Science.gov

Sample records for additional image information

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  5. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  6. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  7. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  11. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  12. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  13. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  14. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  15. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  16. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  17. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  18. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  19. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  20. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  1. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  2. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  3. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  4. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  5. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  6. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  7. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  8. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information. 1008.39 Section 1008.39 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion §...

  9. Moving Multimedia: The Information Value in Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berinstein, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the value and use of images as information. Topics include the information in images versus text; a taxonomy of image types; resources related to images; and the use of images in architecture, engineering, advertising, and competitive intelligence. (LRW)

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments..., with respect to individual administrations, by successfully completing coordination agreements. Any... terms and conditions as required to effect coordination of the frequency assignments with...

  11. iPAINT: a general approach tailored to image the topology of interfaces with nanometer resolution† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1–S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00445h Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aloi, A.; Vilanova, N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interfacial phenomena in soft materials such as wetting, colloidal stability, coalescence, and friction warrants non-invasive imaging with nanometer resolution. Super-resolution microscopy has emerged as an attractive method to visualize nanostructures labeled covalently with fluorescent tags, but this is not amenable to all interfaces. Inspired by PAINT we developed a simple and general strategy to overcome this limitation, which we coin ‘iPAINT: interface Point Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography’. It enables three-dimensional, sub-diffraction imaging of interfaces irrespective of their nature via reversible adsorption of polymer chains end-functionalized with photo-activatable moieties. We visualized model dispersions, emulsions, and foams with ∼20 nm and ∼3° accuracy demonstrating the general applicability of iPAINT to study solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. iPAINT thus broadens the scope of super-resolution microscopy paving the way for non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of complex soft materials. PMID:27055489

  12. 17 CFR 240.12b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General Requirements As to Contents § 240.12b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a statement or report, there shall...

  13. 17 CFR 270.8b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 270.8b...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement or report, there...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  15. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  16. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2 Section... Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted timely, some, but not all of the information required in § 3430.4-1 of this title, the authorized...

  17. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  18. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  1. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  2. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... particular language of the proposed statement of charges as to which additional information is needed. If...

  4. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  5. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  6. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  7. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  8. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  9. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  10. Geologic information from satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photo-interpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familiar shapes and patterns. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  11. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  12. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  13. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  14. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  15. Value Addition in Information Technology and Literacy: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanghera, Kamaljeet K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the value addition in students' information communication and technology (ICT) literacy level and confidence in using technology after completing a general education information technology course at a four-year university. An online survey was created to examine students' perceptions. The findings revealed…

  16. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  17. Application of a New Method for Analyzing Images: Two-Dimensional Non-Linear Additive Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    MA Zaccaria; DM Drudnoy; JE Stasenko

    2006-07-05

    This paper documents the application of a new image processing algorithm, two-dimensional non-linear additive decomposition (NLAD), which is used to identify regions in a digital image whose gray-scale (or color) intensity is different than the surrounding background. Standard image segmentation algorithms exist that allow users to segment images based on gray-scale intensity and/or shape. However, these processing techniques do not adequately account for the image noise and lighting variation that typically occurs across an image. NLAD is designed to separate image noise and background from artifacts thereby providing the ability to consistently evaluate images. The decomposition techniques used in this algorithm are based on the concepts of mathematical morphology. NLAD emulates the human capability of visually separating an image into different levels of resolution components, denoted as ''coarse'', ''fine'', and ''intermediate''. Very little resolution information overlaps any two of the component images. This method can easily determine and/or remove trends and noise from an image. NLAD has several additional advantages over conventional image processing algorithms, including no need for a transformation from one space to another, such as is done with Fourier transforms, and since only finite summations are required, the calculational effort is neither extensive nor complicated.

  18. Estimating classification images with generalized linear and additive models.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Kenneth; Maloney, Laurence T

    2008-12-22

    Conventional approaches to modeling classification image data can be described in terms of a standard linear model (LM). We show how the problem can be characterized as a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a Bernoulli distribution. We demonstrate via simulation that this approach is more accurate in estimating the underlying template in the absence of internal noise. With increasing internal noise, however, the advantage of the GLM over the LM decreases and GLM is no more accurate than LM. We then introduce the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), an extension of GLM that can be used to estimate smooth classification images adaptively. We show that this approach is more robust to the presence of internal noise, and finally, we demonstrate that GAM is readily adapted to estimation of higher order (nonlinear) classification images and to testing their significance.

  19. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places hot spots, or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  20. Image and information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  1. Information Systems - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) represents an effort by CIP grantees in a consortium to create a database of spiral CT images of the lung for use in CAD (computer-aided detection) algorithm research. The Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) is extending the efforts of the LIDC, to create a larger database of spiral CT imaging of the lung for use in CAD algorithm research. Image Archive Resources contains links to Web sites related to the interests of the NCI CIP Image Archive Committee. The Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) is a database of research data on in vivo molecular imaging and contrast agents.

  2. Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai

    2002-01-01

    The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

  3. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  4. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  5. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  6. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  7. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  8. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  9. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  12. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  14. 49 CFR 235.12 - Additional required information-prints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OR MATERIAL MODIFICATION OF A SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.12... application should be shown uncolored. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional required information-prints....

  15. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  16. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  17. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  18. Display system for imaging scientific telemetric information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabiyakin, G. I.; Rykovanov, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging scientific telemetric information, based on the M-6000 minicomputer and the SIGD graphic display, is described. Two dimensional graphic display of telemetric information and interaction with the computer, in analysis and processing of telemetric parameters displayed on the screen is provided. The running parameter information output method is presented. User capabilities in the analysis and processing of telemetric information imaged on the display screen and the user language are discussed and illustrated.

  19. Image-plane processing of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information is used to optimize the optical design of sensor-array imaging systems which use neighborhood image-plane signal processing for enhancing edges and compressing dynamic range during image formation. The resultant edge-enhancement, or band-pass-filter, response is found to be very similar to that of human vision. Comparisons of traits in human vision with results from information theory suggest that: (1) Image-plane processing, like preprocessing in human vision, can improve visual information acquisition for pattern recognition when resolving power, sensitivity, and dynamic range are constrained. Improvements include reduced sensitivity to changes in lighter levels, reduced signal dynamic range, reduced data transmission and processing, and reduced aliasing and photosensor noise degradation. (2) Information content can be an appropriate figure of merit for optimizing the optical design of imaging systems when visual information is acquired for pattern recognition. The design trade-offs involve spatial response, sensitivity, and sampling interval.

  20. Figure of Image Quality and Information Capacity in Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Michail, Christos M.; Kalyvas, Nektarios E.; Valais, Ioannis G.; Fudos, Ioannis P.; Fountos, George P.; Dimitropoulos, Nikos; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In this work, a simple technique to assess the image quality characteristics of the postprocessed image is developed and an easy to use figure of image quality (FIQ) is introduced. This FIQ characterizes images in terms of resolution and noise. In addition information capacity, defined within the context of Shannon's information theory, was used as an overall image quality index. Materials and Methods. A digital mammographic image was postprocessed with three digital filters. Resolution and noise were calculated via the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the coefficient of variation, and the figure of image quality. In addition, frequency dependent parameters such as the noise power spectrum (NPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were estimated and used to assess information capacity. Results. FIQs for the “raw image” data and the image processed with the “sharpen edges” filter were found 907.3 and 1906.1, correspondingly. The information capacity values were 60.86 × 103 and 78.96 × 103 bits/mm2. Conclusion. It was found that, after the application of the postprocessing techniques (even commercial nondedicated software) on the raw digital mammograms, MTF, NPS, and NEQ are improved for medium to high spatial frequencies leading to resolving smaller structures in the final image. PMID:24895593

  1. Quantification of image quality using information theory.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Takanaga; Maeda, Hisatoshi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kuniharu

    2011-12-01

    Aims of present study were to examine usefulness of information theory in visual assessment of image quality. We applied first order approximation of the Shannon's information theory to compute information losses (IL). Images of a contrast-detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom were acquired with computed radiographies for various radiation doses. Information content was defined as the entropy Σp( i )log(1/p ( i )), in which detection probabilities p ( i ) were calculated from distribution of detection rate of the CDMAM. IL was defined as the difference between information content and information obtained. IL decreased with increases in the disk diameters (P < 0.0001, ANOVA) and in the radiation doses (P < 0.002, F-test). Sums of IL, which we call total information losses (TIL), were closely correlated with the image quality figures (r = 0.985). TIL was dependent on the distribution of image reading ability of each examinee, even when average reading ratio was the same in the group. TIL was shown to be sensitive to the observers' distribution of image readings and was expected to improve the evaluation of image quality.

  2. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  3. Image Information Mining System Evaluation Using Information-Theoretic Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschiel, Herbert; Datcu, Mihai

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade, the exponential increase of multimedia and remote sensing image archives, the fast expansion of the world wide web, and the high diversity of users have yielded concepts and systems for successful content-based image retrieval and image information mining. Image data information systems require both database and visual capabilities, but there is a gap between these systems. Database systems usually do not deal with multidimensional pictorial structures and vision systems do not provide database query functions. In terms of these points, the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems became a focus of research interest. One can find several system evaluation approaches in literature, however, only few of them go beyond precision-recall graphs and do not allow a detailed evaluation of an interactive image retrieval system. Apart from the existing evaluation methodologies, we aim at the overall validation of our knowledge-driven content-based image information mining system. In this paper, an evaluation approach is demonstrated that is based on information-theoretic quantities to determine the information flow between system levels of different semantic abstraction and to analyze human-computer interactions.

  4. Image-based information, communication, and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    IBIS/VICAR system combines video image processing and information management. Flexible programs require user to supply only parameters specific to particular application. Special-purpose input/output routines transfer image data with reduced memory requirements. New application programs are easily incorporated. Program is written in FORTRAN IV, Assembler, and OS JCL for batch execution and has been implemented on IBM 360.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Fuzzy geometry, entropy, and image information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sankar K.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here are various uncertainty measures arising from grayness ambiguity and spatial ambiguity in an image, and their possible applications as image information measures. Definitions are given of an image in the light of fuzzy set theory, and of information measures and tools relevant for processing/analysis e.g., fuzzy geometrical properties, correlation, bound functions and entropy measures. Also given is a formulation of algorithms along with management of uncertainties for segmentation and object extraction, and edge detection. The output obtained here is both fuzzy and nonfuzzy. Ambiguity in evaluation and assessment of membership function are also described.

  7. Image gathering and processing - Information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Halyo, N.; Samms, R. W.; Stacy, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we formulate and use information and fidelity criteria to assess image gathering and processing, combining optical design with image-forming and edge-detection algorithms. The optical design of the image-gathering system revolves around the relationship among sampling passband, spatial response, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our formulations of information, fidelity, and optimal (Wiener) restoration account for the insufficient sampling (i.e., aliasing) common in image gathering as well as for the blurring and noise that conventional formulations account for. Performance analyses and simulations for ordinary optical-design constraints and random scences indicate that (1) different image-forming algorithms prefer different optical designs; (2) informationally optimized designs maximize the robustness of optimal image restorations and lead to the highest-spatial-frequency channel (relative to the sampling passband) for which edge detection is reliable (if the SNR is sufficiently high); and (3) combining the informationally optimized design with a 3 by 3 lateral-inhibitory image-plane-processing algorithm leads to a spatial-response shape that approximates the optimal edge-detection response of (Marr's model of) human vision and thus reduces the data preprocessing and transmission required for machine vision.

  8. An information theory of image gathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Carl L.; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1991-01-01

    Shannon's mathematical theory of communication is extended to image gathering. Expressions are obtained for the total information that is received with a single image-gathering channel and with parallel channels. It is concluded that the aliased signal components carry information even though these components interfere with the within-passband components in conventional image gathering and restoration, thereby degrading the fidelity and visual quality of the restored image. An examination of the expression for minimum mean-square-error, or Wiener-matrix, restoration from parallel image-gathering channels reveals a method for unscrambling the within-passband and aliased signal components to restore spatial frequencies beyond the sampling passband out to the spatial frequency response cutoff of the optical aperture.

  9. Proper coaddition of astronomical images - One image that contains the information from all the images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofek, Eran; Zackay, Barak; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2016-01-01

    We present image coaddition methods for source detection and flux measurement under both the background- and source-dominated noise regimes, that are optimized to achieve the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). We also derive a coaddition method, which provides a sufficient statistic for any further signal processing of the data, such as source detection, star/galaxy separation or shape measurements, in the background-noise dominated case. This means that any hypothesis testing or measurement that can be done on all the individual images simultaneously, can be equivalently performed on the coadded image without any loss of information, leading to significant reduction in data storage and transmission requirements. In addition, our method produces an image with a PSF which is typically narrower than that of the highest quality image in the original ensemble, and its noise is Gaussian white noise. For seeing-limited surveys, we argue thatby using these methods an increase of between a few percents to 20% in survey speed is possible relative to simple weighted coaddition techniques. We demonstrate this claim using simulated data as well as data from the Palomar Transient Factory data release 2. This method has important implications for multi-epoch seeing-limited deep surveys, weak lensing, galaxy shape measurements, and diffraction-limited imaging via speckle observations.

  10. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  11. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  12. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tentative denial letter. At the same time, the applicant should indicate generally the type of information... penalty of perjury attesting to the truth and correctness of the information provided, which is dated...

  13. Information and image integration: project spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Martin, Lori; Weiss, David A.; Lehmann, Ron; Fritz, Kevin

    1998-07-01

    The BJC Health System (BJC) and the Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) formed a technology alliance with industry collaborators to develop and implement an integrated, advanced clinical information system. The industry collaborators include IBM, Kodak, SBC and Motorola. The activity, called Project Spectrum, provides an integrated clinical repository for the multiple hospital facilities of the BJC. The BJC System consists of 12 acute care hospitals serving over one million patients in Missouri and Illinois. An interface engine manages transactions from each of the hospital information systems, lab systems and radiology information systems. Data is normalized to provide a consistent view for the primary care physician. Access to the clinical repository is supported by web-based server/browser technology which delivers patient data to the physician's desktop. An HL7 based messaging system coordinates the acquisition and management of radiological image data and sends image keys to the clinical data repository. Access to the clinical chart browser currently provides radiology reports, laboratory data, vital signs and transcribed medical reports. A chart metaphor provides tabs for the selection of the clinical record for review. Activation of the radiology tab facilitates a standardized view of radiology reports and provides an icon used to initiate retrieval of available radiology images. The selection of the image icon spawns an image browser plug-in and utilizes the image key from the clinical repository to access the image server for the requested image data. The Spectrum system is collecting clinical data from five hospital systems and imaging data from two hospitals. Domain specific radiology imaging systems support the acquisition and primary interpretation of radiology exams. The spectrum clinical workstations are deployed to over 200 sites utilizing local area networks and ISDN connectivity.

  14. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  15. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  16. Optimal addition of images for detection and photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Philippe; Kochanski, Greg P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe weighting techniques used for the optimal coaddition of charge coupled devices (CCD) frames with differing characteristics. Optimal means maximum signal to noise (S/N) for stellar objects. We derive formulas for four applications: (1) object detection via matched filter, (2) object detection identical to DAOFIND, (3) aperture photometry, and (4) ALLSTAR profile-fitting photometry. We have included examples involving 21 frames for which either the sky brightness or image resolution varied by a factor of 3. The gains in S/N were modest for most of the examples, except for DAOFIND detection with varying image resolution which exhibited a substantial S/N increase. Even though the only consideration was maximizing S/N, the image resolution was seen to improve for most of the variable resolution examples. Also discussed are empirical fits for the weighting and the availability of the program, WEIGHT, used to generate the weighting for the individual frames. Finally, we include appendices describing the effects of clipping algorithms and a scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination. scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination.

  17. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions; Extension... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on food additive petitions regarding... of information technology. Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions,...

  18. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas

    1985-09-01

    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  19. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  20. Information efficiency in hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Cao, Luyin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we develop a method for assessing the information density and efficiency of hyperspectral imaging systems that have spectral bands of nonuniform width. Imaging system designs with spectral bands of nonuniform width can efficiently gather information about a scene by allocating bandwidth among the bands according to their information content. The information efficiency is the ratio of information density to data density and is a function of the scene's spectral radiance, hyperspectral system design, and signal-to-noise ratio. The assessment can be used to produce an efficient system design. For example, one approach to determining the number and width of the spectral bands for an information-efficient design is to begin with a design that has a single band and then to iteratively divide a band into two bands until no further division improves the system's efficiency. Two experiments illustrate this approach, one using a simple mathematical model for the scene spectral-radiance autocorrelation function and the other using the deterministic spectral-radiance autocorrelation function of a hyperspectral image from NASA's Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer. The approach could be used either to determine a fixed system design or to dynamically control a system with variable-width spectral bands (e.g., using on-board processing in a satellite system).

  1. Active Contours Using Additive Local and Global Intensity Fitting Models for Intensity Inhomogeneous Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Shafiullah; Kim, Jeong Heon; Soomro, Toufique Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved region based active contour method with a level set formulation. The proposed energy functional integrates both local and global intensity fitting terms in an additive formulation. Local intensity fitting term influences local force to pull the contour and confine it to object boundaries. In turn, the global intensity fitting term drives the movement of contour at a distance from the object boundaries. The global intensity term is based on the global division algorithm, which can better capture intensity information of an image than Chan-Vese (CV) model. Both local and global terms are mutually assimilated to construct an energy function based on a level set formulation to segment images with intensity inhomogeneity. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to other state-of-the-art-methods. PMID:27800011

  2. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  3. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  4. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State is taking to ensure equitable access to, and equitable participation in, the part C statewide system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require. (Approved by Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  5. Isolating contour information from arbitrary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1989-11-01

    Aspects of natural vision (physiological and perceptual) serve as a basis for attempting the development of a general processing scheme for contour extraction. Contour information is assumed to be central to visual recognition skills. While the scheme must be regarded as highly preliminary, initial results do compare favorably with the visual perception of structure. The scheme pays special attention to the construction of a smallest scale circular difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) convolution, calibration of multiscale edge detection thresholds with the visual perception of grayscale boundaries, and contour/texture discrimination methods derived from fundamental assumptions of connectivity and the characteristics of printed text. Contour information is required to fall between a minimum connectivity limit and maximum regional spatial density limit at each scale. Results support the idea that contour information, in images possessing good image quality, is (centered at about 10 cyc/deg and 30 cyc/deg). Further, lower spatial frequency channels appear to play a major role only in contour extraction from images with serious global image defects.

  6. Isolating contour information from arbitrary images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of natural vision (physiological and perceptual) serve as a basis for attempting the development of a general processing scheme for contour extraction. Contour information is assumed to be central to visual recognition skills. While the scheme must be regarded as highly preliminary, initial results do compare favorably with the visual perception of structure. The scheme pays special attention to the construction of a smallest scale circular difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) convolution, calibration of multiscale edge detection thresholds with the visual perception of grayscale boundaries, and contour/texture discrimination methods derived from fundamental assumptions of connectivity and the characteristics of printed text. Contour information is required to fall between a minimum connectivity limit and maximum regional spatial density limit at each scale. Results support the idea that contour information, in images possessing good image quality, is (centered at about 10 cyc/deg and 30 cyc/deg). Further, lower spatial frequency channels appear to play a major role only in contour extraction from images with serious global image defects.

  7. Imaged document information location and extraction using an optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, Bruce W.; Dennis, Phillip W.; Dydyk, Robert B.

    1999-12-01

    Today, the paper document is fast becoming a thing of the past. With the rapid development of fast, inexpensive computing and storage devices, many government and private organizations are archiving their documents in electronic form (e.g., personnel records, medical records, patents, etc.). Many of these organizations are converting their paper archives to electronic images, which are then stored in a computer database. Because of this, there is a need to efficiently organize this data into comprehensive and accessible information resources and provide for rapid access to the information contained within these imaged documents. To meet this need, Litton PRC and Litton Data Systems Division are developing a system, the Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS), to provide a total solution to the problem of managing and retrieving textual and graphic information from imaged document archives. At the heart of IDOCCS, optical correlation technology provide a means for the search and retrieval of information from imaged documents. IDOCCS can be used to rapidly search for key words or phrases within the imaged document archives and has the potential to determine the types of languages contained within a document. In addition, IDOCCS can automatically compare an input document with the archived database to determine if it is a duplicate, thereby reducing the overall resources required to maintain and access the document database. Embedded graphics on imaged pages can also be exploited, e.g., imaged documents containing an agency's seal or logo can be singled out. In this paper, we present a description of IDOCCS as well as preliminary performance results and theoretical projections.

  8. Extracting Structural information from Galaxy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of data from sky images is large and growing. About 1 million galaxies can be discerned in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is being built and will scan the entire sky repeatedly, providing images of millions of galaxies and petabytes of data every night. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a proposed orbiting satellite that will repeatedly map the entire sky from orbit, providing images of perhaps billions of galaxies. Unfortunately, given an image of a spiral galaxy, there does not exist an automated vision algorithm that can even tell us which direction the spiral arms wind, much less count them or provide any other quantitative information about them. To wit, the largest galaxy classification project is the Galaxy Zoo, in which thousands of human volunteers classify images by eye over the web. Although valuable, such human classifications will provide only limited objective quantitative measurements, and will soon be overwhelmed with more data than humans can handle. However, such information would prove an invaluable source for astronomers and cosmologists to test current theories of galaxy formation and cosmic evolution (which can now be simulated with high accuracy on large computers, producing copious predictions that cannot be tested due to a lack of objective, quantitative observational data). In this talk, I will report on preliminary results from dynamical grammars and other machine learning and vision techniques to "parse" images of galaxies, starting us on the road towards producing quantitative data that will be useful for astronomers to test theories.

  9. Imaging system design for improved information capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, C. L.; Huck, F. O.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Shannon's theory of information for communication channels is used to assess the performance of line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems and to optimize the design trade-offs involving sensitivity, spatial response, and sampling intervals. Formulations and computational evaluations account for spatial responses typical of line-scan and sensor-array mechanisms, lens diffraction and transmittance shading, defocus blur, and square and hexagonal sampling lattices.

  10. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  11. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial..., Table 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Additional Information for Initial Notification of... applies to you. For . . . You shall provide this additional information . . . 1. Identification...

  12. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Daniel; Turner, David A; Ankers, John; Kennedy, Stephnie; Ryan, Sheila; Swainston, Neil; Griffiths, Tony; Spiller, David G; Oliver, Stephen G; White, Michael RH; Kell, Douglas B; Paton, Norman W

    2009-01-01

    Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: PMID:19622144

  13. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction combining MR imaging with non-imaging information.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Robin; Aljabar, Paul; Hajnal, Joseph V; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    We propose a framework for the extraction of biomarkers from low-dimensional manifolds representing inter-subject brain variation. Manifold coordinates of each image capture information about structural shape and appearance and, when a phenotype exists, about the subject's clinical state. Our framework incorporates subject meta-information into the manifold learning step. Apart from gender and age, information such as genotype or a derived biomarker is often available in clinical studies and can inform the classification of a query subject. Such information, whether discrete or continuous, is used as an additional input to manifold learning, extending the Laplacian Eigenmap objective function and enriching a similarity measure derived from pairwise image similarities. The biomarkers identified with the proposed method are data-driven in contrast to a priori defined biomarkers derived from, e.g., manual or automated segmentations. They form a unified representation of both the imaging and non-imaging measurements, providing a natural use for data analysis and visualization. We test the method to classify subjects with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls enrolled in the ADNI study. Non-imaging metadata used are ApoE genotype, a risk factor associated with AD, and the CSF-concentration of Aβ(1-42), an established biomarker for AD. In addition, we use hippocampal volume as a derived imaging-biomarker to enrich the learned manifold. Our classification results compare favorably to what has been reported in a recent meta-analysis using established neuroimaging methods on the same database. PMID:22244037

  14. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, John H; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J

    2016-01-21

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice. PMID:26733349

  15. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipwell, John H.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice.

  16. Contrast enhancement algorithm considering surrounding information by illumination image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki Sun; Kang, Hee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2014-09-01

    We propose a contrast enhancement algorithm considering surrounding information by illumination image. Conventional contrast enhancement techniques can be classified as a retinex-based method and a tone mapping function-based method. However, many retinex methods suffer from high-computational costs or halo artifacts. To cope with these problems, efficient edge-preserving smoothing methods have been researched. Tone mapping function-based methods are limited in terms of enhancement since they are applied without considering surrounding information. To solve these problems, we estimate an illumination image with local adaptive smoothness, and then utilize it as surrounding information. The local adaptive smoothness is calculated by using illumination image properties and an edge-adaptive filter based on the just noticeable difference model. Additionally, we employ a resizing method instead of a blur kernel to reduce the computational cost of illumination estimation. The estimated illumination image is incorporated with the tone mapping function to address the limitations of the tone mapping function-based method. With this approach, the amount of local contrast enhancement is increased. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm enhances both global and local contrasts and produces better performance in objective evaluation metrics while preventing a halo artifact.

  17. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  18. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-08-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  19. An information gathering system for medical image inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Bajcsy, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present an information gathering system for medical image inspection that consists of software tools for capturing computer-centric and human-centric information. Computer-centric information includes (1) static annotations, such as (a) image drawings enclosing any selected area, a set of areas with similar colors, a set of salient points, and (b) textual descriptions associated with either image drawings or links between pairs of image drawings, and (2) dynamic (or temporal) information, such as mouse movements, zoom level changes, image panning and frame selections from an image stack. Human-centric information is represented by video and audio signals that are acquired by computer-mounted cameras and microphones. The short-term goal of the presented system is to facilitate learning of medical novices from medical experts, while the long-term goal is to data mine all information about image inspection for assisting in making diagnoses. In this work, we built basic software functionality for gathering computer-centric and human-centric information of the aforementioned variables. Next, we developed the information playback capabilities of all gathered information for educational purposes. Finally, we prototyped text-based and image template-based search engines to retrieve information from recorded annotations, for example, (a) find all annotations containing the word "blood vessels", or (b) search for similar areas to a selected image area. The information gathering system for medical image inspection reported here has been tested with images from the Histology Atlas database.

  20. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color... and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a color... because of the deficiencies involved: (1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted...

  1. 42 CFR 435.955 - Additional requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements regarding information... requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency. (a) Unless waived under paragraph (d) of this section, based on information received from a computerized data match in which information on...

  2. Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-05-01

    A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.

  3. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  4. Computer Human Interaction for Image Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, David Volk

    1991-01-01

    Presents an approach to developing viable image computer-human interactions (CHI) involving user metaphors for comprehending image data and methods for locating, accessing, and displaying computer images. A medical-image radiology workstation application is used as an example, and feedback and evaluation methods are discussed. (41 references) (LRW)

  5. Quantification of virtual slides: Approaches to analysis of content-based image information.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Klaus

    2011-01-07

    Virtual microscopy, which is the diagnostic work on completely digitized histological and cytological slides as well as blood smears, is at the stage to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology (tissue-based diagnosis) in the near future, once it has been accepted by the US Food and Drug Administration. The principle of content-based image information, its mandatory prerequisites to obtain reproducible and stable image information as well as the different compartments that contribute to image information are described in detail. Automated extraction of content-based image information requires shading correction, constant maximum of grey values, and standardized grey value histograms. The different compartments to evaluate image information include objects, structure, and texture. Identification of objects and derived structure depend on segmentation accuracy and applied procedures; textures contain pixel-based image information only. All together, these image compartments posses the discrimination power to distinguish between object space and background, and, in addition, to reproducibly define regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs are image areas which display the information that is of preferable interest to the viewing pathologist. They contribute to the derived diagnosis to a higher level when compared with other image areas. The implementation of content-based image information algorithms to be applied for predictive tissue-based diagnoses is described in detail.

  6. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  7. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  8. Image-gathering system design for information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Image gathering and processing are assessed in terms of information and fidelity, and the relationship between these two figures of merit is examined. It is assumed that the system is linear and isoplanatic and that the signal and noise amplitudes are Gaussian, wide-sense stationary, and statistically independent. Within these constraints, it is found that the combined process of image gathering and reconstruction (which is intended to reproduce the output of the image-gathering system) behaves as optical, or photographic, image formation in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system ordinarily does not maximize the fidelity of the reconstructed image. The combined process of image gathering and restoration (which is intended to reproduce the input of the image-gathering system) behaves more as a communication channel in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system tends to maximize the fidelity of optimally restored representations of the input.

  9. Classification Of Multi-Classed Stochastic Images Buried In Additive Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zu-Han; Lee, Sing H.

    1987-01-01

    The Optimal Correlation Filter for the discrimination or classification of multi-class stochastic images buried in additive noise is designed. We consider noise in images as the (K+1)th class of stochastic image so that the K-class with noise problem becomes a problem of (K+1)-classes: K-class without noise plus the (K+1)th class of noise. Experimental verifications with both low frequency background noise and high fre-quency shot noise show that the new filter design is reliable.

  10. Determination of detergent and dispensant additives in gasoline by ring-oven and near infrared hypespectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues e Brito, Lívia; da Silva, Michelle P F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Pasquini, Celio; Honorato, Fernanda A; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda

    2015-03-10

    A method using the ring-oven technique for pre-concentration in filter paper discs and near infrared hyperspectral imaging is proposed to identify four detergent and dispersant additives, and to determine their concentration in gasoline. Different approaches were used to select the best image data processing in order to gather the relevant spectral information. This was attained by selecting the pixels of the region of interest (ROI), using a pre-calculated threshold value of the PCA scores arranged as histograms, to select the spectra set; summing up the selected spectra to achieve representativeness; and compensating for the superimposed filter paper spectral information, also supported by scores histograms for each individual sample. The best classification model was achieved using linear discriminant analysis and genetic algorithm (LDA/GA), whose correct classification rate in the external validation set was 92%. Previous classification of the type of additive present in the gasoline is necessary to define the PLS model required for its quantitative determination. Considering that two of the additives studied present high spectral similarity, a PLS regression model was constructed to predict their content in gasoline, while two additional models were used for the remaining additives. The results for the external validation of these regression models showed a mean percentage error of prediction varying from 5 to 15%.

