Science.gov

Sample records for additional important feature

  1. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  2. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  3. Importance-driven feature enhancement in volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ivan; Kanitsar, Armin; Gröller, M Eduard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents importance-driven feature enhancement as a technique for the automatic generation of cut-away and ghosted views out of volumetric data. The presented focus+context approach removes or suppresses less important parts of a scene to reveal more important underlying information. However, less important parts are fully visible in those regions, where important visual information is not lost, i.e., more relevant features are not occluded. Features within the volumetric data are first classified according to a new dimension, denoted as object importance. This property determines which structures should be readily discernible and which structures are less important. Next, for each feature, various representations (levels of sparseness) from a dense to a sparse depiction are defined. Levels of sparseness define a spectrum of optical properties or rendering styles. The resulting image is generated by ray-casting and combining the intersected features proportional to their importance (importance compositing). The paper includes an extended discussion on several possible schemes for levels of sparseness specification. Furthermore, different approaches to importance compositing are treated. PMID:16138551

  4. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  5. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  6. Frequency importance functions for a feature recognition test material.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, V; Studebaker, G A; Pavlovic, C V; Sherbecoe, R L

    1988-06-01

    The relative importance of different parts of the auditory spectrum to recognition of the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) and its six speech feature subtests was determined. Three normal hearing subjects were tested twice in each of 70 experimental conditions. The analytical procedures of French and Steinberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 19, 90-119 (1947)] were applied to the data to derive frequency importance functions for each of the DRT subtests and the test as a whole over the frequency range 178-8912 Hz. For the DRT as a whole, the low frequencies were found to be more important than is the case for nonsense syllables. Importance functions for the feature subtests also differed from those for nonsense syllables and from each other as well. These results suggest that test materials loaded with different proportions of particular phonemes have different frequency importance functions. Comparison of the results with those from other studies suggests that importance functions depend to a degree on the available response options as well. PMID:3411027

  7. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  8. Feature Import Vector Machine: A General Classifier with Flexible Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yazhen

    2015-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) and other reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) based classifier systems are drawing much attention recently due to its robustness and generalization capability. General theme here is to construct classifiers based on the training data in a high dimensional space by using all available dimensions. The SVM achieves huge data compression by selecting only few observations which lie close to the boundary of the classifier function. However when the number of observations are not very large (small n) but the number of dimensions/features are large (large p), then it is not necessary that all available features are of equal importance in the classification context. Possible selection of an useful fraction of the available features may result in huge data compression. In this paper we propose an algorithmic approach by means of which such an optimal set of features could be selected. In short, we reverse the traditional sequential observation selection strategy of SVM to that of sequential feature selection. To achieve this we have modified the solution proposed by Zhu and Hastie (2005) in the context of import vector machine (IVM), to select an optimal sub-dimensional model to build the final classifier with sufficient accuracy. PMID:27081431

  9. Important pharmacophoric features of pan PPAR agonists: common chemical feature analysis and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Sandeep; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2009-09-01

    HipHop program was used to generate a common chemical feature hypothesis for pan Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists. The top scoring hypothesis (hypo-1) was found to differentiate the pan agonists (actives) from subtype-specific and dual PPAR agonists (inactives). The importance of individual features in hypo-1 was assessed by deleting a particular feature to generate a new hypothesis and observing its discriminating ability between 'actives' and 'inactives'. Deletion of aromatic features AR-1 (hypo-1b), AR-2 (hypo-1e) and a Hydrophobic feature HYD-1 (hypo-1c) individually did not affect the discriminating power of the hypo-1 significantly. However, deletion of a Hydrogen Bond Acceptor (HBA) feature (hypo-1f) in the hydrophobic tail group was found to be highly detrimental for the specificity of hypo-1 leading to high hit rate of 'inactives'. Since hypo-1 did not produce any useful hits from the database search, hypo-1b, hypo-1c and hypo-1e were used for virtual screening leading to the identification of new potential pan PPAR ligands. The docking studies were used to predict the binding pose of the proposed molecules in PPARgamma active site. PMID:19268404

