements (TEs). Further analysis demonstrated that the DRGs and their paralogs exhibited differential methylated/demethylated patterns. To summarize, the present study is the first methylome analysis of cultured microspores in response to STHS and may provide valuable information on the roles of DNA methylation in heat response. PMID:27917903

  5. Detailed near-infrared study of the `water'-related transformations in silcrete upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Lauer, Christoph; Buck, Gerald; Miller, Christopher E.; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2017-01-01

    In archaeology, lithic heat treatment is the process of modifying a rock for stone tool production using fire. Although the earliest known cases of heat treatment come from South Africa and involved silcrete, a microcrystalline pedogenic silica rock, its thermal transformations remain poorly understood. We investigate the `water'-related transformations in silcrete using direct transmission near-infrared spectroscopy. We found that SiOH is noticeably lost between 250 and 450 °C and hydroxyl reacts with H2O, part of which is trapped in the structure of the rocks. This water can only be evaporated through heat-induced fracturing at high temperatures, imposing maximum temperatures for silcrete heat treatment of approximately 500 °C. Between 250 and 450 °C new siloxane bonds are formed according to the reaction 2SiOH → Si-O-Si + H2O, which can be expected to transform the rock's mechanical properties. The tolerance of silcrete for relatively fast ramp rates can be explained by its pore volume and low SiOH content, ensuring good water evaporation. These results shed light on the processes taking place in silcrete during heat treatment and allow for a better understanding of the parameters needed for it.

  6. Effect of heat treatments on biomolecular profile of Sardinian apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ciavatta, M L; Gavagnin, M; Serra, M; Sanna, D; Palma, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; Fadda, A

    2013-01-01

    Postharvest heat treatments (hot water or hot air treatment) may be applied to horticultural crops to control fungal diseases, insect infestation and to reduce chilling injury in cultivars susceptible to low storage temperatures. The present study investigated the influence of hot water (53 degrees C for 60s) and hot air treatment (38 degrees C for 24h) applied to two typical Sardinian apple varieties, cvs. Miali and Caddina, on the composition of the lipophilic extracts of the peel as well as on the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of both peel and pulp. The lipophilic extracts of the peel of the two varieties were almost similar and resulted to be dominated by the presence of triterpenes being ursolic and oleanoic acids the main metabolites in both analysed fruits. The chemical analysis of the extracts obtained from the different heat-treated samples for each variety revealed no significant difference in the relative distribution of triterpene components with respect to untreated control samples. This strongly suggested that heat treatment does not affect the composition of terpene metabolite profile of the fruit peel. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of the peel and the pulp of heat treated was significantly different from that of control In particular, on Caddina variety the antioxidant activity levels of the peel were consistently higher than in the pulp and were affected by storage conditions. Differently, on Miali variety the antioxidant activity of heat-treated samples was higher than control sample in both peel and pulp.

  7. Influence of heat treatments on microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of weld alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Cortial, F.; Corrieu, J.M.; Vernot-Loier, C.

    1995-05-01

    The effects of heat treatments of the industrial type on the structural, mechanical, and corrosion resistance characteristics of weld alloy 625 have been studied. During the heat treatment, the mean concentration ratios of Nb, Mo, Si, Cr, Ni, and Fe elements between the interdendritic spaces and dendrite cores show little evolution up to 850 C. Beyond that temperature, this ratio approximates 1, and the composition heterogeneity has practically disappeared at 1,000 C. An eight-hour heat treatment at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C results in increased mechanical strength values and reduced ductility and impact strength linked to the precipitation of body-centered tetragonal metastable intermetallic {gamma}{double_prime} Ni{sub 3}Nb phase in the interdendritic spaces. An eight-hour treatment in the temperature range between 750 C and 950 C has catastrophic effects on all mechanical characteristics in relation with the precipitation, in the interdendritic spaces, of the stable orthorhombic intermetallic {delta} Ni{sub 3}(Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Ti) phase. At 1,000 C, the ductility and impact strength are restored. However, the higher the beat treatment temperature, the weaker the mechanical strength. Heat treatments have no effect on the pitting resistance of weld alloy 625 in sea water. The comparison of the results of this study on weld alloy 625 with those previously obtained on forged metal 625 shows that heat treatments below 650 C and above 1,000 C are the sole treatments to avoid embrittlement and impairment of the corrosion resistance characteristics of alloy 625.

  8. Pilot scale cooling tower fouled fill treatment: AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.; Philpot, E.F.; Eastis, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestor board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significant reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been built to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. The success of each treatment program was determined by its ability to reduce fill pack weight (i.e., reduce fouling).

  9. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youli; Bian, Feilong; Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Qian

    2014-09-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2 · K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  10. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Spheroidized 1045 Steel by Induction Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minwook; Shin, Jung-Ho; Choi, Young; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2016-04-01

    The effects of induction heat treatment on the formation of carbide particles and mechanical properties of spheroidized 1045 steel were investigated by means of microstructural analysis and tensile testing. The induction spheroidization accelerated the formation of spherical cementite particles and effectively softened the steel. The volume fraction of cementite was found to be a key factor that affected the mechanical properties of spheroidized steels. Further tests showed that sequential spheroidization by induction and furnace heat treatments enhanced elongation within a short spheroidization time, resulting in better mechanical properties. This was due to the higher volume fraction of spherical cementite particles that had less diffusion time for particle coarsening.

  11. Effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Yan, G.; Du, S. J.; Xi, W.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.

    2003-04-01

    The density, porosity, and microstructures of MgB 2 samples are very important factors for transition critical current density. The effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductors has been investigated. The open porosity increases with increasing heat-treatment temperatures, but close porosity decreases. The calculated theory densities from the lattice parameters of the measured samples are 2.6-2.63 g/cm 3. The average measured total porosity (including open and close porosity) is about 50%.

  12. The effect of post-heat treatment on the ion dissolution behavior of nanotubular titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saji, Viswanathan S.; Choe, Han Cheol

    2011-04-01

    Recently, nanoscale tubular oxide layers on titanium alloys have attracted considerable research interest due to their potential application in various fields such as implant engineering, solar energy conversion, etc. In the present study, we have investigated the ion dissolution behavior of titanium alloys coated with a layer of nanotubular oxide in Ringer's solution as a function of post-heat treatment temperature. The results of the study showed that post-heat treatment had significant influence on the ion dissolution behavior of nanotubular titanium alloys.

  13. Investigating the effect of heat treatment on hydrogen permeation behavior of API X-70 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirband, Zeynab; Shishesaz, Mohammad Reza; Ashrafi, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Pipeline steels absorb different amounts of hydrogen during transportation of sour oil and gas. Since hydrogen-related damages such as hydrogen-induced cracking are strongly affected by hydrogen permeation behavior of steels, the purpose of this study determined to investigate hydrogen permeation behavior in API X-70 pipeline steel using electrochemical permeation method. The effect of heat treatment was also considered. It was found that hydrogen diffusivity increased by annealing the X-70 and it was decreased by normalizing. The condition was reverse for hydrogen apparent solubility. Finally, it was concluded that change in hydrogen diffusivity can be attributed to changes in grain size due to heat treatment.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of DLC Deposited by FIB-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Naomichi; Kogo, Yasuo; Yasuno, Takuya; Taniguchi, Jun; Miyamoto, Iwao

    The influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of DLC deposited by FIB-CVD was examined. To evaluate the mechanical properties, Young’s modulus and Vickers hardness were measured by the nano indentation tester. For the characterization of DLC structure, Raman scattering was used. The microstructures of samples were characterized by HRTEM equipped with EELS. From results of the indentation experiments, it was found that Young’s modulus and Vickers hardness decreased with increasing heat treatment temperature. Analysis of Raman and EELS spectra indicated that the decrease of Young’s modulus and hardness was caused by the decrease of sp3 fraction.

  15. Identification of heat treatments for better formability in an aluminum-lithium alloy sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairwa, M. L.; Desai, Sharvari G.; Date, P. P.

    2005-10-01

    Research in the weight of an automobile is a continuous process among auto manufacturers. The “body in white” (BIW, i.e., the body of the car) deserves attention, being a major contributor to the weight of the vehicle. By virtue of a high strength to weight ratio (density smaller than aluminum) and a higher Young’s modulus than aluminum, aluminum-lithium alloy sheet appears to hold promise as an autobody material. Because auto components are required in large numbers and are formed at room temperature, formability under these conditions becomes significant. Aluminum-lithium alloys acquire, because of aging over a short period of time, a good amount of strength and hence dent resistance. In principle, they can be given, through suitable heat treatments, a high formability as well as dent resistance, i.e., an ideal combination of properties. To this end, tensile properties have been determined for a number of heat treatments comprising three different solutionizing temperatures and for three aging times at each of the three aging temperatures. Considerable influence of heat treatment was observed on the mechanical properties (which in turn characterize both formability and dent resistance), such as the strain hardening exponent, average normal anisotropy, yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and percentage elongation to failure. For each property, the best three heat treatments leading to a high formability were identified. Consequently, heat treatments that imparted the greatest formability for processes such as deep drawing and stretch forming have been identified. The investigations show that the best heat treatment for one property may not be the best for another property, calling for a compromise to obtain the most practicable heat treatment schedule. Results shed light on not only the biaxial formability but also springback behavior that is important in the BIW components. Further, the properties obtained from the heat treatment giving good formability

  16. Effect of PAC addition on immersed ultrafiltration for the treatment of algal-rich water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Nan, Jun; Gao, ShanShan; Liang, Heng; Wang, Meilian; Li, Guibai

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the treatment of algal-rich water by immersed ultrafiltration (UF), in terms of permeate quality and membrane fouling. Experiments were performed with a hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane at a laboratory scale, 20-25°C and 10 L/(m(2) h) constant permeate flux. UF could achieve an absolute removal of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, but a poor removal of algogenic organic matter (AOM) released into water, contaminants responsible for severe membrane fouling. The addition of 4 g/L PAC to the immersed UF reactor significantly alleviated the development of trans-membrane pressure and enhanced the removal of dissovled organic carbon (by 10.9±1.7%), UV(254) (by 27.1±1.7%), and microcystins (expressed as MC-LR(eq), by 40.8±4.2%). However, PAC had little effect on the rejection of hydrophilic high molecular weight AOM such as carbohydrates and proteins. It was also identified that PAC reduced the concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins in the reactor due to decreased light intensity, as well as the MC-LR(eq) concentration by PAC adsorption.