  11. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  12. Additional value of biplane transoesophageal imaging in assessment of mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Groundstroem, K; Rittoo, D; Hoffman, P; Bloomfield, P; Sutherland, G R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether biplane transoesophageal imaging offers advantages in the evaluation of mitral prostheses when compared with standard single transverse plane imaging or the precordial approach in suspected prosthetic dysfunction. DESIGN--Prospective mitral valve prosthesis in situ using precordial and biplane transoesophageal ultrasonography. SETTING--Tertiary cardiac referral centre. SUBJECTS--67 consecutive patients with suspected dysfunction of a mitral valve prosthesis (16 had bioprostheses and 51 mechanical prostheses) who underwent precordial, transverse plane, and biplane transoesophageal echocardiography. Correlative invasive confirmation from surgery or angiography, or both, was available in 44 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number, type, and site of leak according to the three means of scanning. RESULTS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging alone identified all 31 medial/lateral paravalvar leaks but only 24/30 of the anterior/posterior leaks. Combining the information from both imaging planes confirmed that biplane scanning identified all paravalvar leaks. Five of the six patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis, all three with valvar thrombus or obstruction, and all three with mitral annulus rupture were diagnosed from transverse plane imaging alone. Longitudinal plane imaging alone enabled diagnosis of the remaining case of prosthetic endocarditis and a further case of subvalvar pannus formation. CONCLUSIONS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging was superior to the longitudinal imaging in identifying medial and lateral lesions around the sewing ring of a mitral valve prosthesis. Longitudinal plane imaging was superior in identifying anterior and posterior lesions. Biplane imaging is therefore an important development in the study of mitral prosthesis function. Images PMID:8398497

  13. Registering multiple medical images using the shared chain mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Yi

    2007-07-01

    A new approach to the simultaneous registration of multiple medical images is proposed using shared chain mutual information (SCMI) as the matching measure. The presented method applies SCMI to measure the shared information between the multiple images. Registration is achieved by adjusting the relative position of the floating image until the SCMI between all the images is maximized. Using this measure, we registered three and four simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images using downhill simplex optimization to search for the optimal transformation parameters. Accuracy and validity of the proposed method for multiple-image registration are testified by comparing the results with that of two-image registration. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is validated by registering the real ultrasonic image sequence.

  14. Surface-enhanced hyper-Raman and Raman hyperspectral mapping† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, hierarchical cluster analysis of SEHRS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp01625a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gühlke, Marina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    We investigate distributions of crystal violet and malachite green on plasmonic surfaces by principal component analysis (PCA) imaging of surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS) data. As a two-photon excited Raman scattering process, SEHRS provides chemical structure information based on molecular vibrations, but follows different selection rules than the normal, one-photon excited surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Therefore, simultaneous hyperspectral mapping using SEHRS excited at 1064 nm and SERS excited at 532 nm improves spatially resolved multivariate discrimination based on complementary vibrational information. The possibility to map distributions of the structurally similar dyes crystal violet and malachite green demonstrates the potential of this approach for multiplex imaging of complex systems. PMID:27166200

  15. Software Helps Extract Information From Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Booth; Ebert, Rick; Laughlin, Gaylin

    1995-01-01

    PAC Skyview 2.0 is interactive program for display and analysis of astronomical images. Includes large set of functions for display, analysis and manipulation of images. "Man" pages with descriptions of functions and examples of usage included. Skyview used interactively or in "server" mode, in which another program calls Skyview and executes commands itself. Skyview capable of reading image data files of four types, including those in FITS, S, IRAF, and Z formats. Written in C.

  16. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis. PMID:27526188

  17. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  18. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  19. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  20. Content Based Image Retrieval and Information Theory: A General Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.; Barhen, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an alternative real valued representation of color based on the information theoretic concept of entropy. A theoretical presentation of image entropy is accompanied by a practical description of the merits and limitations of image entropy compared to color histograms. Results suggest that image entropy is a promising approach to image…

  1. Image Representation and Interactivity: An Exploration of Utility Values, Information-Needs and Image Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elise C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationships between users and interactive images. Three factors were identified and provided different perspectives on how users interact with images: image utility, information-need, and images with varying levels of interactivity. The study used a mixed methodology to gain a more comprehensive…

  2. Imaging for dismantlement verification: information management and analysis algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-09-01

    The level of detail discernible in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes. An image will almost certainly contain highly sensitive information, and storing a comparison image will almost certainly violate a cardinal principle of information barriers: that no sensitive information be stored in the system. To overcome this problem, some features of the image might be reduced to a few parameters suitable for definition as an attribute. However, this process must be performed with care. Computing the perimeter, area, and intensity of an object, for example, might reveal sensitive information relating to shape, size, and material composition. This paper presents three analysis algorithms that reduce full image information to non-sensitive feature information. Ultimately, the algorithms are intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying the presence of features in the image. We evaluate the algorithms on both their technical performance in image analysis, and their application with and without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The underlying images can be highly detailed, since they are dynamically generated behind the information barrier. We consider the use of active (conventional) radiography alone and in tandem with passive (auto) radiography.

  3. Information-Adaptive Image Encoding and Restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1998-01-01

    The multiscale retinex with color restoration (MSRCR) has shown itself to be a very versatile automatic image enhancement algorithm that simultaneously provides dynamic range compression, color constancy, and color rendition. A number of algorithms exist that provide one or more of these features, but not all. In this paper we compare the performance of the MSRCR with techniques that are widely used for image enhancement. Specifically, we compare the MSRCR with color adjustment methods such as gamma correction and gain/offset application, histogram modification techniques such as histogram equalization and manual histogram adjustment, and other more powerful techniques such as homomorphic filtering and 'burning and dodging'. The comparison is carried out by testing the suite of image enhancement methods on a set of diverse images. We find that though some of these techniques work well for some of these images, only the MSRCR performs universally well oil the test set.

  4. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach

  5. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  6. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  7. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners.

  8. Extraction of spatial information from remotely sensed image data - an example: gloria sidescan sonar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, Pat S., Jr.; Gardner, James V.

    1994-01-01

    A method to extract spatial amplitude and variability information from remotely sensed digital imaging data is presented. High Pass Filters (HPFs) are used to compute both a Spatial Amplitude Image/Index (SAI) and Spatial Variability Image/Index (SVI) at the local, intermediate, and regional scales. Used as input to principal component analysis and automatic clustering classification, the results indicate that spatial information at scales other than local is useful in the analysis of remotely sensed data. The resultant multi-spatial data set allows the user to study and analyze an image based more on the complete spatial characteristics of an image than only local textural information.

  9. A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hua; Todd, Naomi M; Devlin-Mullin, Aine; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Kim, Taek Bo; Madi, Kamel; Cartmell, Sarah; Mitchell, Christopher A; Jones, Julian R; Lee, Peter D

    2016-06-01

    A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants.

  10. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  11. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  12. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  13. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  14. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography. PMID:27140357

  15. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Boye, Clinton A.; Grotbeck, Carter L.; Stallard, Brian R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  16. Retaining local image information in gamut mapping algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zolliker, Peter; Simon, Klaus

    2007-03-01

    Our topic is the potential of combining global gamut mapping with spatial methods to retain the percepted local image information in gamut mapping algorithms. The main goal is to recover the original local contrast between neighboring pixels in addition to the usual optimization of preserving lightness, saturation, and global contrast. Special emphasis is placed on avoiding artifacts introduced by the gamut mapping algorithm itself. We present an unsharp masking technique based on an edge-preserving smoothing algorithm allowing to avoid halo artifacts. The good performance of the presented approach is verified by a psycho-visual experiment using newspaper printing as a representative of a small destination gamut application. Furthermore, the improved mapping properties are documented with local mapping histograms. PMID:17357727

  17. Three-dimensional microwave imaging with incorporated prior structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, Amir H.; Meaney, Paul M.; Epstein, Neil R.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-03-01

    Microwave imaging for biomedical applications, especially for early detection of breast cancer and effective treatment monitoring, has attracted increasing interest in last several decades. This fact is due to the high contrast between the dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues at microwave frequencies. The available range of dielectric properties for different soft tissue can provide important functional information about tissue health. Nonetheless, one of the limiting weaknesses of microwave imaging is that unlike conventional modalities, such as X-ray CT or MRI, it inherently cannot provide high-resolution images. The conventional modalities can produce highly resolved anatomical information but often cannot provide the functional information required for diagnoses. Previously, we have developed a regularization strategy that can incorporate prior anatomical information from MR or other sources and use it in a way to refine the resolution of the microwave images, while also retaining the functional nature of the reconstructed property values. In the present work, we extend the use of prior structural information in microwave imaging from 2D to 3D. This extra dimension adds a significant layer of complexity to the entire image reconstruction procedure. In this paper, several challenges with respect to the 3D microwave imaging will be discussed and the results of a series of 3D simulation and phantom experiments with prior structural information will be studied.

  18. Focal masses in a non-cirrhotic liver: The additional benefit of CEUS over baseline imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, L; Cantisani, V; Jenssen, C; Sidhu, P S; Baum, U; Dietrich, C F

    2015-09-01

    Incidentally detected focal liver lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice presenting a challenge in the daily department work flow. Guidelines for the management of incidental focal liver lesions have been published but comments, illustrations and recommendations regarding practical issues are crucial. The unique features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in non-invasive assessment of focal liver lesion enhancement throughout the vascular phases in real-time has allowed an impressive improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound. We highlight the additional benefit of contrast-enhanced ultrasound over conventional B-mode ultrasound imaging in detection, characterization, differential and final diagnosis of focal liver lesions, as well as for liver metastases screening. The current roles of cross-sectional imaging are explained in detail, with indications and limitations for each procedure. The advantages of CEUS, such as non-ionizing radiation exposure, cost benefits, non-iodinate contrast agents, and repeatability are also described ultimately improving patient management.

  19. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  20. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.15...

  1. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  2. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  3. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  4. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  5. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  6. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  7. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  8. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  9. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  10. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  11. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing...

  12. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  13. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  14. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  15. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  16. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  20. A study on information hiding technology in image encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Yao, Zhihai; Wu, Haitao; Dai, Qiang

    2005-02-01

    Information hiding is a new technology which integrates with theories and technologies of many academic and technical subjects. For information hiding, digital media are used as the carrier of the information to be hidden. The carrier conceals secret messages by covering the form of their existence. In this paper, we briefly introduce the definition, basic models and basic characters of information hiding. The application and research trends for information hiding system are concerned. The information hiding technology based on digital image processing is closely related to human vision system. When the messages are having been concealed, the human eyes are due to verify the existence of hiding messages. That is, the status of information coverage depends on the human vision system. It is obvious that the characteristics of human vision system is to be taken advantage. The added secrete information in the digital image should have no any effect onto human eyes. In our research work, an implementation of information hiding technology system which is based on digital image encoding is proposed. First by analyzing knowledge of digital image processing and the model of human vision system, we discussed the algorithm of time domain appending method and the algorithm of substitution of lease significant bit. Secondly, we analyzed theory and algorithms of 2-D discrete wavelet transform and frequency domain algorithm based on discrete wavelet transformation. Carefully design software for information hiding based on digital image using Microsoft Visual C++6.0 is implemented. The communication with hiding messages may use any format of images such as BMP. It is proved to be an effective application.

  1. Local Stereo Matching Based on Information Entropy of Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yingnan

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive support-window algorithm is one of the simplest local algorithms for stereo matching. An important problem for adaptive support-window algorithm is to determine the appropriate support-window size, which is always hard to do and limits the validity of adaptive support-window algorithm. An appropriate support-window size must be selected adaptively based on image features. In this paper, information entropy of image is defined for stereo matching in the RGB vector space. Based on adaptive support-window, a new support-window selection algorithm, which uses information entropy of image to quantify image features such as illumination color and number of object contained in an image, is proposed. Experimental results evaluated on the Middlebury stereo benchmark show that our algorithm outperforms the conventional adaptive support-window algorithms.

  2. Image analysis by integration of disparate information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoigne, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    Image analysis often starts with some preliminary segmentation which provides a representation of the scene needed for further interpretation. Segmentation can be performed in several ways, which are categorized as pixel based, edge-based, and region-based. Each of these approaches are affected differently by various factors, and the final result may be improved by integrating several or all of these methods, thus taking advantage of their complementary nature. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates pixel-based and edge-based results by utilizing an iterative relaxation technique. This approach has been implemented on a massively parallel computer and tested on some remotely sensed imagery from the Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor.

  3. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  4. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  5. Information efficiency of line-scan imaging mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Halyo, N.

    1981-01-01

    Information theory is used to formulate a single figure of merit for assessing the performance of line-scan imaging systems as a function of their spatial response (PSF or MTF), sensitivity, and sampling and quantization intervals and of the statistical properties of a random radiance field. Information density and efficiency (i.e., the ratio of information density to data density) tend to be optimum when the MTF and sampling passband of the imaging system are matched to the Wiener spectrum of the radiance field. Computational results for the statistical properties of natural radiance fields and the responses of common line-scan imaging mechanisms indicate that information density and efficiency are not strongly sensitive to variations in typical statistical properties of the radiance field and that the best practically realizable performance is approached when the sampling intervals are approximately 0.5-0.7 times the equivalent diameter of the PSF.

  6. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6223(c)-1 - Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as... additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However...) of this section. (f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to...

  8. Distributed health care imaging information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Mary R.; Johnston, William E.; Guojun, Jin; Lee, Jason; Tierney, Brian; Terdiman, Joseph F.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed an ATM network-based system to collect and catalogue cardio-angiogram videos from the source at a Kaiser central facility and make them available for viewing by doctors at primary care Kaiser facilities. This an example of the general problem of diagnostic data being generated at tertiary facilities, while the images, or other large data objects they produce, need to be used from a variety of other locations such as doctor's offices or local hospitals. We describe the use of a highly distributed computing and storage architecture to provide all aspects of collecting, storing, analyzing, and accessing such large data-objects in a metropolitan area ATM network. Our large data-object management system provides network interface between the object sources, the data management system and the user of the data. As the data is being stored, a cataloguing system automatically creates and stores condensed versions of the data, textural metadata and pointers to the original data. The catalogue system provides a Web-based graphical interface to the data. The user is able the view the low-resolution data with a standard Internet connection and Web browser. If high-resolution is required, a high-speed connection and special application programs can be used to view the high-resolution original data.

  9. IP-based storage of image information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xianglin; Xie, Changsheng; Liu, Zhaobin

    2001-09-01

    With the fast growth of data in multispectral image processing, the traditional storage architecture was challenged. It is currently being replaced by Storage Area Networks (SAN), which makes storage devices externalized from servers. A SAN is a separate network for storage, isolated from the messaging network and optimized for the movement of data between servers and storage devices. Nowadays, most of current SAN use Fibre Channel to move data between servers and storage devices (FC-SAN), but because of the drawbacks of the FC-SAN: for interoperability, lack of skilled professional and management tools, high implementation cost and so on, the development and application of FC-SAN was obstructed. In this paper, we introduce an IP-based Storage Area Networks architecture, which has the good qualities of FC- SAN but overcomes the shortcoming of it. The principle is: use IP technology to move data between servers and storage devices, build a SAN with the IP-based network devices (not the FC-based network device), and through the switch, SAN is attached to the LAN(Local Area Network) through multiple access. Especially, these storage devices are acted as commercial NAS devices and PC.

  10. Information-theoretic assessment of imaging systems via data compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano

    2001-12-01

    This work focuses on estimating the information conveyed to a user by either multispectral or hyperspectral image data. The goal is establishing the extent to which an increase in spectral resolution can increase the amount of usable information. As a matter of fact, a tradeoff exists between spatial and spectral resolution, due to physical constraints of sensors imaging with a prefixed SNR. Lossless data compression is exploited to measure the useful information content. In fact, the bit rate achieved by the reversible compression process takes into account both the contribution of the observation noise i.e., information regarded as statistical uncertainty, the relevance of which is null to a user, and the intrinsic information of hypothetically noise-free data. An entropic model of the image source is defined and, once the standard deviation of the noise, assumed to be Gaussian and possibly nonwhite, has been preliminarily estimated, such a model is inverted to yield an estimate of the information content of the noise-free source from the code rate. Results both of noise and of information assessment are reported and discussed on synthetic noisy images, on Landsat TM data, and on AVIRIS data.

  11. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  12. The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakrison, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.

  13. Incorporating Adaptive Local Information Into Fuzzy Clustering for Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoying; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Aimin

    2015-11-01

    Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering with spatial constraints has attracted great attention in the field of image segmentation. However, most of the popular techniques fail to resolve misclassification problems due to the inaccuracy of their spatial models. This paper presents a new unsupervised FCM-based image segmentation method by paying closer attention to the selection of local information. In this method, region-level local information is incorporated into the fuzzy clustering procedure to adaptively control the range and strength of interactive pixels. First, a novel dissimilarity function is established by combining region-based and pixel-based distance functions together, in order to enhance the relationship between pixels which have similar local characteristics. Second, a novel prior probability function is developed by integrating the differences between neighboring regions into the mean template of the fuzzy membership function, which adaptively selects local spatial constraints by a tradeoff weight depending upon whether a pixel belongs to a homogeneous region or not. Through incorporating region-based information into the spatial constraints, the proposed method strengthens the interactions between pixels within the same region and prevents over smoothing across region boundaries. Experimental results over synthetic noise images, natural color images, and synthetic aperture radar images show that the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results, compared with five state-of-the-art image segmentation methods.

  14. Microwave imaging of the breast with incorporated structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, Amir H.; Meaney, Paul M.; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-03-01

    Microwave imaging for biomedical applications, especially for early detection of breast cancer and effective treatment monitoring, has attracted increasing interest in last several decades. This fact is due to the high contrast between the dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues at microwave frequencies ranging from high megahertz to low gigahertz. The available range of dielectric properties for different soft tissue can provide considerable functional information about tissue health. Nonetheless, one of the limiting weaknesses of microwave imaging is, unlike that for conventional modalities such as X-ray CT or MRI, it cannot inherently provide high-resolution images. The conventional modalities can produce highly resolved anatomical information but often cannot provide the functional information required for diagnoses. We have developed a soft prior regularization strategy that can incorporate the prior anatomical information from X-ray CT, MR or other sources, and use it in a way to exploit the resolution of these images while also retaining the functional nature of the microwave images. The anatomical information is first used to create an imaging zone mesh, which segments separate internal substructures, and an associated weighting matrix that numerically groups the values of closely related nodes within the mesh. This information is subsequently used as a regularizing term for the Gauss-Newton reconstruction algorithm. This approach exploits existing technology in a systematic way without making potentially biased assumptions about the properties of visible structures. In this paper we continue our initial investigation on this matter with a series of breast-shaped simulation and phantom experiments.

  15. Organising multi-dimensional biological image information: the BioImage Database.

    PubMed

    Carazo, J M; Stelzer, E H; Engel, A; Fita, I; Henn, C; Machtynger, J; McNeil, P; Shotton, D M; Chagoyen, M; de Alarcón, P A; Fritsch, R; Heymann, J B; Kalko, S; Pittet, J J; Rodriguez-Tomé, P; Boudier, T

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays it is possible to unravel complex information at all levels of cellular organization by obtaining multi-dimensional image information. At the macromolecular level, three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy, together with other techniques, is able to reach resolutions at the nanometer or subnanometer level. The information is delivered in the form of 3D volumes containing samples of a given function, for example, the electron density distribution within a given macromolecule. The same situation happens at the cellular level with the new forms of light microscopy, particularly confocal microscopy, all of which produce biological 3D volume information. Furthermore, it is possible to record sequences of images over time (videos), as well as sequences of volumes, bringing key information on the dynamics of living biological systems. It is in this context that work on BioImage started two years ago, and that its first version is now presented here. In essence, BioImage is a database specifically designed to contain multi-dimensional images, perform queries and interactively work with the resulting multi-dimensional information on the World Wide Web, as well as accomplish the required cross-database links. Two sister home pages of BioImage can be accessed at http://www. bioimage.org and http://www-embl.bioimage.org

  16. Information-Theoretic Assessment of Sample Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1999-01-01

    By rigorously extending modern communication theory to the assessment of sampled imaging systems, we develop the formulations that are required to optimize the performance of these systems within the critical constraints of image gathering, data transmission, and image display. The goal of this optimization is to produce images with the best possible visual quality for the wide range of statistical properties of the radiance field of natural scenes that one normally encounters. Extensive computational results are presented to assess the performance of sampled imaging systems in terms of information rate, theoretical minimum data rate, and fidelity. Comparisons of this assessment with perceptual and measurable performance demonstrate that (1) the information rate that a sampled imaging system conveys from the captured radiance field to the observer is closely correlated with the fidelity, sharpness and clarity with which the observed images can be restored and (2) the associated theoretical minimum data rate is closely correlated with the lowest data rate with which the acquired signal can be encoded for efficient transmission.

  17. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  18. Comparison of information-preserving and information-losing data-compression algorithms for CT images.

    PubMed

    Bramble, J M

    1989-02-01

    Data compression increases the number of images that can be stored on magnetic disks or tape and reduces the time required for transmission of images between stations. Two algorithms for data compression are compared in application to computed tomographic (CT) images. The first, an information-preserving algorithm combining differential and Huffman encoding, allows reconstruction of the original image. A second algorithm alters the image in a clinically acceptable manner. This second algorithm combines two processes: the suppression of data outside of the head or body and the combination of differential and Huffman encoding. Because the final image is not an exact copy, the second algorithm is information losing. Application of the information-preserving algorithm can double or triple the number of CT images that can be stored on hard disk or magnetic tape. This algorithm may also double or triple the speed with which images may be transmitted. The information-losing algorithm can increase storage or transmission speed by a factor of five. The computation time on this system is excessive, but dedicated hardware is available to allow efficient implementation.

  19. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  20. 20 CFR 30.518 - Can OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... overpayment to submit additional financial information? 30.518 Section 30.518 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information? (a) The recipient of the overpayment is responsible for providing information about income, expenses and assets...

  1. Incorporating global information in feature-based multimodal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Stevenson, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A multimodal image registration framework based on searching the best matched keypoints and the incorporation of global information is proposed. It comprises two key elements: keypoint detection and an iterative process. Keypoints are detected from both the reference and test images. For each test keypoint, a number of reference keypoints are chosen as mapping candidates. A triplet of keypoint mappings determine an affine transformation that is evaluated using a similarity metric between the reference image and the transformed test image by the determined transformation. An iterative process is conducted on triplets of keypoint mappings, keeping track of the best matched reference keypoint. Random sample consensus and mutual information are applied to eliminate outlier keypoint mappings. The similarity metric is defined to be the number of overlapped edge pixels over the entire images, allowing for global information to be incorporated in the evaluation of triplets of mappings. The performance of the framework is investigated with keypoints extracted by scale invariant feature transform and partial intensity invariant feature descriptor. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can provide more accurate registration than existing methods.

  2. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically ''important'' areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/MVCT image sets. The

  3. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  4. Robust kernelized local information fuzzy C-means clustering for brain magnetic resonance image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Elazab, Ahmed; AbdulAzeem, Yousry M; Wu, Shiqian; Hu, Qingmao

    2016-03-17

    Brain tissue segmentation from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an importance task for clinical use. The segmentation process becomes more challenging in the presence of noise, grayscale inhomogeneity, and other image artifacts. In this paper, we propose a robust kernelized local information fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (RKLIFCM). It incorporates local information into the segmentation process (both grayscale and spatial) for more homogeneous segmentation. In addition, the Gaussian radial basis kernel function is adopted as a distance metric to replace the standard Euclidean distance. The main advantages of the new algorithm are: efficient utilization of local grayscale and spatial information, robustness to noise, ability to preserve image details, free from any parameter initialization, and with high speed as it runs on image histogram. We compared the proposed algorithm with 7 soft clustering algorithms that run on both image histogram and image pixels to segment brain MR images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed RKLIFCM algorithm is able to overcome the influence of noise and achieve higher segmentation accuracy with low computational complexity. PMID:27257884

  5. Information Seeking Behavior in Digital Image Collections: A Cognitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matusiak, Krystyna K.

    2006-01-01

    Presents the results of a qualitative study that focuses on search patterns of college students and community users interacting with a digital image collection. The study finds a distinct difference between the two groups of users and examines the role of mental models in information seeking behavior in digital libraries.

  6. A highly selective fluorogenic probe for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Structures and characterisation for all MK compounds. Full characterisation data (NMR, HR-MS) for all SODO derivatives. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc00095a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Er, Jun Cheng; Jiang, Hao; Li, Xin; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ramezani, Thomas; Feng, Yi; Tang, Mui Kee; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is an essential enzyme that protects tissue from oxidative damage. Herein we report the first fluorogenic probe (SODO) for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn SOD. SODO represents a unique chemical probe for translational imaging studies of Cu/Zn SOD in inflammatory disorders. PMID:26940443

  7. Lossless compression of multispectral images using spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Shi, Zelin; Tang, Xusheng

    2009-10-01

    Multispectral images are available for different purposes due to developments in spectral imaging systems. The sizes of multispectral images are enormous. Thus transmission and storage of these volumes of data require huge time and memory resources. That is why compression algorithms must be developed. A salient property of multispectral images is that strong spectral correlation exists throughout almost all bands. This fact is successfully used to predict each band based on the previous bands. We propose to use spectral linear prediction and entropy coding with context modeling for encoding multispectral images. Linear prediction predicts the value for the next sample and computes the difference between predicted value and the original value. This difference is usually small, so it can be encoded with less its than the original value. The technique implies prediction of each image band by involving number of bands along the image spectra. Each pixel is predicted using information provided by pixels in the previous bands in the same spatial position. As done in the JPEG-LS, the proposed coder also represents the mapped residuals by using an adaptive Golomb-Rice code with context modeling. This residual coding is context adaptive, where the context used for the current sample is identified by a context quantization function of the three gradients. Then, context-dependent Golomb-Rice code and bias parameters are estimated sample by sample. The proposed scheme was compared with three algorithms applied to the lossless compression of multispectral images, namely JPEG-LS, Rice coding, and JPEG2000. Simulation tests performed on AVIRIS images have demonstrated that the proposed compression scheme is suitable for multispectral images.

  8. Random sets technique for information fusion applied to estimation of brain functional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Therese M.; Kelly, Patrick A.

    1999-05-01

    A new mathematical technique for information fusion based on random sets, developed and described by Goodman, Mahler and Nguyen (The Mathematics of Data Fusion, Kluwer, 1997) can be useful for estimation of functional brian images. Many image estimation algorithms employ prior models that incorporate general knowledge about sizes, shapes and locations of brain regions. Recently, algorithms have been proposed using specific prior knowledge obtained from other imaging modalities (for example, Bowsher, et al., IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, 1996). However, there is more relevant information than is presently used. A technique that permits use of additional prior information about activity levels would improve the quality of prior models, and hence, of the resulting image estimate. The use of random sets provides this capability because it allows seemingly non-statistical (or ambiguous) information such as that contained in inference rules to be represented and combined with observations in a single statistical model, corresponding to a global joint density. This paper illustrates the use of this approach by constructing an example global joint density function for brain functional activity from measurements of functional activity, anatomical information, clinical observations and inference rules. The estimation procedure is tested on a data phantom with Poisson noise.

  9. Information-Theoretic Dictionary Learning for Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiang; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-stage approach for learning dictionaries for object classification tasks based on the principle of information maximization. The proposed method seeks a dictionary that is compact, discriminative, and generative. In the first stage, dictionary atoms are selected from an initial dictionary by maximizing the mutual information measure on dictionary compactness, discrimination and reconstruction. In the second stage, the selected dictionary atoms are updated for improved reconstructive and discriminative power using a simple gradient ascent algorithm on mutual information. Experiments using real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for image classification tasks.

  10. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  11. Accessible and informative sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-07-01

    The sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver head in the Visible Korean Project would be more beneficial if they were accessible and informative. To this aim, 3 policies were established: (1) the data are promptly obtainable and observable; (2) the graphic data are accompanied by explaining the anatomic terms; and (3) two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models are shown together. According to the policies, the following were attempted. Two hundred thirty-five couples of sectioned images and outlined images (intervals, 1 mm) of the head were prepared. Browsing software was developed where the 2 corresponding images were displayed simultaneously. In addition, the structures in the images were recognized with the aid of automatic labeling. From the outlined images, surface models of 178 head structures were constructed. The two-dimensional surface models including the sectioned images were embedded into the three-dimensional surface models. All the models were categorized into systems and arranged to be inputted to a PDF (portable document format) file. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive head data could be explored on Adobe Reader. If the user clicked on the surface models, their anatomic names were highlighted. The sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models in the browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) free of charge. The state-of-the-art graphic information will hopefully assist medical students in learning head anatomy. In addition, the raw data are expected to contribute to the various clinical practice simulations. PMID:22801119

  12. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  13. Managing medical images and clinical information: InCor's experience.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Sergio S; Rebelo, Marina S; Moreno, Ramon A; Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; Motta, Gustavo H M B; Pires, Fabio A; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    Patients usually get medical assistance in several clinics and hospitals during their lifetime, archiving vital information in a dispersed way. Clearly, a proper patient care should take into account that information in order to check for incompatibilities, avoid unnecessary exams, and get relevant clinical history. The Heart Institute (InCor) of São Paulo, Brazil, has been committed to the goal of integrating all exams and clinical information within the institution and other hospitals. Since InCor is one of the six institutes of the University of São Paulo Medical School and each institute has its own information system, exchanging information among the institutes is also a very important aspect that has been considered. In the last few years, a system for transmission, archiving, retrieval, processing, and visualization of medical images integrated with a hospital information system has been successfully created and constitutes the InCor's electronic patient record (EPR). This work describes the experience in the effort to develop a functional and comprehensive EPR, which includes laboratory exams, images (static, dynamic, and three dimensional), clinical reports, documents, and even real-time vital signals. A security policy based on a contextual role-based access control model was implemented to regulate user's access to EPR. Currently, more than 10 TB of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images have been stored using the proposed architecture and the EPR stores daily more than 11 GB of integrated data. The proposed storage subsystem allows 6 months of visibility for rapid retrieval and more than two years for automatic retrieval using a jukebox. This paper addresses also a prototype for the integration of distributed and heterogeneous EPR.