  10. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  11. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  12. Features of Pro-σK Important for Cleavage by SpoIVFB, an Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kangming; Xiang, Xianling; Gu, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases regulate diverse processes by cleaving substrates within a transmembrane segment or near the membrane surface. Bacillus subtilis SpoIVFB is an intramembrane metalloprotease that cleaves Pro-σK during sporulation. To elucidate features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, coexpression of the two proteins in Escherichia coli was used along with cell fractionation. In the absence of SpoIVFB, a portion of the Pro-σK was peripherally membrane associated. This portion was not observed in the presence of SpoIVFB, suggesting that it serves as the substrate. Deletion of Pro-σK residues 2 to 8, addition of residues at its N terminus, or certain single-residue substitutions near the cleavage site impaired cleavage. Certain multiresidue substitutions near the cleavage site changed the position of cleavage, revealing preferences for a small residue preceding the cleavage site N-terminally (i.e., at the P1 position) and a hydrophobic residue at the second position following the cleavage site C-terminally (i.e., P2′). These features appear to be conserved among Pro-σK orthologs. SpoIVFB did not tolerate an aromatic residue at P1 or P2′ of Pro-σK. A Lys residue at P3′ of Pro-σK could not be replaced with Ala unless a Lys was provided farther C-terminally (e.g., at P9′). α-Helix-destabilizing residues near the cleavage site were not crucial for SpoIVFB to cleave Pro-σK. The preferences and tolerances of SpoIVFB are somewhat different from those of other intramembrane metalloproteases, perhaps reflecting differences in the interaction of the substrate with the membrane and the enzyme. PMID:23585539

  13. NIMEFI: Gene Regulatory Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Ruyssinck, Joeri; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Geurts, Pierre; Dhaene, Tom; Demeester, Piet; Saeys, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts, DREAM4 and DREAM5, have been established to benchmark network inference techniques using gene expression measurements. In these challenges the overall top performer was the GENIE3 algorithm. This method decomposes the network inference task into separate regression problems for each gene in the network in which the expression values of a particular target gene are predicted using all other genes as possible predictors. Next, using tree-based ensemble methods, an importance measure for each predictor gene is calculated with respect to the target gene and a high feature importance is considered as putative evidence of a regulatory link existing between both genes. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we generalize the regression decomposition strategy of GENIE3 to other feature importance methods. We compare the performance of support vector regression, the elastic net, random forest regression, symbolic regression and their ensemble variants in this setting to the original GENIE3 algorithm. To create the ensemble variants, we propose a subsampling approach which allows us to cast any feature selection algorithm that produces a feature ranking into an ensemble feature importance algorithm. We demonstrate that the ensemble setting is key to the network inference task, as only ensemble variants achieve top performance. As second contribution, we explore the effect of using rankwise averaged predictions of multiple ensemble algorithms as opposed to only one. We name this approach NIMEFI (Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance algorithms) and show that this approach outperforms all individual methods in general, although on a specific network a single method can perform better. An implementation of NIMEFI has been made publicly available

  14. Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Hollecker, M.; Marshall, D. L.; Harvey, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    1. Dendrotoxins from mamba snake venoms are small proteins that block neuronal K+ channels. In order to investigate structural features associated with their biological activity, partially folded versions of dendrotoxins I and K from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) were prepared by selectively reducing one or more of their three S-S bonds. 2. The modified toxins were tested for ability to compete with 125I-labelled native toxin I to high affinity binding sites on rat brain synaptosomal membranes and for the ability to increase acetylcholine release in a neuromuscular preparation. 3. Binding affinity increased progressively as the toxins folded to the native conformation and the most biologically active of the modified species were those in which only the disulphide bond between residues 14 and 38 was not formed. These intermediates had native-like conformations as determined by circular dichroism but still had about 5-10 times lower affinity than native toxins. 4. Addition of negatively charged groups to block the free sulthydryls at positions 14 and 38 caused a further, marked loss of activity. 5. The results are consistent with the existence of two important regions in the dendrotoxin molecules. The region containing two of the disulphide bonds (around Cys5-Cys55 and Cys30-Cys51) and much of the secondary structure is essential for the binding affinity of the toxins, while the region around Cys14 and Cys38, equivalent to part of the antiprotease site of the homologous protease inhibitor from bovine pancreas (BPTI), plays an important role in the potency of dendrotoxins. PMID:7694758

  15. Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hollecker, M; Marshall, D L; Harvey, A L