  17. Efficacy of additional treatment with azathioprine in a patient with prednisolone-dependent gastric sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Masaki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yokota, Yoshihiro; Ban, Hiromitsu; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Kushima, Ryoji; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Gastric sarcoidosis with noncaseating granuloma is rare. Although corticosteroid produces a dramatic clinical response, it is unknown whether azathioprine show efficacy in prednisolone-dependent cases. Here, we report a case of gastric sarcoidosis in a 25-year-old man with severe epigastlargia. Gastroendoscopy revealed multiple map-like ulcerations. Histological examination showed multiple noncaseating granulomatous lesions in gastric mucosa, which were incompatible with diagnoses of Crohn’s disease or tuberculosis. He was started on prednisolone at 30 mg/d, and his symptoms improved within 7-d. The prednisolone was gradually tapered by 5 mg every 2-wk, but oral azathioprine at 50 mg was added after symptoms recurred at tapered dose of 10 mg. Endoscopy 4-wk later showed healing ulcers, and, lymphocytic infiltration was absent. The efficacy of additional azathioprine in gastric sarcoidosis is not well defined. Here, we report a case of prednisolone-dependent gastric sarcoidosis that improved after additional azathioprine, and also review the literature concerning the treatment, especially for prednisolone-dependent cases. PMID:28058029

  18. The oxidation behavior of SiC sintered with Al-B-C and improved oxidation resistance via heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Sixta, Mark

    1997-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of high strength and high toughness SiC, sintered with Al, B, and C (ABC-SiC), was examined. Kinetic data were acquired and the parabolic rate constant for oxidation was determined and compared with literature data on various SiC materials. The role of secondary phases on the oxide morphology was explored. ABC-SiC was compared to commercially available SiC, Hexoloy, and SiC sintered with 10% yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). Two-step sintering (pre-coarsening) was employed with holds for 48 hours at 600-1,600°C, prior to the typical hot-pressing conditions of 1,900°C for 1 hour, to change the chemistry and reduce the number of bubbles in the silica scale. The effects on the oxide thickness and integrity was examined as a function of the precoarsening heat treatment temperature. Additionally, the hot-pressed ABC-SiC was subjected to heat treatments (anneals) at 1,800°C for 1 hour in nitrogen, Ar, and vacuum environments, and the effects on subsequent oxidation were evaluated. The Ar and vacuum heat treatments dramatically improved the oxidation resistance of ABC-SiC. Finally, reoxidation experiments were performed to try to alter the surface chemistry of the SiC to improve the oxidation resistance. The four-point bend strengths and two-parameter Weibull plots of the most successful heat treatments were compared with the standard ABC-SiC to ensure that significant degradation did not result from altering the processing of the material.

  19. Biochar Addition to Stormwater Treatment Media for Enhanced Removal of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Jin, J.; Tian, J.; Chiu, P.; Guo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater management systems, such as bioretention facilities, require substantial land area and are often ineffective in removing nitrogen. This project seeks to improve nitrogen removal in bioretention media by modifying the hydraulic and treatment characteristics of the infiltration medium with biochar addition. A commercial wood biochar pyrolyzed from Southern Yellow Pine at 500°C was used. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that biochar addition to a typical bioretention medium (soil-mix: 4% saw dust, 88% sand, 8% clay) increased ammonium sorption at typical stormwater concentrations (2 mg/L) by a factor of 6, total porosity by 16.6%, and water retention at most matric potentials. The effect of the biochar-amended medium on nitrate removal was evaluated in pilot-scale experiments. Side-by-side experimental cells (91 cm dia., 1.2 m deep) were constructed to treat stormwater runoff from a parking lot. The control cell contained 100% soil mix while the biochar cell contained 4% biochar and 96% soil-mix by mass. Treatment media were 76.2 cm in depth and overlain by 5.1 cm of wood mulch in both cells, with a water table maintained at the bottom of the treatment zones. Cells were instrumented with TDR moisture sensors, pressure transducers, and redox and temperature sensors. Two pilot-scale experiments were conducted that included a bromide tracer and nitrate with a hydraulic loading of 5.5cm/h for 24 h in early spring and 36 h in summer. Effluent was continuously sampled for nitrogen compounds during these tests. Tracer tests and TDR measurements showed that biochar increased the average volumetric water content of the vadose zone by 14.7% and the mean residence time by 12.6%. For the spring field test at 14°C, nitrate in the control cell effluent increased by 6.1% but decreased by 43.5% for the biochar cell. For the summer field test at 22°C, 30.6% and 84.7% of influent nitrate was removed in the control and biochar cells, respectively. In the summer

  20. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... to immediately add to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual a treatment schedule for...: Effective on March 6, 2013, we are affirming the addition to the Plant Protection and Quarantine...

  1. Effect of heat treatment duration on tribological behavior of electroless Ni-(high)P coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Das, S. K.; Sahoo, P.

    2016-09-01

    Electroless nickel coating occurs through an autocatalytic chemical reaction and without the aid of electricity. From tribological perspective, it is recommended due to its high hardness, wear resistance, lubricity and corrosion resistance properties. In this paper electroless Ni-P coatings with high phosphorous weight percentages are developed on mild steel (AISI 1040) substrates. The coatings are subjected to heat treatment at 300°C and 500°C for time durations up to 4 hours. The effect of heat treatment duration on the hardness as well as tribological properties is discussed in detail. Hardness is measured in a micro hardness tester while the tribological tests are carried out on a pin-on-disc tribotester. Wear is reported in the form of wear rates of the sample subjected to the test. As expected, heat treatment of electroless Ni-P coating results in enhancement in its hardness which in turn increases its wear resistance. The present study also finds that duration of heat treatment has quite an effect on the properties of the coating. Increase in heat treatment time in general results in increase in the hardness of the coating. Coefficient of friction is also found to be lesser for the samples heat treated for longer durations (4 hour). However, in case of wear, similar trend is not observed. Instead samples heat treated for 2 to 3 hour display better wear resistance compared to the same heat treated for 4 hour duration. The microstructure of the coating is also carried out to ensure about its proper development. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the coating is found to possess the conventional nodular structure while energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) shows that the phosphorous content in the coating to be greater than 9%. This means that the current coating belongs to the high phosphorous category. From X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), it is found that coating is amorphous in as-deposited condition but transforms into a crystalline structure with

  2. Effect of heat treatment on structure, surface composition, infrared emission and surface electrical properties of tourmaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dengliang; Liu, Shuxin

    2017-02-01

    Crystal structure, surface composition, infrared emission properties and surface electrical properties of tourmaline from Guangxi of China, when subjected to heat treatment in air atmosphere had been studied by some methods, including X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Zeta potential analyzer, etc. Experimental results show that the unit cell of tourmaline would shrink during heat treatment because Fe2+ were oxidized. Moreover, the Fe3+/Fetotal inside tourmaline can be raised after treatment. Infrared normal total emissivity of tourmaline reaches 0.87, and infrared radiation energy density is 4.56 × 102W/m2. It can maintain excellent infrared emission properties at high temperature. Simultaneously, tourmaline presents negative Zeta potential in the aqueous solution, and its Zeta potential reaches ‑18.04 mV. Zeta potential of tourmaline was increased to ‑24.83 mV after heat treatment at 400∘C, and decrease to ‑11.78 mV after heat treatment at 600∘C. These findings may provide reference data for tourmaline’s application in the field of functional materials.

  3. Randomized 5-treatment crossover study to assess the effects of external heat on serum fentanyl concentrations during treatment with transdermal fentanyl systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kenneth T; Sathyan, Gayatri; Richarz, Ute; Natarajan, Jaya; Vandenbossche, Joris

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, open-label, 5-treatment, 5-sequence crossover study was designed to evaluate the effects of a heating pad on serum fentanyl concentrations with reservoir and matrix transdermal fentanyl systems. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 5 treatment sequences, receiving 5 fentanyl treatments (1 per period) for 36 hours: 25 µg/h reservoir without heat, 25 µg/h reservoir with heat, 25 µg/h matrix without heat, 25 µg/h matrix with heat, and a 50 µg/h reservoir without heat. The 25 µg/h systems with heat had a heating pad applied from 0 to 10 and 26 to 36 hours post application. Washout periods between treatments were 5 to 14 days. Naltrexone was given to block the opioid effects of fentanyl. Study results indicate that external heat had a similar effect on both matrix and reservoir systems, with heat applied during the first 10 hours of treatment increasing fentanyl exposure by approximately 61% to 81% at 10 hours (observed serum concentration at 10 hours) and overall exposure (area under the curve from 0 to 10 hours) by approximately 120% to 184%, but had minimal effect from 26 to 36 hours. The increased exposure observed with heat in both 25 µg/h systems, between 0 and 10 hours, was higher than that obtained with the 50 µg/h reservoir system applied without heat.

  4. Effect of grinding and heat treatment on the mechanical behavior of zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gabriela Freitas; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Amaral, Marina; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of grinding on roughness, flexural strength, and reliability of a zirconia ceramic before and after heat treatment. Seven groups were tested (n = 15): a control group (labeled CG, untreated), and six groups of samples ground with diamond discs, simulating diamond burs, with grits of 200 µm (G80); 160 µm (G120), and 25 µm (G600), either untreated or heat-treated at 1200°C for 2 h (labeled A). Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal discs were manufactured, ground, and submitted to roughness and crystalline phase analyses before the biaxial flexural strength test. There was no correlation between roughness (Ra and Rz) and flexural strength. The reliability of the materials was not affected by grinding or heat treatment, but the characteristic strength was higher after abrasion with diamond discs, irrespective of grit size. The X-ray diffraction data showed that grinding leads to a higher monoclinic (m) phase content, whereas heat treatment produces reverse transformation, leading to a fraction of m-phase in ground samples similar to that observed in the control group. However, after heat treatment, only the G80A samples presented strength similar to that of the control group, while the other groups showed higher strength values. When zirconia pieces must be adjusted for clinical use, a smoother surface can be obtained by employing finer-grit diamond burs. Moreover, when the amount of monoclinic phase is related to the degradation of zirconia, the laboratory heat treatment of ground pieces is indicated for the reverse transformation of zirconia crystals.