  14. Principles and satellite applications of the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.R.; Gentry, S.M.; Sweatt, W.C.; Motomatsu, S.E.; Boye, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    Remote sensing by satellite is increasingly important to the national government for treaty verification, battlefield monitoring, and other activities. In addition, civilian oriented applications are increasing in areas such as geology, meteorology, ecology, forestry, and agriculture. Spectral imaging sensors, an important subclass of satellite-borne sensors, have been shown to provide information far superior to that of conventional panchromatic images in many of these applications. However, spectral imaging adds at least two challenges to the already difficult task of viewing the earth from a distance of hundreds of kilometers. First, with numerous spectral channels, the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased in any one channel. Second the data rates of spectral imaging sensors (10 Mbytes/sec, or more) stress the limits of the electronic systems, including the onboard data storage, the downlink bandwidth, and the earthbound image analysis system. This report describes a new concept which the authors have dubbed the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor (ISIS) which addresses these two problems. In addition, it offers the promise of nearly real-time identification of targets.

  15. A partition-based active contour model incorporating local information for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiao; Wu, Jiaji; Paul, Anand; Jiao, Licheng; Gong, Maoguo

    2014-01-01

    Active contour models are always designed on the assumption that images are approximated by regions with piecewise-constant intensities. This assumption, however, cannot be satisfied when describing intensity inhomogeneous images which frequently occur in real world images and induced considerable difficulties in image segmentation. A milder assumption that the image is statistically homogeneous within different local regions may better suit real world images. By taking local image information into consideration, an enhanced active contour model is proposed to overcome difficulties caused by intensity inhomogeneity. In addition, according to curve evolution theory, only the region near contour boundaries is supposed to be evolved in each iteration. We try to detect the regions near contour boundaries adaptively for satisfying the requirement of curve evolution theory. In the proposed method, pixels within a selected region near contour boundaries have the opportunity to be updated in each iteration, which enables the contour to be evolved gradually. Experimental results on synthetic and real world images demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model when dealing with intensity inhomogeneity images.

  16. Mutual information as a measure of image quality for 3D dynamic lung imaging with EIT

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, M G; Davidson, J L; Little, R; Wright, P; Morgan, A R; Miller, C A; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R; McCann, H; Lionheart, W R B

    2014-01-01

    We report on a pilot study of dynamic lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second (fps) were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a 3D finite element model extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, 3D Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction. PMID:24710978

  17. Remote Sensing Image Classification Applied to the First National Geographical Information Census of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Wen, Zongyong; Zhu, Zhaorong; Xia, Qiang; Shun, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN) to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC) in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.

  18. Image encryption using random sequence generated from generalized information domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia-Yan, Zhang; Guo-Ji, Zhang; Xuan, Li; Ya-Zhou, Ren; Jie-Hua, Wu

    2016-05-01

    A novel image encryption method based on the random sequence generated from the generalized information domain and permutation–diffusion architecture is proposed. The random sequence is generated by reconstruction from the generalized information file and discrete trajectory extraction from the data stream. The trajectory address sequence is used to generate a P-box to shuffle the plain image while random sequences are treated as keystreams. A new factor called drift factor is employed to accelerate and enhance the performance of the random sequence generator. An initial value is introduced to make the encryption method an approximately one-time pad. Experimental results show that the random sequences pass the NIST statistical test with a high ratio and extensive analysis demonstrates that the new encryption scheme has superior security.

  19. A novel information transferring approach for the classification of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xu, Lizhong; Shen, Jie; Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remote sensing images classification methods focused on using a large amount of labeled target data to train an efficient classification model. However, these approaches were generally based on the target data without considering a host of auxiliary data or the additional information of auxiliary data. If the valuable information from auxiliary data could be successfully transferred to the target data, the performance of the classification model would be improved. In addition, from the perspective of practical application, these valuable information from auxiliary data should be fully used. Therefore, in this paper, based on the transfer learning idea, we proposed a novel information transferring approach to improve the remote sensing images classification performance. The main rationale of this approach is that first, the information of the same areas associated with each pixel is modeled as the intra-class set, and the information of different areas associated with each pixel is modeled as the inter-class set, and then the obtained texture feature information of each area from auxiliary is transferred to the target data set such that the inter-class set is separated and intra-class set is gathered as far as possible. Experiments show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  20. Functional imaging as an indicator of diagnostic information in cardiac magnetic-resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Joseph W.; Andrews, Lee T.; Begeman, Michael S.; Zeiss, Jacob; Leighton, Richard F.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the human heart provide three dimensional geometric information about the location of cardiac structures throughout the cardiac cycle. Analysis of this four dimensional data set allows detection of abnormal cardiac function related to the presence of coronary artery disease. To assist in this analysis, quantitative measurements of cardiac performance are made from the MR data including ejection fractions, regional wall motion and myocardial wall thickening. Analysis of cardiac performance provided by quantitative analysis of MR data can be aided by computer graphics presentation techniques. Two and three dimensional functional images are computed to indicate regions of abnormality based on the previous methods. The two dimensional images are created using color graphics overlays on the original MR image to represent performance. Polygon surface modeling techniques are used to represent data which is three dimensional, such as blood pool volumes. The surface of these images are color encoded by regional ejection fraction, wall motion or wall thickening. A functional image sequence is constructed at each phase of the cardiac cycle and displayed as a movie loop for review by the physician. Selection of a region on the functional image allows visual interpretation of the original MR images, graphical plots of cardiac function and tabular results. Color encoding is based on absolute measurements and comparison to standard normal templates of cardiac performance.

  1. Application of Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization to Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Additives in Polymer Films

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Ryo; Yamoto, Yoshinari; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the application of tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization (t-SPESI) to mass spectrometry imaging of industrial materials. The t-SPESI parameters including tapping solvent composition, solvent flow rate, number of tapping at each spot, and step-size were optimized using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to improve mass spectrometry (MS) imaging of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and additives in polymer films. Spatial resolution of approximately 100 μm was achieved by t-SPESI imaging mass spectrometry using a fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d., 150 μm o.d.) with the flow rate set at 0.2 μL/min. This allowed us to obtain discriminable MS imaging profiles of three dyes separated by TLC and the additive stripe pattern of a PMMA model film depleted by UV irradiation. PMID:26819894

  2. Hyperspectral image classification by collaboration of spatial and spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu-zhou; Zhao, Yongqiang; Xue, Hui-feng; Kou, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yuanzheng

    2009-07-01

    The classification of hyperspectral image data has drawn much attention in recent years. Consequently, it contains not only spectral information of objects, but also spatial arrangement of objects. The most established Hyperspectral classifiers are based on the observed spectral signal, and ignore the spatial relations among observations. Information captured in neighboring locations may provide useful supplementary knowledge for analysis. To combine the spectral and spatial information in the classification process, in this paper, a Multidimensional Local Spatial Autocorrelation (MLSA) is proposed for hyperspectral image data. Based on this measure, a collaborative classification method is proposed, which integrates the spectral and spatial autocorrelation during the decision-making process. The trials of our experiment are conducted on two scenes, one from HYDICE 210-band imagery collected over an area that contains a diverse range of terrain features and the other is toy car hyperspectral image captured at Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory (ISL) at Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Quantitative measures of local consistency (smoothness) and global labeling, along with class maps, demonstrate the benefits of applying this method for unsupervised and supervised classification.

  3. End-to-end imaging information rate advantages of various alternative communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of various deep space communication systems which are required to transmit both imaging and a typically error sensitive class of data called general science and engineering (gse) are compared. The approach jointly treats the imaging and gse transmission problems, allowing comparisons of systems which include various channel coding and data compression alternatives. Actual system comparisons include an advanced imaging communication system (AICS) which exhibits the rather significant advantages of sophisticated data compression coupled with powerful yet practical channel coding. For example, under certain conditions the improved AICS efficiency could provide as much as two orders of magnitude increase in imaging information rate compared to a single channel uncoded, uncompressed system while maintaining the same gse data rate in both systems. Additional details describing AICS compression and coding concepts as well as efforts to apply them are provided in support of the system analysis.

  4. Local rank-based spatial information for improvement of remote sensing hyperspectral imaging resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Juan, Anna de; Tauler, Romà

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of using local rank and selectivity constraints based on spatial information of spectroscopic images to increase the performance of Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) methods and to decrease the ambiguity of final results. Fixed Size Image Window-Evolving Factor Analysis (FSIW-EFA) is applied to discover which pixels are more suitable for the application of local rank constraints. An automated method to help in setting appropriate threshold values for the application of FSIW-EFA, based on global and local use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is proposed. Additional use of correlation coefficients between selected reference spectra and pixel spectra of the image is shown to provide an alternative way for the application of the selectivity constraint in spectroscopic images for the first time. This alternative method resulted to be satisfactory when pure pixels exist. PMID:26695226

  5. Fluid Registration of Diffusion Tensor Images Using Information Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Leow, Alex D.; Klunder, Andrea D.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Barysheva, Marina; Rose, Stephen E.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    We apply an information-theoretic cost metric, the symmetrized Kullback-Leibler (sKL) divergence, or J-divergence, to fluid registration of diffusion tensor images. The difference between diffusion tensors is quantified based on the sKL-divergence of their associated probability density functions (PDFs). Three-dimensional DTI data from 34 subjects were fluidly registered to an optimized target image. To allow large image deformations but preserve image topology, we regularized the flow with a large-deformation diffeomorphic mapping based on the kinematics of a Navier-Stokes fluid. A driving force was developed to minimize the J-divergence between the deforming source and target diffusion functions, while reorienting the flowing tensors to preserve fiber topography. In initial experiments, we showed that the sKL-divergence based on full diffusion PDFs is adaptable to higher-order diffusion models, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). The sKL-divergence was sensitive to subtle differences between two diffusivity profiles, showing promise for nonlinear registration applications and multisubject statistical analysis of HARDI data. PMID:18390342

  6. Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Collier, James; Craymer, Loring; Curkendall, David

    2005-01-01

    yourSkyG is the second generation of the software described in yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet (NPO-30556), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 45. Like its predecessor, yourSkyG supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. Whereas yourSky constructs mosaics on a local multiprocessor system, yourSkyG performs the computations on NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG), which is capable of performing much larger mosaicking tasks. (The IPG is high-performance computation and data grid that integrates geographically distributed 18 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 computers, databases, and instruments.) A user of yourSkyG can specify parameters describing a mosaic to be constructed. yourSkyG then constructs the mosaic on the IPG and makes it available for downloading by the user. The complexities of determining which input images are required to construct a mosaic, retrieving the required input images from remote sky-survey archives, uploading the images to the computers on the IPG, performing the computations remotely on the Grid, and downloading the resulting mosaic from the Grid are all transparent to the user

  7. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  8. Target information enhancement using polarized component of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tiaowen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    After a deep study of the principle of infrared polarization imaging detection, the infrared polarization information of target and background is modeled. Considering the partial polarized light can be obtained by the superposition of natural light (unpolarized light) and linearly polarized component while ignoring the component of circularly polarized light, and combing with the degree of polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP), the infrared polarization information is expressed by the multiplying of an intensity factor by a polarization factor. What we have modeled not only can be used to analyze the infrared polarization information visually and profoundly, but also make the extraction of polarized features convenient. Then, faced with different application fields and based on the model, a target information enhancement program is proposed, which is achieved by extracting a linear polarization component in a certain polarized direction. This program greatly improves the contrast between target and background, and can be applied in target detection or identification, especially for camouflage or stealth target. At last, we preliminarily tested the proposed enhancement method exploiting infrared polarization images obtained indoor and outdoor, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the enhancement program.

  9. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  10. Registration of 2D to 3D joint images using phase-based mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Rupin; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Pickering, Mark; Scarvell, Jennie; Smith, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Registration of two dimensional to three dimensional orthopaedic medical image data has important applications particularly in the area of image guided surgery and sports medicine. Fluoroscopy to computer tomography (CT) registration is an important case, wherein digitally reconstructed radiographs derived from the CT data are registered to the fluoroscopy data. Traditional registration metrics such as intensity-based mutual information (MI) typically work well but often suffer from gross misregistration errors when the image to be registered contains a partial view of the anatomy visible in the target image. Phase-based MI provides a robust alternative similarity measure which, in addition to possessing the general robustness and noise immunity that MI provides, also employs local phase information in the registration process which makes it less susceptible to the aforementioned errors. In this paper, we propose using the complex wavelet transform for computing image phase information and incorporating that into a phase-based MI measure for image registration. Tests on a CT volume and 6 fluoroscopy images of the knee are presented. The femur and the tibia in the CT volume were individually registered to the fluoroscopy images using intensity-based MI, gradient-based MI and phase-based MI. Errors in the coordinates of fiducials present in the bone structures were used to assess the accuracy of the different registration schemes. Quantitative results demonstrate that the performance of intensity-based MI was the worst. Gradient-based MI performed slightly better, while phase-based MI results were the best consistently producing the lowest errors.

  11. Biological database of images and genomes: tools for community annotations linking image and genomic information.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Andrew T; Jurkovic, Dominika A; Balish, Mitchell F; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data and biomedical imaging data are undergoing exponential growth. However, our understanding of the phenotype-genotype connection linking the two types of data is lagging behind. While there are many types of software that enable the manipulation and analysis of image data and genomic data as separate entities, there is no framework established for linking the two. We present a generic set of software tools, BioDIG, that allows linking of image data to genomic data. BioDIG tools can be applied to a wide range of research problems that require linking images to genomes. BioDIG features the following: rapid construction of web-based workbenches, community-based annotation, user management and web services. By using BioDIG to create websites, researchers and curators can rapidly annotate a large number of images with genomic information. Here we present the BioDIG software tools that include an image module, a genome module and a user management module. We also introduce a BioDIG-based website, MyDIG, which is being used to annotate images of mycoplasmas. PMID:23550062

  12. Biological Database of Images and Genomes: tools for community annotations linking image and genomic information

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Andrew T; Jurkovic, Dominika A; Balish, Mitchell F; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data and biomedical imaging data are undergoing exponential growth. However, our understanding of the phenotype–genotype connection linking the two types of data is lagging behind. While there are many types of software that enable the manipulation and analysis of image data and genomic data as separate entities, there is no framework established for linking the two. We present a generic set of software tools, BioDIG, that allows linking of image data to genomic data. BioDIG tools can be applied to a wide range of research problems that require linking images to genomes. BioDIG features the following: rapid construction of web-based workbenches, community-based annotation, user management and web services. By using BioDIG to create websites, researchers and curators can rapidly annotate a large number of images with genomic information. Here we present the BioDIG software tools that include an image module, a genome module and a user management module. We also introduce a BioDIG-based website, MyDIG, which is being used to annotate images of mycoplasmas. Database URL: BioDIG website: http://biodig.org BioDIG source code repository: http://github.com/FriedbergLab/BioDIG The MyDIG database: http://mydig.biodig.org/ PMID:23550062

  13. Extraction of 3D information from sonar image sequences.

    PubMed

    Trucco, A; Curletto, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a set of methods that make it possible to estimate the position of a feature inside a three-dimensional (3D) space by starting from a sequence of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic images of the seafloor acquired with a sonar system. Typical sonar imaging systems are able to generate just 2D images, and the acquisition of 3D information involves sharp increases in complexity and costs. The front-scan sonar proposed in this paper is a new equipment devoted to acquiring a 2D image of the seafloor to sail over, and allows one to collect a sequence of images showing a specific feature during the approach of the ship. This fact seems to make it possible to recover the 3D position of a feature by comparing the feature positions along the sequence of images acquired from different (known) ship positions. This opportunity is investigated in the paper, where it is shown that encouraging results have been obtained by a processing chain composed of some blocks devoted to low-level processing, feature extraction and analysis, a Kalman filter for robust feature tracking, and some ad hoc equations for depth estimation and averaging. A statistical error analysis demonstrated the great potential of the proposed system also if some inaccuracies affect the sonar measures and the knowledge of the ship position. This was also confirmed by several tests performed on both simulated and real sequences, obtaining satisfactory results on both the feature tracking and, above all, the estimation of the 3D position.

  14. Face Recognition in Unrestricted Posture using Invariant Image Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Jun'Ichi; Seike, Hiroshi

    In face recognition (face verification, face expression etc.), a full face or near full face is used and the face image is about fixed size in general. Especially, eyes, nose and mouth are usually located from the upper part to the lower part in the input image. But, in order to recognize the face in any posture, it is important to remove an influence caused by the position and three-dimensional turning of the face. The authors propose a method for detecting the face position in unknown posture, using an invariant image information. First, we show that the spectrum, which is obtained by polar transform and Fourier transform of the image, is shift-invariant and rotation-invariant, and is shift-invariant toward depth. Next, we describe on the detection of the face position in unrestricted posture, using the calculation of correlation of the spectrum. In this paper, the proposal method is explained and the experimental result, which is performed to verify the efficacy of the method, is demonstrated.

  15. Establish keypoint matches on multispectral images utilizing descriptor and global information over entire image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zou, Junwei; Jing, Jing; Jin, Hongbin; Yu, Hang

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes an approach to registering multispectral images by establishing keypoint matches. The matching ability of descriptors is characterized by the repeatability and distinctiveness that typically decrease on multispectral images. The decrease of matching ability often yields a set of keypoint matches containing a high rate of incorrect matches, and in this case the outlier matches are very difficult to be removed. To establish reliable keypoint matches, this paper proposes an approach of two stages. Firstly, keypoint matches of smaller descriptor distance are obtained as an initial set. Secondly, complementary information to the local window for computing descriptors is employed to evaluate keypoint matches and find good matches. A smaller descriptor distance for a keypoint match implies a greater probability of being correct and hence the initial set contains a higher rate of correct matches. The global information can be viewed as a means of enhancing the matching ability of descriptors, compensating the decrease of common information between multispectral images. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively establish keypoint matches on multispectral images of large spectral difference.

  16. [Exchange of medical imaging and data information in radiotherapy: needs, methods and current limits].

    PubMed

    Manens, J P

    1997-01-01

    standardized transfer of most of the information wich circulates in a radiotherapy department. A wide range of device types are represented, (treatment planning systems, portal imaging devices, linear accelerators, recording and verifying systems, conventional and virtual simulators). There will be additions and perhaps new developments in dataflow management, more complete integration with HIS/RIS system and printing, but the lion's share of the work has now been done. A project to integrate some security features into the Dicom protocol has begun.

  17. [Exchange of medical imaging and data information in radiotherapy: needs, methods and current limits].

    PubMed

    Manens, J P

    1997-01-01

    standardized transfer of most of the information wich circulates in a radiotherapy department. A wide range of device types are represented, (treatment planning systems, portal imaging devices, linear accelerators, recording and verifying systems, conventional and virtual simulators). There will be additions and perhaps new developments in dataflow management, more complete integration with HIS/RIS system and printing, but the lion's share of the work has now been done. A project to integrate some security features into the Dicom protocol has begun. PMID:9587384

  18. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  19. Neural basis of identity information extraction from noisy face images.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Petra; Bankó, Éva M; Gál, Viktor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has made significant progress in identifying the neural basis of the remarkably efficient and seemingly effortless face perception in humans. However, the neural processes that enable the extraction of facial information under challenging conditions when face images are noisy and deteriorated remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the neural processes underlying the extraction of identity information from noisy face images using fMRI. For each participant, we measured (1) face-identity discrimination performance outside the scanner, (2) visual cortical fMRI responses for intact and phase-randomized face stimuli, and (3) intrinsic functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI. Our whole-brain analysis showed that the presence of noise led to reduced and increased fMRI responses in the mid-fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex, respectively. Furthermore, the noise-induced modulation of the fMRI responses in the right face-selective fusiform face area (FFA) was closely associated with individual differences in the identity discrimination performance of noisy faces: smaller decrease of the fMRI responses was accompanied by better identity discrimination. The results also revealed that the strength of the intrinsic functional connectivity within the visual cortical network composed of bilateral FFA and bilateral object-selective lateral occipital cortex (LOC) predicted the participants' ability to discriminate the identity of noisy face images. These results imply that perception of facial identity in the case of noisy face images is subserved by neural computations within the right FFA as well as a re-entrant processing loop involving bilateral FFA and LOC. PMID:25948266

  20. Neural basis of identity information extraction from noisy face images.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Petra; Bankó, Éva M; Gál, Viktor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has made significant progress in identifying the neural basis of the remarkably efficient and seemingly effortless face perception in humans. However, the neural processes that enable the extraction of facial information under challenging conditions when face images are noisy and deteriorated remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the neural processes underlying the extraction of identity information from noisy face images using fMRI. For each participant, we measured (1) face-identity discrimination performance outside the scanner, (2) visual cortical fMRI responses for intact and phase-randomized face stimuli, and (3) intrinsic functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI. Our whole-brain analysis showed that the presence of noise led to reduced and increased fMRI responses in the mid-fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex, respectively. Furthermore, the noise-induced modulation of the fMRI responses in the right face-selective fusiform face area (FFA) was closely associated with individual differences in the identity discrimination performance of noisy faces: smaller decrease of the fMRI responses was accompanied by better identity discrimination. The results also revealed that the strength of the intrinsic functional connectivity within the visual cortical network composed of bilateral FFA and bilateral object-selective lateral occipital cortex (LOC) predicted the participants' ability to discriminate the identity of noisy face images. These results imply that perception of facial identity in the case of noisy face images is subserved by neural computations within the right FFA as well as a re-entrant processing loop involving bilateral FFA and LOC.

  1. A methodology to extract dimensional information from steel bars using a magnetic field imaging camera (mFIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heathcote, L.; Gaydecki, P.

    2010-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the depth and diameter of steel rebars is presented using information obtained from scans generated by a magnetic field imaging camera (mFIC). A raw image of the steel rebars is obtained from the camera. The methodology makes use of the properties of an image produced using the magnetic field generated by a large stationary square coil. The methodology has been used to write a Labview program showing bar location and arrangement. It has generated accurate dimensional information to a depth of 10 cm, including from bars not used as data to develop the method. Additionally, the method does not appear to show degradation with increasing bar depth.

  2. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  3. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  4. Chemical patterning on preformed porous silicon photonic crystals: towards multiplex detection of protease activity at precise positions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, XPS result and more optical reflectivity data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb00281d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Soeriyadi, Alexander H.; Parker, Stephen G.; Reece, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) rugate filters modified with alkyne-terminated monolayers were chemically patterned using a combination of photolithography of photoresist and click chemistry. Two chemical functionalities were obtained by conjugating, via click reactions, ethylene glycol moieties containing two different terminal groups to discrete areas towards the exterior of a PSi rugate filter. The patterning of biological species to the functionalized surface was demonstrated through the conjugation of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA). Fluorescence microscopy showed selective positioning of FITC-BSA at discretely functionalized areas. Meanwhile, the optical information from precisely defined positions on the patterned surface was monitored by optical reflectivity measurements. The optical measurements revealed successful step-wise chemical functionalization followed by immobilization of gelatin. Multiplex detection of protease activity from different array elements on the patterned surface was demonstrated by monitoring the blue shifts in the reflectivity spectra resulted from the digestion of gelatin by subtilisin. Precise information from both individual elements and average population was acquired. This technique is important for the development of PSi into a microarray platform for highly parallel biosensing applications, especially for cell-based assays. PMID:24910774

  5. Enhancement of Glossiness Perception by Retinal-Image Motion: Additional Effect of Head-Yoked Motion Parallax

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yusuke; Araki, Keisuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that when an observer moves, a contingent retinal-image motion of a stimulus would strengthen the perceived glossiness. This would be attributed to the veridical perception of three-dimensional structure by motion parallax. However, it has not been investigated whether the effect of motion parallax is more than that of retinal-image motion of the stimulus. Using a magnitude estimation method, we examine in this paper whether cross-modal coordination of the stimulus change and the observer's motion (i.e., motion parallax) is essential or the retinal-image motion alone is sufficient for enhancing the perceived glossiness. Our data show that a retinal-image motion simulating motion parallax without head motion strengthened the perceived glossiness but that its effect was weaker than that of motion parallax with head motion. These results suggest the existence of an additional effect of the cross-modal coordination between vision and proprioception on glossiness perception. That is, motion parallax enhances the perception of glossiness, in addition to retinal-image motions of specular surfaces. PMID:23336006

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  7. Harnessing nonlinear rubber swelling for bulk synthesis of anisotropic hybrid nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM images of control Au–PDVB hybrid nanoparticles formed without the presence of PVP and Au–PS hybrid nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01660b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles are at the forefront of colloidal chemistry as building blocks for novel structures and applications, as well as for exploring fundamental ways of breaking symmetry in physical systems. Current methods of synthesis have significant limitations in terms of control over synthesis, particle size ranges and polydispersity. We report a facile and scalable synthesis based on the anisotropic swelling of rubber to obtain metal–(polymer rubber) hybrid nanoparticles. Initial Au nanoparticle (NP) seeds are grown larger by reducing HAuCl4 with divinyl benzene (DVB), while simultaneous radical polymerization of DVB forms a cross-linked rubber layer of PDVB on the Au NP surface. The propensity of rubber to swell nonlinearly in the presence of DVB monomers amplifies initial asymmetries to break the symmetry of the PDVB shell, causing growth of asymmetric protrusions on one side of the core–shell particles, which are fixed by further polymerization. Plasmonic absorption of Au allows us to follow the Au reduction reaction and also suggests potential applications of some of the asymmetric particles in plasmon-enhanced sensing. The polydispersity, determined statistically from TEM and SEM images, of the resulting particles is low (<10%) and their sizes, shapes and metal–polymer ratios are easily tunable. PMID:27358735

  8. A multifunctional poly(curcumin) nanomedicine for dual-modal targeted delivery, intracellular responsive release, dual-drug treatment and imaging of multidrug resistant cancer cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The synthesis procedure of Biotin–PEG–PCDA and the experimental results of MTT. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb02450a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jining; Wang, Feihu; Li, Fangzhou; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional anti-cancer nanomedicine based on a biotin–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(curcumin-dithio dipropionic acid) (Biotin–PEG–PCDA) polymeric nanocarrier loaded with paclitaxel (PTX), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) is developed. It combines advantageous properties of efficient targeted delivery and uptake (via biotin and MNP), intracellular responsive release (via cleavable PCDA polymer), fluorescence imaging (via QD) and combined PTX-curcumin dual-drug treatment, allowing for overcoming drug resistance mechanisms of model multidrug resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). The PTX/MNPs/QDs@Biotin–PEG–PCDA nanoparticles are highly stable under physiological conditions, but are quickly disassembled to release their drug load in the presence of 10 mM glutathione (GSH). The nanoparticles show high uptake by tumour cells from a combined effect of magnet targeting and biotin receptor-mediated internalization. Moreover, curcumin, an intracellularly cleaved product of PCDA, can effectively down regulate the expression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to increase PTX accumulation within target cancer cells, thereby enhancing PTX induced cytotoxicity and therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells. Taken together, this novel tumour-targeting and traceable multifunctional nanomedicine is highly effective against model MDR cancer at the cellular level. PMID:27152196

  9. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  10. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  11. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  12. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  13. 32 CFR 813.5 - Shipping or transmitting visual information documentation images.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documentation images. 813.5 Section 813.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... visual information documentation images. (a) COMCAM images. Send COMCAM images to the DoD Joint Combat... the approval procedures that on-scene and theater commanders set. (b) Other non-COMCAM images....

  14. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  15. Does the anti-prothrombin antibodies measurement provide additional information in patients with thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Nathalie; Alessi, Marie Christine; Dignat-George, Francoise; Vague, Irene Juhan; Sampol, Jose; Harlé, Jean Robert; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get new insight into the relevance of IgG anti-prothrombin antibodies in patients with thrombosis and to determine whether human prothrombin alone (aPT) or complexed to phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT) should be preferentially used for measuring these antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To this end, prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies, their characteristics in terms of avidity and heterogeneity, and their relationship with anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (abeta2GPI) were studied in 152 patients with thrombosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), called aPL+ or aPL-, respectively. In the aPL- group (n=90), the prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies was substantial (10%) but not significantly different from that of control (5%). In the aPL+ group (n=62), lupus anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) positive, 61% were positive for anti-prothrombin antibodies with no statistical difference between aPT and aPS/PT prevalence (42% vs. 55%, respectively). In the whole thrombotic population, 19% were only aPT and 34% only aPS/PT suggesting the presence of different antibodies. Absorption experiments confirmed the heterogeneity of aPT and aPS/PT. No difference in their avidity was demonstrated. From the aPL+ group, 60 were LA positive. Among them, 18% were negative for abeta2GPI and anti-prothrombin antibodies showing that the detection of these antibodies could not substitute for LA determination. In conclusion, our data show that the screening of the different anti-prothrombin antibodies is not warranted in the aPL+ group since these antibodies do not provide additional information compared to aCL, LA and/or abeta2GPI measurement. Nevertheless, the substantial prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies in the aPL- group should be further explored in a large prospective study. PMID:17678713

  16. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  17. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  18. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  20. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  2. Implicit and explicit prior information in near-infrared spectral imaging: accuracy, quantification and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Leblond, Frederic; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of tissue provides quantification of absorbers, scattering and luminescent agents in bulk tissue through the use of measurement data and assumptions. Prior knowledge can be critical about things such as (i) the tissue shape and/or structure, (ii) spectral constituents, (iii) limits on parameters, (iv) demographic or biomarker data, and (v) biophysical models of the temporal signal shapes. A general framework of NIRS imaging with prior information is presented, showing that prior information datasets could be incorporated at any step in the NIRS process, with the general workflow being: (i) data acquisition, (ii) pre-processing, (iii) forward model, (iv) inversion/reconstruction, (v) post-processing, and (vi) interpretation/diagnosis. Most of the development in NIRS has used ad hoc or empirical implementations of prior information such as pre-measured absorber or fluorophore spectra, or tissue shapes as estimated by additional imaging tools. A comprehensive analysis would examine what prior information maximizes the accuracy in recovery and value for medical diagnosis, when implemented at separate stages of the NIRS sequence. Individual applications of prior information can show increases in accuracy or improved ability to estimate biochemical features of tissue, while other approaches may not. Most beneficial inclusion of prior information has been in the inversion/reconstruction process, because it solves the mathematical intractability. However, it is not clear that this is always the most beneficial stage. PMID:22006905

  3. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  4. Tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands for immunoconjugate PET imaging with 89Zr4+: comparison with desferrioxamine-B† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H and 13C NMR data, reverse phase HPLC and size exclusion HPLC chromatograms, phosphoimages of ITLC plates, ex vivo biodistribution data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4dt02978j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Levente K.; Paterson, Brett M.; Berry, David J.; Cooper, Maggie S.; Ma, Yongmin; Hider, Robert C.; Blower, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its long half-life (78 h) and decay properties (77% electron capture, 23% β+, E max = 897 keV, E av = 397 keV, Eγ = 909 keV, Iγ = 100%) 89Zr is an appealing radionuclide for immunoPET imaging with whole IgG antibodies. Derivatives of the siderophore desferrioxamine-B (H3DFO) are the most widely used bifunctional chelators for coordination of 89Zr4+ because the radiolabeling of the resulting immunoconjugates is rapid under mild conditions. 89Zr-DFO complexes are reportedly stable in vitro but there is evidence that 89Zr4+ is released in vivo, and subsequently taken up by the skeleton. We have evaluated a novel tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256 and its bifunctional maleimide derivative, H3YM103, for coordination of Zr4+ and compared the NMR spectra, and the 89Zr4+ radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, serum stability and in vivo distribution of radiolabelled immunoconjugates with those of H3DFO and its analogues. H3CP256 coordinates 89Zr4+ at carrier-free concentrations forming [89Zr(CP256)]+. Both H3DFO and H3CP256 were efficiently radiolabelled using [89Zr(C2O4)4]4– at ambient temperature in quantitative yield at pH 6–7 at millimolar concentrations of chelator. Competition experiments demonstrate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from [89Zr(DFO)]+ in the presence of one equivalent of H3CP256 (relative to H3DFO) at pH 6–7, resulting largely in [89Zr(CP256)]+. To assess the stability of H3DFO and H3YM103 immunoconjugates radiolabelled with 89Zr, maleimide derivatives of the chelators were conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab via reduced cysteine side chains. Both immunoconjugates were labelled with 89Zr4+ in >98% yield at high specific activities and the labeled immunoconjugates were stable in serum with respect to dissociation of the radiometal. In vivo studies in mice indicate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from YM103-trastuzumab with significant amounts of activity becoming associated with bones and joints (25.88 ± 0.58% ID g–1 7

  5. Information hiding techniques for infrared images: exploring the state-of-the art and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomponiu, Victor; Cavagnino, Davide; Botta, Marco; Nejati, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The proliferation of Infrared technology and imaging systems enables a different perspective to tackle many computer vision problems in defense and security applications. Infrared images are widely used by the law enforcement, Homeland Security and military organizations to achieve a significant advantage or situational awareness, and thus is vital to protect these data against malicious attacks. Concurrently, sophisticated malware are developed which are able to disrupt the security and integrity of these digital media. For instance, illegal distribution and manipulation are possible malicious attacks to the digital objects. In this paper we explore the use of a new layer of defense for the integrity of the infrared images through the aid of information hiding techniques such as watermarking. In this context, we analyze the efficiency of several optimal decoding schemes for the watermark inserted into the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain of the IR images using an additive spread spectrum (SS) embedding framework. In order to use the singular values (SVs) of the IR images with the SS embedding we adopt several restrictions that ensure that the values of the SVs will maintain their statistics. For both the optimal maximum likelihood decoder and sub-optimal decoders we assume that the PDF of SVs can be modeled by the Weibull distribution. Furthermore, we investigate the challenges involved in protecting and assuring the integrity of IR images such as data complexity and the error probability behavior, i.e., the probability of detection and the probability of false detection, for the applied optimal decoders. By taking into account the efficiency and the necessary auxiliary information for decoding the watermark, we discuss the suitable decoder for various operating situations. Experimental results are carried out on a large dataset of IR images to show the imperceptibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme against various attack scenarios.