    1993-10-01

    1. Dendrotoxins from mamba snake venoms are small proteins that block neuronal K+ channels. In order to investigate structural features associated with their biological activity, partially folded versions of dendrotoxins I and K from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) were prepared by selectively reducing one or more of their three S-S bonds. 2. The modified toxins were tested for ability to compete with 125I-labelled native toxin I to high affinity binding sites on rat brain synaptosomal membranes and for the ability to increase acetylcholine release in a neuromuscular preparation. 3. Binding affinity increased progressively as the toxins folded to the native conformation and the most biologically active of the modified species were those in which only the disulphide bond between residues 14 and 38 was not formed. These intermediates had native-like conformations as determined by circular dichroism but still had about 5-10 times lower affinity than native toxins. 4. Addition of negatively charged groups to block the free sulthydryls at positions 14 and 38 caused a further, marked loss of activity. 5. The results are consistent with the existence of two important regions in the dendrotoxin molecules. The region containing two of the disulphide bonds (around Cys5-Cys55 and Cys30-Cys51) and much of the secondary structure is essential for the binding affinity of the toxins, while the region around Cys14 and Cys38, equivalent to part of the antiprotease site of the homologous protease inhibitor from bovine pancreas (BPTI), plays an important role in the potency of dendrotoxins. PMID:7694758

  16. Seasonal Shifts in the Hyperspectral Characterization of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  17. SEASONAL SHIFTS IN THE HYPERSPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND FEATURES IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  18. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  19. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  20. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  1. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  2. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. The Purification of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast ClpP complex: additional subunits and structural features

    PubMed Central

    Derrien, Benoît; Majeran, Wojciech; Effantin, Grégory; Ebenezer, Joseph; Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Maurizi, Michael R.; Vallon, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The ClpP peptidase is a major constituent of the proteolytic machinery of bacteria and organelles. The chloroplast ClpP complex is unusual, in that it associates a large number of subunits, one of which (ClpP1) is encoded in the chloroplast, the others in the nucleus. The complexity of these large hetero-oligomeric complexes has been a major difficulty in their overproduction and biochemical characterization. In this paper, we describe the purification of native chloroplast ClpP complex from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a strain that carries the Strep-tag II at the C-terminus of the ClpP1 subunit. Similar to land plants, the algal complex comprises active and inactive subunits (3 ClpP and 5 ClpR, respectively). Evidence is presented that a sub-complex can be produced by dissociation, comprising ClpP1 and ClpR1, 2, 3 and 4, similar to the ClpR-ring described in land plants. Our Chlamydomonas ClpP preparation also contains two ClpT subunits, ClpT3 and ClpT4, which like the land plant ClpT1 and ClpT2 show 2 Clp-N domains. ClpTs are believed to function in substrate binding and/or assembly of the two heptameric rings. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ClpT subunits have appeared independently in Chlorophycean algae, in land plants and in dispersed cyanobacterial genomes. Negative staining electron microscopy shows that the Chlamydomonas complex retains the barrel-like shape of homo-oligomeric ClpPs, with 4 additional peripheral masses that we speculate represent either the additional IS1 domain of ClpP1 (a feature unique to algae) or ClpTs or extensions of ClpR subunits PMID:22772861

  5. Feature importance analysis in guide strand identification of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daichuan; Xiao, Jiamin; Li, Yizhou; Diao, Yuanbo; Guo, Yanzhi; Li, Menglong

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is the negative regulator of gene expression, also known as guide strand of transient miRNA:miRNA* duplex. It is critical in maintaining the normal physiological processes such as development, differentiation, and apoptosis in many organisms. With increasing miRNA data, it is desirable to design methods to identify guide strand based on machine learning algorithms. In this study, the random forest models based on local sequence-structure features were proposed to identify miRNA in four species. The accuracies achieved were 86.51% for Homo sapiens, 81.66% for Ornithorhynchus anatinus, 82.33% for Mus musculus and 85.71% for Schmidtea mediterranea, respectively. Furthermore, the important analysis of feature elements was carried out by using the conditional feature importance strategy. The analysis results revealed that most of the significant elements were related to guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. We believed that our method could be beneficial to annotate the function of miRNA and help the further understanding of the RNA interference mechanism. PMID:21704258