  5. 42 CFR 412.107 - Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999. 412.107 Section 412.107 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.107 Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999. (a) Additional payment update. A hospital that meets the criteria set forth in...

  6. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min.

  7. Improvement in the mechanical properties of PTFE bonded NdFeB magnets by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattam, C.; Williams, A. J.; Hay, J. N.; Harris, I. R.; Tedstone, S. F.; Ashraf, M. M.

    1996-05-01

    Rotary forging has been used to produce high density bonded magnets using NdFeB based melt spun ribbons (MQP-D). The binder used was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A post-forging heat treatment at temperatures above the crystalline melting point of PTFE (˜ 340°C) has been seen to improve substantially the mechanical integrity of the compacts. Heat treatments that were undertaken in air resulted in oxidation of the magnets, but the extent of oxidation was reduced with increasing PTFE content, characterised by a greater retention of magnetic properties. This behaviour suggests that to some extent. PTFE is effective as a barrier to oxidation. By heat treating in a vacuum, an improvement of over 100% in the mechanical strength of the compacts could be obtained with little loss in the magnetic properties. The fracture surfaces of both as-forged and heat treated compacts have been examined using scanning electron microscopy and it appears that bonding between the melt spun ribbon (MQI) and PTFE occurs during heat treatment.

  8. Heat Treatment Effect on Fracture Toughness of F82H Irradiated in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hirose, Takanori; Odette, G.R.; Okubo, N.; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Sawai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation hardening and fracture toughness of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H after irradiation were investigated with a focus on changing the fracture toughness transition temperature as a result of several heat treatments. The specimens were standard F82H-IEA (IEA), F82H-IEA with several heat treatments (Mod1 series) and a heat of F82H (Mod3) containing 0.1 % tantalum. The specimens were irradiated up to 20 dpa at 300oC in the High Flux Isotope Reactor under a collaborative research program between JAEA/US-DOE. The results of hardness tests showed that irradiation hardening of IEA was comparable with that of Mod3. However, the fracture toughness-transition temperature of Mod3 was lower than that of IEA. The transition temperature of Mod1 was also lower than that of the IEA heat. These results suggest that optimization of specifications on the heat treatment condition and modification of the minor alloying elements seem to be effective to reduce the fracture toughness-transition temperature after irradiation.

  9. Heat treatment effect on fracture toughness of F82H irradiated in HFIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, N.; Sokolov, M. A.; Tanigawa, H.; Hirose, T.; Jitsukawa, S.; Sawai, T.; Odette, G. R.; Stoller, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Irradiation hardening and fracture toughness of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H after irradiation were investigated with a focus on changing the fracture toughness transition temperature as a result of several heat treatments. The specimens were standard F82H-IEA (IEA), F82H-IEA with several heat treatments (Mod1 series) and a heat of F82H (Mod3) containing 0.1% tantalum. The specimens were irradiated up to 20 dpa at 300 °C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor under a collaborative research program between JAEA/US-DOE. The results of hardness tests showed that irradiation hardening of IEA was comparable with that of Mod3. However, the fracture toughness-transition temperature of Mod3 was lower than that of IEA. The transition temperature of Mod1 was also lower than that of the IEA heat. These results suggest that optimization of specifications on the heat treatment condition and modification of the minor alloying elements seem to be effective to reduce the fracture toughness-transition temperature after irradiation.

  10. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  11. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  12. Effects of post-deposition heat treatment on the optical characteristics of ZnTe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Prepelita, P.; Rusu, G. I.; Pirghie, C.

    2007-04-23

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films (d=0.15 {mu}m - 2.40 {mu}m) were deposited by quasi-closed volume technique under vacuum. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films are polycrystalline and have a zinc blende structure. After a heat treatment, a significant increase of peak intensities, corresponding to (220) plane take place. The heat treatment determines a greater dispersion of crystallite height as compare to the not treated once. After heat treatment the transmission coefficient strongly decreases. The values of optical bandgap ranged between 1.95 eV and 2.40 eV, due to heat treatment.

  13. Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration heat to process the whole digestate production.

    PubMed

    Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of heat, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on heat exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration heat can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate production in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The heat requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. Heat power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate production. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the heat coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent heat of distillation vapor.

  14. The Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on an Advanced Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Kantzos, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    Five heat treat options for an advanced nickel-base disk alloy, LSHR, have been investigated. These included two conventional solution heat treat cycles, subsolvus/oil quench and supersolvus/fan cool, which yield fine grain and coarse grain microstructure disks respectively, as well as three advanced dual microstructure heat treat (DMHT) options. The DMHT options produce disks with a fine grain bore and a coarse grain rim. Based on an overall evaluation of the mechanical property data, it was evident that the three DMHT options achieved a desirable balance of properties in comparison to the conventional solution heat treatments for the LSHR alloy. However, one of the DMHT options, SUB/DMHT, produced the best set of properties, largely based on dwell crack growth data. Further evaluation of the SUB/DMHT option in spin pit experiments on a generic disk shape demonstrated the advantages and reliability of a dual grain structure at the component level.

  15. Fluxless Brazing and Heat Treatment of a Plate-Fin Sandwich Actively Cooled Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    The processes and techniques used to fabricate plate-fin sandwich actively cooled panels are presented. The materials were 6061 aluminum alloy and brazing sheet having clad brazing alloy. The panels consisted of small scale specimens, fatigue specimens, and a large 0.61 m by 1.22 m test panel. All panels were fluxless brazed in retorts in heated platen presses while exerting external pressure to assure intimate contact of details. Distortion and damage normally associated with that heat treatment were minimized by heat treating without fixtures and solution quenching in an organic polymer solution. The test panel is the largest fluxless brazed and heat treated panel of its configuration known to exist.

  16. On post-weld heat treatment cracking in tig welded superalloy ATI 718Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asala, G.; Ojo, O. A.

    The susceptibility of heat affected zone (HAZ) to cracking in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded Allvac 718Plus superalloy during post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was studied. Contrary to the previously reported case of low heat input electron beam welded Allvac 718Plus, where HAZ cracking occurred during PWHT, the TIG welded alloy is crack-free after PWHT, notwithstanding the presence of similar micro-constituents that caused cracking in the low input weld. Accordingly, the formation of brittle HAZ intergranular micro-constituents may not be a sufficient factor to determine cracking propensity, the extent of heat input during welding may be another major factor that influences HAZ cracking during PWHT of the aerospace superalloy Allvac 718Plus.

  17. Investigation of laser heating effect of metallic nanoparticles on cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, G. S.; Liu, X. M.; Chen, H. J.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, X. D.; Yao, Y.; Qi, L. M.; Chen, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be applied for hyperthermia therapy of cancer treatment to enhance the efficacy because of their high absorption rate. The absorption of laser energy by metallic nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the concentration, shape, material of nanoparticles and the wavelength of the laser. However, there is no systematic investigation on the heating effect involving different material, concentration and laser wavelength. In this paper, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and sliver nanowires (AgNWs) with different concentrations are heated by 450nm and 532nm wavelength laser to investigate the heating effect. The result shows that the temperature distribution of heated metallic nanoparticles is non-uniform.

  18. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  19. Thermal treatments of foods: a predictive general-purpose code for heat and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Anna Angela

    2005-05-01

    Thermal treatments of foods required accurate processing protocols. In this context, mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer can play an important role in the control and definition of the process parameters as well as to design processing systems. In this work a code able to simulate heat and mass transfer phenomena within solid bodies has been developed. The code has been written with the ability of describing different geometries and it can account for any kind of different initial/boundary conditions. Transport phenomena within multi-layer bodies can be described, and time/position dependent material parameters can be implemented. Finally, the code has been validated by comparison with a problem for which the analytical solution is known, and by comparison with a differential scanning calorimetry signal that described the heating treatment of a raw potato (Solanum tuberosum).

  20. YIELD STRENGTH PREDICTION FOR RAPID AGE-HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    A constitutive model has been developed to predict the yield strength aging curves for aluminum casting alloys during non-isothermal age-hardening processes. The model provides the specific relationship between the process variables and yield strength. Several aging heat treatment scenarios have been investigated using the proposed model, including two-step aging recipes. Two-step aging heat treatments involve a low temperature regime to promote nucleation of secondary phases and a second step at higher temperature for the growth of the secondary phases. The predicted results show that yield strength of approximately 300MPa might be obtained in shorter aging time, of approximately 30 minutes. Thus, better mechanical properties can be obtained by optimizing the time-temperature schedules for the precipitation hardening process of heat treatable aluminum alloys.

  1. Microstructure Evolution during Supersolvus Heat Treatment of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; McClary, K. E.; Rollett, A. D.; Roberts, C. G.; Payton, E. J.; Zhang, F.; Gabb, T. P.

    2012-05-01

    Microstructure evolution during the supersolvus heat treatment of a powder-metallurgy, low-solvus, high-refractory (LSHR) superalloy was established. For this purpose, three lots of LSHR with varying initial carbon/boron composition and thermomechanical history were subjected to a series of short-time (induction) and long-time (furnace) heat treatments followed by scanning electron microscopy/electron backscatter diffraction and quantitative metallography. The size of the (pinned) gamma grains exhibited a limited dependence on heating rate and soak time at peak temperature, and it was generally smaller than the predictions based on the classic Smith-Zener model. The differences were rationalized in terms of stereological and pinning-particle location effects. Observations of limited coarsening of the carbide/boride pinning particles were interpreted in the context of prior experimental observations and a modified Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner model applied previously for the coarsening of compound phases in steels.

  2. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit juices by combined treatments of citrus fruit essential oils and heat.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Somolinos, María; Ouazzou, Abdenour Ait; Condón, Santiago; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2012-09-17

    This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 μL/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 μL/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 μL/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 μL/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices.

  4. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Mazumder, Baishakhi; Yu, Xinghua; Edmondson, Philip D.; ...