  6. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573–1773 K temperature range† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04916k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr4+ doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr4+ doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10–3 atm to 2.3 × 10–4 atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher p O2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr4+ doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr4+ doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials. PMID:25714616

  7. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information... of Fresh and Processed Fruits, Vegetables and Other Products AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  8. Thermal Imaging for Assessment of Electron-Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) Additive Manufacturing Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy R.; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA s electron beam free-form fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF(sup 3) technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF(sup 3) system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality weld, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for weld assessment metrics.

  9. Adaptive Fusion of Stochastic Information for Imaging Fractured Vadose Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, J.; Yeh, J.; Illman, W.; Harri, S.; Kruger, A.; Parashar, M.

    2004-12-01

    A stochastic information fusion methodology is developed to assimilate electrical resistivity tomography, high-frequency ground penetrating radar, mid-range-frequency radar, pneumatic/gas tracer tomography, and hydraulic/tracer tomography to image fractures, characterize hydrogeophysical properties, and monitor natural processes in the vadose zone. The information technology research will develop: 1) mechanisms and algorithms for fusion of large data volumes ; 2) parallel adaptive computational engines supporting parallel adaptive algorithms and multi-physics/multi-model computations; 3) adaptive runtime mechanisms for proactive and reactive runtime adaptation and optimization of geophysical and hydrological models of the subsurface; and 4) technologies and infrastructure for remote (pervasive) and collaborative access to computational capabilities for monitoring subsurface processes through interactive visualization tools. The combination of the stochastic fusion approach and information technology can lead to a new level of capability for both hydrologists and geophysicists enabling them to "see" into the earth at greater depths and resolutions than is possible today. Furthermore, the new computing strategies will make high resolution and large-scale hydrological and geophysical modeling feasible for the private sector, scientists, and engineers who are unable to access supercomputers, i.e., an effective paradigm for technology transfer.

  10. Contesting nonfiction: Fourth graders making sense of words and images in science information book discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfatti, Monica A.

    Recently developed common core standards echo calls by educators for ensuring that upper elementary students become proficient readers of informational texts. Informational texts have been theorized as causing difficulty for students because they contain linguistic and visual features different from more familiar narrative genres (Lemke, 2004). It has been argued that learning to read informational texts, particularly those with science subject matter, requires making sense of words, images, and the relationships among them (Pappas, 2006). Yet, conspicuously absent in the research are empirical studies documenting ways students make use of textual resources to build textual and conceptual understandings during classroom literacy instruction. This 10-month practitioner research study was designed to investigate the ways a group of ethnically and linguistically diverse fourth graders in one metropolitan school made sense of science information books during dialogically organized literature discussions. In this nontraditional instructional context, I wondered whether and how young students might make use of science informational text features, both words and images, in the midst of collaborative textual and conceptual inquiry. Drawing on methods of constructivist grounded theory and classroom discourse analysis, I analyzed student and teacher talk in 25 discussions of earth and life science books. Digital voice recordings and transcriptions served as the main data sources for this study. I found that, without teacher prompts or mandates to do so, fourth graders raised a wide range of textual and conceptual inquiries about words, images, scientific figures, and phenomena. In addition, my analysis yielded a typology of ways students constructed relationships between words and images within and across page openings of the information books read for their sense-making endeavors. The diversity of constructed word-image relationships aided students in raising, exploring

  11. Assessing the use of an infrared spectrum hyperpixel array imager to measure temperature during additive and subtractive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitenton, Eric; Heigel, Jarred; Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Accurate non-contact temperature measurement is important to optimize manufacturing processes. This applies to both additive (3D printing) and subtractive (material removal by machining) manufacturing. Performing accurate single wavelength thermography suffers numerous challenges. A potential alternative is hyperpixel array hyperspectral imaging. Focusing on metals, this paper discusses issues involved such as unknown or changing emissivity, inaccurate greybody assumptions, motion blur, and size of source effects. The algorithm which converts measured thermal spectra to emissivity and temperature uses a customized multistep non-linear equation solver to determine the best-fit emission curve. Emissivity dependence on wavelength may be assumed uniform or have a relationship typical for metals. The custom software displays residuals for intensity, temperature, and emissivity to gauge the correctness of the greybody assumption. Initial results are shown from a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, as well as a machining process. In addition, the effects of motion blur are analyzed, which occurs in both additive and subtractive manufacturing processes. In a laser powder-bed fusion additive process, the scanning laser causes the melt pool to move rapidly, causing a motion blur-like effect. In machining, measuring temperature of the rapidly moving chip is a desirable goal to develop and validate simulations of the cutting process. A moving slit target is imaged to characterize how the measured temperature values are affected by motion of a measured target.

  12. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  13. Testing 1...2...3...: Additional Files Available for Test Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    1984-01-01

    Reviews databases providing information on published, standardized and unpublished, non-standardized test instruments: Educational Testing Service File, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC, and Psychological Abstracts. Search strategies, search examples, and a summary chart of searchable fields for test…

  14. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction documents. Describe the reports or other documents provided to security holders required under the... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Commission. (2) Disclose whether other reports to...

  15. 75 FR 68608 - Information Collection; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate, Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 CFR 516... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  16. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  17. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  18. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  19. 78 FR 22937 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... Passport Services ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and ] Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below....

  20. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  1. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  2. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  3. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  5. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  6. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  7. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  8. 75 FR 62404 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...-counter (OTC) drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. DATES: Submit either... additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded (2002 TEA final rule). The regulations in Sec. 330.14 state that OTC drug...

  9. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  10. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  12. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  13. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  14. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  15. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  16. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  17. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  18. Imaging Science Panel. Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group joint meeting with Information Science Panel: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multispectral sensing is reviewed and recommendations for future research and development are proposed. specifically, two generic sensor concepts were discussed. One is the multispectral pushbroom sensor utilizing linear array technology which operates in six spectral bands including two in the SWIR region and incorporates capabilities for stereo and crosstrack pointing. The second concept is the imaging spectrometer (IS) which incorporates a dispersive element and area arrays to provide both spectral and spatial information simultaneously. Other key technology areas included very large scale integration and the computer aided design of these devices.

  19. Using a health information exchange system for imaging information: patterns and predictors.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R; Grinspan, Zachary M; Kern, Lisa M; Campion, Thomas R; Kaushal, Rainu

    2013-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) systems may address the challenges that prevent easy access to patients' existing radiological information at the point of care. However, little is known about the factors associated with usage of HIE for radiology reports, nor about how reports are shared with an exchange network. We analyzed the system log files from a regional health information organization in upstate New York matched with insurance claims files using network analysis and regression modeling. The exchange network was dominated by a few key information sources. Outpatient users overall accessed 17 times more radiology reports than inpatient and ED users combined. Additionally, as the number of exchange partners increased per organization, the average number of reports exchanged by that organization also increased. Radiology reports were most likely to be accessed by physicians and other clinical users. These findings have implications for those operating and fostering exchange activity.

  20. Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

    Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

  1. Visualizing artifacts, meta-information, and quality parameters of image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uray, Peter; Mueller-Seelich, Heimo; Plaschzug, Walter; Haas, Werner

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents visualization methods for film quality parameters which are used in the course of semi-automatic film resaturation. A central part is navigation in the time context by visualizing the temporal film structure. So-called 'time sections' take characteristic features (e.g. one pixel line or one column, motion information) from each image and map them to a column of a time section image. Typical dimensions for a time section image for a 100 minute movie are 500 by 150,000 pixels, where each image of the original sequence is represented by one column (500 by 1) of the time section image. As the width of such an image is too large for displaying it in one piece on a computer monitor, a non-linear time scale is introduced. This allows for displaying the content of an interesting shot in full detail while other shot are shown in a compressed view. The time line of a time section can be regarded as an array of 'temporal hyperlinks' modeling the temporal structure of a movie. The smallest temporal entity of annotation is given by shots (a continuous sequence of images) which can be combined hierarchically to scenes, acts, etc. or grouped by certain characteristics (e.g. artefact class). In addition, special quality parameters can be assigned to temporal entities such as shots, scenes and groups. These parameters can be visualized by icons that indicate quality on the non-linear timeline. Application examples for quality icons of each defect class are given, and the visual quality representation used for the restoration of a full length movie is presented.

  2. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  3. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  4. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  5. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  6. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  7. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  8. Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Buck, Ursula; Christe, Andreas; Naether, Silvio; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance. Impact injuries can be identified on the external injuries of the skin, the injured subcutaneous and fat tissue, as well as the fractured bones. Another sign of impact is a bone bruise. The bone bruise, or occult bone lesion, means a bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow, which is presumed to be the result of micro-fractures of the medullar trabeculae. The aim of this study was to prove that bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow of the deceased can be detected using the postmortem noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. This is demonstrated in five accident cases, four involving pedestrians and one a cyclist, where bone bruises were detected in different bones as a sign of impact occurring in the same location as the external and soft tissue impact injuries. PMID:19034476

  9. Analysis of a deconvolution-based information retrieval algorithm in X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Florian; Bayer, Florian; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Weber, Thomas; Zang, Andrea; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2014-03-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a promising imaging modality to increase soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based radiography. Complementary and otherwise inaccessible information is provided by the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. This could especially turn out to be useful in mammography, where tumourous tissue is connected with the presence of supertiny microcalcifications. In addition to the well-established image reconstruction process, an analysis method was introduced by Modregger, 1 which is based on deconvolution of the underlying scattering distribution within a single pixel revealing information about the sample. Subsequently, the different contrast modalities can be calculated with the scattering distribution. The method already proved to deliver additional information in the higher moments of the scattering distribution and possibly reaches better image quality with respect to an increased contrast-to-noise ratio. Several measurements were carried out using melamine foams as phantoms. We analysed the dependency of the deconvolution-based method with respect to the dark-field image on different parameters such as dose, number of iterations of the iterative deconvolution-algorithm and dark-field signal. A disagreement was found in the reconstructed dark-field values between the FFT method and the iterative method. Usage of the resulting characteristics might be helpful in future applications.

  10. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  11. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  12. Biomechanical deformable image registration of longitudinal lung CT images using vessel information.

    PubMed

    Cazoulat, Guillaume; Owen, Dawn; Matuszak, Martha M; Balter, James M; Brock, Kristy K

    2016-07-01

    Spatial correlation of lung tissue across longitudinal images, as the patient responds to treatment, is a critical step in adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this work is to expand a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm (Morfeus) to achieve accurate registration in the presence of significant anatomical changes. Six lung cancer patients previously treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Exhale CT scans were obtained at treatment planning and following three weeks of treatment. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the follow-up CT using Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm. To model the complex response of the lung, an extension to Morfeus has been developed: an initial deformation was estimated with Morfeus consisting of boundary conditions on the chest wall and incorporating a sliding interface with the lungs. It was hypothesized that the addition of boundary conditions based on vessel tree matching would provide a robust reduction of the residual registration error. To achieve this, the vessel trees were segmented on the two images by thresholding a vesselness image based on the Hessian matrix's eigenvalues. For each point on the reference vessel tree centerline, the displacement vector was estimated by applying a variant of the Demons registration algorithm between the planning CT and the deformed follow-up CT. An expert independently identified corresponding landmarks well distributed in the lung to compute target registration errors (TRE). The TRE was: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] mm after rigid registration, Morfeus and Morfeus with boundary conditions on the vessel tree, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of boundary conditions on the vessels significantly improved the accuracy in modeling the response of the lung and tumor over the course of radiotherapy. Minimizing and modeling these geometrical

  13. Biomechanical deformable image registration of longitudinal lung CT images using vessel information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazoulat, Guillaume; Owen, Dawn; Matuszak, Martha M.; Balter, James M.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-07-01

    Spatial correlation of lung tissue across longitudinal images, as the patient responds to treatment, is a critical step in adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this work is to expand a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm (Morfeus) to achieve accurate registration in the presence of significant anatomical changes. Six lung cancer patients previously treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Exhale CT scans were obtained at treatment planning and following three weeks of treatment. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the follow-up CT using Morfeus, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm. To model the complex response of the lung, an extension to Morfeus has been developed: an initial deformation was estimated with Morfeus consisting of boundary conditions on the chest wall and incorporating a sliding interface with the lungs. It was hypothesized that the addition of boundary conditions based on vessel tree matching would provide a robust reduction of the residual registration error. To achieve this, the vessel trees were segmented on the two images by thresholding a vesselness image based on the Hessian matrix’s eigenvalues. For each point on the reference vessel tree centerline, the displacement vector was estimated by applying a variant of the Demons registration algorithm between the planning CT and the deformed follow-up CT. An expert independently identified corresponding landmarks well distributed in the lung to compute target registration errors (TRE). The TRE was: 5.8+/- 2.9 , 3.4+/- 2.3 and 1.6+/- 1.3 mm after rigid registration, Morfeus and Morfeus with boundary conditions on the vessel tree, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of boundary conditions on the vessels significantly improved the accuracy in modeling the response of the lung and tumor over the course of radiotherapy. Minimizing and modeling these geometrical uncertainties will enable

  14. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; van Asselt, E D; Garcia-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G; Zwietering, M H

    2007-05-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and stakeholders to make decisions on food safety management. The present study was conducted to investigate how detailed sensitivity analysis can be used by assessors to extract more information on risk factors and how results can be communicated to managers and stakeholders in an understandable way. The extended sensitivity analysis revealed that the extremes at the right side of the dose distribution (at consumption, 9 to 11.5 log CFU per serving) were responsible for most of the cases of listeriosis simulated. For concentration at retail, values below the detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g and the often used limit for L. monocytogenes of 100 CFU/g (also at retail) were associated with a high number of annual cases of listeriosis (about 29 and 82%, respectively). This association can be explained by growth of L. monocytogenes at both average and extreme values of temperature and time, indicating that a wide distribution can lead to high risk levels. Another finding is the importance of the maximal population density (i.e., the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes assumed at a certain temperature) for accurately estimating the risk of infection by opportunistic pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. According to the obtained results, mainly concentrations corresponding to the highest maximal population densities caused risk in the simulation. However, sensitivity analysis applied to the uncertainty parameters revealed that prevalence at retail was the most important source of uncertainty in the model.

  15. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment. PMID:22941984

  16. Arrangements of multiple images of human myocardium for information for the surgeon during open heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias

    2002-06-01

    The feasibility to obtain visualized information of myocardium by imaging is a new dimension. However, during heart surgery the surgeon does not need all data of images continuously. Therefore, development of strategies able to reduce flux of information transiently in between images might become important. Arrangements of images in 3-dimensional structures can produce better outlines. Images often contain information of several parameters. Therefore, a selection of important parts of the pictures might be helpful. Optical sensors will have the ability to detect dangerous situations in tissues which can release optical or acoustic signals.

  17. Informative frame detection from wireless capsule video endoscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashar, Md. Khayrul; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mekada, Yoshito

    2008-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting the visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the high amount of time for video diagnosis. In this study, we propose a method for informative frame detection by isolating useless frames that are substantially covered by turbid fluids or their contamination with other materials, e.g., faecal, semi-processed or unabsorbed foods etc. Such materials and fluids present a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme, therefore, consists of two stages: highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frame detection and significantly bubbled (SB) frame detection. Local color moments in the Ohta color space are used to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in Stage-1. The rest of the frames go to the Stage-2, where Laguerre gauss Circular Harmonic Functions (LG-CHFs) extract the characteristics of the bubble-structures in a multi-resolution framework. An automatic segmentation method is designed to extract the bubbled regions based on local absolute energies of the CHF responses, derived from the grayscale version of the original color image. Final detection of the informative frames is obtained by using threshold operation on the extracted regions. An experiment with 20,558 frames from the three videos shows the excellent average detection accuracy (96.75%) by the proposed method, when compared with the Gabor based- (74.29%) and discrete wavelet based features (62.21%).

  18. Method of airborne SAR image match integrating multi-information for block adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.; Lu, L. J.

    2015-06-01

    For the automation of SAR image Block Adjustment, this paper proposed a method of SAR image matching integrating multiinformation. It takes full advantage of SAR image geometric information, feature information, gray-related information and external auxiliary terrain information for SAR image matching. And then Image Tie Points (ITPs) of Block Adjustment can be achieved automatically. The main parts of extracting ITPs automatically include: First, SAR images were rectified geometrically based on the geometric information and external auxiliary terrain information (existed DEM) before match. Second, ground grid points with a certain interval can be get in the block area and approximate ITPs were acquired based on external auxiliary terrain information. Then match reference point was extracted for homologous image blocks with Harris feature detection operator and ITPs were obtained with pyramid matching based on gray-related information. At last, ITPs were transferred from rectified images to original SAR images and used in block adjustment. In the experiment, X band airborne SAR images acquired by Chinese airborne SAR system - CASMSAR system were used to make up the block. The result had showed that the method is effective for block adjustment of SAR data.

  19. Method for imaging informational biological molecules on a semiconductor substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, L. Stephen (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Imaging biological molecules such as DNA at rates several times faster than conventional imaging techniques is carried out using a patterned silicon wafer having nano-machined grooves which hold individual molecular strands and periodically spaced unique bar codes permitting repeatably locating all images. The strands are coaxed into the grooves preferably using gravity and pulsed electric fields which induce electric charge attraction to the molecular strands in the bottom surfaces of the grooves. Differential imaging removes substrate artifacts.

  20. Integrated multimedia electronic patient record and graph-based image information for cerebral tumors.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Atif, Jamal; Angelini, Elsa; Lecornu, Laurent; Zemirline, Abdelhamid; Bloch, Isabelle; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Roux, Christian

    2008-04-01

    Current electronic patient record (EPR) implementations do not incorporate medical images, nor structural information extracted from them, despite images increasing role for diagnosis. This paper presents an integration framework into EPRs of anatomical and pathological knowledge extracted from segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), applying a graph of representation for anatomical and functional information for individual patients. Focusing on cerebral tumors examination and patient follow-up, multimedia EPRs were created and evaluated through a 3D navigation application, developed with open-source libraries and standards. Results suggest that the enhanced clinical information scheme could lead to original changes in the way medical experts utilize image-based information.

  1. Model-based image processing using snakes and mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Klinski, Sebastian; Derz, Claus; Weese, David; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    Any segmentation approach assumes certain knowledge concerning data modalities, relevant organs and their imaging characteristics. These assumptions are necessary for developing criteria by which to separate the organ in question from the surrounding tissue. Typical assumptions are that the organs have homogeneous gray-value characteristics (region growing, region merging, etc.), specific gray-value patterns (classification methods), continuous edges (edge-based approaches), smooth and strong edges (snake approaches), or any combination of these. In most cases, such assumptions are invalid, at least locally. Consequently, these approaches prove to be time consuming either in their parameterization or execution. Further, the low result quality makes post- processing necessary. Our aim was to develop a segmentation approach for large 3D data sets (e.g., CT and MRI) that requires a short interaction time and that can easily be adapted to different organs and data materials. This has been achieved by exploiting available knowledge about data material and organ topology using anatomical models that have been constructed from previously segmented data sets. In the first step, the user manually specifies the general context of the data material and specifies anatomical landmarks. Then this information is used to automatically select a corresponding reference model, which is geometrically adjusted to the current data set. In the third step, a model-based snake approach is applied to determine the correct segmentation of the organ in question. Analogously, this approach can be used for model-based interpolation and registration.

  2. Non-rigid registration between 3D ultrasound and CT images of the liver based on intensity and gradient information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duhgoon; Nam, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Young; Ra, Jong Beom

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize both ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) images of the liver concurrently for medical applications such as diagnosis and image-guided intervention, non-rigid registration between these two types of images is an essential step, as local deformation between US and CT images exists due to the different respiratory phases involved and due to the probe pressure that occurs in US imaging. This paper introduces a voxel-based non-rigid registration algorithm between the 3D B-mode US and CT images of the liver. In the proposed algorithm, to improve the registration accuracy, we utilize the surface information of the liver and gallbladder in addition to the information of the vessels inside the liver. For an effective correlation between US and CT images, we treat those anatomical regions separately according to their characteristics in US and CT images. Based on a novel objective function using a 3D joint histogram of the intensity and gradient information, vessel-based non-rigid registration is followed by surface-based non-rigid registration in sequence, which improves the registration accuracy. The proposed algorithm is tested for ten clinical datasets and quantitative evaluations are conducted. Experimental results show that the registration error between anatomical features of US and CT images is less than 2 mm on average, even with local deformation due to different respiratory phases and probe pressure. In addition, the lesion registration error is less than 3 mm on average with a maximum of 4.5 mm that is considered acceptable for clinical applications.

  3. High-fidelity video and still-image communication based on spectral information: natural vision system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Haneishi, Hideaki; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Junko; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Masaru; Iwama, Ryo; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the great advancement of high-resolution and large-screen imaging technology, the issue of color is now receiving considerable attention as another aspect than the image resolution. It is difficult to reproduce the original color of subject in conventional imaging systems, and that obstructs the applications of visual communication systems in telemedicine, electronic commerce, and digital museum. To breakthrough the limitation of conventional RGB 3-primary systems, "Natural Vision" project aims at an innovative video and still-image communication technology with high-fidelity color reproduction capability, based on spectral information. This paper summarizes the results of NV project including the development of multispectral and multiprimary imaging technologies and the experimental investigations on the applications to medicine, digital archives, electronic commerce, and computer graphics.

  4. Image engine: an integrated multimedia clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Buchanan, B G; Cooper, G F; Kaplan, B; Vries, J K

    1995-01-01

    Image Engine is a microcomputer-based system for the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of digitized clinical images. The system seeks to address the problem of integrating a wide range of clinically important images with the text-based electronic patient record. Rather than create a single, integrated database system for all clinical data, we are developing a separate image database system that creates real-time, dynamic links to other network-based clinical databases. To the user, this system will present an integrated multimedia representation of the patient record, providing access to both the image and text-based data required for effective clinical decision making. PMID:8591216

  5. Image engine: an integrated multimedia clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Buchanan, B G; Cooper, G F; Kaplan, B; Vries, J K

    1995-01-01

    Image Engine is a microcomputer-based system for the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of digitized clinical images. The system seeks to address the problem of integrating a wide range of clinically important images with the text-based electronic patient record. Rather than create a single, integrated database system for all clinical data, we are developing a separate image database system that creates real-time, dynamic links to other network-based clinical databases. To the user, this system will present an integrated multimedia representation of the patient record, providing access to both the image and text-based data required for effective clinical decision making.

  6. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  7. Constructing a prior information base for river mapping from digital images and DEMs by an advanced image interpretation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkesen, Ali Can

    The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the construction of a prior information-base (interpretation of river characteristics) for river mapping from digital representations, such as remotely sensed digital images and DEMs, by an advanced image interpretation system. More reliable prior information availability in an advanced image interpretation system enables GIS and remote sensing facilities to locate rivers in an easier, more accurate and more straightforward way. In this study, the author proposes a prior information-base including some rules and facts for river mapping from the use of both remotely sensed multi-spectral images and DEMs. These rules not only allow water-related applications in both GIS and remote sensing to be more accurate, but also construct the information-base for river mapping by an advanced image interpretation system. These rules were constructed as a synthesis from searching the literature and experiments with both digital images and DEMs. These rules are employed in an advanced image interpretation system which requires (1) a prior information-base; (2) a working memory; (3) an inference module (Caelli and Bischof, 1997; Schenk and Zilberstein, 1990). A prior information-base is formed by a set of rules (qualitative or quantitative or relationships). A working memory has the basic function of holding features in the form of spatial data and their attribute values. These spatial and attribute data are used by interpreters to activate the rules. Inference module refers to software and hardware that connect the user's questions to the prior information-base and instruct the user (interpreter) about the process. In this dissertation, a prior information-based river mapping was implemented and the proposed rules were tested studying both images and DEMs in IDRISI, as well as RiverTools.

  8. Deficits in Agency in Schizophrenia, and Additional Deficits in Body Image, Body Schema, and Internal Timing, in Passivity Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kyran T.; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T.; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Jablensky, Assen; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected-hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber-hand illusion) with synchronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay), and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image, and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms) and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference between clinical subgroups (sense of agency) and some quantitative (specific) differences depending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema). Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past) had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition), suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self-body input

  9. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  10. Imaging systems and methods for obtaining and using biometric information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Kennedy, Mike O [Richland, WA

    2010-11-30

    Disclosed herein are exemplary embodiments of imaging systems and methods of using such systems. In one exemplary embodiment, one or more direct images of the body of a clothed subject are received, and a motion signature is determined from the one or more images. In this embodiment, the one or more images show movement of the body of the subject over time, and the motion signature is associated with the movement of the subject's body. In certain implementations, the subject can be identified based at least in part on the motion signature. Imaging systems for performing any of the disclosed methods are also disclosed herein. Furthermore, the disclosed imaging, rendering, and analysis methods can be implemented, at least in part, as one or more computer-readable media comprising computer-executable instructions for causing a computer to perform the respective methods.

  11. Polarization information processing and software system design for simultaneously imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yahui; Liu, Jing; Jin, Weiqi; Wen, Renjie

    2015-08-01

    Simultaneous imaging polarimetry can realize real-time polarization imaging of the dynamic scene, which has wide application prospect. This paper first briefly illustrates the design of the double separate Wollaston Prism simultaneous imaging polarimetry, and then emphases are put on the polarization information processing methods and software system design for the designed polarimetry. Polarization information processing methods consist of adaptive image segmentation, high-accuracy image registration, instrument matrix calibration. Morphological image processing was used for image segmentation by taking dilation of an image; The accuracy of image registration can reach 0.1 pixel based on the spatial and frequency domain cross-correlation; Instrument matrix calibration adopted four-point calibration method. The software system was implemented under Windows environment based on C++ programming language, which realized synchronous polarization images acquisition and preservation, image processing and polarization information extraction and display. Polarization data obtained with the designed polarimetry shows that: the polarization information processing methods and its software system effectively performs live realize polarization measurement of the four Stokes parameters of a scene. The polarization information processing methods effectively improved the polarization detection accuracy.

  12. Thinking with Images: An Exploration into Information Retrieval and Knowledge Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedman, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explored how images were used in a social science research project and analyzed the use of verbs to identify three functions that images fill. Argues that the separation between finding documents and using them is artificial, and explores the use of image documents to help integrate information retrieval more closely with knowledge generation.…

  13. Information gain from count corrections in SPECT image reconstruction and classification

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, L. . Dept. of Radiology); Hero, A.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science); Rogers, W.L.; Clinthorne, N.H. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    The authors present a method for quantifying the impact of count correction side information on the capability of a SPECT projective tomography system to perform image (emitter) reconstruction and feature classification. The method involves computing the image or feature related information gain which results from the presence of count correction side information at the detector. For image reconstruction this information gain is computed using Shannon's mutual information (MI), while for feature classification the authors use the cut-off rate of the SPECT information channel. For reconstruction the gain is proportional to the information divergence between the spatially dependent probability of deletion of a {gamma}-ray originating at a particular emitter location and the spatially independent average deletion probability. For classification the gain is proportional to the difference between the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean of the average number of {gamma}-ray deletions for each of the image classes. Results of analysis and numerical study are presented.