  6. Assessment of translational importance of mammalian mRNA sequence features based on Ribo-Seq and mRNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Oxana A; Kondrakhin, Yury V; Yevshin, Ivan S; Valeev, Tagir F; Sharipov, Ruslan N

    2016-04-01

    Ribosome profiling technology (Ribo-Seq) allowed to highlight more details of mRNA translation in cell and get additional information on importance of mRNA sequence features for this process. Application of translation inhibitors like harringtonine and cycloheximide along with mRNA-Seq technique helped to assess such important characteristic as translation efficiency. We assessed the translational importance of features of mRNA sequences with the help of statistical analysis of Ribo-Seq and mRNA-Seq data. Translationally important features known from literature as well as proposed by the authors were used in analysis. Such comparisons as protein coding versus non-coding RNAs and high- versus low-translated mRNAs were performed. We revealed a set of features that allowed to discriminate the compared categories of RNA. Significant relationships between mRNA features and efficiency of translation were also established. PMID:27122318

  7. Importance of expansion and contraction in the formation of tectonic features on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    The lack of globally distributed tectonic features on the lunar surface has been used to argue against significant changes in the radius of the Moon since the formation of the presently observed surface, which dates to the end of heavy bombardment about 3.9 Ga. This observation has been used previously to limit the maximum stresses to approximately 100 MPa that could be supported by the lunar lithosphere without the formation of globally distributed tectonic features, which in turn limits the maximum radius changes to plus or minus 1 km for a purely elastic lithosphere. In a previous abstract, limits on the elastic expansion or contraction of the Moon were reexamined with respect to realistic failure stresses necessary to produce actual lunar tectonic features. In addition, limits on the permanent (plastic) strain that could be accommodated by non-mascon grabens and wrinkle ridges were considered with more severe constraints placed on the total reasonable expansion and contraction of the Moon since 3.9 Ga. In this abstract, considerations of the distribution and mechanisms of formation due to a planetary radius change or their accommodating much permanent plastic planetary expansion or contraction.

  8. Macitentan: An important addition to the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Anjan; Singh Brashier, Dick B; Tejus, Anantharamu; Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Macitentan is an orphan drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role of pathophysiology of PAH. Macitentan, a new dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has reportedly improved prognosis of PAH patients by delaying the progression of disease. It prevents the binding of ET-1 to both endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors. Macitentan displays higher efficacy, lesser adverse effects and drug interactions. It has completed phase III trials in 2012 for treatment of PAH and has been tried for ischemic digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis, recurrent glioblastoma and combination with chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Safety data for macitentan were obtained primarily from a placebo-controlled clinical study in 742 patients with PAH. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug on 13 October 2013. It is an important addition to long-term treatment of PAH. PMID:25709357

  9. Phonological Feature Re-Assembly and the Importance of Phonetic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that new phonological features can be acquired in second languages, but that both feature acquisition and feature re-assembly are affected by the robustness of phonetic cues in the input.

  10. Remote assessment of locally important ecological features across landscapes: how representative of reality?

    PubMed

    Willis, Katherine J; Seddon, Alistair W R; Long, Peter R; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Caithness, Neil; Thurston, Milo; Smit, Mathijs G D; Hagemann, Randi; Macias-Fauria, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The local ecological footprinting tool (LEFT) uses globally available databases, modeling, and algorithms to, remotely assess locally important ecological features across landscapes based on five criteria: biodiversity (beta-diversity), vulnerability (threatened species), fragmentation, connectivity, and resilience. This approach can be applied to terrestrial landscapes at a 300-m resolution within a given target area. Input is minimal (latitude and longitude) and output is a computer-generated report and series of maps that both individually and synthetically depict the relative value of each ecological criteria. A key question for any such tool, however, is how representative is the remotely obtained output compared to what is on the ground. Here, we present the results from comparing remotely- vs. field-generated outputs from the LEFT tool on two distinct study areas for beta-diversity and distribution of threatened species (vulnerability), the two fields computed by LEFT for which such an approach is feasible. The comparison method consists of a multivariate measure of similarity between two fields based on discrete wavelet transforms, and reveals consistent agreement across a wide range of spatial scales. These results suggest that remote assessment tools such as LEFT hold great potential for determining key ecological features across landscapes and for being utilized in preplanning biodiversity assessment tools. PMID:26485956