    2015-12-08

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygenenriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the sizemore » of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.« less

  5. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Baishakhi; Yu, Xinghua; Edmondson, Philip D.; Parish, Chad M.; Miller, Michael K; Meyer, H. M.; Feng, Zhili

    2015-12-08

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygenenriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the size of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.

  6. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, B.; Yu, X.; Edmondson, P. D.; Parish, C. M.; Miller, M. K.; Meyer, H. M.; Feng, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygen-enriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the size of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.

  7. Influence of homogenization and artificial aging heat treatments on corrosion behavior of Mg-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beldjoudi, T.; Fiaud, C.; Robbiola, L. . Lab. d'Etudes de la Corrosion)

    1993-09-01

    The influence of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of magnesium-aluminum (Mg-9Al) alloys was investigated by studying the electrochemical properties of Mg-9Al in the solution-treated (T4) and artificially aged (T6) conditions. The alloys' properties were compared to those of pure Mg, the intermetallic Mg[sub 17]Al[sub 12] phase, and different Mg-Al-based alloys (Mg-3Al, AZ91). The Mg-9Al alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in the T6 condition than in the T4 condition because of the intermetallic Mg[sub 17]Al[sub 12] precipitates present n the T6 alloy. The mechanism responsible for this behavior was attributed to a more protective porous film on the T6 matrix alloy than on the T4 alloy. Addition of zinc did not modify these results. Localized corrosion testing showed the Mg-Al alloys were attacked preferentially in relation to magnesium silicide (Mg[sub 2]Si) precipitates which were characterized clearly using metallurgical examinations.

  8. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (< $100/DWS); even in remote settings with a 2-3 person crew, hydraulic post pounder, very cheap materials, and avoiding impacts associated with operating heavy equipment. This allows us to install lots of the structures at high density (every 5-15 channel widths) over an entire stream system. We call this overall approach System Wide Woody Addition Treatment (SWWAT). In the long term, we hypothesize that the SWWAT will provide an intial input LWD that will become a part of study creeks which are more

  9. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. 590.548 Section 590.548 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  10. Survey of research and applications of laser heat treatment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hongbin; Su, Baorong

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports the fruits of the research on fundamental theory, application basis and application of laser heat treatment since 1979 in China. Also the technical development and spreading of laser heat treatment is reported. Over 20 academic exchange activities home or abroad were organized by our country. In China, there are near 1,000 units and about 5,000 intermediate and senior scientists and engineers engaged in the research, development and production of laser heat treatment. More than 3,000 academia articles have been published home and abroad. About 2,000 Bachelors, Masters and Doctors whose major is laser application have been cultivated. In domestic plants, near 1,000 production lines of laser heat treatment on the cylinder bodies and covers of automobiles and tractors have been set up, which were deeply welcomed by the automobile makers and repairmen. There are other production lines running in some factories and making good effects, such as laser glazing production line for steel ring, laser quenching production line for master reed in elastic shaft coupling and laser quenching production line for big gears, etc.

  11. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and... of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  12. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and... of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  13. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and... of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  14. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and... of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  15. 46 CFR 52.05-15 - Heat treatment (modifies PW-10).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding § 52.05-15 Heat treatment (modifies PW-10). (a) Vessels and... of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  16. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo; E-mail: marcelo.martins@sulzer.com; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-09-15

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure.

  17. High pressure and heat treatments effects on pectic substances in guava juice.

    PubMed

    Yen, G C; Lin, H T

    1998-01-01

    Effects of high pressure treatment on changes in pectic substances in guava juice were investigated and compared with those of heat treated samples. The viscosity and turbidity of guava juice pressurized at 6000 atm and 25 degrees C for 10 min increased slightly, whereas the viscosity of juice heated at 95 degrees C for 5 min decreased from 362 to 285 cps while turbidity increased from 0.87 to 1.15 (OD 600 nm). There were no apparent changes in water soluble, oxalate soluble and alkali soluble pectins in the pressurized juice. However, heat treated juice exhibited a decrease in its water and alkali soluble pectins and a slight increase in oxalate soluble pectin. The DEAE-cellulose profiles of pectic substances in guava juice were apparently unchanged after high pressure treatment while they were markedly changed by heat treatment, due to coagulation or degradation. During thermal processing, the degradation of pectin in guava juice caused a decrease in viscosity while the coagulation of pectin resulted in an increase in turbidity and cloud content. High pressure treatment showed no marked changes in pectic substances and cloud content in guava juice and maintained its natural viscous properties.

  18. Marketing research for EE G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shackson, R.H.

    1991-10-09

    This report summarizes research conducted by ITI to evaluate the commercialization potential of EG G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials. The remainder of the report describes the nature of demand for maraging steel, extent of demand, competitors, environmental trends, technology life cycle, industry structure, and conclusion. (JL)

  19. Additive effects of exogenous IL-12 supplementation and antibiotic treatment in infection prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brandon M; Lindsey, Brock A; Clovis, Nina B; Smith, E Suzanne; Hobbs, Gerald R; Hubbard, David F; Emery, Sanford E; Barnett, John B; Li, Bingyun

    2012-02-01

    The increasing clinical incidence and host risk of open fracture-associated infections, as well as the reduced effectiveness of conventional antibiotics to treat such infections, have driven the development of new therapies for the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. We investigated percutaneous supplementation of a natural cytokine (i.e., interleukin 12p70 or IL-12) at an open fracture site to reduce open fracture-associated infections. We also determined the efficacy of the combination therapy of IL-12 and conventional antibiotic therapy in the prophylaxis of open fracture-associated infections. An open femur fracture infection model was produced by direct inoculation of a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus after creating a femur fracture using rats. The animals were assigned to one of four groups: no drug administration, percutaneous supplementation of IL-12, intraperitoneal administration of the antibiotic ampicillin, or percutaneous IL-12 in combination with intraperitoneal ampicillin. Animals were euthanized at postoperative days 6, 10, 14, and 21. Percutaneous IL-12 led to a reduction in infection at postoperative days 6 and 10. For the first time, exogenous IL-12 was found to have additive effects in the prevention of infection when combined with conventional treatment (i.e., antibiotic therapy). Combination therapy of ampicillin and IL-12 substantially reduced the infection rate at postoperative day 6 and also decreased the time needed for complete inhibition of infection. Therefore, exogenous IL-12, providing a mechanism of protection independent of antibiotic resistance, complements the routine use of antibiotics.

  20. Durable polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films with a hierarchical structure by sol-gel and heat treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenlin; Fang, Shuying; Wang, Chaosheng; Wang, Huaping; Ji, Chengchang

    2016-12-01

    For a surface to be superhydrophobic a combination of surface roughness and low surface energy is required. In this study, polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a sol-gel and heat treatment process followed by coating with a nanosilica (SiO2) sol and organosiloxane 1, 1, 1, 3, 5, 5, 5-heptamethyl-3-[2-(trimethoxysilyl)ethyl]-trisiloxane (β-HPEOs). The nano-structure was superimposed using self-assembled, surface-modified silica nanoparticles, forming two-dimensional hierarchical structures. The water contact angle (WCA) of polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surface was 143.7 ± 0.6°, which was further increased to 156.7 ± 1.1° with water angle hysteresis of 2.5 ± 0.6° by superimposing nanoparticles using a heat treatment process. An analytical characterization of the surface revealed that the nano-silica and polyorganosiloxane formed a micro/nano structure on the films and the wetting behaviour of the films changed from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The WCA of these films were 143.7 ± 0.6° and at heat treatment temperatures of less than 400 °C, the WCA increased from 144.5 ± 0.7° to 156.7 ± 1.1°. The prepared superhydrophobic films were stable even after heat treatment at 430 °C for 30 min and their superhydrophobicity was durable for more than 120 days. The effects of heat treatment process on the surface chemistry structure, wettability and morphology of the polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the stability of the chemical structure was required to yield a thermally-stable superhydrophobic surface.

  1. Heat Treatment of AZ91D Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructural Evolution and Dynamic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, Dung D.; Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Cox, James; Gupta, Nikhil; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are attracting great interest from the automotive industry because of the potential for weight reduction. An AZ91D cast alloy was studied in the current work to understand the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic compressive properties. The selected heat treatments include solution treatment (T4) and solution treatment followed by aging (T6). The as-cast alloy microstructure consists of intermetallic β-phase (Mg17Al12) precipitates surrounded by α + β lamellar eutectic in α-Mg solid solution. The AZ91D-T4 specimens showed small β-phase precipitates along the grain boundaries and regions of eutectic mixture. The T6 heat treatment causes the β-phase platelets in the α + β eutectic to grow and develop into β-precipitates. The difference in the phase morphology reflects into the mechanical properties. The Vickers hardness of the T6 heat-treated specimens was 3.6% higher than the as-cast alloy. The compressive yield strengths of T4 and T6 treated specimens were 1.3% and 43.1% higher than those of as-cast specimens. The high strain rate compression testing resulted in increase in the strength with strain rate for the T4 and T6 specimens. A maximum increase of 42% was observed in T6 specimen tested at a strain rate of 4,000/s in comparison to the quasi-static compression. Under high strain rate compression testing, the T6 heat-treated specimens showed failure of the β-precipitates resulting in increased energy absorption in comparison to the quasi-static compression.