  14. a Probability-Based Statistical Method to Extract Water Body of TM Images with Missing Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Shizhong; Chen, Jiangping; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    Water information cannot be accurately extracted using TM images because true information is lost in some images because of blocking clouds and missing data stripes, thereby water information cannot be accurately extracted. Water is continuously distributed in natural conditions; thus, this paper proposed a new method of water body extraction based on probability statistics to improve the accuracy of water information extraction of TM images with missing information. Different disturbing information of clouds and missing data stripes are simulated. Water information is extracted using global histogram matching, local histogram matching, and the probability-based statistical method in the simulated images. Experiments show that smaller Areal Error and higher Boundary Recall can be obtained using this method compared with the conventional methods.

  15. Infrared image non-rigid registration based on regional information entropy demons algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chaoliang; Ma, Lihua; Yu, Ming; Cui, Shumin; Wu, Qingrong

    2015-02-01

    Infrared imaging fault detection which is treated as an ideal, non-contact, non-destructive testing method is applied to the circuit board fault detection. Since Infrared images obtained by handheld infrared camera with wide-angle lens have both rigid and non-rigid deformations. To solve this problem, a new demons algorithm based on regional information entropy was proposed. The new method overcame the shortcomings of traditional demons algorithm that was sensitive to the intensity. First, the information entropy image was gotten by computing regional information entropy of the image. Then, the deformation between the two images was calculated that was the same as demons algorithm. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has better robustness in intensity inconsistent images registration compared with the traditional demons algorithm. Achieving accurate registration between intensity inconsistent infrared images provided strong support for the temperature contrast.

  16. Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating the Creation of Visual Information as Communicative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies…

  17. Extraction of topographic and spectral albedo information from multispectral images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, P.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Chavez, P.A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A technique has been developed to separate and extract spectral-reflectivity variations and topographic informaiton from multispectral images. The process is a completely closed system employing only the image data and can be applied to any digital multispectral data set. -from Authors

  18. Images as Orienting Activity: Using Theory to Inform Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Pryde, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Conceptualizations of teacher knowledge have shifted to focusing on the role of experiential rather than theoretical knowledge. There are different approaches to this, but the idea of an image that guides practice is widespread. One approach to images that has not been frequently investigated in studies of second language teachers is through…

  19. Visual Information: How To Manage an Image Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berinstein, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Offers practical tips on how to develop and manage a visual library collection. Highlights include: acquisitions; selection criteria and decision making; documentation; licensing and rights; access, standard vocabularies, and issues in applying terms; skills needed to index pictures; storing images; connecting images with documentation; access…

  20. [The Classification of Wheat Varieties Based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging and Information Fusion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Gao; Guo, Jiani; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Zi-long; Zheng, Ling; Zhu, Da-zhou

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has great potential in the identification of crop varieties because it contains both image information and spectral information for the object. But so far most studies only used the spectral information, the image information has not been effectively utilized. In this study, hyperspectral images of single seed of three types including strong gluten wheat, medium gluten wheat, and weak gluten wheat were collected by near infrared hyperspectra imager, 12 morphological characteristics such as length, width, rectangularity, circularity and eccentricity were extracted, the average spectra of endosperm and embryo were acquired by the mask which was created by image segmentation. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLADA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were used to construct the classification model with image information, results showed that the binary classification accuracy between strong gluten wheat and weak gluten wheat could achieve 98%, for strong gluten wheat and medium gluten wheat, it was only 74.22%, which indicated that hyperspectral images could reflect the differences of varieties, but the accuracy might be poor when recognizing the varieties just by image information. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), PLSDA and LSSVM were used to established the classification model with spectral information, the classification effect of endosperm is slightly better than the embryo, it demonstrated that the grain shape could influence the classification accuracy. Then, we fused the spectral and image information, SIMCA, PLSDA and LSSVM were used to established the identification model, the fusion model showed better performance than the individual image model and spectral model, the classification accuracy which used the PLSDA raise from 96.67% to 98.89%, it showed that digging the morphological and spectral characteristics of the hyperspectral image could effectively improve the classification

  1. Repeated Diagnostic Imaging Studies in Ontario and the Impact of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Liu, Kuan; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Ordon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health information exchange systems can link the results of diagnostic imaging tests across hospitals and geographic areas. One of the potential benefits of these systems is a reduction in imaging studies ordered by physicians who do not know about or have access to the previous imaging results. We used administrative data from Ontario, Canada (from the year 2013), to measure how frequently the same cross-sectional imaging study is repeated in a patient. Overall, 12.8% of the specified imaging tests were repeated within 90 days. An area of Southwestern Ontario with a health information exchange system for diagnostic imaging tests had a 13% lower rate of repeat cross-sectional imaging compared with the rest of the province (11.2 vs 12.8%, p < 0.01). The use of linked radiology systems may be able to reduce the number of repeated imaging tests and improve patient safety and hospital efficiency. PMID:27133604

  2. Image classification using multiscale information fusion based on saliency driven nonlinear diffusion filtering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Ruiguang; Xie, Nianhua; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose saliency driven image multiscale nonlinear diffusion filtering. The resulting scale space in general preserves or even enhances semantically important structures such as edges, lines, or flow-like structures in the foreground, and inhibits and smoothes clutter in the background. The image is classified using multiscale information fusion based on the original image, the image at the final scale at which the diffusion process converges, and the image at a midscale. Our algorithm emphasizes the foreground features, which are important for image classification. The background image regions, whether considered as contexts of the foreground or noise to the foreground, can be globally handled by fusing information from different scales. Experimental tests of the effectiveness of the multiscale space for the image classification are conducted on the following publicly available datasets: 1) the PASCAL 2005 dataset; 2) the Oxford 102 flowers dataset; and 3) the Oxford 17 flowers dataset, with high classification rates. PMID:24569440

  3. Estimating information from image colors: an application to digital cameras and natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2013-01-01

    The colors present in an image of a scene provide information about its constituent elements. But the amount of information depends on the imaging conditions and on how information is calculated. This work had two aims. The first was to derive explicitly estimators of the information available and the information retrieved from the color values at each point in images of a scene under different illuminations. The second was to apply these estimators to simulations of images obtained with five sets of sensors used in digital cameras and with the cone photoreceptors of the human eye. Estimates were obtained for 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes under daylight illuminants with correlated color temperatures 4,000, 6,500, and 25,000 K. Depending on the sensor set, the mean estimated information available across images with the largest illumination difference varied from 15.5 to 18.0 bits and the mean estimated information retrieved after optimal linear processing varied from 13.2 to 15.5 bits (each about 85 percent of the corresponding information available). With the best sensor set, 390 percent more points could be identified per scene than with the worst. Capturing scene information from image colors depends crucially on the choice of camera sensors.

  4. Estimating information from image colors: an application to digital cameras and natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2013-01-01

    The colors present in an image of a scene provide information about its constituent elements. But the amount of information depends on the imaging conditions and on how information is calculated. This work had two aims. The first was to derive explicitly estimators of the information available and the information retrieved from the color values at each point in images of a scene under different illuminations. The second was to apply these estimators to simulations of images obtained with five sets of sensors used in digital cameras and with the cone photoreceptors of the human eye. Estimates were obtained for 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes under daylight illuminants with correlated color temperatures 4,000, 6,500, and 25,000 K. Depending on the sensor set, the mean estimated information available across images with the largest illumination difference varied from 15.5 to 18.0 bits and the mean estimated information retrieved after optimal linear processing varied from 13.2 to 15.5 bits (each about 85 percent of the corresponding information available). With the best sensor set, 390 percent more points could be identified per scene than with the worst. Capturing scene information from image colors depends crucially on the choice of camera sensors. PMID:22450817

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in partial epilepsy: additional abnormalities shown with the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Bergin, P S; Fish, D R; Shorvon, S D; Oatridge, A; deSouza, N M; Bydder, G M

    1995-01-01

    Thirty six patients with a history of partial epilepsy had MRI of the brain performed with conventional T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences as well as the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Abnormalities were found in 20 cases (56%), in whom there were 25 lesions or groups of lesions. Twenty four of these lesions were more conspicuous with the FLAIR sequence than with any of the conventional sequences. In 11 of these 20 cases, lesions thought to be of aetiological importance were only seen with the FLAIR sequence. In eight this was a solitary lesion. In the other three, an additional and apparently significant lesion (or lesions) was only seen with the FLAIR sequence when another lesion had been identified with both conventional and FLAIR sequences. The 11 additional lesions or groups of lesions were seen in the hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, or subcortical and periventricular regions. No lesion was found with any pulse sequence in 16 (44%) of the original group of 36 patients. In the eight cases where a lesion was seen only with the FLAIR sequence, localisation was concordant with the electroclinical features. Two of the eight patients with solitary lesions seen only on the FLAIR sequence underwent surgery, after which there was pathological confirmation of the abnormality identified with imaging. In one patient with a congenital cavernoma, the primary lesion was best seen with a contrast enhanced T1 weighted spin echo sequence. In this selected series, the FLAIR sequence increased the yield of MRI examinations of the brain by 30%. Images PMID:7738550

  6. Learning clinically useful information from images: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Rueckert, Daniel; Glocker, Ben; Kainz, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decade, research in medical imaging has made significant progress in addressing challenging tasks such as image registration and image segmentation. In particular, the use of model-based approaches has been key in numerous, successful advances in methodology. The advantage of model-based approaches is that they allow the incorporation of prior knowledge acting as a regularisation that favours plausible solutions over implausible ones. More recently, medical imaging has moved away from hand-crafted, and often explicitly designed models towards data-driven, implicit models that are constructed using machine learning techniques. This has led to major improvements in all stages of the medical imaging pipeline, from acquisition and reconstruction to analysis and interpretation. As more and more imaging data is becoming available, e.g., from large population studies, this trend is likely to continue and accelerate. At the same time new developments in machine learning, e.g., deep learning, as well as significant improvements in computing power, e.g., parallelisation on graphics hardware, offer new potential for data-driven, semantic and intelligent medical imaging. This article outlines the work of the BioMedIA group in this area and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities for future work.

  7. Learning clinically useful information from images: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Rueckert, Daniel; Glocker, Ben; Kainz, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decade, research in medical imaging has made significant progress in addressing challenging tasks such as image registration and image segmentation. In particular, the use of model-based approaches has been key in numerous, successful advances in methodology. The advantage of model-based approaches is that they allow the incorporation of prior knowledge acting as a regularisation that favours plausible solutions over implausible ones. More recently, medical imaging has moved away from hand-crafted, and often explicitly designed models towards data-driven, implicit models that are constructed using machine learning techniques. This has led to major improvements in all stages of the medical imaging pipeline, from acquisition and reconstruction to analysis and interpretation. As more and more imaging data is becoming available, e.g., from large population studies, this trend is likely to continue and accelerate. At the same time new developments in machine learning, e.g., deep learning, as well as significant improvements in computing power, e.g., parallelisation on graphics hardware, offer new potential for data-driven, semantic and intelligent medical imaging. This article outlines the work of the BioMedIA group in this area and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities for future work. PMID:27344105

  8. Quantitative evaluation of PET image using event information bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hankyeol; Kwak, Shin Hye; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Woo, Sang-Keun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the effect in the PET image quality according to event bootstrap of small animal PET data. In order to investigate the time difference condition, realigned sinograms were generated from randomly sampled data set using bootstrap. List-mode data was obtained from small animal PET scanner for Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 20 min and Y-90 60 min. PET image was reconstructed by Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization(OSEM) 2D with the list-mode format. Image analysis was investigated by Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR) of Ge-68 and Y-90 image. Non-parametric resampled PET image SNR percent change for the Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 60 min, and Y-90 20 min was 1.69 %, 7.03 %, and 4.78 %, respectively. SNR percent change of non-parametric resampled PET image with time difference condition was 1.08 % for the Ge-68 30 sec, 6.74 % for the Y-90 60 min and 10.94 % for the Y-90 29 min. The result indicated that the bootstrap with time difference condition had a potential to improve a noisy Y-90 PET image quality. This method should be expected to reduce Y-90 PET measurement time and to enhance its accuracy.

  9. [Integrating information about imaging biomarkers into structured radiology reports].

    PubMed

    Pomar-Nadal, A; Pérez-Castillo, C; Alberich-Bayarri, A; García-Martí, G; Sanz Requena, R; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2013-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers describe objective characteristics that are related to normal biological processes, diseases, or the response to treatment. They enable radiologists to incorporate into their reports data about structure, function, and tissue components. With the aim of taking maximum advantage of the quantification of medical images, we present a procedure to integrate imaging biomarkers into radiological reports, bringing the new paradigm of personal medicine closer to radiological workflow. In this manner, the results of quantification can complement traditional radiological diagnosis, improving accuracy and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatments. A more personalized, standardized, structured radiological report should include quantitative analyses to complement conventional qualitative reporting in selected cases.

  10. The spectral analysis and information extraction for small geological target detection using hyperion image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingting; Wei, Xinxin; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Shouxun; Liu, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopic technique has been used for the mineral and rock geological mapping and alteration information extraction successfully with many reasonable results, but it is mainly used in arid and semi-arid land with low vegetation covering. In the case of the high vegetation covering, the outcrop of the altered rocks is small and distributes sparsely, the altered rocks is difficult to be identified directly. The target detection technique using imaging spectroscopic data should be introduced to the extraction of small geological targets under high vegetation covering area. In the paper, we take Ding-Ma gold deposit as the study area which located in Zhenan country, Shanxi province, the spectral features of the targets and the backgrounds are studied and analyzed using the field reflectance spectra, in addition to the study of the principle of the algorithms, some target detection algorithms which is appropriate to the small geological target detection are introduced. At last, the small altered rock targets under the covering of vegetation in forest are detected and discriminated in imaging spectroscopy data with the methods of spectral angle mapper (SAM), Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) and Adaptive Cosine Estimator (ACE). The detection results are reasonable and indicate the ability of target detection algorithms in geological target detection in the forest area.

  11. Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Verbeke, J; Dougan, A; Wang, T; Decman, D

    2009-07-04

    A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF{sub 6} gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF{sub 6} in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV.

  12. Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi

    DOEpatents

    Rienstra, Jeffrey L.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Sweatt, William C.

    2004-01-13

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  13. An information theoretic approach for non-rigid image registration using voxel class probabilities.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Emiliano; Maes, Frederik; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2006-06-01

    We propose two information theoretic similarity measures that allow to incorporate tissue class information in non-rigid image registration. The first measure assumes that tissue class probabilities have been assigned to each of the images to be registered by prior segmentation of both of them. One image is then non-rigidly deformed to match the other such that the fuzzy overlap of corresponding voxel object labels becomes similar to the ideal case whereby the tissue probability maps of both images are identical. Image similarity is assessed during registration by the divergence between the ideal and actual joint class probability distributions of both images. A second registration measure is proposed that applies in case a segmentation is available for only one of the images, for instance an atlas image that is to be matched to a study image to guide the segmentation thereof. Intensities in one image are matched to the fuzzy class labels in the other image by minimizing the conditional entropy of the intensities in the first image given the class labels in the second image. We derive analytic expressions for the gradient of each measure with respect to individual voxel displacements to derive a force field that drives the registration process, which is regularized by a viscous fluid model. The performance of the class-based measures is evaluated in the context of non-rigid inter-subject registration and atlas-based segmentation of MR brain images and compared with maximization of mutual information using only intensity information. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of class information in the registration measure significantly improves the overlap between corresponding tissue classes after non-rigid matching. The methods proposed here open new perspectives for integrating segmentation and registration in a single process, whereby the output of one is used to guide the other.

  14. Digital image modification detection using color information and its histograms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoyu; Shen, Yue; Zhu, Xinghui; Liu, Bo; Fu, Zigang; Fan, Na

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of many open source and commercial image editing software makes the authenticity of the digital images questionable. Copy-move forgery is one of the most widely used tampering techniques to create desirable objects or conceal undesirable objects in a scene. Existing techniques reported in the literature to detect such tampering aim to improve the robustness of these methods against the use of JPEG compression, blurring, noise, or other types of post processing operations. These post processing operations are frequently used with the intention to conceal tampering and reduce tampering clues. A robust method based on the color moments and other five image descriptors is proposed in this paper. The method divides the image into fixed size overlapping blocks. Clustering operation divides entire search space into smaller pieces with similar color distribution. Blocks from the tampered regions will reside within the same cluster since both copied and moved regions have similar color distributions. Five image descriptors are used to extract block features, which makes the method more robust to post processing operations. An ensemble of deep compositional pattern-producing neural networks are trained with these extracted features. Similarity among feature vectors in clusters indicates possible forged regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect copy-move forgery even if an image was distorted by gamma correction, addictive white Gaussian noise, JPEG compression, or blurring. PMID:27391780

  15. Investigation of limited-view image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography employing a priori structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-08-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is an emerging ultrasound-mediated biophotonic imaging modality that has exciting potential for many biomedical imaging applications. There is great interest in conducting B-mode ultrasound and OAT imaging studies for breast cancer detection using a common transducer. In this situation, the range of tomographic view angles is limited, which can result in distortions in the reconstructed OAT image if conventional reconstruction algorithms are applied to limited-view measurement data. In this work, we investigate an image reconstruction method that utilizes information regarding target boundaries to improve the quality of the reconstructed OAT images. This is accomplished by developing boundary-constrained image reconstruction algorithm for OAT based on Bayesian image reconstruction theory. The computer-simulation studies demonstrate that the Bayesian approach can effectively reduce the artifact and noise levels and preserve the edges in reconstructed limited-view OAT images as compared to those produced by a conventional OAT reconstruction algorithm.

  16. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  17. Construction of filter vectors for the information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.R.; Gentry, S.M.

    1998-12-01

    The information-efficient spectral imaging sensor (ISIS) seeks to improve system performance by processing hyperspectral information in the optical hardware. Its output may be a gray scale image in which one attempts to maximize the contrast between a given target and the background. Alternatively, its output may be a small number of images, rather than a full data cube, that retain the essential information required in the application. The principal advantage of ISIS is that it offers the discrimination of hyperspectral imaging while achieving the signal-to-noise ratio of multispectral imaging. The paper focuses on construction of the filter vectors that are needed to program ISIS. The instrument produces an image which is essentially a dot product of the scene and the filter vector. Both single vector and multiple vector approaches are considered. Also, they discuss some subtle points related to optimizing the filter vectors.

  18. Feasibility and implementation of a literature information management system for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers with imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain.

  19. Feasibility and implementation of a literature information management system for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers with imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain. PMID:25392683

  20. Feasibility and Implementation of a Literature Information Management System for Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancers with Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain. PMID:25392683

  1. TS-MRF sonar image segmentation based on the levels feature information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Xia, Ping; Liu, Xiaomei; Lei, Bangjun

    2015-12-01

    According to traditional methods of image segmentation on sonar image processing with less robustness and the problem of low accuracy, we propose the method of sonar image segmentation based on Tree-Structured Markov Random Field(TS-MRF), the algorithm shows better ability in using spatial information. First, using a tree structure constraint two-valued MRF sequences to model sonar image, through the node to describe local information of image, hierarchy information establish interconnected relationships through nodes, at the same time when we describe the hierarchical structure information of the image, we can preserve an image's local information effectively. Then, we define split gain coefficients to reflect the ratio that marking posterior probability division before and after the splitting on the assumption of the known image viewing features, and viewing gain coefficients of judgment as the basis for determining binary tree of node split to reduce the complexity of solving a posterior probability. Finally, during the process of image segmentation, continuing to split the leaf nodes with the maximum splitting gain, so we can get the splitting results. We add merge during the process of segmentation. Using the methods of region splitting and merging to reduce the error division, so we can obtain the final segmentation results. Experimental results show that this approach has high segmentation accuracy and robustness.

  2. Image gathering and coding for digital restoration: Information efficiency and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Mccormick, Judith A.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1989-01-01

    Image gathering and coding are commonly treated as tasks separate from each other and from the digital processing used to restore and enhance the images. The goal is to develop a method that allows us to assess quantitatively the combined performance of image gathering and coding for the digital restoration of images with high visual quality. Digital restoration is often interactive because visual quality depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations, and these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The approach is based on the theoretical treatment of image gathering as a communication channel (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A2, 1644(1985);5,285(1988). Initial results suggest that the practical upper limit of the information contained in the acquired image data range typically from approximately 2 to 4 binary information units (bifs) per sample, depending on the design of the image-gathering system. The associated information efficiency of the transmitted data (i.e., the ratio of information over data) ranges typically from approximately 0.3 to 0.5 bif per bit without coding to approximately 0.5 to 0.9 bif per bit with lossless predictive compression and Huffman coding. The visual quality that can be attained with interactive image restoration improves perceptibly as the available information increases to approximately 3 bifs per sample. However, the perceptual improvements that can be attained with further increases in information are very subtle and depend on the target and the desired enhancement.

  3. Optical color image encryption without information disclosure using phase-truncated Fresnel transform and a random amplitude mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Many phase-truncation-based cryptosystems encounter an information disclosure problem. In this paper, a novel color image encryption using a phase-truncated Fresnel transform and random amplitude mask (RAM) without the risk of information disclosure is proposed. An image is first separated into three channels (red, green, and blue) and using an additional RAM channel the risk of information disclosure encountered in previous encryption methods is eliminated. Moreover unlike previous methods where each channel is encrypted independently, the four channels employed in the proposed method are encrypted using a cascading technique. Robustness of the proposed scheme against attacks is analyzed. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  4. Enhancing a diffusion algorithm for 4D image segmentation using local information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösel, Philipp; Heuveline, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the diffusion of a particle, we present a novel approach for performing a semiautomatic segmentation of tomographic images in 3D, 4D or higher dimensions to meet the requirements of high-throughput measurements in a synchrotron X-ray microtomograph. Given a small number of 2D-slices with at least two manually labeled segments, one can either analytically determine the probability that an intelligently weighted random walk starting at one labeled pixel will be at a certain time at a specific position in the dataset or determine the probability approximately by performing several random walks. While the weights of a random walk take into account local information at the starting point, the random walk itself can be in any dimension. Starting a great number of random walks in each labeled pixel, a voxel in the dataset will be hit by several random walks over time. Hence, the image can be segmented by assigning each voxel to the label where the random walks most likely started from. Due to the high scalability of random walks, this approach is suitable for high throughput measurements. Additionally, we describe an interactively adjusted active contours slice by slice method considering local information, where we start with one manually labeled slice and move forward in any direction. This approach is superior with respect to accuracy towards the diffusion algorithm but inferior in the amount of tedious manual processing steps. The methods were applied on 3D and 4D datasets and evaluated by means of manually labeled images obtained in a realistic scenario with biologists.

  5. Mutual information in coupled multi-shape model for medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, A; Wells, W; Tempany, C; Grimson, E; Willsky, A

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents extensions which improve the performance of the shape-based deformable active contour model presented earlier in [IEEE Conf. Comput. Vision Pattern Recog. 1 (2001) 463] for medical image segmentation. In contrast to that previous work, the segmentation framework that we present in this paper allows multiple shapes to be segmented simultaneously in a seamless fashion. To achieve this, multiple signed distance functions are employed as the implicit representations of the multiple shape classes within the image. A parametric model for this new representation is derived by applying principal component analysis to the collection of these multiple signed distance functions. By deriving a parametric model in this manner, we obtain a coupling between the multiple shapes within the image and hence effectively capture the co-variations among the different shapes. The parameters of the multi-shape model are then calculated to minimize a single mutual information-based cost criterion for image segmentation. The use of a single cost criterion further enhances the coupling between the multiple shapes as the deformation of any given shape depends, at all times, upon every other shape, regardless of their proximity. We found that this resulting algorithm is able to effectively utilize the co-dependencies among the different shapes to aid in the segmentation process. It is able to capture a wide range of shape variability despite being a parametric shape-model. And finally, the algorithm is robust to large amounts of additive noise. We demonstrate the utility of this segmentation framework by applying it to a medical application: the segmentation of the prostate gland, the rectum, and the internal obturator muscles for MR-guided prostate brachytherapy.

  6. A STACKED GRAPHICAL MODEL FOR ASSOCIATING INFORMATION FROM TEXT AND IMAGES IN FIGURES

    PubMed Central

    KOU, ZHENZHEN; COHEN, WILLIAM W.; MURPHY, ROBERT F.

    2010-01-01

    There is extensive interest in mining data from full text. We have built a system called SLIF (for Subcellular Location Image Finder), which extracts information on one particular aspect of biology from a combination of text and images in journal articles. Associating the information from the text and image requires matching sub-figures with the sentences in the text. We introduced a stacked graphical model to match the labels of sub-figures with labels of sentences. The experimental results show that the stacked graphical model can take advantage of the context information and achieve a satisfactory accuracy. PMID:17990497

  7. Informational Analysis for Compressive Sampling in Radar Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation. PMID:25811226

  8. Informational analysis for compressive sampling in radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke

    2015-03-24

    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation.

  9. Conventional transmission electron microscopy imaging beyond the diffraction and information limits.

    PubMed

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-29

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope. PMID:25215995

  10. Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy Imaging beyond the Diffraction and Information Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenauer, Andreas; Krause, Florian F.; Müller, Knut; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    There are mainly two complementary imaging modes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Conventional TEM (CTEM) and scanning TEM (STEM). In the CTEM mode the specimen is illuminated with a plane electron wave, and the direct image formed by the objective lens is recorded in the image plane. STEM is based on scanning the specimen surface with a focused electron beam and collecting scattered electrons with an extended disk or ring-shaped detector. Here we show that combination of CTEM imaging with STEM illumination generally allows extending the point resolution of CTEM imaging beyond the diffraction limit. This new imaging mode improves imaging characteristics, is more robust against chromatic aberration, exhibits direct structural imaging with superior precision, visualizes light elements with excellent contrast, and even allows us to overcome the conventional information limit of a microscope.

  11. Experiences with a comprehensive hospital information system that incorporates image management capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayhoff, Ruth E.; Maloney, Daniel L.; Kuzmak, Peter M.; Shepard, Barclay M.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs has undertaken a project to integrate image management functionality within its hospital information system. One of the goals of this integrated image system is to provide high-quality image data from cardiology, pulmonary and gastrointestinal endoscopy, pathology, radiology, hematology, and nuclear medicine to clinicians throughout the hospital. Images are presented to clinicians on high-resolution workstations simultaneously with associated text data. This DHCP Integrated Imaging System is currently being installed and tested at the Washington DC VA Medical Center. Initial use has revealed a number of expected as well as unanticipated benefits for patient care and medical teaching.

  12. Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

  13. ISIS; An Information-efficient Spectral Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, C.A.; Descour, M.R.; Gentry, S.M.; Grotbeck, C.L.; Stallard, B.R.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-07-19

    A specialized hyperspectral imager has been developed that preprocesses the spectra from an image before the light reaches the detectors. This "optical computer" does not allow the flexibility of digital post-processing. However, the processing is done in real time and the system can examine = 2 x 10{sup 6} scene pixels/sec. Therefore, outdoors it could search for pollutants, vegetation types, minerals, or man-made objects. On a high- speed production line it could identify defects in sheet products like plastic wrap or film, or on painted or plastic parts. ISIS is a line scan imager. A spectrally dispersed slit image is projected on a Spatial Light Modulator. The SLM is programmed to take the inner product of the spectral intensity vector and a spectral basis vector. The SLM directs the positive and negative parts of the inner product to different linear detector arrays so the signal difference equals the inner product. We envision a system with one telescope and =4 SLMS.

  14. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme.

  15. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762

  16. Facile preparation and biological imaging of luminescent polymeric nanoprobes with aggregation-induced emission characteristics through Michael addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiulan; Wang, Ke; Xu, Dazhuang; Liu, Meiying; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-09-01

    Water dispersion aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dyes based nanomaterials have recently attracted increasing attention in the biomedical fields because of their unique optical properties, outstanding performance as imaging and therapeutic agents. The methods to conjugate hydrophilic polymers with AIE dyes to solve the hydrophobic nature of AIE dyes and makeS them widely used in biomedicine, which have been extensively explored and paid great effort previously. Although great advance has been made in the fabrication and biomedical applications of AIE-active polymeric nanoprobes, facile and efficient strategies for fabrication of biodegradable AIE-active nanoprobes are still high desirable. In this work, amphiphilic biodegradable fluorescent organic nanoparticles (PLL-TPE-O-E FONs) have been fabricated for the first time by conjugation of AIE dye tetraphenylethene acrylate (TPE-O-E) with Poly-l-Lysine (PLL) through a facile one-step Michael addition reaction, which was carried out under rather mild conditions, included air atmosphere, near room temperature and absent of metal catalysts or hazardous reagents. Due to the unique AIE properties, these amphiphilic copolymers tend to self-assemble into high luminescent water dispersible nanoparticles with size range from 400 to 600nm. Laser scanning microscope and cytotoxicity results revealed that PLL-TPE-O-E FONs can be internalized into cytoplasm with negative cytotoxicity, which implied that PLL-TPE-O-E FONs are promising for biological applications. PMID:27311129

  17. Verification of 3d Building Models Using Mutual Information in Airborne Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaruhuma, A. P.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a method for automatic verification of 3D building models using airborne oblique images. The problem being tackled is identifying buildings that are demolished or changed since the models were constructed or identifying wrong models using the images. The models verified are of CityGML LOD2 or higher since their edges are expected to coincide with actual building edges. The verification approach is based on information theory. Corresponding variables between building models and oblique images are used for deriving mutual information for individual edges, faces or whole buildings, and combined for all perspective images available for the building. The wireframe model edges are projected to images and verified using low level image features - the image pixel gradient directions. A building part is only checked against images in which it may be visible. The method has been tested with models constructed using laser points against Pictometry images that are available for most cities of Europe and may be publically viewed in the so called Birds Eye view of the Microsoft Bing Maps. Results are that nearly all buildings are correctly categorised as existing or demolished. Because we now concentrate only on roofs we also used the method to test and compare results from nadir images. This comparison made clear that especially height errors in models can be more reliably detected in oblique images because of the tilted view. Besides overall building verification, results per individual edges can be used for improving the 3D building models.