  11. De-Orphaning the Structural Proteome through Reciprocal Comparison of Evolutionarily Important Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R. Matthew; Erdin, Serkan; Tran, Tuan A.; Kristensen, David M.; Lisewski, Andreas Martin; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Function prediction frequently relies on comparing genes or gene products to search for relevant similarities. Because the number of protein structures with unknown function is mushrooming, however, we asked here whether such comparisons could be improved by focusing narrowly on the key functional features of protein structures, as defined by the Evolutionary Trace (ET). Therefore a series of algorithms was built to (a) extract local motifs (3D templates) from protein structures based on ET ranking of residue importance; (b) to assess their geometric and evolutionary similarity to other structures; and (c) to transfer enzyme annotation whenever a plurality was reached across matches. Whereas a prototype had only been 80% accurate and was not scalable, here a speedy new matching algorithm enabled large-scale searches for reciprocal matches and thus raised annotation specificity to 100% in both positive and negative controls of 49 enzymes and 50 non-enzymes, respectively—in one case even identifying an annotation error—while maintaining sensitivity (∼60%). Critically, this Evolutionary Trace Annotation (ETA) pipeline requires no prior knowledge of functional mechanisms. It could thus be applied in a large-scale retrospective study of 1218 structural genomics enzymes and reached 92% accuracy. Likewise, it was applied to all 2935 unannotated structural genomics proteins and predicted enzymatic functions in 320 cases: 258 on first pass and 62 more on second pass. Controls and initial analyses suggest that these predictions are reliable. Thus the large-scale evolutionary integration of sequence-structure-function data, here through reciprocal identification of local, functionally important structural features, may contribute significantly to de-orphaning the structural proteome. PMID:18461181

  12. Important features of home-based support services for older Australians and their informal carers.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Gill, Liz; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Cameron, Ian D; Patterson, Jan; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-11-01

    In Australia, newly initiated, publicly subsidised 'Home-Care Packages' designed to assist older people (≥ 65 years of age) living in their own home must now be offered on a 'consumer-directed care' (CDC) basis by service providers. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on users' views and preferences. The aim of this study was to determine what features (attributes) of consumer-directed, home-based support services are important to older people and their informal carers to inform the design of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted in December 2012-November 2013 with 17 older people receiving home-based support services and 10 informal carers from 5 providers located in South Australia and New South Wales. Salient service characteristics important to participants were determined using thematic and constant comparative analysis and formulated into attributes and attribute levels for presentation within a DCE. Initially, eight broad themes were identified: information and knowledge, choice and control, self-managed continuum, effective co-ordination, effective communication, responsiveness and flexibility, continuity and planning. Attributes were formulated for the DCE by combining overlapping themes such as effective communication and co-ordination, and the self-managed continuum and planning into single attributes. Six salient service features that characterise consumer preferences for the provision of home-based support service models were identified: choice of provider, choice of support worker, flexibility in care activities provided, contact with the service co-ordinator, managing the budget and saving unspent funds. Best practice indicates that qualitative research with individuals who represent the population of interest should guide attribute selection for a DCE and this is the first study to employ such methods in aged care service provision. Further development of

  13. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  14. PACS administrators' and radiologists' perspective on the importance of features for PACS selection.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vivek; Narra, Vamsi R; Joshi, Kailash; Lee, Kyootai; Melson, David

    2014-08-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) play a critical role in radiology. This paper presents the criteria important to PACS administrators for selecting a PACS. A set of criteria are identified and organized into an integrative hierarchical framework. Survey responses from 48 administrators are used to identify the relative weights of these criteria through an analytical hierarchy process. The five main dimensions for PACS selection in order of importance are system continuity and functionality, system performance and architecture, user interface for workflow management, user interface for image manipulation, and display quality. Among the subdimensions, the highest weights were assessed for security, backup, and continuity; tools for continuous performance monitoring; support for multispecialty images; and voice recognition/transcription. PACS administrators' preferences were generally in line with that of previously reported results for radiologists. Both groups assigned the highest priority to ensuring business continuity and preventing loss of data through features such as security, backup, downtime prevention, and tools for continuous PACS performance monitoring. PACS administrators' next high priorities were support for multispecialty images, image retrieval speeds from short-term and long-term storage, real-time monitoring, and architectural issues of compatibility and integration with other products. Thus, next to ensuring business continuity, administrators' focus was on issues that impact their ability to deliver services and support. On the other hand, radiologists gave high priorities to voice recognition, transcription, and reporting; structured reporting; and convenience and responsiveness in manipulation of images. Thus, radiologists' focus appears to be on issues that may impact their productivity, effort, and accuracy. PMID:24744278