  2. Effects of heat treatment of calcium hydroxyapatite particles on the protein adsorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Kazuhiko; Mizumoto, Saki; Toshima, Satoko; Fukusumi, Masao; Morisada, Yoshiaki

    2009-08-06

    The effects of heat treatment of calcium hydroxyapatite (Hap) on the protein adsorption behavior were examined using typical proteins of bovine serum albumin (BSA: isoelectric point (iep) = 4.7, molecular mass (Ms) = 67,200 Da, acidic protein), myoglobin (MGB: iep = 7.0, Ms = 17,800 Da, neutral protein), and lysozyme (LSZ: iep = 11.1, Ms = 14,600 Da, basic protein). The TEM, XRD, and gas adsorption measurements ascertained that all of the Hap particles examined were highly crystallized and nonporous. The Hap single phase was continued up to the heat treatment temperature of 600 degrees C. However, after treatment above 800 degrees C in air, the beta-Ca3(PO4)2 (beta-TCP) phase slightly appeared. TG and ICP-AES measurements suggested that all of the Hap particles are Ca2+-deficient. Also, it was indicated from FTIR and XPS measurements that a partially dehydrated oxyhydroxyapatite (pd-OHap) was formed after treatment at high temperature. The saturated amounts of adsorbed BSA (nsBSA) did not vary on the Hap particles after heat treatment at 200 and 400 degrees C. However, nsBSA values were increased by raising the heat treatment temperature above 600 degrees C. The adsorption coverage of BSA was increased up to ca. 1.4. This adsorption coverage of BSA (thetaBSA) over unity suggests that the BSA molecules densely adsorbed and a part of BSA molecules adsorbed as end-on type on the Hap particle surface or BSA molecules became contracted. Similar adsorption behavior was observed on the LSZ system, but the adsorption coverage of LSZ (thetaLSZ) values are much less than thetaBSA. On the other hand, no effect of the heat treatment of Hap particles was observed on the adsorption of MGB. The increases of nsBSA and nsLSZ were explained by the increase of calcium and phosphate ions in the solutions dissolved from beta-TCP formed after heat treatment of Hap, especially treated at high temperature. The dissolved Ca2+ and PO(4)3 - ions may act as binders between proteins and Hap

  3. The effects of heat treatment on technological properties in Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Kök, M Samil; Korkut, Derya Sevim; Gürleyen, Tuğba

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on technological properties of Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and for varying durations (2h, 6h and 10h). The technological properties of heat-treated wood samples and control samples were tested. Compression strength parallel to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength, and tension strength perpendicular to grain were determined. The results showed that technological strength values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques with minimal losses in strength values in areas where working, and stability such as in window frames, are important factors.

  4. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  5. Titanium metals form direct bonding to bone after alkali and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, S; Kato, H; Fujita, H; Oka, M; Kim, H M; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

    2001-09-01

    In this article we evaluated the bone-bonding strengths of titanium and titanium alloy implants with and without alkali and heat treatments using the conventional canine femur push-out model. Four kinds of smooth cylindrical implants, made of pure titanium or three titanium alloys, were prepared with and without alkali and heat treatments. The implants were inserted hemitranscortically into canine femora. The bone-bonding shear strengths of the implants were measured using push-out test. At 4 weeks all types of the alkali- and heat-treated implants showed significantly higher bonding strength (2.4-4.5 MPa) than their untreated counterparts (0.3-0.6 MPa). At 12 weeks the bonding strengths of the treated implants showed no further increase, while those of the untreated implants had increased to 0.6-1.2MPa. Histologically, alkali- and heat-treated implants showed direct bonding to bony tissue without intervening fibrous tissue. On the other hand, untreated implants usually had intervening fibrous tissue at the interface between bone and the implant. The early and strong bonding to bone of alkali- and heat-treated titanium and its alloys without intervening fibrous tissue may be useful in establishing cementless stable fixation of orthopedic implants.

  6. Graphene transport properties upon exposure to PMMA processing and heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammelgaard, Lene; Caridad, José M.; Cagliani, Alberto; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Petersen, Dirch H.; Booth, Timothy J.; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of graphene's electrical transport properties due to processing with the polymer polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and heat are examined in this study. The use of stencil (shadow mask) lithography enables fabrication of graphene devices without the usage of polymers, chemicals or heat, allowing us to measure the evolution of the electrical transport properties during individual processing steps from the initial as-exfoliated to the PMMA-processed graphene. Heating generally promotes the conformation of graphene to SiO2 and is found to play a major role for the electrical properties of graphene while PMMA residues are found to be surprisingly benign. In accordance with this picture, graphene devices with initially high carrier mobility tend to suffer a decrease in carrier mobility, while in contrast an improvement is observed for low carrier mobility devices. We explain this by noting that flakes conforming poorly to the substrate will have a higher carrier mobility which will however be reduced as heat treatment enhance the conformation. We finally show the electrical properties of graphene to be reversible upon heat treatments in air up to 200 °C.

  7. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the municipal wastewater treatment sector, and it documents the experiences of the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) operators who have employed CHP.

  8. Laser surface heat treatment of electroless Ni-P-SiC coating on Al356 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Sayed Hamid; Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Electroless Ni-P-SiC coatings are recognized for their hardness and wear resistance. In the present study, electroless Ni-P coatings containing SiC particles were co-deposited on Al356 substrate. Laser surface heat treatment was performed using 700 W Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Effects of different laser operating parameters, such as laser scan rate, laser average power and defocusing distance on microstructures were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of microstructural characterization indicated that the laser treatment under different operating conditions produced composite coating contained nanocrystallined Ni-based matrix with SiC particles Ni3P, Ni12P5, Ni5P2, Ni8P3 precipitates. The microhardness measurements showed that the hardness of the coating was increased up to 60%, due to laser heat treatment, without effect on base metal.

  9. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  10. Effect of Pre- and Post-weld Heat Treatments on Linear Friction Welded Ti-5553

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanjara, Priti; Dalgaard, Elvi; Gholipour, Javad; Cao, Xinjin; Cuddy, Jonathan; Jonas, John J.

    2014-10-01

    Linear friction welding allows solid-state joining of near-beta ( β) titanium alloy Ti-5553 (Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr). In the as-welded condition, the weld zone (WZ) exhibits β grain refinement and marked softening as compared with Ti-5553 in the solution heat treated and aged condition. The softening of the weldment is attributed to the depletion of the strengthening alpha ( α) phase in the WZ and the adjacent thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). Specifically, in near- β titanium alloys, the strength of the material mainly depends on the shape, size, distribution, and fraction of the primary α and other decomposition products of the β phase. Hence, a combination of pre- and post-weld heat treatments were applied to determine the conditions that allow mitigating the α phase depletion in the WZ and TMAZ of the welds. The mechanical response of the welded samples to the heat treatments was determined by performing microhardness measurements and tensile testing at room temperature with an automated 3D deformation measurement system. It was found that though the joint efficiency in the as-welded condition was high (96 pct), strain localization and failure occurred in the TMAZ. The application of post-weld solution heat treatment with aging was effective in restoring α, increasing the joint efficiency (97 to 99 pct) and inducing strain localization and failure in the parent material region.

  11. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5-2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200-1300 °C.

  12. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kells, Stephen A; Goblirsch, Michael J

    2011-08-29

    Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments). However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp) trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime). The lethal temperature (LTemp99) for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  13. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kells, Stephen A.; Goblirsch, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments). However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp) trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime). The lethal temperature (LTemp99) for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research. PMID:26467736

  14. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  15. Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of end-chill cast Zn-27Al alloys with different copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeshvaghani, R. Arabi; Ghahvechian, H.; Pirnajmeddin, H.; Shahverdi, H. R.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of Zn-27Al alloys with different copper content. In order to study the relationship between microstructure features and wear behavior, the alloys prepared by an end-chill cast apparatus and then heat treated. Heat treatment procedure involved solutionizing at temperature of 350 °C for 72 h followed by cooling within the furnace to room temperature. Microstructural characteristics of as-cast and heat-treated alloys at different distances from the chill were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disk test machine. To determine the wear mechanisms, the worn surfaces of the samples were also examined by SEM and EDS. Results showed that heat treatment led to the complete dissolution of as-cast dendritic microstructure and formation of a fine lamellar structure with well-distributed microconstituents. Moreover, addition of copper up to 1 wt% had no significant change in the microstructure, while addition of 2 and 4 wt% copper resulted in formation of ɛ (CuZn4) particle in the interdendritic regions. The influence of copper content on the wear behavior of the alloys was explained in terms of microstructural characteristics. Delamination was proposed as the dominant wear mechanism.

  16. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1.

  17. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  18. Dynamic strength and failure behavior of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V for a variation of heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Lothar W.; Krüger, Lutz; Sommer, Kristin; Halle, Thorsten; Hockauf, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    In our study, samples of Ti-6Al-4V were subjected to modifications of an aging treatment where temperatures for solution annealing and final aging as well as the cooling rate were varied. The titanium alloy was annealed above and below the β-transus temperature followed by cooling in a vacuum furnace or by water quenching. Additionally, the final annealing temperature was varied. Compression tests under quasistatic and dynamic loading rates were performed to determine the flow stress and strain hardening behavior. Furthermore, instrumented Charpy impact tests on U-notch specimen were performed at room temperature to monitor the load-time response of deformation and fracturing. The obtained high rate mechanical properties are discussed and correlated with the present microstructure. Our results reveal a very strong effect of the microstructure on the material behavior and will assist to choose the appropriate heat treatment technology, especially if impact loaded or safety structures have to be considered.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on Chemical Segregation in CMSX-4 Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczotok, A.; Chmiela, B.

    2014-08-01

    Superalloys display a strong tendency toward chemical segregation during solidification. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop appropriate techniques for the melting and casting of superalloys. Elements partitioning between the γ and γ' phases in single crystal superalloys have been investigated by several authors using electron probe microanalysis (Hemmersmeier and Feller-Kniepmeier Mater Sci Eng A 248:87-97, 1998; Kearsey et al. Intermetallics 12:903-910, 2004; Kearsey et al. Superalloys 2004, pp 801-810, 2004; D'Souza et al. Mater Sci Eng A 490:258-265, 2008). We examined the effect of the particular stages of standard heat treatment (solution treatment and ageing) applied to CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy on chemical segregation that occurs between dendrites and interdendritic areas. Dendritic structures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Analyses of the chemical composition were performed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results for the concentrations of elements enabled us to confirm the dendritic segregation in as-cast CMSX-4 superalloy. The concentrations of some refractory elements (tungsten, rhenium) were much greater in dendrites than in interdendritic areas. However, these differences in chemical composition gradually decreased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study warrant further examination of the diffusion processes of elements during heat treatment of the investigated superalloy, and of the kinetics of diffusion.

  20. Viability of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes surviving mild heat or aqueous ozone treatment on beef followed by heat, alkali, or salt stress.