  18. Image informative maps for component-wise estimating parameters of signal-dependent noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uss, Mykhail L.; Vozel, Benoit; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-01-01

    We deal with the problem of blind parameter estimation of signal-dependent noise from mono-component image data. Multispectral or color images can be processed in a component-wise manner. The main results obtained rest on the assumption that the image texture and noise parameters estimation problems are interdependent. A two-dimensional fractal Brownian motion (fBm) model is used for locally describing image texture. A polynomial model is assumed for the purpose of describing the signal-dependent noise variance dependence on image intensity. Using the maximum likelihood approach, estimates of both fBm-model and noise parameters are obtained. It is demonstrated that Fisher information (FI) on noise parameters contained in an image is distributed nonuniformly over intensity coordinates (an image intensity range). It is also shown how to find the most informative intensities and the corresponding image areas for a given noisy image. The proposed estimator benefits from these detected areas to improve the estimation accuracy of signal-dependent noise parameters. Finally, the potential estimation accuracy (Cramér-Rao Lower Bound, or CRLB) of noise parameters is derived, providing confidence intervals of these estimates for a given image. In the experiment, the proposed and existing state-of-the-art noise variance estimators are compared for a large image database using CRLB-based statistical efficiency criteria.

  19. A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-10-01

    Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

  20. Global Observation Information Networking: Using the Distributed Image Spreadsheet (DISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    1999-01-01

    The DISS and many other tools will be used to present visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 ....... to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI Onyx Graphics-Supercomputers are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science and used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS.

  1. Correction of projective distortion in long-image-sequence mosaics without prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenhui; Mao, Hongwei; Abousleman, Glen; Si, Jennie

    2010-04-01

    Image mosaicking is the process of piecing together multiple video frames or still images from a moving camera to form a wide-area or panoramic view of the scene being imaged. Mosaics have widespread applications in many areas such as security surveillance, remote sensing, geographical exploration, agricultural field surveillance, virtual reality, digital video, and medical image analysis, among others. When mosaicking a large number of still images or video frames, the quality of the resulting mosaic is compromised by projective distortion. That is, during the mosaicking process, the image frames that are transformed and pasted to the mosaic become significantly scaled down and appear out of proportion with respect to the mosaic. As more frames continue to be transformed, important target information in the frames can be lost since the transformed frames become too small, which eventually leads to the inability to continue further. Some projective distortion correction techniques make use of prior information such as GPS information embedded within the image, or camera internal and external parameters. Alternatively, this paper proposes a new algorithm to reduce the projective distortion without using any prior information whatsoever. Based on the analysis of the projective distortion, we approximate the projective matrix that describes the transformation between image frames using an affine model. Using singular value decomposition, we can deduce the affine model scaling factor that is usually very close to 1. By resetting the image scale of the affine model to 1, the transformed image size remains unchanged. Even though the proposed correction introduces some error in the image matching, this error is typically acceptable and more importantly, the final mosaic preserves the original image size after transformation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new correction algorithm on two real-world unmanned air vehicle (UAV) sequences. The proposed method is

  2. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  3. Information embedding to a real object by projecting a checkered-pattern carrier-screen image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shogenji, Rui

    2014-09-01

    We propose an information embedding technique to a real object by projecting a checkered-pattern carrier-screen image as an illumination. The carrier-screen image is an information hiding technique, which can decode a secret image physically by superimposing a periodic pattern. As a kind of carrier-screen images, we have developed the checkered-pattern carrier-screen images, which can be physically decoded by superimposing a sheet of checkered pattern. The secret information is also visualized by image sampling with certain interval. As an example of decoding by image sampling, we proposed a decoding method with a compact digital camera. The encoded carrier-screen image has an almost uniform pattern, because modulating a checkered pattern generates it. It is also easy to display on a liquid-crystal display, because it is represented on a square pixel structure. Experimental optical embedding and decoding with a digital camera results show effectiveness of the proposed system. Since the embedded information can be decoded by using an ordinary digital camera, our system expected to use not only steganographic purpose also prevention techniques on taking photos.

  4. Multispectral information hiding in RGB image using bit-plane-based watermarking and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Aya; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    Although it was expected that multispectral images would be implemented in many applications, such as remote sensing and medical imaging, their use has not been widely diffused in these fields. The development of a compact multispectral camera and display will be needed for practical use, but the format compatibility between multispectral and RGB images is also important for reducing the introduction cost and having high usability. We propose a method of embedding the spectral information into an RGB image by watermarking. The RGB image is calculated from the multispectral image, and then, the original multispectral image is estimated from the RGB image using Wiener estimation. The residual data between the original and the estimated multispectral image are compressed and embedded in the lower bit planes of the RGB image. The experimental results show that, as compared with Wiener estimation, the proposed method leads to more than a 10 dB gain in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed multispectral image, while there are almost no significant perceptual differences in the watermarked RGB image.

  5. Optimal Compression of Floating-Point Astronomical Images Without Significant Loss of Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pence, William D.; White, R. L.; Seaman, R.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a compression method for floating-point astronomical images that gives compression ratios of 6 - 10 while still preserving the scientifically important information in the image. The pixel values are first preprocessed by quantizing them into scaled integer intensity levels, which removes some of the uncompressible noise in the image. The integers are then losslessly compressed using the fast and efficient Rice algorithm and stored in a portable FITS format file. Quantizing an image more coarsely gives greater image compression, but it also increases the noise and degrades the precision of the photometric and astrometric measurements in the quantized image. Dithering the pixel values during the quantization process greatly improves the precision of measurements in the more coarsely quantized images. We perform a series of experiments on both synthetic and real astronomical CCD images to quantitatively demonstrate that the magnitudes and positions of stars in the quantized images can be measured with the predicted amount of precision. In order to encourage wider use of these image compression methods, we have made available a pair of general-purpose image compression programs, called fpack and funpack, which can be used to compress any FITS format image.

  6. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  7. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  8. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  10. The Information Society: Image versus Reality in National Computer Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Joey F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines what the term "information society" really means and investigates how it is related to national computer plans (NCPs). Analysis of several NCPs indicates that nations are more concerned with a general need to bolster and improve their national economies than in encouraging social transformation. (JKP)

  11. Image density property of optical information recording microcapsule material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weidong; Li, Xiaowei; Li, Xinzheng; Fu, Guangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The microcapsules can act as novel optical functional material in which the optical recording substance such as color-forming substance, photoinitiator and prepolymer are encapsulated. In this paper, the microcapsules with average particle diameter of 300nm are prepared with interfacial polymerization method. The optical responding character of the microcapsule is analyzed based on IR spectra and image density technique. Results show that the microcapsule material encapsulated prepolymer TMPTA and photoinitiator Irgacure-ITX, TPO has thermal phase-change at 140°C, at which the penetrability of the microcapsule has the highest efficiency. With the increase of exposure time, the reduction in absorption intensities of the prepolymer TMPTA are observed at 1635cm-1 of C=C stretching and 898cm-1 of C-H stretching on the C=C molecular bond. Such a result can be ascribed to the double bond cleavage process of the prepolymer TMPTA is initiated by the optical-exposed photoinitiator, and superpolymer network is formed. The image density contrast between the unexposed and exposed microcapsule is enhanced with exposure time increased.

  12. Updating Object for GIS Database Information Using High Resolution Satellite Images: a Case Study Zonguldak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkan, M.; Arca, D.; Bayik, Ç.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays Geographic Information Systems (GIS) uses Remote Sensing (RS) data for a lot of applications. One of the application areas is the updating of the GIS database using high resolution imagery. In this context high resolution satellite imagery data is very important for many applications areas today's and future. And also, high resolution satellite imagery data will be used in many applications for different purposes. Information systems needs to high resolution imagery data for updating. Updating is very important component for the any of the GIS systems. One of this area will be updated and kept alive GIS database information. High resolution satellite imagery is used with different data base which serve map information via internet and different aims of information systems applications in future topographic and cartographic information systems will very important in our country in this sense use of the satellite images will be unavoidable. In this study explain to how is acquired to satellite images and how is use this images in information systems for object and roads. Firstly, pan-sharpened two of the IKONOS's images have been produced by fusion of high resolution PAN and MS images using PCI Geomatica v9.1 software package. Automatic object extraction has been made using eCognition v4.0.6. On the other hand, these objects have been manually digitized from high resolution images using ArcGIS v9.3. software package. Application section of in this study, satellite images data will be compared each other and GIS objects and road database. It is also determined which data is useful in Geographic Information Systems. Finally, this article explains that integration of remote sensing technology and GIS applications.

  13. Hybrid Online Mobile Laser Scanner Calibration Through Image Alignment by Mutual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miled, Mourad; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Vallet, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an hybrid online calibration method for a laser scanner mounted on a mobile platform also equipped with an imaging system. The method relies on finding the calibration parameters that best align the acquired points cloud to the images. The quality of this intermodal alignment is measured by Mutual information between image luminance and points reflectance. The main advantage and motivation is ensuring pixel accurate alignment of images and point clouds acquired simultaneously, but it is also much more flexible than traditional laser calibration methods.

  14. Extraction of informative cell features by segmentation of densely clustered tissue images.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Sonal; Chaudry, Qaiser; Wang, May D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fast methodology for the estimation of informative cell features from densely clustered RGB tissue images. The features estimated include nuclei count, nuclei size distribution, nuclei eccentricity (roundness) distribution, nuclei closeness distribution and cluster size distribution. Our methodology is a three step technique. Firstly, we generate a binary nuclei mask from an RGB tissue image by color segmentation. Secondly, we segment nuclei clusters present in the binary mask into individual nuclei by concavity detection and ellipse fitting. Finally, we estimate informative features for every nuclei and their distribution for the complete image. The main focus of our work is the development of a fast and accurate nuclei cluster segmentation technique for densely clustered tissue images. We also developed a simple graphical user interface (GUI) for our application which requires minimal user interaction and can efficiently extract features from nuclei clusters, making it feasible for clinical applications (less than 2 minutes for a 1.9 megapixel tissue image).

  15. [Method of multi-resolution 3D image registration by mutual information].

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiping; Wu, Wenkai; Yang, Hu; Chen, Shengzu

    2002-12-01

    Maximization of mutual information is a powerful criterion for 3D medical image registration, allowing robust and fully accurate automated rigid registration of multi-modal images in a various applications. In this paper, a method based on normalized mutual information for 3D image registration was presented on the images of CT, MR and PET. Powell's direction set method and Brent's one-dimensional optimization algorithm were used as optimization strategy. A multi-resolution approach is applied to speedup the matching process. For PET images, pre-procession of segmentation was performed to reduce the background artefacts. According to the evaluation by the Vanderbilt University, Sub-voxel accuracy in multi-modality registration had been achieved with this algorithm. PMID:12561358

  16. Modelling laser speckle photographs of decayed teeth by applying a digital image information technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. Z.; da Silva, L. C.; da Silva, J. V. P.; Deana, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the application of a digital image model to assess early carious lesions on teeth. When decay is in its early stages, the lesions were illuminated with a laser and the laser speckle images were obtained. Due to the differences in the optical properties between healthy and carious tissue, both regions produced different scatter patterns. The digital image information technique allowed us to produce colour-coded 3D surface plots of the intensity information in the speckle images, where the height (on the z-axis) and the colour in the rendering correlate with the intensity of a pixel in the image. The quantitative changes in colour component density enhance the contrast between the decayed and sound tissue, and visualization of the carious lesions become significantly evident. Therefore, the proposed technique may be adopted in the early diagnosis of carious lesions.

  17. Geobase Information System Impacts on Space Image Formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S. (Editor); Smith, T. R. (Editor); Tobler, W. (Editor); Marks, D. G. (Editor); Frew, J. E. (Editor); Dozier, J. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    As Geobase Information Systems increase in number, size and complexity, the format compatability of satellite remote sensing data becomes increasingly more important. Because of the vast and continually increasing quantity of data available from remote sensing systems the utility of these data is increasingly dependent on the degree to which their formats facilitate, or hinder, their incorporation into Geobase Information Systems. To merge satellite data into a geobase system requires that they both have a compatible geographic referencing system. Greater acceptance of satellite data by the user community will be facilitated if the data are in a form which most readily corresponds to existing geobase data structures. The conference addressed a number of specific topics and made recommendations.

  18. Study on the optimal algorithm prediction of corn leaf component information based on hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Tongyu

    2016-09-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) has a significant effect in the band optimization selection of Partial Least Squares (PLS) correction model. Application of genetic algorithm in selection of characteristic bands can achieve the optimal solution more rapidly, effectively improve measurement accuracy and reduce variables used for modeling. In this study, genetic algorithm as a module conducted band selection for the application of hyperspectral imaging in nondestructive testing of corn seedling leaves, and GA-PLS model was established. In addition, PLS quantitative model of full spectrum and experienced-spectrum region were established in order to suggest the feasibility of genetic algorithm optimizing wave bands, and model robustness was evaluated. There were 12 characteristic bands selected by genetic algorithm. With reflectance values of corn seedling component information at spectral characteristic wavelengths corresponding to 12 characteristic bands as variables, a model about SPAD values of corn leaves acquired was established by PLS, and modeling results showed r = 0.7825. The model results were better than those of PLS model established in full spectrum and experience-based selected bands. The results suggested that genetic algorithm can be used for data optimization and screening before establishing the corn seedling component information model by PLS method and effectively increase measurement accuracy and greatly reduce variables used for modeling.

  19. Detecting structural information of scatterers using spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Foschum, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate optical phantom experiments on the phase function parameter γ using spatial frequency domain imaging. The incorporation of two different types of scattering particles allows for control of the optical phantoms’ microscopic scattering properties. By laterally structuring areas with either TiO2 or Al2O3 scattering particles, we were able to obtain almost pure subdiffusive scattering contrast in a single optical phantom. Optical parameter mapping was then achieved using an analytical radiative transfer model revealing the microscopic structural contrast on a macroscopic field of view. As part of our study, we explain several correction and referencing techniques for high spatial frequency analysis and experimentally study the sampling depth of the subdiffusive parameter γ.

  20. Detecting structural information of scatterers using spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Foschum, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate optical phantom experiments on the phase function parameter γ using spatial frequency domain imaging. The incorporation of two different types of scattering particles allows for control of the optical phantoms’ microscopic scattering properties. By laterally structuring areas with either TiO2 or Al2O3 scattering particles, we were able to obtain almost pure subdiffusive scattering contrast in a single optical phantom. Optical parameter mapping was then achieved using an analytical radiative transfer model revealing the microscopic structural contrast on a macroscopic field of view. As part of our study, we explain several correction and referencing techniques for high spatial frequency analysis and experimentally study the sampling depth of the subdiffusive parameter γ. PMID:26590206

  1. Multimodal Image Reconstruction Using Supplementary Structural Information in Total Variation Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Lionheart, William R. B.; Withers, Philip J.; Lee, Peter D.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm which uses available information from one dataset collected using one modality to increase the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of one collected by another modality. The method operates on the structural information only which increases its suitability across various applications. Consequently, the main aim of this method is to exploit available supplementary data within the regularization framework. The source of primary and supplementary datasets can be acquired using complementary imaging modes where different types of information are obtained (e.g. in medical imaging: anatomical and functional). It is shown by extracting structural information from the supplementary image (direction of level sets) one can enhance the resolution of the other image. Notably, the method enhances edges that are common to both images while not suppressing features that show high contrast in the primary image alone. In our iterative algorithm we use available structural information within a modified total variation penalty term. We provide numerical experiments to show the advantages and feasibility of the proposed technique in comparison to other methods.

  2. Multimodal Image Reconstruction Using Supplementary Structural Information in Total Variation Regularization.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Lionheart, William R B; Withers, Philip J; Lee, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm which uses available information from one dataset collected using one modality to increase the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of one collected by another modality. The method operates on the structural information only which increases its suitability across various applications. Consequently, the main aim of this method is to exploit available supplementary data within the regularization framework. The source of primary and supplementary datasets can be acquired using complementary imaging modes where different types of information are obtained (e.g. in medical imaging: anatomical and functional). It is shown by extracting structural information from the supplementary image (direction of level sets) one can enhance the resolution of the other image. Notably, the method enhances edges that are common to both images while not suppressing features that show high contrast in the primary image alone. In our iterative algorithm we use available structural information within a modified total variation penalty term. We provide numerical experiments to show the advantages and feasibility of the proposed technique in comparison to other methods.

  3. Multimodal Image Reconstruction Using Supplementary Structural Information in Total Variation Regularization.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Lionheart, William R B; Withers, Philip J; Lee, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm which uses available information from one dataset collected using one modality to increase the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of one collected by another modality. The method operates on the structural information only which increases its suitability across various applications. Consequently, the main aim of this method is to exploit available supplementary data within the regularization framework. The source of primary and supplementary datasets can be acquired using complementary imaging modes where different types of information are obtained (e.g. in medical imaging: anatomical and functional). It is shown by extracting structural information from the supplementary image (direction of level sets) one can enhance the resolution of the other image. Notably, the method enhances edges that are common to both images while not suppressing features that show high contrast in the primary image alone. In our iterative algorithm we use available structural information within a modified total variation penalty term. We provide numerical experiments to show the advantages and feasibility of the proposed technique in comparison to other methods. PMID:25484635

  4. An information theory characterization of radar images and a new definition for radiometric resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The noise properties of the radar image formation process are used in the present modeling of a communication channel in which the desired target properties are the information transmitted, and the final image represents the received signal. The average information rate over this communication channel is calculated together with appropriate bounds and approximations, and is found to be small on a per-sample basis. As a result, many samples must be averaged to allow for the discrimination, or classification, of several levels of target reflectivity. These information rate properties are consistent with known results concerning target detection and image quality in speckle, and the rate is applicable to the definition of radar image radiometric resolution. Radiometric resolution is functionally related to the degree of noncoherent averaging performed by the sensor.

  5. Parallel approach to incorporating face image information into dialogue processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuji

    2000-10-01

    There are many kinds of so-called irregular expressions in natural dialogues. Even if the content of a conversation is the same in words, different meanings can be interpreted by a person's feeling or face expression. To have a good understanding of dialogues, it is required in a flexible dialogue processing system to infer the speaker's view properly. However, it is difficult to obtain the meaning of the speaker's sentences in various scenes using traditional methods. In this paper, a new approach for dialogue processing that incorporates information from the speaker's face is presented. We first divide conversation statements into several simple tasks. Second, we process each simple task using an independent processor. Third, we employ some speaker's face information to estimate the view of the speakers to solve ambiguities in dialogues. The approach presented in this paper can work efficiently, because independent processors run in parallel, writing partial results to a shared memory, incorporating partial results at appropriate points, and complementing each other. A parallel algorithm and a method for employing the face information in a dialogue machine translation will be discussed, and some results will be included in this paper.

  6. Theme issue "High Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipke, Christian; Soergel, Uwe; Rottensteiner, Franz; Jutzi, Boris

    2015-02-01

    Earth imaging from air and space has undergone major changes over the last decade. Examples of new and significant developments comprise the development and constant improvement of digital aerial cameras, multiple-echo and full-waveform laser scanners and the appearance of geosensor networks and unconventional platforms, most notably unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), sometimes called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), and the ever increasing number of high-resolution and hyperspectral optical and SAR satellite sensors, small satellites and satellite constellations, which allow for both, a continued availability of satellite data over long periods of time, and a very short revisit time for any location on the globe. To give few examples: the latest Landsat satellite, appropriately called the Landsat data continuity mission or LDCM was launched on February 2013, continuing the Landsat mission which began back in 1972; during 2013 and 2014 France has put the SPOT 6 and 7 twin satellites into orbit, extending the history of high resolution space images, which started in 1986; and in April 2014 the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched the Sentinel 1A satellite with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor, the first of a fleet of different sensors that will be sent into space in the coming years. Sentinel 1A together with its twin system Sentinel 1B, to be launched in 2016, will continue the tremendous success story of ESA's C band SAR satellite activities dating back to 1991. Like the predecessors ERS 1, ERS 2, and Envisat ASAR, the Sentinel 1 systems are designed to cover the entire land mass with medium resolution, the repeat cycle is 12 days for Sentinel 1A alone and will even drop to six days as soon as both satellites are operational.

  7. Terahertz Lasers Reveal Information for 3D Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    After taking off her shoes and jacket, she places them in a bin. She then takes her laptop out of its case and places it in a separate bin. As the items move through the x-ray machine, the woman waits for a sign from security personnel to pass through the metal detector. Today, she was lucky; she did not encounter any delays. The man behind her, however, was asked to step inside a large circular tube, raise his hands above his head, and have his whole body scanned. If you have ever witnessed a full-body scan at the airport, you may have witnessed terahertz imaging. Terahertz wavelengths are located between microwave and infrared on the electromagnetic spectrum. When exposed to these wavelengths, certain materials such as clothing, thin metal, sheet rock, and insulation become transparent. At airports, terahertz radiation can illuminate guns, knives, or explosives hidden underneath a passenger s clothing. At NASA s Kennedy Space Center, terahertz wavelengths have assisted in the inspection of materials like insulating foam on the external tanks of the now-retired space shuttle. "The foam we used on the external tank was a little denser than Styrofoam, but not much," says Robert Youngquist, a physicist at Kennedy. The problem, he explains, was that "we lost a space shuttle by having a chunk of foam fall off from the external fuel tank and hit the orbiter." To uncover any potential defects in the foam covering, such as voids or air pockets, that could keep the material from staying in place, NASA employed terahertz imaging to see through the foam. For many years, the technique ensured the integrity of the material on the external tanks.

  8. Video Information Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System (VICAR/IBIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wherry, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The acquisition, operation, and planning stages of installing a VICAR/IBIS system are described. The system operates in an IBM mainframe environment, and provides image processing of raster data. System support problems with software and documentation are discussed.

  9. Knowledge guided information fusion for segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Jiang, Tianzi

    2003-05-01

    In this work, T1-, T2- and PD-weighted MR images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, providing information on the properties of tissues from different aspects, are treated as three independent information sources for the detection and segmentation of MS lesions. Based on information fusion theory, a knowledge guided information fusion framework is proposed to accomplish 3-D segmentation of MS lesions. This framework consists of three parts: (1) information extraction, (2) information fusion, and (3) decision. Information provided by different spectral images is extracted and modeled separately in each spectrum using fuzzy sets, aiming at managing the uncertainty and ambiguity in the images due to noise and partial volume effect. In the second part, the possible fuzzy map of MS lesions in each spectral image is constructed from the extracted information under the guidance of experts' knowledge, and then the final fuzzy map of MS lesions is constructed through the fusion of the fuzzy maps obtained from different spectrum. Finally, 3-D segmentation of MS lesions is derived from the final fuzzy map. Experimental results show that this method is fast and accurate.

  10. Conjunctive patches subspace learning with side information for collaborative image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lining; Wang, Lipo; Lin, Weisi

    2012-08-01

    Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has attracted substantial attention during the past few years for its potential practical applications to image management. A variety of Relevance Feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level visual features and the high-level semantic concepts for an image retrieval task. Various Collaborative Image Retrieval (CIR) schemes aim to utilize the user historical feedback log data with similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints to improve the performance of a CBIR system. However, existing subspace learning approaches with explicit label information cannot be applied for a CIR task, although the subspace learning techniques play a key role in various computer vision tasks, e.g., face recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework, i.e., Conjunctive Patches Subspace Learning (CPSL) with side information, for learning an effective semantic subspace by exploiting the user historical feedback log data for a CIR task. The CPSL can effectively integrate the discriminative information of labeled log images, the geometrical information of labeled log images and the weakly similar information of unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. We formally formulate this problem into a constrained optimization problem and then present a new subspace learning technique to exploit the user historical feedback log data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of a CBIR system by exploiting the user historical feedback log data.

  11. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  12. Improvement in perception of image sharpness through the addition of noise and its relationship with memory texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiazi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Naokazu

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding study, we investigated the effects of image noise on the perception of image sharpness using white noise, and one- and two-dimensional single-frequency sinusoidal patterns as stimuli. This study extends our preceding study by evaluating natural color images, rather than black-and-white patterns. The results showed that the effect of noise in improving image sharpness perception is more evident in blurred images than in sharp images. This is consistent with the results of the preceding study. In another preceding study, we proposed "memory texture" to explain the preferred granularity of images, as a concept similar to "memory color" for preferred color reproduction. We observed individual differences in type of memory texture for each object, that is, white or 1/f noise. This study discusses the relationship between improvement of sharpness perception by adding noise, and the memory texture, following its individual differences. We found that memory texture is one of the elements that affect sharpness perception.

  13. A rapid extraction of landslide disaster information research based on GF-1 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Suning; Peng, Ling; Wang, Zhiyi; Wang, Na

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the landslide disasters occurred frequently because of the seismic activity. It brings great harm to people's life. It has caused high attention of the state and the extensive concern of society. In the field of geological disaster, landslide information extraction based on remote sensing has been controversial, but high resolution remote sensing image can improve the accuracy of information extraction effectively with its rich texture and geometry information. Therefore, it is feasible to extract the information of earthquake- triggered landslides with serious surface damage and large scale. Taking the Wenchuan county as the study area, this paper uses multi-scale segmentation method to extract the landslide image object through domestic GF-1 images and DEM data, which uses the estimation of scale parameter tool to determine the optimal segmentation scale; After analyzing the characteristics of landslide high-resolution image comprehensively and selecting spectrum feature, texture feature, geometric features and landform characteristics of the image, we can establish the extracting rules to extract landslide disaster information. The extraction results show that there are 20 landslide whose total area is 521279.31 .Compared with visual interpretation results, the extraction accuracy is 72.22%. This study indicates its efficient and feasible to extract earthquake landslide disaster information based on high resolution remote sensing and it provides important technical support for post-disaster emergency investigation and disaster assessment.

  14. Incorporation of spatial information in Bayesian image reconstruction - The maximum residual likelihood criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, R. K.; Puetter, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a new figure of merit, a 'maximum-residual-likelihood' (MRL) statistic, for the goodness of fit for Bayesian image restoration which explicitly incorporates spatial information. The MRL constraint provides a natural means of incorporating the prior knowledge that the residuals contain no spatial structure through the autocorrelation function of the residuals. We demonstrate that this statistic follows a Chi-square distribution and that forcing this statistic to have its most probable value leads to a restored image whose residuals are consistent with the noise model. Our numerical experiments suggest that image restoration using the MRL statistic alone is numerically robust and produces results which are independent of the initial guess for the restored image. However, we caution that using the MRL statistic without an image prior can result in overresolution in low SNR portions of the image.

  15. Improve synthetic retinal OCT images with present of pathologies and textural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrian Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Simader, Christian; Langs, Georg; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-03-01

    The lack of noise free Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images makes it challenging to quantitatively evaluate performance of image processing methods such as denoising methods. The synthetic noise free OCT images are needed to evaluate performance of image processing methods. The current synthetic methods fail to generate synthetic images that represent real OCT images with present of pathologies. They cannot correctly imitate real OCT data due to a tendency to smooth the data, losing texture information and even, pathologies such as cysts are simply smoothed away by these methods. The first aim of this paper is to use mathematical models to generate a synthetic noise free image that represent real retinal OCT B-scan or volume with present of clinically important pathologies. The proposed method partitions a B-scan obtained from real OCT into three regions (vitreous, retina and choroid) by segmenting the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) surfaces as well as cysts regions by medical experts. Then retina region is further divided into small blocks. Different smoothness functions are used to estimate OCT signals in vitreous, choroid and cyst regions and in blocks of retina region. Estimating signals in block resolution enables our proposed method to capture more textural information by using a simple mathematical model (smoothness function) and using annotated cyst enables our method to model cyst pathology accurately. The qualitative evaluations show that proposed method generates more realistic B-scans with present of pathologies and textural information than other methods.

  16. Fast stochastic Wiener filter for superresolution image restoration with information theoretic visual quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr H.; Li, Jiang; Karim, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Super-resolution (SR) refers to reconstructing a single high resolution (HR) image from a set of subsampled, blurred and noisy low resolution (LR) images. The reconstructed image suffers from degradations such as blur, aliasing, photo-detector noise and registration and fusion error. Wiener filter can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we introduce a new fast stochasticWiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. Our derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. We incorporate a new parameter that accounts for LR images registration and fusion errors. Also, we speeded up the performance of the filter by constraining it to work on small patches of the images. Beside this, we introduce two figures of merits: information rate and maximum realizable fidelity, which can be used to assess the visual quality of the resultant images. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the derived Wiener filter that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain can reduce aliasing, blurring, and noise and result in a sharper reconstructed image. Also, Quantitative assessment using the proposed figures coincides with the visual qualitative assessment. Finally, we evaluate our filter against other SR techniques and its results were very competitive.

  17. Multi technique amalgamation for enhanced information identification with content based image data.

    PubMed

    Das, Rik; Thepade, Sudeep; Ghosh, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Image data has emerged as a resourceful foundation for information with proliferation of image capturing devices and social media. Diverse applications of images in areas including biomedicine, military, commerce, education have resulted in huge image repositories. Semantically analogous images can be fruitfully recognized by means of content based image identification. However, the success of the technique has been largely dependent on extraction of robust feature vectors from the image content. The paper has introduced three different techniques of content based feature extraction based on image binarization, image transform and morphological operator respectively. The techniques were tested with four public datasets namely, Wang Dataset, Oliva Torralba (OT Scene) Dataset, Corel Dataset and Caltech Dataset. The multi technique feature extraction process was further integrated for decision fusion of image identification to boost up the recognition rate. Classification result with the proposed technique has shown an average increase of 14.5 % in Precision compared to the existing techniques and the retrieval result with the introduced technique has shown an average increase of 6.54 % in Precision over state-of-the art techniques. PMID:26798574

  18. Multi technique amalgamation for enhanced information identification with content based image data.

    PubMed

    Das, Rik; Thepade, Sudeep; Ghosh, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Image data has emerged as a resourceful foundation for information with proliferation of image capturing devices and social media. Diverse applications of images in areas including biomedicine, military, commerce, education have resulted in huge image repositories. Semantically analogous images can be fruitfully recognized by means of content based image identification. However, the success of the technique has been largely dependent on extraction of robust feature vectors from the image content. The paper has introduced three different techniques of content based feature extraction based on image binarization, image transform and morphological operator respectively. The techniques were tested with four public datasets namely, Wang Dataset, Oliva Torralba (OT Scene) Dataset, Corel Dataset and Caltech Dataset. The multi technique feature extraction process was further integrated for decision fusion of image identification to boost up the recognition rate. Classification result with the proposed technique has shown an average increase of 14.5 % in Precision compared to the existing techniques and the retrieval result with the introduced technique has shown an average increase of 6.54 % in Precision over state-of-the art techniques.