    PubMed

    Novak, John S; Yuan, James T C

    2003-03-01

    The threat of pathogen survival following ozone treatment of meat necessitates careful evaluation of the microorganisms surviving under such circumstances. The objective of this study was to determine whether sublethal aqueous ozone treatment (3 ppm of O3 for 5 min) of microorganisms on beef surfaces would result in increased or decreased survival with respect to subsequent heat, alkali, or NaCl stress. A mild heat treatment (55 degrees C for 30 min) was used for comparison. Reductions in three-strain cocktails of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on beef following the heat treatment were 0.14, 0.77, and 1.47 log10 CFU/g, respectively, whereas reductions following ozone treatment were 1.28, 0.85, and 1.09 log10 CFU/g, respectively. C. perfringens cells exhibited elevated heat resistance at 60 degrees C (D60 [time at 60 degrees C required to reduce the viable cell population by 1 log10 units or 90%] = 17.76 min) following heat treatment of beef (55 degrees C for 30 min) but exhibited reduced viability at 60 degrees C following ozone treatment (D60 = 7.64 min) compared with the viability of untreated control cells (D60 = 13.84 min). The D60-values for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 following heat and ozone exposures were not significantly different (P > 0.05). C. perfringens cells that survived ozone treatment did not exhibit increased resistance to pH (pH 6 to 12) relative to non-ozone-treated cells when grown at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The heat treatment also resulted in decreased numbers of surviving cells above and below neutral pH values for both E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes relative to those of non-heat-treated cells grown at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens reductions with increasing NaCl concentrations. The effects of NaCl were less apparent for E. coli and L. monocytogenes survivors. It is concluded that pathogens surviving ozone treatment of beef

  1. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  2. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szalóki-Dorkó, Lilla; Ladányi, Márta; Ficzek, Gitta; Stéger-Máté, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3) were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L) than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L). The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18%, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19% were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L) than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L) before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production. PMID:27904369

  3. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  4. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS.

  5. Xylanase Treatment Suppresses Light- and Heat-Induced Yellowing of Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daolei; Li, Xuezhi; Wang, Meimei; Ye, Yanxin; Du, Jian; Lu, Xianqin; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Xylanase is commonly applied in pulp and paper industries to ease cost-related and environmental pressures. The effect of xylanase treatment on pulp bleaching is well-established, however, few studies were conducted on the effects of xylanase treatment in pulp yellowing, especially the mechanism of pulp yellowing inhibition by xylanase treatment. In this study, pure xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) was applied to treat wheat straw chemical pulp (CP) and poplar chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) to determine their effects on pulp brightness and on light- and heat-induced yellowing. The xylanase treatment decreased the post-color number of the pulps during light- and heat-induced yellowing. However, differences were observed in the yellowing inhibition between the wheat straw CP and poplar CTMP. The changes in chemical components of pulps after the xylanase treatment, for example, lignin, hemicellulose, and HexA contents, and analysis of UV–vis absorption spectra and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectrum were used to explore the pulp yellowing inhibition causes by the xylanase treatment. PMID:27917912

  6. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of 'Dixiland' peach fruit (Prunus persica) upon heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Lara, María V; Borsani, Julia; Budde, Claudio O; Lauxmann, Martin A; Lombardo, Verónica A; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2009-01-01

    Shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage require low temperature; however, cold storage affects fruit quality causing physiological disorders collectively termed 'chilling injury' (CI). In order to ameliorate CI, different strategies have been applied before cold storage; among them heat treatment (HT) has been widely used. In this work, the effect of HT on peach fruit quality as well as on carbon metabolism was evaluated. When fruit were exposed to 39 degrees C for 3 d, ripening was delayed, with softening inhibition and slowing down of ethylene production. Several differences were observed between fruit ripening at ambient temperature versus fruit that had been heat treated. However, the major effects of HT on carbon metabolism and organoleptic characteristics were reversible, since normal fruit ripening was restored after transferring heated peaches to ambient temperature. Positive quality features such as an increment in the fructose content, largely responsible for the sweetness, and reddish coloration were observed. Nevertheless, high amounts of acetaldehyde and low organic acid content were also detected. The differential proteome of heated fruit was characterized, revealing that heat-induced CI tolerance may be acquired by the activation of different molecular mechanisms. Induction of related stress proteins in the heat-exposed fruits such as heat shock proteins, cysteine proteases, and dehydrin, and repression of a polyphenol oxidase provide molecular evidence of candidate proteins that may prevent some of the CI symptoms. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the cellular events in peach under HT in view of a possible technological use aimed to improve organoleptic and shelf-life features.

  7. Surface analysis of TFTR vacuum vessel samples subjected to the post-weld heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Cecchi, J.L.; Dylla, H.F.

    1980-11-01

    To ensure the dimensional stability of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel, it is necessary to perform a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). This process consists of heating the vessel segments to approx. 450/sup 0/C for 1.5 h. The large size of the segments precludes a vacuum bake previous to installation. Effects of the PWHT on the vacuum vessel surface were studied using small samples of vessel material which were subjected to a variety of PWHT procedures, including inert gas purges and different oven designs. Changes in topography and near-surface chemistry were investigated with SEM and sputter-Auger electron spectroscopy. These samples were compared with the surface properties of non-baked UHV-quality stainless steel. The primary difference noted between the PWHT samples and the non-baked control was the thickness of the passivation oxide layer. The thickness of this mixed oxide (FeO/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//NiO) on the control sample was less than or equal to 100 A. The thickness of the oxide layer on the heat-treated samples ranged between 230 to 350 A, depending on the method of the PWHT. The effect of hydrogen glow discharge cleaning on these thicker oxide layers, and the consequences of such heat treatment procedure relative to oxygen impurity production in fusion devices are discussed.

  8. The effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitate formation in caprine and bovine milks.

    PubMed

    Miloradovic, Zorana N; Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Jovanovic, Snezana T; Vucic, Tanja R; Macej, Ognjen D

    2015-02-01

    Caprine and bovine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences in colloidal casein micelles could affect directly or indirectly the heat stability of caprine and bovine milks at their natural pH. In the present work, the differences in colloidal stability of caprine and bovine milk have been studied by analysing the effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitation of proteins. Raw and heated milk samples (70 °C/5 min, 80°C/5 min and 90°C/5 min) were centrifuged at 600, 2000, and 4500  g . The amount of precipitate formed after skimming was measured and the protein composition of both precipitates and supernatants analysed using the SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and densitometry. In caprine milk, the heat treatment prior to skimming had a statistically significant effect on protein precipitation. Centrifugal force had a statistically significant effect on amount of precipitate for both milks, but the amount was 2 to 4 times higher for caprine milk. When defatting the milk for electrophoresis, a centrifugal force of 600  g appeared to be the most appropriate, in order to avoid protein loss and a possible error in the interpretation of results. Results of this study could also serve as the basis for further investigations on adjusting the skimming conditions for caprine milk in industrial dairy processing environment.

  9. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application.

  10. Using Finite Element Simulation to Optimize the Heat Treatment of Tire Protection Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, S.; Prevedel, P.; Marsoner, S.; Ecker, W.; Illmeier, M.

    2014-04-01

    The heat treatment of tire protection chains has a major influence on the final product because the high local stresses that arise during quenching may lead to material failure, i.e., quench cracks. The investigations presented in this paper aim at the identification of critical areas in the design of a tire chain link made of 50CrV4 (DIN 1.8159) steel. Parametric studies were conducted by means of finite element (FE) simulation. The FE model enables the calculation of the stress evolution in the chain link during heat treatment. The position of the cracks produced in laboratory quench experiments coincided with the position where the FE simulation model predicted the maximum tensile stress at the end of the quench. Hence, geometry optimization of the chain links is now possible by means of parametric FE studies aiming to minimize these tensile stresses. To identify the influence of the various input parameters on the calculated stress evolution during the quenching, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The influence of the mesh size, the heat transfer at the surface, and the thermo-mechanical properties of the material phases on the stress calculation was evaluated and trends were identified. Temperature measurements during quenching experiments were used to determine the heat transfer parameters. X-ray residual stress measurements on pre-defined positions after an instrumented laboratory quenching were used to validate the simulation results.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on oil-binding ability of rice flour.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Aya; Nakagawa, Mariko; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Heat-treated (120 °C for 120 min) rice flour showed high affinity to oil (oil-binding ability). This oil-binding ability could be observed by shaking the heat-treated rice flour (2.0 g), oil (4.0 mL), and water (20 mL) vigorously in a test tube, and the oil bound to the rice flour sank into the water. To examine the time-dependent levels of the oil-binding ability, rice flour was heat-treated at 120 °C for 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min, and the precipitated volume of oil/rice flour complex increased with an increase of the heating time. The oil-binding ability of the rice flour was not affected by the treatments with diethyl ether or boiled chloroform/methanol (2:1) solutions, which suggested no relationship to the oil in the rice flour, but was lost upon alkali (0.2% NaOH solution) or pepsin treatment, which suggested its relationship to the rice proteins.

  12. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  13. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    The microstructural features that influenced the room and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of as-welded, conventional heat-treated, and modified heat-treated Alloy 718 GTA weldments were studied. Electron fractographic examination of fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative fatigue mechanisms were dependent on microstructure, temperatures and stress intensity factor. All specimens exhibited three basic fracture surface appearances at temperatures up to 538{degrees}C: crystallographic faceting at low stress intensity range ({Delta}K) levels, striation, formation at intermediate values, and dimples coupled with striations in the highest ({Delta}K) regime. At 649{degrees}C, the heat-treated welds exhibited extensive intergranular cracking. Laves and {delta} particles in the conventional heat-treated material nucleated microvoids ahead of the advancing crack front and caused on overall acceleration in crack growth rates at intermediate and high {Delta}K levels. The modified heat treatment removed many of these particles from the weld zone, thereby improving its fatigue resistance. The dramatically improved fatigue properties exhibited by the as-welded material was attributed to compressive residual stresses introduced by the welding process. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Distinguishing between heating power and hyperthermic cell-treatment efficacy in magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Serantes, David; Chantrell, Roy; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Baldomir, Daniel

    2016-11-04

    In the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) research field, it is usually assumed that achieving a uniform temperature enhancement (ΔT) of the entire tumour is a key-point for treatment. However, various experimental works reported successful cell apoptosis via MFH without a noticeable ΔT of the system. A possible explanation of the success of these negligible-ΔT experiments is that a local ΔT restricted to the particle nanoenvironment (i.e. with no significant effect on the global temperature T) could be enough to trigger cell death. Shedding light on such a possibility requires accurate knowledge of heat dissipation at the local level in relation to the usually investigated global (average) one. Since size polydispersity is inherent to all synthesis techniques and the heat released is proportional to the particle size, heat dissipation spots with different performances - and thus different effects on the cells - will likely exist in every sample. In this work we aim for a double objective: (1) to emphasize the necessity to distinguish between the total dissipated heat and hyperthermia effectiveness, and (2) to suggest a theoretical approach on how to select, for a given size polydispersity, a more adequate average size so that most of the particles dissipate within a desired heating power range. The results are reported in terms of Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a representative example.