  19. Methods of Hematoxylin and Erosin Image Information Acquisition and Optimization in Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Woong Bae; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Kwang Gi; Choi, Yongdoo; Chang, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We produced hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining-like color images by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which can obtain the same or more information in comparison to conventional tissue staining. Methods We improved images by using several image converting techniques, including morphological methods, color space conversion methods, and segmentation methods. Results An image obtained after image processing showed coloring very similar to that in images produced by H&E staining, and it is advantageous to conduct analysis through fluorescent dye imaging and microscopy rather than analysis based on single microscopic imaging. Conclusions The colors used in CLSM are different from those seen in H&E staining, which is the method most widely used for pathologic diagnosis and is familiar to pathologists. Computer technology can facilitate the conversion of images by CLSM to be very similar to H&E staining images. We believe that the technique used in this study has great potential for application in clinical tissue analysis. PMID:27525165

  20. Speech Analysis Based On Image Information from Lip Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talha, Kamil S.; Wan, Khairunizam; Za'ba, S. K.; Mohamad Razlan, Zuradzman; B, Shahriman A.

    2013-12-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing people often have problems being able to understand and lip read other people. Usually deaf and hard of hearing people feel left out of conversation and sometimes they are actually ignored by other people. There are a variety of ways hearing-impaired person can communicate and gain accsss to the information. Communication support includes both technical and human aids. Human aids include interpreters, lip-readers and note-takers. Interpreters translate the Sign Language and must therefore be qualified. In this paper, vision system is used to track movements of the lip. In the experiment, the proposed system succesfully can differentiate 11 type of phonemes and then classified it to the respective viseme group. By using the proposed system the hearing-impaired persons could practise pronaunciations by themselve without support from the instructor.

  1. On the use of information theory for the analysis of the relationship between neural and imaging signals.

    PubMed

    Panzeri, Stefano; Magri, Cesare; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2008-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used method for studying the neural basis of cognition and of sensory function. A potential problem in the interpretation of fMRI data is that fMRI measures neural activity only indirectly, as a local change of deoxyhemoglobin concentration due to the metabolic demands of neural function. To build correct sensory and cognitive maps in the human brain, it is thus crucial to understand whether fMRI and neural activity convey the same type of information about external correlates. While a substantial experimental effort has been devoted to the simultaneous recordings of hemodynamic and neural signals, so far, the development of analysis methods that elucidate how neural and hemodynamic signals represent sensory information has received less attention. In this article, we critically review why the analytical framework of information theory, the mathematical theory of communication, is ideally suited to this purpose. We review the principles of information theory and explain how they could be applied to the analysis of fMRI and neural signals. We show that a critical advantage of information theory over more traditional analysis paradigms commonly used in the fMRI literature is that it can elucidate, within a single framework, whether an empirically observed correlation between neural and fMRI signals reflects either a similar stimulus tuning or a common source of variability unrelated to the external stimuli. In addition, information theory determines the extent to which these shared sources of stimulus signal and of variability lead fMRI and neural signals to convey similar information about external correlates. We then illustrate the formalism by applying it to the analysis of the information carried by different bands of the local field potential. We conclude by discussing the current methodological challenges that need to be addressed to make the information-theoretic approach more robustly applicable to the

  2. Imaging or imagining? A neuroethics challenge informed by genetics.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Racine, Eric

    2005-01-01

    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of carefully and properly interpreting the relationship between brain findings and our own self-concept is unprecedented. Therefore, while the ethics of genetics provides a legitimate starting point--even a backbone--for tackling ethical issues in neuroimaging, they do not suffice. Drawing on recent neuroimaging findings and their plausible real-world applications, we argue that interpretation of neuroimaging data is a key epistemological and ethical challenge. This challenge is two-fold. First, at the scientific level, the sheer complexity of neuroscience research poses challenges for integration of knowledge and meaningful interpretation of data. Second, at the social and cultural level, we find that interpretations of imaging studies are bound by cultural and anthropological frameworks. In particular, the introduction of concepts of self and personhood in neuroimaging illustrates the interaction of interpretation levels and is a major reason why ethical reflection on genetics will only partially help settle neuroethical issues. Indeed, ethical interpretation of such findings will necessitate not only traditional bioethical input but also a wider perspective on the construction of scientific knowledge.

  3. Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge Informed by Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Racine, Eric

    2006-01-01

    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of carefully and properly interpreting the relationship between brain findings and our own self-concept is unprecedented. Therefore, while the ethics of genetics provides a legitimate starting point—even a backbone—for tackling ethical issues in neuroimaging, they do not suffice. Drawing on recent neuroimaging findings and their plausible real-world applications, we argue that interpretation of neuroimaging data is a key epistemological and ethical challenge. This challenge is two-fold. First, at the scientific level, the sheer complexity of neuroscience research poses challenges for integration of knowledge and meaningful interpretation of data. Second, at the social and cultural level, we find that interpretations of imaging studies are bound by cultural and anthropological frameworks. In particular, the introduction of concepts of self and personhood in neuroimaging illustrates the interaction of interpretation levels and is a major reason why ethical reflection on genetics will only partially help settle neuroethical issues. Indeed, ethical interpretation of such findings will necessitate not only traditional bioethical input but also a wider perspective on the construction of scientific knowledge. PMID:16036688

  4. Adaptive image workstation based on explicit models of diagnostic information requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Thomas; Grewer, R.; Moennich, K. J.; Schmidt, J.; Svensson, H.

    1992-05-01

    A medical image workstation has been conceived and prototyped which is designed to act as a cooperative dialogue partner in a number of routinely performed tasks in diagnostic radiology. The system can automatically select relevant information (e.g., current and previous examinations, images, image sequences) and generate a meaningful and appropriate image arrangement on the display screen. This is shown to be an effective feature to simplify and speed up radiological image access and presentation. For many cases in diagnostic image reading, the users' interaction may be as simple as switching from one patient to the next. Furthermore, the installed mechanisms offer a solution for the automatic pre-fetching of images to avoid transmission delays in the course of diagnostic work sessions. The cooperative system response is based on explicit (formalized and computer-accessible) models of diagnostic information requirements. These models are context-dependent and take into account that diagnostic information needs vary with radiological work procedures, workstation users, and patient cases. Initial information requirement models have been acquired from expert radiologists in two European hospitals and were integrated in a cooperative workstation prototype. For the representation of models, rule-based and object-oriented techniques were applied. The rule base was designed with a distinct modular structure, separating between rule sets for general, task- and user-dependent information requirements. The paper reviews the objectives for the design of cooperative workstation user interfaces and describes the acquisition, structuring, formalization, and representation of context-dependent information requirement models. The rule-base is explained by examples. A layered workstation architecture consisting of model-, object-, and realtime-layer is presented. Difficulties in the implementation of cooperative workstations are discussed which point to future research topics and

  5. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Ren, Jinxia; Huang, Zhiwen; Zhu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation. PMID:27649190

  6. Spiking Cortical Model Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Combining Entropy Information with Weber Local Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Ren, Jinxia; Huang, Zhiwen; Zhu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal medical image fusion (MIF) plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Existing MIF methods tend to introduce artifacts, lead to loss of image details or produce low-contrast fused images. To address these problems, a novel spiking cortical model (SCM) based MIF method has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method can generate high-quality fused images using the weighting fusion strategy based on the firing times of the SCM. In the weighting fusion scheme, the weight is determined by combining the entropy information of pulse outputs of the SCM with the Weber local descriptor operating on the firing mapping images produced from the pulse outputs. The extensive experiments on multimodal medical images show that compared with the numerous state-of-the-art MIF methods, the proposed method can preserve image details very well and avoid the introduction of artifacts effectively, and thus it significantly improves the quality of fused images in terms of human vision and objective evaluation criteria such as mutual information, edge preservation index, structural similarity based metric, fusion quality index, fusion similarity metric and standard deviation. PMID:27649190

  7. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  8. SU-E-J-261: The Importance of Appropriate Image Preprocessing to Augment the Information of Radiomics Image Features

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Fried, D; Fave, X; Mackin, D; Yang, J; Court, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate how different image preprocessing techniques, their parameters, and the different boundary handling techniques can augment the information of features and improve feature’s differentiating capability. Methods: Twenty-seven NSCLC patients with a solid tumor volume and no visually obvious necrotic regions in the simulation CT images were identified. Fourteen of these patients had a necrotic region visible in their pre-treatment PET images (necrosis group), and thirteen had no visible necrotic region in the pre-treatment PET images (non-necrosis group). We investigated how image preprocessing can impact the ability of radiomics image features extracted from the CT to differentiate between two groups. It is expected the histogram in the necrosis group is more negatively skewed, and the uniformity from the necrosis group is less. Therefore, we analyzed two first order features, skewness and uniformity, on the image inside the GTV in the intensity range [−20HU, 180HU] under the combination of several image preprocessing techniques: (1) applying the isotropic Gaussian or anisotropic diffusion smoothing filter with a range of parameter(Gaussian smoothing: size=11, sigma=0:0.1:2.3; anisotropic smoothing: iteration=4, kappa=0:10:110); (2) applying the boundaryadapted Laplacian filter; and (3) applying the adaptive upper threshold for the intensity range. A 2-tailed T-test was used to evaluate the differentiating capability of CT features on pre-treatment PT necrosis. Result: Without any preprocessing, no differences in either skewness or uniformity were observed between two groups. After applying appropriate Gaussian filters (sigma>=1.3) or anisotropic filters(kappa >=60) with the adaptive upper threshold, skewness was significantly more negative in the necrosis group(p<0.05). By applying the boundary-adapted Laplacian filtering after the appropriate Gaussian filters (0.5 <=sigma<=1.1) or anisotropic filters(20<=kappa <=50), the uniformity was

  9. Multi-Temporal and Multi-Sensor Image Matching Based on Local Frequency Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.; Shang, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lei, Z.

    2012-08-01

    Image Matching is often one of the first tasks in many Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing applications. This paper presents an efficient approach to automated multi-temporal and multi-sensor image matching based on local frequency information. Two new independent image representations, Local Average Phase (LAP) and Local Weighted Amplitude (LWA), are presented to emphasize the common scene information, while suppressing the non-common illumination and sensor-dependent information. In order to get the two representations, local frequency information is firstly obtained from Log-Gabor wavelet transformation, which is similar to that of the human visual system; then the outputs of odd and even symmetric filters are used to construct the LAP and LWA. The LAP and LWA emphasize on the phase and amplitude information respectively. As these two representations are both derivative-free and threshold-free, they are robust to noise and can keep as much of the image details as possible. A new Compositional Similarity Measure (CSM) is also presented to combine the LAP and LWA with the same weight for measuring the similarity of multi-temporal and multi-sensor images. The CSM can make the LAP and LWA compensate for each other and can make full use of the amplitude and phase of local frequency information. In many image matching applications, the template is usually selected without consideration of its matching robustness and accuracy. In order to overcome this problem, a local best matching point detection is presented to detect the best matching template. In the detection method, we employ self-similarity analysis to identify the template with the highest matching robustness and accuracy. Experimental results using some real images and simulation images demonstrate that the presented approach is effective for matching image pairs with significant scene and illumination changes and that it has advantages over other state-of-the-art approaches, which include: the Local Frequency

  10. Parallel Information Processing (Image Transmission Via Fiber Bundle and Multimode Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nicholai

    2003-01-01

    Growing demand for visual, user-friendly representation of information inspires search for the new methods of image transmission. Currently used in-series (sequential) methods of information processing are inherently slow and are designed mainly for transmission of one or two dimensional arrays of data. Conventional transmission of data by fibers requires many fibers with array of laser diodes and photodetectors. In practice, fiber bundles are also used for transmission of images. Image is formed on the fiber-optic bundle entrance surface and each fiber transmits the incident image to the exit surface. Since the fibers do not preserve phase, only 2D intensity distribution can be transmitted in this way. Each single mode fiber transmit only one pixel of an image. Multimode fibers may be also used, so that each mode represent different pixel element. Direct transmission of image through multimode fiber is hindered by the mode scrambling and phase randomization. To overcome these obstacles wavelength and time-division multiplexing have been used, with each pixel transmitted on a separate wavelength or time interval. Phase-conjugate techniques also was tested in, but only in the unpractical scheme when reconstructed image return back to the fiber input end. Another method of three-dimensional imaging over single mode fibers was demonstrated in, using laser light of reduced spatial coherence. Coherence encoding, needed for a transmission of images by this methods, was realized with grating interferometer or with the help of an acousto-optic deflector. We suggest simple practical holographic method of image transmission over single multimode fiber or over fiber bundle with coherent light using filtering by holographic optical elements. Originally this method was successfully tested for the single multimode fiber. In this research we have modified holographic method for transmission of laser illuminated images over commercially available fiber bundle (fiber endoscope, or

  11. Information Science Panel joint meeting with Imaging Science Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Specific activity in information extraction science (taken to include data handling) is needed to: help identify the bounds of practical missions; identify potential data handling and analysis scenarios; identify the required enabling technology; and identify the requirements for a design data base to be used by the disciplines in determining potential parameters for future missions. It was defined that specific analysis topics were a function of the discipline involved, and therefore no attempt was made to define any specific analysis developments required. Rather, it was recognized that a number of generic data handling requirements exist whose solutions cannot be typically supported by the disciplines. The areas of concern were therefore defined as: data handling aspects of system design considerations; enabling technology for data handling, with specific attention to rectification and registration; and enabling technology for analysis. Within each of these areas, the following topics were addressed: state of the art (current status and contributing factors); critical issues; and recommendations for research and/or development.

  12. Effective management of medical information through ROI-lossless fragile image watermarking technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeb; Kundu, Malay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we have proposed a blind, fragile and Region of Interest (ROI) lossless medical image watermarking (MIW) technique, providing an all-in-one solution tool to various medical data distribution and management issues like security, content authentication, safe archiving, controlled access retrieval, and captioning. The proposed scheme combines lossless data compression and encryption technique to embed electronic health record (EHR)/DICOM metadata, image hash, indexing keyword, doctor identification code and tamper localization information in the medical images. Extensive experiments (both subjective and objective) were carried out to evaluate performance of the proposed MIW technique. The findings offer suggestive evidence that the proposed MIW scheme is an effective all-in-one solution tool to various issues of medical information management domain. Moreover, given its relative simplicity, the proposed scheme can be applied to the medical images to serve in many medical applications concerned with privacy protection, safety, and management.

  13. Effective management of medical information through ROI-lossless fragile image watermarking technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudeb; Kundu, Malay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we have proposed a blind, fragile and Region of Interest (ROI) lossless medical image watermarking (MIW) technique, providing an all-in-one solution tool to various medical data distribution and management issues like security, content authentication, safe archiving, controlled access retrieval, and captioning. The proposed scheme combines lossless data compression and encryption technique to embed electronic health record (EHR)/DICOM metadata, image hash, indexing keyword, doctor identification code and tamper localization information in the medical images. Extensive experiments (both subjective and objective) were carried out to evaluate performance of the proposed MIW technique. The findings offer suggestive evidence that the proposed MIW scheme is an effective all-in-one solution tool to various issues of medical information management domain. Moreover, given its relative simplicity, the proposed scheme can be applied to the medical images to serve in many medical applications concerned with privacy protection, safety, and management. PMID:23816251

  14. Cloud Retrieval Information Content Studies with the Pre-Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Ocean Color Imager (OCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, Odele; Platnick, Steven; Pilewskie, Peter; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The NASA Pre-Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Science Definition Team (SDT) report released in 2012 defined imager stability requirements for the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) at the sub-percent level. While the instrument suite and measurement requirements are currently being determined, the PACE SDT report provided details on imager options and spectral specifications. The options for a threshold instrument included a hyperspectral imager from 350-800 nm, two near-infrared (NIR) channels, and three short wave infrared (SWIR) channels at 1240, 1640, and 2130 nm. Other instrument options include a variation of the threshold instrument with 3 additional spectral channels at 940, 1378, and 2250 nm and the inclusion of a spectral polarimeter. In this work, we present cloud retrieval information content studies of optical thickness, droplet effective radius, and thermodynamic phase to quantify the potential for continuing the low cloud climate data record established by the MOderate Resolution and Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) missions with the PACE OCI instrument (i.e., non-polarized cloud reflectances and in the absence of midwave and longwave infrared channels). The information content analysis is performed using the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA) methodology and the Collection 6 simulated cloud reflectance data for the common MODIS/VIIRS algorithm (MODAWG) for Cloud Mask, Cloud-Top, and Optical Properties. We show that using both channels near 2 microns improves the probability of cloud phase discrimination with shortwave-only cloud reflectance retrievals. Ongoing work will extend the information content analysis, currently performed for dark ocean surfaces, to different land surface types.

  15. Coma morphology and dust-emission pattern of periodic comet Halley. III - Additional high-resolution images taken in 1910

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Sekanina, Z.

    1985-01-01

    High-resolution photographic images of comet Halley obtained at Lick, Helwan, Lowell, and Vienna observatories during May-June 1910 are analyzed using the image-processing algorithm of Larson and Sekanina (1984). The results are presented in tables and compared with analyses of Mt. Wilson plates for the same period (Sekanina and Larson, 1984), and good general agreement is noted. Consideration is given to the position of the rotation pole, features indicative of the nucleus spin rate, the spokelike structure observed on May 21-22, and the expanding gas halo.

  16. The application of use case modeling in designing medical imaging information systems.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Farzi, Jebraeil; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Goodini, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control.

  17. The Application of Use Case Modeling in Designing Medical Imaging Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Farzi, Jebraeil; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Goodini, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control. PMID:24967283

  18. Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

  19. Comparative evaluation of multiresolution optimization strategies for multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information.

    PubMed

    Maes, F; Vandermeulen, D; Suetens, P

    1999-12-01

    Maximization of mutual information of voxel intensities has been demonstrated to be a very powerful criterion for three-dimensional medical image registration, allowing robust and accurate fully automated affine registration of multimodal images in a variety of applications, without the need for segmentation or other preprocessing of the images. In this paper, we investigate the performance of various optimization methods and multiresolution strategies for maximization of mutual information, aiming at increasing registration speed when matching large high-resolution images. We show that mutual information is a continuous function of the affine registration parameters when appropriate interpolation is used and we derive analytic expressions of its derivatives that allow numerically exact evaluation of its gradient. Various multiresolution gradient- and non-gradient-based optimization strategies, such as Powell, simplex, steepest-descent, conjugate-gradient, quasi-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods, are evaluated for registration of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images of the brain. Speed-ups of a factor of 3 on average compared to Powell's method at full resolution are achieved with similar precision and without a loss of robustness with the simplex, conjugate-gradient and Levenberg-Marquardt method using a two-level multiresolution scheme. Large data sets such as 256(2) x 128 MR and 512(2) x 48 CT images can be registered with subvoxel precision in <5 min CPU time on current workstations. PMID:10709702

  20. Microwave Radar Imaging of Heterogeneous Breast Tissue Integrating A Priori Information

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas N.; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional radar-based image reconstruction techniques fail when they are applied to heterogeneous breast tissue, since the underlying in-breast relative permittivity is unknown or assumed to be constant. This results in a systematic error during the process of image formation. A recent trend in microwave biomedical imaging is to extract the relative permittivity from the object under test to improve the image reconstruction quality and thereby to enhance the diagnostic assessment. In this paper, we present a novel radar-based methodology for microwave breast cancer detection in heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a 3D map of relative permittivity as a priori information. This leads to a novel image reconstruction formulation where the delay-and-sum focusing takes place in time rather than range domain. Results are shown for a heterogeneous dense (class-4) and a scattered fibroglandular (class-2) numerical breast phantom using Bristol's 31-element array configuration. PMID:25435861

  1. SAR image registration in absolute coordinates using GPS carrier phase position and velocity information

    SciTech Connect

    Burgett, S.; Meindl, M.

    1994-09-01

    It is useful in a variety of military and commercial application to accurately register the position of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery in absolute coordinates. The two basic SAR measurements, range and doppler, can be used to solve for the position of the SAR image. Imprecise knowledge of the SAR collection platform`s position and velocity vectors introduce errors in the range and doppler measurements and can cause the apparent location of the SAR image on the ground to be in error by tens of meters. Recent advances in carrier phase GPS techniques can provide an accurate description of the collection vehicle`s trajectory during the image formation process. In this paper, highly accurate carrier phase GPS trajectory information is used in conjunction with SAR imagery to demonstrate a technique for accurate registration of SAR images in WGS-84 coordinates. Flight test data will be presented that demonstrates SAR image registration errors of less than 4 meters.

  2. Spatial Uncertainty Modeling of Fuzzy Information in Images for Pattern Classification

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-01-01

    The modeling of the spatial distribution of image properties is important for many pattern recognition problems in science and engineering. Mathematical methods are needed to quantify the variability of this spatial distribution based on which a decision of classification can be made in an optimal sense. However, image properties are often subject to uncertainty due to both incomplete and imprecise information. This paper presents an integrated approach for estimating the spatial uncertainty of vagueness in images using the theory of geostatistics and the calculus of probability measures of fuzzy events. Such a model for the quantification of spatial uncertainty is utilized as a new image feature extraction method, based on which classifiers can be trained to perform the task of pattern recognition. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the classification of various types of image data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty modeling technique for texture feature extraction. PMID:25157744

  3. Architecture and data processing alternatives for the TSE computer. Volume 2: Extraction of topological information from an image by the Tse computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A simple programmable Tse processor organization and arithmetic operations necessary for extraction of the desired topological information are described. Hardware additions to this organization are discussed along with trade-offs peculiar to the tse computing concept. An improved organization is presented along with the complementary software for the various arithmetic operations. The performance of the two organizations is compared in terms of speed, power, and cost. Software routines developed to extract the desired information from an image are included.

  4. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy.

  5. Extraction of land-use information within rural residential area from high-resolution RS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zeying; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Dan

    2008-12-01

    Extracting land-use information within rural residential area is one of the major applications in remote sensing today. In this paper, a new method, which is auxiliary land-use knowledge method, is presented for this requirement. With the abundant geographic knowledge in the thematic map, we first propose a simple and effective method to extract rural residential out-border from RS image by overlapping analysis, and take the result as the basic data for further interpretation. Secondly, the object-oriented approach is employed for further classification, whose basic cell isn't a single pixel any more, but rather an image object from image segmentation. During the process, land-use knowledge is also taken as auxiliary information to establish class system and class hierarchy, select feature presentation of image objects, and examine classification result. Finally, a high-resolution RS image of Hubei Province is taken as testing data to verify the above method. The experiment results are satisfying: the detailed land-use information is extracted and categories with similar spectrum feature are divided effectively. It is obvious that this method offers a good solution to extract land-use information within rural residential area.

  6. Spatial vision processes: From the optical image to the symbolic structures of contour information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    The significance of machine and natural vision is discussed together with the need for a general approach to image acquisition and processing aimed at recognition. An exploratory scheme is proposed which encompasses the definition of spatial primitives, intrinsic image properties and sampling, 2-D edge detection at the smallest scale, the construction of spatial primitives from edges, and the isolation of contour information from textural information. Concepts drawn from or suggested by natural vision at both perceptual and physiological levels are relied upon heavily to guide the development of the overall scheme. The scheme is intended to provide a larger context in which to place the emerging technology of detector array focal-plane processors. The approach differs from many recent efforts in edge detection and image coding by emphasizing smallest scale edge detection as a foundation for multi-scale symbolic processing while diminishing somewhat the importance of image convolutions with multi-scale edge operators. Cursory treatments of information theory illustrate that the direct application of this theory to structural information in images could not be realized.

  7. Three-dimensional image of sugar content visualization in a melon by spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Junichi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2000-05-01

    In order to visualize sugar content of a melon, the relationship between sugar content and absorption spectra was investigated using a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. The absorbance at 676 nm, which is close to the chlorophyll absorption band, had a high inverse correlation with sugar content. A high-resolution cooled CCD imaging camera with the band-pass filter of 676 nm was used to capture the spectral absorption image. The calibration method for converting the absorbance on the image into Brix sugar content was developed in accordance with NIR techniques. Applying this method to each pixel of the absorption image, a color distribution map of the sugar content was constructed. In addition, a special slicing device that can cut a melon in each 5 mm thickness was developed in order to create a 3D image of sugar content distribution.

  8. Nonparametric segmentation of multispectral MR images incorporating spatial and intensity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derganc, Joze; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2002-05-01

    Image segmentation is concerned with partitioning an image into non-overlapping, constituent regions, which are homogeneous with respect to certain features. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the most discriminative and commonly used features are the image intensities themselves. However, due to noise, partial volume effects, natural and spurious intensity variations, intensity distributions of distinct tissues generally overlap, which makes segmentation difficult and less precise. Using multi-spectral MR images and mapping intensities into a multidimensional feature space may help in segmentation. To further facilitate segmentation, we map the intensities and second derivatives of multi-spectral images into a common multidimensional feature space. Integration of intensity and spatial information may yield complex clusters that cannot be described by Gaussian mixture models or by hyper-spherical shapes. For this reason we devise a novel segmentation method based on non-parametric valley-seeking clustering. The valleys are found by estimating feature density gradients. The proposed segmentation method, with and without spatial information, is tested on simulated and real, single- and multi-spectral, MR brain images. The segmentation results are highly consistent with the gold standard, especially when combined with a procedure for intensity non-uniformity correction, presented in MI 4684-177.

  9. Spatial resolution, signal-to-noise and information capacity of linear imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Gureyev, Timur; Nesterets, Yakov; de Hoog, Frank

    2016-07-25

    A simple model for image formation in linear shift-invariant systems is considered, in which both the detected signal and the noise variance are varying slowly compared to the point-spread function of the system. It is shown that within the constraints of this model, the square of the signal-to-noise ratio is always proportional to the "volume" of the spatial resolution unit. In the case of Poisson statistics, the ratio of these two quantities divided by the incident density of the imaging particles (e.g. photons) represents a dimensionless invariant of the imaging system, which was previously termed the intrinsic imaging quality. The relationship of this invariant to the notion of information capacity of communication and imaging systems, which was previously considered by Shannon, Gabor and others, is investigated. The results are then applied to a simple generic model of quantitative imaging of weakly scattering objects, leading to an estimate of the upper limit for the amount of information about the sample that can be obtained in such experiments. It is shown that this limit depends only on the total number of imaging particles incident on the sample, the average scattering coefficient, the size of the sample and the number of spatial resolution units. PMID:27464167

  10. Gender Classification From Face Images Using Mutual Information and Feature Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Claudio; Tapia, Juan; Estévez, Pablo; Held, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report a new method for gender classification from frontal face images using feature selection based on mutual information and fusion of features extracted from intensity, shape, texture, and from three different spatial scales. We compare the results of three different mutual information measures: minimum redundancy and maximal relevance (mRMR), normalized mutual information feature selection (NMIFS), and conditional mutual information feature selection (CMIFS). We also show that by fusing features extracted from six different methods we significantly improve the gender classification results relative to those previously published, yielding 99.13% of the gender classification rate on the FERET database.

  11. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.

  12. Medical image reconstruction algorithm based on the geometric information between sensor detector and ROI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Roh, Seungkuk

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new image reconstruction algorithm considering the geometric information of acoustic sources and senor detector and review the two-step reconstruction algorithm which was previously proposed based on the geometrical information of ROI(region of interest) considering the finite size of acoustic sensor element. In a new image reconstruction algorithm, not only mathematical analysis is very simple but also its software implementation is very easy because we don't need to use the FFT. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm by showing the simulation results by using Matlab k-wave toolkit.

  13. Information Extraction of High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Image based on Multiresolution Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, P.; Yang, G.-D.; Niu, X.-F.; Zhang, X.-P.; Zhan, F.-L.; Tang, T.-Q.

    2013-11-01

    The principle of multiresolution segmentation was represented in detail in this study, and the canny algorithm was applied for edge-detection of remotely sensed image based on this principle. The target image was divided into regions based on objectoriented multiresolution segmentation and edge-detection. Further, object hierarchy was created, and a series of features (water bodies, vegetation, roads, residential areas, bare land and other information) were extracted by the spectral and geometrical features. The results indicates that edge-detection make a positive effect on multiresolution segmentation, and overall accuracy of information extraction reaches to 94.6% through confusion matrix.

  14. Adding Uncertainty Information to the Ocean Suite of ESDRs from Microwave Imaging Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mears, C. A.; Hilburn, K. A.; Smith, D. K.; Gentemann, C. L.; Wentz, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of several key parameters (surface wind speed, total column water vapor, total cloud water, and rain rate) have been performed by a series satellite-borne microwave radiometers since mid 1987. We have performed an accurate intercalibration of Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from these microwave imaging instruments (SSM/I, SSMIS, AMSRE and WindSat), and provide the resulting datasets to researchers worldwide via our website (www.remss.com). These results are most useful if they are accompanied by accurate and comprehensive estimates of uncertainty. We will show methods we are developing to calculate uncertainty estimates for these products, including the sensitivity of the final results to errors in measured radiance, satellite attitude, quality control procedures, and the choice of which satellites to include in a merged product. Because our users have apply our data to a plethora of research topics, it is important that the resulting uncertainty estimates are meaningful for different spatial and temporal scales, ranging from individual, high-spatial-resolution measurements to long-term trends in monthly global averages. We have found that different sources of uncertainty are important for different time and length scales. In addition, the best way to present the uncertainty information may change as the scale changes, with the long-term, large spatial scale uncertainty best presented by calculating an ensemble of possible datasets so that the complicated correlation structure in the uncertainty can be included in any subsequent procedures.

  15. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  19. 76 FR 64366 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Collection for the Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative Fee Study AGENCY: Office of the Policy... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative...