  15. Dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate prepared from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Shin, Jeong Sup

    2008-05-01

    Viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor VIII concentrates from human plasma. With particular regard to the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate. The loss of factor VIII activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the dry-heat-treated factor VIII compared with those of the factor VIII before dry-heat treatment. The dry-heat-treated factor VIII was stable for up to 24 months at 4oC. The dry-heat treatment after lyophilization was an effective process for inactivating viruses. The HAV, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were completely inactivated to below detectable levels within 10 min of the dry-heat treatment. Bovine herpes virus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were potentially sensitive to the treatment. However porcine parvovirus (PPV) was slightly resistant to the treatment. The log reduction factors achieved during lyophilization and dry-heat treatment were > or =5.55 for HAV, > or =5.87 for EMCV, > or =5.15 for HIV, 6.13 for BHV, 4.46 for BVDV, and 1.90 for PPV. These results indicate that dry-heat treatment improves the virus safety of factor VIII concentrates, without destroying the activity. Moreover, the treatment represents an effective measure for the inactivation of non-lipid-enveloped viruses, in particular HAV, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  16. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  17. The response of cobalt-free Udimet 700 type alloy to modified heat treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    A superalloy based on Udimet 700, in which all of the cobalt was replaced by nickel, was prepared from hot isostatically pressed prealloyed powders. This material was given various heat treatments consisting of partial solutioning and aging in a sequence of four different temperatures. Comparisons were made of microstructures and mechanical properties. Best results were obtained by partially solutioning at 1145 deg C and aging through a sequence of 870, 1030, 650 and 760 deg C. This heat treatment also provided significantly improved properties for wrought material of the same composition. The results suggest that cobalt free Udimet 700 should be considered as a substitute for Udimet 700 with the standard 17 percent cobalt content.

  18. The response of cobalt-free Udimet 700 type alloy to modified heat treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    A superalloy based on Udimet 700, in which all of the cobalt was replaced by nickel, was prepared from hot isostatically pressed prealloyed powders. This material was given various heat treatments consisting of partial solutioning and aging in a sequence of four different temperatures. Comparisons were made of microstructures and mechanical properties. Best results were obtained by partially solutioning at 1145 deg C and aging through a sequence of 870, 1030, 650 and 760 deg C. This heat treatment also provided significantly improved properties for wrought material of the same composition. The results suggest that cobalt free Udimet 700 should be considered as a substitute for Udimet 700 with the standard 17 percent cobalt content.

  19. Fluorine redistribution in a chemical vapor deposited tungsten/polycrystalline silicon gate structure during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Th.; Carlsson, J.-O.; Keinonen, J.; Petersson, C. S.

    1988-09-01

    Fluorine redistribution during heat treatment of chemical vapor deposited tungsten/polycrystalline silicon gate structures was analyzed by the nuclear resonance broadening technique. The tungsten layer was deposited from a hydrogen/tungsten hexafluoride gas mixture. Upon heat treatment in the temperature range 1020-1325-K tungsten disilicide formation was observed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. In the as-deposited sample, the fluorine was accumulated at the tungsten/polycrystalline silicon interface. After silicide formation the fluorine was observed at the tungsten disilicide/polycrystalline silicon interface. At temperatures above 1120 K fluorine starts to diffuse through the polycrystalline silicon layer. A variation in the total fluorine content between the samples was also observed. The origin of the fluorine redistribution as well as the variation in the total fluorine content is discussed in connection to conceivable mechanisms.

  20. Fluorine redistribution in a chemical vapor deposited tungsten/polycrystalline silicon gate structure during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, T.; Carlsson, J.; Keinonen, J.; Petersson, C.S.

    1988-09-15

    Fluorine redistribution during heat treatment of chemical vapor deposited tungsten/polycrystalline silicon gate structures was analyzed by the nuclear resonance broadening technique. The tungsten layer was deposited from a hydrogen/tungsten hexafluoride gas mixture. Upon heat treatment in the temperature range 1020--1325-K tungsten disilicide formation was observed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. In the as-deposited sample, the fluorine was accumulated at the tungsten/polycrystalline silicon interface. After silicide formation the fluorine was observed at the tungsten disilicide/polycrystalline silicon interface. At temperatures above 1120 K fluorine starts to diffuse through the polycrystalline silicon layer. A variation in the total fluorine content between the samples was also observed. The origin of the fluorine redistribution as well as the variation in the total fluorine content is discussed in connection to conceivable mechanisms.

  1. Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films for Thermochromic Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Kwon, Samyoung; Park, Young; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Nam, Sang-Hun; Joo, Yang Tae; Kim, Minha; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In present work, the effects of the heat treatment on the structural, optical, and thermochromic properties of vanadium oxide films were investigated. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from a vanadium metal target in mixture atmosphere of argon and oxygen gas. Various heat treatment conditions were applied in order to evaluate their influence on the crystal phases formed, surface morphology, and optical properties. The films were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to investigate the crystal structure and identify the phase change as post-annealing temperature of 500-600 degrees C for 5 minutes. Surface conditions of the obtained VO2(M) films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the VO2 films were evaluate by optical spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS-NIR, controlling temperature of the films.

  2. Effects of erodant particle shape and various heat treatments on erosion resistance of plain carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Erosion tests were conducted on 1045 steel samples which had been subjected to different heat treatments. The weight of material removed upon erosion with glass beads and crushed glass was measured. The data show that there is no correlation between hardness and erosion resistance. The erosion rate was strongly dependent on the shape of erodant particles, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass than with glass beads. Heat treatment had a profound effect on the erosion resistance when the erodant particles were glass beads but little or no effect when the particles were crushed glass. It is thus concluded that different mechanisms of material removal are involved with these two erodants. This conclusion is supported by the surface morphology of annealed 1045 steel samples which had been eroded by these two types of erodant particles. SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces show that for erosion with glass beads it is deformation induced fracture of surface layers.

  3. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral.

  4. Protein expression in Vibrio parahaemolyticus 690 subjected to sublethal heat and ethanol shock treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Ho, Wei-Li; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2008-11-01

    Cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus 690 were subjected either to heat shock at 42 degrees C for 45 min or to ethanol shock in the presence of 5% ethanol for 60 min. The protein profiles of the unstressed and stressed V. parahaemolyticus cells were compared. Additionally, the induction of DnaK- and GroEL-like proteins in the unstressed and stressed cells of V. parahaemolyticus was also examined. Analysis with one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that three proteins with molecular masses of 93, 77, and 58 kDa were induced by both heat shock and ethanol shock. The protein patterns revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis were more detailed than those revealed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. It was found that heat shock and ethanol shock affected the expression of a total of 28 proteins. Among them, four proteins with molecular masses of 94, 32.1, 26.7, and 25.7 kDa were enhanced by both heat shock and ethanol shock. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis showed the presence of a GroEL-like protein with a molecular mass of 61 kDa in the test organism, with the heat-shocked and ethanol-shocked cells producing a GroEL-like protein in a larger quantity than the unstressed cells. However, DnaK-like protein was not detectable in either the unstressed or the stressed cells.

  5. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  6. Surface structures and growth mode for the {Cu}/{Si(110)} surfaces depending on heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, T.; Kawashima, Y.; Itoh, H.; Ichinokawa, T.

    1995-11-01

    The surface structures and growth mode for the {Cu}/{Si(110)} surfaces depending on Cu segregation by heat treatment have been studied with low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), isothermal desorption spectroscopy (ITDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, Cu was intermixed with Si and no defined interface structure was observed at coverages higher than 2 ML. However, the growth mode of the {Cu}/{Si(110)} surface above 400°C is the Stranski-Krastanov type and a part of Cu atoms deposited on the surface diffuse into the bulk above 400°C in addition to the island formation on the surface. The Cu atoms diffusing into the bulk are segregated to the surface by quenching and the segregated Cu atoms form several new structures depending on quenching temperature and annealing time. The 2 × 1, 4 × 5, 4 × 3, and 6 × 6 structures were found by LEED in the ranges of {Cu}/{Si} Auger ratios, 0.01-0.04, 0.04-0.06, 0.06-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively. There are one to one correspondences between surface structures and surface Cu concentrations. The islands nucleated on the surface at Cu 10 ML above 800°C are rectangular with a composition of Cu3Si. The segregation of Cu to the surface by quenching and the trapping of Cu to islands by annealing are discussed with comparing to those of the {Cu}/{Si(100)} surfaces.

  7. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O.; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  8. Synergistic effect of rice husk addition on hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge: fate and environmental risk of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wansheng; Liu, Chunguang; Shu, Youju; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at 200°C was applied to immobilize heavy metals (HMs) and the effect of rice husk (RH) addition was investigated based on total HMs concentration, fractionation and leaching tests. The results indicated that a synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT could be achieved on reducing the risk of HMs from medium and low risk to no risk. Metals were redistributed and transformed from weakly bounded state to stable state during the HTT process under RH addition. Notably at a RH/sludge ratio of 1/1.75 (d.w.), all the HMs showed no eco-toxicity and no leaching toxicity, with the concentrations of leachable Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd decreased by 17%, 89%, 95% and 93%, respectively. This synergistic effect of RH addition and HTT on the risk reduction of HMs implies that HTT process with RH addition could be a promising and safe disposal technology for sewage sludge treatment in practice.

  9. Chemical TOPAZ: Modifications to the heat transfer code TOPAZ: The addition of chemical reaction kinetics and chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III.

    1990-06-07

    This is a report describing the modifications which have been made to the heat flow code TOPAZ to allow the inclusion of thermally controlled chemical kinetics. This report is broken into parts. The first part is an introduction to the general assumptions and theoretical underpinning that were used to develop the model. The second section describes the changes that have been implemented into the code. The third section is the users manual for the input for the code. The fourth section is a compilation of hints, common errors, and things to be aware of while you are getting started. The fifth section gives a sample problem using the new code. This manual addenda is written with the presumption that most readers are not fluent with chemical concepts. Therefore, we shall in this section endeavor to describe the requirements that must be met before chemistry can occur and how we have modeled the chemistry in the code.

  10. Influence of long-chain polyphosphate and heat treatment on Clostridium cochlearium and Clostridium sporogenes isolated from processed cheese spread.

    PubMed

    Borch, Elisabeth; Lycken, Lena

    2007-03-01

    The outgrowth of Clostridium spp. spores causes spoilage in processed cheese products due to gas and off-odor formation. The present study focuses on the response of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium cochlearium at 25 degrees C to polyphosphate, both alone and in combination with heat treatment. The two strains used were isolated from spoiled cheese spread. The addition of 1.5% polyphosphate but not 0.75% polyphosphate totally inhibited the growth of C. sporogenes SIK4.3; in contrast, 0.75% polyphosphate was sufficient to totally inhibit C. cochlearium CCUG 45978. The highest polyphosphate concentration tested (1.5%) was sporicidal for C. sporogenes SIK4.3 but not for C. cochlearium CCUG 45978. When 0.75% polyphosphate Bekaplus FS was combined with a holding time of 5 min at 98 degrees C, no survival or growth of C. sporogenes SIK4.3 was detected; however, the same effect was not achieved through heating alone or through application of polyphosphate alone. C. cochlearium CCUG 45978 was more heat tolerant, as shown by higher D-values. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that polyphosphate Bekaplus FS has the potential to restrict the growth of C. sporogenes and C. cochlearium in cheese spread stored at ambient storage temperature. Experiments with cheese are needed in order to verify this effect.

  11. Effect of milk protein addition to a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution ingested after exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Clayton, David; Evans, Gethin H

    2011-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of milk protein on rehydration after exercise in the heat, via the comparison of energy- and electrolyte content-matched carbohydrate and carbohydrate-milk protein solutions. Eight male subjects lost 1·9 (SD 0·2) % of their body mass by intermittent exercise in the heat and rehydrated with 150% of their body mass loss with either a 65 g/l carbohydrate solution (trial C) or a 40 g/l carbohydrate, 25 g/l milk protein solution (trial CP). Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 4 h after rehydration. Total cumulative urine output after rehydration was greater for trial C (1212 (SD 310) ml) than for trial CP (931 (SD 254) ml) (P < 0·05), and total fluid retention over the study was greater after ingestion of drink CP (55 (SD 12) %) than that after ingestion of drink C (43 (SD 15) %) (P < 0·05). At the end of the study period, whole body net fluid balance (P < 0·05) was less negative for trial CP (-0·26 (SD 0·27) litres) than for trial C (-0·52 (SD 0·30) litres), and although net negative for both the trials, it was only significantly negative after ingestion of drink C (P < 0·05). The results of the present study suggest that when matched for energy density and fat content, as well as for Na and K concentration, and when ingested after exercise-induced dehydration, a carbohydrate-milk protein solution is better retained than a carbohydrate solution. These results suggest that gram-for-gram, milk protein is more effective at augmenting fluid retention than carbohydrate.

  12. Integrated modelling of transitions in mechanical conditions during casting and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorborg, J.; Klinkhammer, J.; Heitzer, M.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical material behaviour of a cast component changes significantly during casting and heat treatment. The big difference in temperature levels during the different process steps causes different deformation mechanisms to be active. The thermal gradients promote transient stresses that can lead to inelastic deformations, residual stresses and in some cases to defects in the final part. It is a big challenge to make a reasonable transition in the mechanical model, and hence material data, when modelling several different coupled process steps. It is important to use an integrated approach where the transition is included in the full load history of the part. When industrial examples are considered, the sequence of process steps typically also changes the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions significantly e.g. going from being mechanically constrained during casting to being supported point-wise during the heat treatment process. This change includes mapping of results and obtaining equilibrium in a new global system, where the further reaction forces from the supports must be handled with contact conditions to e.g. predict deformations due to gravity during solution heat treatment. The work presented in this paper is focused on modelling the mechanical fields, taking into account the changes in the mechanical material model at different temperature levels, and the transition in mechanical behaviour when the microstructure is changing during the different steps of the heat treatment process. The approach used is based on a unified model where creep effects are considered at high temperature and rate effects are included in general during cooling. Proposals are made to include cooling rate sensitivity, annealing and precipitation hardening via modification of mechanical properties in the different process steps.

  13. Induction heat treatment and technique of bioceramic coatings production on medical titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Rodionov, Igor V.; Fomina, Marina A.; Poshivalova, Elena Y.; Krasnikov, Aleksandr V.; Petrova, Natalia N.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Gribov, Andrey N.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.

    2015-03-01

    Prospective composite bioceramic titania coatings were obtained on intraosseous implants fabricated from medical titanium alloy VT16 (Ti-2.5Al-5Mo-5V). Consistency changes of morphological characteristics, physico-mechanical properties and biocompatibility of experimental titanium implant coatings obtained by oxidation during induction heat treatment are defined. Technological recommendations for obtaining bioceramic coatings with extremely high strength on titanium items surface are given.

  14. Numerical simulation of thermal disposition with induction heating used for oncological hyperthermic treatment.

    PubMed

    Dughiero, F; Corazza, S

    2005-01-01

    Hyperthermia plays an important role in oncological therapies, most often being used in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The success of this therapy is strongly dependent on the precision and control of thermal deposition. Hyperthermia based on induction heating, with thermally self-regulating thermoseeds inserted into the tumorous mass, is used for interstitial treatment. The technique was the subject of the numerical study presented in the paper. The analysis was carried out using coupled electromagnetic heating and thermo-fluid dynamic FEM simulations. During thermal deposition by induction heating of inserted seeds, the simulations estimated the thermal field inside and outside the tumour, as well as the sensitivity of the thermal field to variations regarding seed temperature, configuration and proximity to vessels. The method, for which accurate anatomical patient's information is essential, is suitable for providing useful qualitative and quantitative information about thermal transients and power density distribution for hyperthermic treatment. Several grid steps were analysed and compared. A 1 cm seed grid was resulted in good homogeneity and effectiveness of the thermal deposition. The cold spot effect caused by large vessels was demonstrated and quantified. Simulations of the heating of a tumorous mass in the liver showed that an indcutor generator operating at 200 kHz frequency and 500 A current, producing a pulsating magnetic field of H = 60 A cm(-1), was adequate for the treatment. The seeds that perform best among those tested (Nicu (28% Cu), PdNi (27.2% Ni), PdCo (6.15% Co) and ferrite core) were the PdNi (1 mm radius, 10 mm length), as they have a low Curie temperature (52 degrees C), which is the closest to the desired treatment temperature and thus reduces the risk of hot spots.

  15. Physicomechanical properties of spring steel 70S2KhA after different heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Rodionova, S.S.; Nikiforov, A.P.

    1995-10-01

    We have studied the magnetic, electrical, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties of steel 70S2KhA as a function of various quenching and tempering conditions. We examine the effect of a change in the chemical composition (within the grade limits) on the physical properties of the steel and the conditions for monitoring the heat treatment for the example of the coercive force, the relaxation coercive force, and the magnetic susceptibility.

  16. The effect of heat treatment on the resistivity of polycrystalline silicon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The resistivity of doped polycrystalline silicon films has been studied as a function of post deposition heat treatments in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was found that a short oxidation cycle may produce a resistivity increase as large as three orders of magnitude in the polycrystalline films. The extent of change was dependent on the initial resistivity and the films' doping level and was independent of the total oxidation time.

  17. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    PubMed

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

  18. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  19. Improvement of an integrated system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor by phosphorus removal using additional post-chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin

    2016-11-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a worm reactor (SSBWR) was designed as SSBWR-MBR for sewage treatment and excess sludge reduction. However, total phosphorus (TP) release caused by worm predation in the SSBWR could increase the effluent TP concentration in the SSBWR-MBR. To decrease the amount of TP excreted, chemical treatment reactor was connected after the SSBWR-MBR to remove the excess phosphorus (P). The effects of chemical treatment at different time intervals on the performance of the SSBWR-MBR were assessed. The results showed that a maximum TP removal efficiency of 21.5 ± 1.0% was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR after chemical treatment. More importantly, a higher sulfate concentration induced by chemical treatment could promote TP release in the SSBWR, which provided further TP removal from the SSBWR-MBR. Additionally, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the SSBWR-MBR was increased by 1.3% after effective chemical treatment. In the SSBWR-MBR, the chemical treatment had little effects on NH3-N removal and sludge production. Eventually, chemical treatment also alleviated the membrane fouling in the SSBWR-MBR. In this work, the improvement on TP, COD removal and membrane fouling alleviation was achieved in the SSBWR-MBR using additional chemical treatment.

  20. The influence of heat treatment on properties of cold rolled alloyed steel and nickel superalloys sheets used in aircraft industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaba, K.; Dul, I.; Puchlerska, S.

    2017-02-01

    Superalloys based on nickel and selected steels are widely used in the aerospace industry, because of their excellent mechanical properties, heat resistance and creep resistance. Metal sheets of these materials are plastically deformed and applied, inter alia, to critical components of aircraft engines. Due to their chemical composition these materials are hardly deformable. There are various methods to improve the formability of these materials, including plastic deformation at an elevated or high temperature, or a suitable heat treatment before forming process. The paper presents results of the metal sheets testing after heat treatment. For the research, sheets of two types of nickel superalloys type Inconel and of three types of steel were chosen. The materials were subjected to multivariate heat treatment at different temperature range and time. After this step, mechanical properties were examined according to the metal sheet rolling direction. The results were compared and the optimal type of pre-trial softening heat treatment for each of the materials was determined.