  20. Distance informed Track-Weighted Imaging (diTWI): a framework for sensitising streamline information to neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher; Pannek, Kerstin; Fay, Michael; Thomas, Paul; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Gal, Yaniv; Coulthard, Alan; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Track-Weighted Imaging (TWI), where voxel intensity is based on image metrics encoded along streamline trajectories, provides a mechanism to study white matter disease. However, with generalised streamline weighting, it is difficult to localise the precise anatomical source and spread of injury or neuropathology. This limitation can be overcome by modulating the voxel weight based on the distance of the voxel from a given anatomical location along the tract, which we term diTWI: distance informed Track-Weighted Imaging. The location of known neuropathology can be delineated on any given imaging modality (e.g. MRI or PET). To demonstrate the clinical utility of this approach, we measured tumour cell infiltration along WM fibre tracts in 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 1 patient with Anaplastic Astrocytoma. TWI and diTWI maps were generated using information obtained from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (area under the curve, AUC) and diffusivity maps (ADC and FA) with tumour boundaries automatically extracted using a logistic regression classifier. The accuracy of the derived tumour volumes was compared to those generated using 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine (FDOPA) PET imaging. The accuracy of the tumour volumes generated from the diTWI maps was superior to volumes derived from the TWI, geometric distance or baseline AUC, FA and ADC maps. The relative overlap and relative dissimilarity rates for the diTWI generated tumour volumes after classification were found to be 82.3±15.3% (range 69.1-91.9) and 16.9±8.8% (range 7.9-37.5), respectively. These findings show that diTWI maps provide a useful framework for localising neuropathological processes occurring along WM pathways. PMID:23921097

  1. Differentiation between Glioblastoma Multiforme and Primary Cerebral Lymphoma: Additional Benefits of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien Feng; Chen, Tai Yuan; Shu, Ginger; Kuo, Yu Ting; Lee, Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and primary cerebral lymphoma (PCL) is important because the treatments are substantially different. The purpose of this article is to describe the MR imaging characteristics of GBM and PCL with emphasis on the quantitative ADC analysis in the tumor necrosis, the most strongly-enhanced tumor area, and the peritumoral edema. This retrospective cohort study collected 104 GBM (WHO grade IV) patients and 22 immune-competent PCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) patients. All these patients had pretreatment brain MR DWI and ADC imaging. Analysis of conventional MR imaging and quantitative ADC measurement including the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe) were done. ROC analysis with optimal cut-off values and area-under-the ROC curve (AUC) was performed. For conventional MR imaging, there are statistical differences in tumor size, tumor location, tumor margin, and the presence of tumor necrosis between GBM and PCL. Quantitative ADC analysis shows that GBM tended to have significantly (P<0.05) higher ADC in the most strongly-enhanced area (ADCt) and lower ADC in the peritumoral edema (ADCe) as compared with PCL. Excellent AUC (0.94) with optimal sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86% for differentiating between GBM and PCL was obtained by combination of ADC in the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe). Besides, there are positive ADC gradients in the peritumoral edema in a subset of GBMs but not in the PCLs. Quantitative ADC analysis in these three areas can thus be implemented to improve diagnostic accuracy for these two brain tumor types. The histological correlation of the ADC difference deserves further investigation. PMID:27631626

  2. Differentiation between Glioblastoma Multiforme and Primary Cerebral Lymphoma: Additional Benefits of Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ching Chung; Tai, Ming Hong; Li, Chien Feng; Chen, Tai Yuan; Chen, Jeon Hor; Shu, Ginger; Kuo, Yu Ting; Lee, Yu Chang

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and primary cerebral lymphoma (PCL) is important because the treatments are substantially different. The purpose of this article is to describe the MR imaging characteristics of GBM and PCL with emphasis on the quantitative ADC analysis in the tumor necrosis, the most strongly-enhanced tumor area, and the peritumoral edema. This retrospective cohort study collected 104 GBM (WHO grade IV) patients and 22 immune-competent PCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) patients. All these patients had pretreatment brain MR DWI and ADC imaging. Analysis of conventional MR imaging and quantitative ADC measurement including the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe) were done. ROC analysis with optimal cut-off values and area-under-the ROC curve (AUC) was performed. For conventional MR imaging, there are statistical differences in tumor size, tumor location, tumor margin, and the presence of tumor necrosis between GBM and PCL. Quantitative ADC analysis shows that GBM tended to have significantly (P<0.05) higher ADC in the most strongly-enhanced area (ADCt) and lower ADC in the peritumoral edema (ADCe) as compared with PCL. Excellent AUC (0.94) with optimal sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 86% for differentiating between GBM and PCL was obtained by combination of ADC in the tumor necrosis (ADCn), the most strongly-enhanced tumor area (ADCt), and the peritumoral edema (ADCe). Besides, there are positive ADC gradients in the peritumoral edema in a subset of GBMs but not in the PCLs. Quantitative ADC analysis in these three areas can thus be implemented to improve diagnostic accuracy for these two brain tumor types. The histological correlation of the ADC difference deserves further investigation. PMID:27631626

  3. Information content of simulated space photographs as a function of various levels of image resolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.; Thaman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The results of research are reported on the information content in simulated space photographs derivable as a function of various levels of image resolution. Whenever certain resource features could not be consistently identified on simulated low-resolution imagery, attempts were made to define the required level of image resolution that would allow a skilled interpreter to discriminate one feature from another. The results of this research, conducted within a chaparral-hardwood-grassland environment in California, indicate that simulated ERTS data contain sufficient information to allow an interpreter to discriminate between woody vegetation, grassland, and water bodies. However, if more detailed information is desired, the imagery must have a ground resolution of at least 50 ft, showing shape, size, texture, and shadow characteristics within each vegetation type. Spaceborne data, therefore, often will have to be supplemented by higher resolution aircraft imagery, depending on the types of resource information being sought.

  4. Efficient Large-Scale Structure From Motion by Fusing Auxiliary Imaging Information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hainan; Shen, Shuhan; Gao, Wei; Hu, Zhanyi

    2015-11-01

    One of the potentially effective means for large-scale 3D scene reconstruction is to reconstruct the scene in a global manner, rather than incrementally, by fully exploiting available auxiliary information on the imaging condition, such as camera location by Global Positioning System (GPS), orientation by inertial measurement unit (or compass), focal length from EXIF, and so on. However, such auxiliary information, though informative and valuable, is usually too noisy to be directly usable. In this paper, we present an approach by taking advantage of such noisy auxiliary information to improve structure from motion solving. More specifically, we introduce two effective iterative global optimization algorithms initiated with such noisy auxiliary information. One is a robust rotation averaging algorithm to deal with contaminated epipolar graph, the other is a robust scene reconstruction algorithm to deal with noisy GPS data for camera centers initialization. We found that by exclusively focusing on the estimated inliers at the current iteration, the optimization process initialized by such noisy auxiliary information could converge well and efficiently. Our proposed method is evaluated on real images captured by unmanned aerial vehicle, StreetView car, and conventional digital cameras. Extensive experimental results show that our method performs similarly or better than many of the state-of-art reconstruction approaches, in terms of reconstruction accuracy and completeness, but is more efficient and scalable for large-scale image data sets.

  5. Efficient Large-Scale Structure From Motion by Fusing Auxiliary Imaging Information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hainan; Shen, Shuhan; Gao, Wei; Hu, Zhanyi

    2015-11-01

    One of the potentially effective means for large-scale 3D scene reconstruction is to reconstruct the scene in a global manner, rather than incrementally, by fully exploiting available auxiliary information on the imaging condition, such as camera location by Global Positioning System (GPS), orientation by inertial measurement unit (or compass), focal length from EXIF, and so on. However, such auxiliary information, though informative and valuable, is usually too noisy to be directly usable. In this paper, we present an approach by taking advantage of such noisy auxiliary information to improve structure from motion solving. More specifically, we introduce two effective iterative global optimization algorithms initiated with such noisy auxiliary information. One is a robust rotation averaging algorithm to deal with contaminated epipolar graph, the other is a robust scene reconstruction algorithm to deal with noisy GPS data for camera centers initialization. We found that by exclusively focusing on the estimated inliers at the current iteration, the optimization process initialized by such noisy auxiliary information could converge well and efficiently. Our proposed method is evaluated on real images captured by unmanned aerial vehicle, StreetView car, and conventional digital cameras. Extensive experimental results show that our method performs similarly or better than many of the state-of-art reconstruction approaches, in terms of reconstruction accuracy and completeness, but is more efficient and scalable for large-scale image data sets. PMID:26111397

  6. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SURVEY OF GRAIN SIZE INFORMATION ON RIVER BED BY IMAGE PROCESSING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Keisuke; Ihara, Kazuki; Yasuda, Shingo

    We tried a method of grain sizing by image processing which is available to survey and analyze in short time. The high-efficiency method actualizes high spatial resolution information of grain size distribution. Thus, the information has a vailability to express a situation of stream flow better than traditional grain sizing methods. For this reason, we paid attention to 50 m reservoir area upper from the check dam in mountainous region and surveyed the grain distribution at 26 sites and river channel landform. The grain sizing by image processing provided the appropriate result qualitatively. Moreover we estimated the critical diameter of moving from hydraulic information simultaneously. A qualitative appropriate result is showed less than 50 mm error as a result, however, quantitative response is not found between the critical diameter of moving and the grain size distribution surveyed. Meanwhile,the different grain sizing methods that are image processing and traditional sieving are used to cover the bilateral weak point. Thereby, a peak of grain existence probability is found in the threshold diameter between image processing and sieving. This result indicates that it is necessary to change the threshold diameter much larger than the limit of image processing grain sizing.

  7. Assessment of major airway obstruction using image analysis of digital CT information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Geoffrey; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    Major airway obstruction (trachea, right and left main bronchi) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Management requires adequate assessment of the position, extent and severity of the obstructing or stenotic segment. The objective of this study was to evaluate 3D reconstruction of the major airways using volumetric image display and analysis (VIDA), in subjects with major airflow obstruction. We have evaluated five subjects with major airway obstruction using Electron Beam Computed Tomography (EBCT) with a contiguous 3 mm slice thickness at total lung capacity. The digital information was transferred to a Sun Workstation (SPARC 5) for data analysis using VIDA. From this data set, the airway dimensions were calculated using a method for airway centerline determination and slice reformatting so as to section the airway perpendicular to its local long axis. Once appropriately sectioned, a number of different methods were used in edge finding. The airways were also presented as a surface rendered 3D image in either still or movie format. Finally, all subjects underwent flexible bronchoscopy to assess the abnormalities by direct visualization, with results of the bronchoscopic assessment being compared to the VIDA measurements. In all subjects, the volumetric image display and analysis gave anatomically correct and detailed images, which could be accurately measured. This information enabled appropriate pre-planning of operative corrective procedures, that included laser therapy, stent placement and balloon bronchoplasty. We conclude that the volumetric image display and analysis provides useful and reliable information for the management of major airflow obstruction.

  8. On combining spectral and spatial information of hyperspectral image for camouflaged target detecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun; Yang, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Detecting enemy's targets and being undetectable play increasingly important roles in modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. As supervised classification requires prior knowledge which cannot be acquired easily, unsupervised classification usually is adopted to process hyperspectral images to detect camouflaged target. But one of its drawbacks—low detecting accuracy confines its application for camouflaged target detecting. Most research on the processing of hyperspectral image tends to focus exclusively on spectral domain and ignores spatial domain. However current hyperspectral image provides high spatial resolution which contains useful information for camouflaged target detecting. A new method combining spectral and spatial information is proposed to increase the detecting accuracy using unsupervised classification. The method has two steps. In the first step, a traditional unsupervised classifier (i.e. K-MEANS, ISODATA) is adopted to classify the hyperspectral image to acquire basic classifications or clusters. During the second step, a 3×3 model and spectral angle mapping are utilized to test the spatial character of the hyperspectral image. The spatial character is defined as spatial homogeneity and calculated by spectral angle mapping. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable and efficient. Camouflaged targets are extracted from the background and different camouflaged targets are also recognized. And the proposed algorithm outperforms K-MEANS in terms of detecting accuracy, robustness and edge's distinction. This paper demonstrates the new method is meaningful to camouflaged targets detecting.

  9. Teleradiology network system using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-02-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme and the tokenization as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of automatic backup. With automatic backup technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged due to the large area disaster like the great earthquake of Japan, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. Moreover, by using tokenization, the history information of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies is prevented from lying scattered by replacing the history information with another character string (Make it to powerlessness). As a result, information is available only to those who have rightful access it and the sender of a message and the message itself are verified at the receiving point. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  10. A Modified Brain MR Image Segmentation and Bias Field Estimation Model Based on Local and Global Information

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wang; Luan, Kuan; Liang, Hong; Ma, Xingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Because of the poor radio frequency coil uniformity and gradient-driven eddy currents, there is much noise and intensity inhomogeneity (bias) in brain magnetic resonance (MR) image, and it severely affects the segmentation accuracy. Better segmentation results are difficult to achieve by traditional methods; therefore, in this paper, a modified brain MR image segmentation and bias field estimation model based on local and global information is proposed. We first construct local constraints including image neighborhood information in Gaussian kernel mapping space, and then the complete regularization is established by introducing nonlocal spatial information of MR image. The weighting between local and global information is automatically adjusted according to image local information. At the same time, bias field information is coupled with the model, and it makes the model reduce noise interference but also can effectively estimate the bias field information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has strong robustness to noise and bias field is well corrected. PMID:27660649

  11. A Modified Brain MR Image Segmentation and Bias Field Estimation Model Based on Local and Global Information

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wang; Luan, Kuan; Liang, Hong; Ma, Xingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Because of the poor radio frequency coil uniformity and gradient-driven eddy currents, there is much noise and intensity inhomogeneity (bias) in brain magnetic resonance (MR) image, and it severely affects the segmentation accuracy. Better segmentation results are difficult to achieve by traditional methods; therefore, in this paper, a modified brain MR image segmentation and bias field estimation model based on local and global information is proposed. We first construct local constraints including image neighborhood information in Gaussian kernel mapping space, and then the complete regularization is established by introducing nonlocal spatial information of MR image. The weighting between local and global information is automatically adjusted according to image local information. At the same time, bias field information is coupled with the model, and it makes the model reduce noise interference but also can effectively estimate the bias field information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has strong robustness to noise and bias field is well corrected.

  12. The Convergence of Information Technology, Data, and Management in a Library Imaging Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Fenella G.; Emery, Doug; Toth, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Integrating advanced imaging and processing capabilities in libraries, archives, and museums requires effective systems and information management to ensure that the large amounts of digital data about cultural artifacts can be readily acquired, stored, archived, accessed, processed, and linked to other data. The Library of Congress is developing…

  13. A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

  14. Information theory analysis of sensor-array imaging systems for computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.; Self, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    Information theory is used to assess the performance of sensor-array imaging systems, with emphasis on the performance obtained with image-plane signal processing. By electronically controlling the spatial response of the imaging system, as suggested by the mechanism of human vision, it is possible to trade-off edge enhancement for sensitivity, increase dynamic range, and reduce data transmission. Computational results show that: signal information density varies little with large variations in the statistical properties of random radiance fields; most information (generally about 85 to 95 percent) is contained in the signal intensity transitions rather than levels; and performance is optimized when the OTF of the imaging system is nearly limited to the sampling passband to minimize aliasing at the cost of blurring, and the SNR is very high to permit the retrieval of small spatial detail from the extensively blurred signal. Shading the lens aperture transmittance to increase depth of field and using a regular hexagonal sensor-array instead of square lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation also improves the signal information density up to about 30 percent at high SNRs.

  15. Acquiring 3-D information about thick objects from differential interference contrast images using texture extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Brooks, Dana; Dimarzio, Charles

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of 3-D morphological information about thick objects is explored in this work. We extract this information from 3-D differential interference contrast (DIC) images by applying a texture detection method. Texture extraction methods have been successfully used in different applications to study biological samples. A 3-D texture image is obtained by applying a local entropy-based texture extraction method. The use of this method to detect regions of blastocyst mouse embryos that are used in assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization is presented as an example. Results demonstrate the potential of using texture detection methods to improve morphological analysis of thick samples, which is relevant to many biomedical and biological studies. Fluorescence and optical quadrature microscope phase images are used for validation.

  16. Computer image analysis: an additional tool for the identification of processed poultry and mammal protein containing bones.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, L; Fearn, T; Gulalp, S; Campagnoli, A; Ottoboni, M; Baldi, A; Cheli, F; Savoini, G; Dell'Orto, V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements, in combination with the official analytical methods for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, to distinguish between poultry versus mammals; and (2) to identify possible markers that can be used in routine analysis. For this purpose, 14 mammal and seven poultry samples and a total of 1081 bone fragment lacunae were analysed by combining the microscopic methods with computer image analysis. The distribution of 30 different measured size and shape bone lacunae variables were studied both within and between the two zoological classes. In all cases a considerable overlap between classes meant that classification of individual lacunae was problematic, though a clear separation in the means did allow successful classification of samples on the basis of averages. The variables most useful for classification were those related to size, lacuna area for example. The approach shows considerable promise but will need further study using a larger number of samples with a wider range.

  17. Handling large datasets of hyperspectral images: reducing data size without loss of useful information.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlotta; Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2013-11-13

    Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is gaining increasing interest in the field of analytical chemistry, since this fast and non-destructive technique allows one to easily acquire a large amount of spectral and spatial information on a wide number of samples in very short times. However, the large size of hyperspectral image data often limits the possible uses of this technique, due to the difficulty of evaluating many samples altogether, for example when one needs to consider a representative number of samples for the implementation of on-line applications. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel chemometric strategy aimed to significantly reduce the dataset size, which allows to analyze in a completely automated way from tens up to hundreds of hyperspectral images altogether, without losing neither spectral nor spatial information. The approach essentially consists in compressing each hyperspectral image into a signal, named hyperspectrogram, which is created by combining several quantities obtained by applying PCA to each single hyperspectral image. Hyperspectrograms can then be used as a compact set of descriptors and subjected to blind analysis techniques. Moreover, a further improvement of both data compression and calibration/classification performances can be achieved by applying proper variable selection methods to the hyperspectrograms. A visual evaluation of the correctness of the choices made by the algorithm can be obtained by representing the selected features back into the original image domain. Likewise, the interpretation of the chemical information underlying the selected regions of the hyperspectrograms related to the loadings is enabled by projecting them in the original spectral domain. Examples of applications of the hyperspectrogram-based approach to hyperspectral images of food samples in the NIR range (1000-1700 nm) and in the vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm), facing a calibration and a defect detection issue respectively, demonstrate the

  18. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  19. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries.

  20. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers. PMID:26626047

  1. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  2. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-12-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  3. Digital focusing of OCT images based on scalar diffraction theory and information entropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhong; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a digital method that is capable of automatically focusing optical coherence tomography (OCT) en face images without prior knowledge of the point spread function of the imaging system. The method utilizes a scalar diffraction model to simulate wave propagation from out-of-focus scatter to the focal plane, from which the propagation distance between the out-of-focus plane and the focal plane is determined automatically via an image-definition-evaluation criterion based on information entropy theory. By use of the proposed approach, we demonstrate that the lateral resolution close to that at the focal plane can be recovered from the imaging planes outside the depth of field region with minimal loss of resolution. Fresh onion tissues and mouse fat tissues are used in the experiments to show the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Using complex networks towards information retrieval and diagnostics in multidimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sen, Debanjan; Savale, Smruti; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Roy, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fresh and broad yet simple approach towards information retrieval in general and diagnostics in particular by applying the theory of complex networks on multidimensional, dynamic images. We demonstrate a successful use of our method with the time series generated from high content thermal imaging videos of patients suffering from the aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. Remarkably, network analyses of thermal imaging time series of contact lens users and patients upon whom Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (Lasik) surgery has been conducted, exhibit pronounced similarity with results obtained from ADDE patients. We also propose a general framework for the transformation of multidimensional images to networks for futuristic biometry. Our approach is general and scalable to other fluctuation-based devices where network parameters derived from fluctuations, act as effective discriminators and diagnostic markers.

  5. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  6. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment. MARAD will consider the request before making a final... time and effort required by the applicant in gathering the information will result in an undue delay...

  7. Application of information theory to the design of line-scan imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Halyo, N.; Stallman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Information theory is used to formulate a single figure of merit for assessing the performance of line scan imaging systems as a function of their spatial response (point spread function or modulation transfer function), sensitivity, sampling and quantization intervals, and the statistical properties of a random radiance field. Computational results for the information density and efficiency (i.e., the ratio of information density to data density) are intuitively satisfying and compare well with experimental and theoretical results obtained by earlier investigators concerned with the performance of TV systems.

  8. Using sparsity information for iterative phase retrieval in x-ray propagation imaging.

    PubMed

    Pein, A; Loock, S; Plonka, G; Salditt, T

    2016-04-18

    For iterative phase retrieval algorithms in near field x-ray propagation imaging experiments with a single distance measurement, it is indispensable to have a strong constraint based on a priori information about the specimen; for example, information about the specimen's support. Recently, Loock and Plonka proposed to use the a priori information that the exit wave is sparsely represented in a certain directional representation system, a so-called shearlet system. In this work, we extend this approach to complex-valued signals by applying the new shearlet constraint to amplitude and phase separately. Further, we demonstrate its applicability to experimental data.

  9. Shape based MRI prostate image segmentation using local information driven directional distance Bayesian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a shape based segmentation methodology for magnetic resonance prostate images. We first propose a new way to represent shapes via the hyperbolic tangent of the signed distance function. This effectively corrects the drawbacks of the signed distance function and yields very reasonable results for the shape registration and learning. Secondly, under a Bayesian statistical framework, instead of computing the posterior using a uniform prior, a directional distance map is introduced in order to incorporate a priori knowledge of image content as well as the estimated center of target object. Essentially, the image is modeled as a Finsler manifold and the metric is computed out of the directional derivative of the image. Then the directional distance map is computed to suppress the posterior remote from the object center. Thirdly, in the posterior image, a localized region based cost functional is designed to drive the shape based segmentation. Such cost functional utilizes the local regional information and is robust to both image noise and remote/irrelevant disturbances. With these three major components, the entire shape based segmentation procedure is provided as a complete open source pipeline and is applied to magnetic resonance image (MRI) prostate data.

  10. Coded aperture x-ray diffraction imaging with transmission computed tomography side-information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odinaka, Ikenna; Greenberg, Joel A.; Kaganovsky, Yan; Holmgren, Andrew; Hassan, Mehadi; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Carin, Lawrence; Brady, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Coded aperture X-ray diffraction (coherent scatter spectral) imaging provides fast and dose-efficient measurements of the molecular structure of an object. The information provided is spatially-dependent and material-specific, and can be utilized in medical applications requiring material discrimination, such as tumor imaging. However, current coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system assume a uniformly or weakly attenuating object, and are plagued by image degradation due to non-uniform self-attenuation. We propose accounting for such non-uniformities in the self-attenuation by utilizing an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image (reconstructed attenuation map). In particular, we present an iterative algorithm for coherent scatter spectral image reconstruction, which incorporates the attenuation map, at different stages, resulting in more accurate coherent scatter spectral images in comparison to their uncorrected counterpart. The algorithm is based on a spectrally grouped edge-preserving regularizer, where the neighborhood edge weights are determined by spatial distances and attenuation values.

  11. [Digitalization of radiological imaging information and consequences for patient care in the hospital ].

    PubMed

    den Heeten, G J; Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    2001-08-25

    Determining the rate at which radiology must be digitalised has been a controversial issue for many years. Much radiological information is still obtained from the film-screen combination (X-rays) with all of its known inherent restrictions. The importance of imaging information in the healthcare process continues to increase for both radiologists and referring physicians, and the ongoing developments in information technology means that it is possible to integrate imaging information and electronic patient files. The healthcare process can only become more effective and efficient when the appropriate information is in the right place at the right time, something that conventional methods, using photos that need to be physically moved, can scarcely satisfy. There is also a desire for integration with information obtained from nuclear medicine, pathology and endoscopy, and eventually of all stand-alone data systems with relevance for the individually oriented hospital healthcare. The transition from a conventional to a digital process is complex; it is accompanied by the transition from a data-oriented to a process-oriented system. Many years have already been invested in the integration of information systems and the development of digital systems within radiology, the current performance of which is such that many hospitals are considering the digitalisation process or are already implementing parts of it.

  12. [Digitalization of radiological imaging information and consequences for patient care in the hospital ].

    PubMed

    den Heeten, G J; Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    2001-08-25

    Determining the rate at which radiology must be digitalised has been a controversial issue for many years. Much radiological information is still obtained from the film-screen combination (X-rays) with all of its known inherent restrictions. The importance of imaging information in the healthcare process continues to increase for both radiologists and referring physicians, and the ongoing developments in information technology means that it is possible to integrate imaging information and electronic patient files. The healthcare process can only become more effective and efficient when the appropriate information is in the right place at the right time, something that conventional methods, using photos that need to be physically moved, can scarcely satisfy. There is also a desire for integration with information obtained from nuclear medicine, pathology and endoscopy, and eventually of all stand-alone data systems with relevance for the individually oriented hospital healthcare. The transition from a conventional to a digital process is complex; it is accompanied by the transition from a data-oriented to a process-oriented system. Many years have already been invested in the integration of information systems and the development of digital systems within radiology, the current performance of which is such that many hospitals are considering the digitalisation process or are already implementing parts of it. PMID:11552364

  13. Optimal sampling with prior information of the image geometry in microfluidic MRI.

    PubMed

    Han, S H; Cho, H; Paulsen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in MRI acquisition for microscopic flows enable unprecedented sensitivity and speed in a portable NMR/MRI microfluidic analysis platform. However, the application of MRI to microfluidics usually suffers from prolonged acquisition times owing to the combination of the required high resolution and wide field of view necessary to resolve details within microfluidic channels. When prior knowledge of the image geometry is available as a binarized image, such as for microfluidic MRI, it is possible to reduce sampling requirements by incorporating this information into the reconstruction algorithm. The current approach to the design of the partial weighted random sampling schemes is to bias toward the high signal energy portions of the binarized image geometry after Fourier transformation (i.e. in its k-space representation). Although this sampling prescription is frequently effective, it can be far from optimal in certain limiting cases, such as for a 1D channel, or more generally yield inefficient sampling schemes at low degrees of sub-sampling. This work explores the tradeoff between signal acquisition and incoherent sampling on image reconstruction quality given prior knowledge of the image geometry for weighted random sampling schemes, finding that optimal distribution is not robustly determined by maximizing the acquired signal but from interpreting its marginal change with respect to the sub-sampling rate. We develop a corresponding sampling design methodology that deterministically yields a near optimal sampling distribution for image reconstructions incorporating knowledge of the image geometry. The technique robustly identifies optimal weighted random sampling schemes and provides improved reconstruction fidelity for multiple 1D and 2D images, when compared to prior techniques for sampling optimization given knowledge of the image geometry.

  14. Optimal sampling with prior information of the image geometry in microfluidic MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. H.; Cho, H.; Paulsen, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in MRI acquisition for microscopic flows enable unprecedented sensitivity and speed in a portable NMR/MRI microfluidic analysis platform. However, the application of MRI to microfluidics usually suffers from prolonged acquisition times owing to the combination of the required high resolution and wide field of view necessary to resolve details within microfluidic channels. When prior knowledge of the image geometry is available as a binarized image, such as for microfluidic MRI, it is possible to reduce sampling requirements by incorporating this information into the reconstruction algorithm. The current approach to the design of the partial weighted random sampling schemes is to bias toward the high signal energy portions of the binarized image geometry after Fourier transformation (i.e. in its k-space representation). Although this sampling prescription is frequently effective, it can be far from optimal in certain limiting cases, such as for a 1D channel, or more generally yield inefficient sampling schemes at low degrees of sub-sampling. This work explores the tradeoff between signal acquisition and incoherent sampling on image reconstruction quality given prior knowledge of the image geometry for weighted random sampling schemes, finding that optimal distribution is not robustly determined by maximizing the acquired signal but from interpreting its marginal change with respect to the sub-sampling rate. We develop a corresponding sampling design methodology that deterministically yields a near optimal sampling distribution for image reconstructions incorporating knowledge of the image geometry. The technique robustly identifies optimal weighted random sampling schemes and provides improved reconstruction fidelity for multiple 1D and 2D images, when compared to prior techniques for sampling optimization given knowledge of the image geometry.

  15. Optimal sampling with prior information of the image geometry in microfluidic MRI.

    PubMed

    Han, S H; Cho, H; Paulsen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in MRI acquisition for microscopic flows enable unprecedented sensitivity and speed in a portable NMR/MRI microfluidic analysis platform. However, the application of MRI to microfluidics usually suffers from prolonged acquisition times owing to the combination of the required high resolution and wide field of view necessary to resolve details within microfluidic channels. When prior knowledge of the image geometry is available as a binarized image, such as for microfluidic MRI, it is possible to reduce sampling requirements by incorporating this information into the reconstruction algorithm. The current approach to the design of the partial weighted random sampling schemes is to bias toward the high signal energy portions of the binarized image geometry after Fourier transformation (i.e. in its k-space representation). Although this sampling prescription is frequently effective, it can be far from optimal in certain limiting cases, such as for a 1D channel, or more generally yield inefficient sampling schemes at low degrees of sub-sampling. This work explores the tradeoff between signal acquisition and incoherent sampling on image reconstruction quality given prior knowledge of the image geometry for weighted random sampling schemes, finding that optimal distribution is not robustly determined by maximizing the acquired signal but from interpreting its marginal change with respect to the sub-sampling rate. We develop a corresponding sampling design methodology that deterministically yields a near optimal sampling distribution for image reconstructions incorporating knowledge of the image geometry. The technique robustly identifies optimal weighted random sampling schemes and provides improved reconstruction fidelity for multiple 1D and 2D images, when compared to prior techniques for sampling optimization given knowledge of the image geometry. PMID:25676820

  16. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.

    1999-01-21

    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  17. Optimal Co-segmentation of Tumor in PET-CT Images with Context Information

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Bai, Junjie; Han, Dongfeng; Bhatia, Sudershan; Sun, Wenqing; Rockey, William; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PET-CT images have been widely used in clinical practice for radiotherapy treatment planning of the radiotherapy. Many existing segmentation approaches only work for a single imaging modality, which suffer from the low spatial resolution in PET or low contrast in CT. In this work we propose a novel method for the co-segmentation of the tumor in both PET and CT images, which makes use of advantages from each modality: the functionality information from PET and the anatomical structure information from CT. The approach formulates the segmentation problem as a minimization problem of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model, which encodes the information from both modalities. The optimization is solved using a graph-cut based method. Two sub-graphs are constructed for the segmentation of the PET and the CT images, respectively. To achieve consistent results in two modalities, an adaptive context cost is enforced by adding context arcs between the two subgraphs. An optimal solution can be obtained by solving a single maximum flow problem, which leads to simultaneous segmentation of the tumor volumes in both modalities. The proposed algorithm was validated in robust delineation of lung tumors on 23 PET-CT datasets and two head-and-neck cancer subjects. Both qualitative and quantitative results show significant improvement compared to the graph cut methods solely using PET or CT. PMID:23693127

  18. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    PubMed

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  19. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...