  15. An Unrecognized Rash Progressing to Lyme Carditis: Important Features and Recommendations Regarding Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawn; Singla, Montish

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of 46-year-old man with no medical history, who complained of extreme fatigue, near-syncope, and palpitations. He initially presented in complete heart block. A transvenous pacemaker was placed in the emergency department, and he was started empirically on Ceftriaxone for Lyme disease. He was admitted and over the course of the next few days, his rhythm regressed to Mobitz type I first-degree atrioventricular block and then to normal sinus rhythm. This case report highlights some important features regarding Lyme carditis, a rare presentation of early disseminated Lyme disease (seen in a few weeks to months after the initial tick bite). In 25%-30% of patients, the characteristic targetoid rash may not be seen, a likely culprit of the disease not being detected early and progressing to disseminated disease. The most common cardiac complaint of Lyme disease is palpitations, occurring in 6.6% of patients, which may not accurately reflect progression into disseminated Lyme disease because it is a nonspecific finding. Conduction abnormality, occurring in 1.8% of patients, is a more specific finding of Borrelia invading cardiac tissue. Finally, this case report highlights a recommendation that patients with confirmed Lyme disease or those presenting with cardiac abnormalities or symptoms who have an atypical profile for a cardiac event should be screened with a 12-lead electrocardiogram, Lyme serology, and be considered for antibiotic therapy with the possibility of temporary pacing. PMID:25730155

  16. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  17. Liposome-based liquid handling platform featuring addition, mixing, and aliquoting of femtoliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hideaki; Tsuda, Soichiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the utilization of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as a platform for handling chemical and biochemical reagents. GUVs with diameters of 5 to 10 µm and containing chemical/biochemical reagents together with inert polymers were fused with electric pulses (electrofusion). After reagent mixing, the fused GUVs spontaneously deformed to a budding shape, separating the mixed solution into sub-volumes. We utilized a microfluidic channel and optical tweezers to select GUVs of interest, bring them into contact, and fuse them together to mix and aliquot the reaction product. We also show that, by lowering the ambient temperature close to the phase transition temperature Tm of the lipid used, daughter GUVs completely detached (fission). This process performs all the liquid-handing features used in bench-top biochemistry using the GUV, which could be advantageous for the membrane-related biochemical assays. PMID:24991878

  18. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Charles Street, Roger Scheidt and Robert ZiBerna, the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, sit in the conference room inside the Mobile Command Center, a specially equipped vehicle. Nicknamed '''The Brute,''' it also features computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  19. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Robert ZiBerna, Roger Scheidt and Charles Street, the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, practice for an emergency scenario inside the Mobile Command Center, a specially equipped vehicle. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  20. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This new specially equipped vehicle serves as a mobile command center for emergency preparedness staff and other support personnel when needed at KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or CCAFS.

  1. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Charles Street, part of the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, uses a phone on the specially equipped emergency response vehicle. The vehicle, nicknamed '''The Brute,''' serves as a mobile command center for emergency preparedness staff and other support personnel when needed. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  2. Clinical report of a 17q12 microdeletion with additionally unreported clinical features.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer L; Gandomi, Stephanie K; Parra, Melissa; Lu, Ira; Gau, Chia-Ling; Dasouki, Majed; Butler, Merlin G

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations involving the 17q12 region have been associated with developmental and speech delay, autism, aggression, self-injury, biting and hitting, oppositional defiance, inappropriate language, and auditory hallucinations. We present a tall-appearing 17-year-old boy with marfanoid habitus, hypermobile joints, mild scoliosis, pectus deformity, widely spaced nipples, pes cavus, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and psychiatric manifestations including physical and verbal aggression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and oppositional defiance. An echocardiogram showed borderline increased aortic root size. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a small pancreas, mild splenomegaly with a 1.3 cm accessory splenule, and normal kidneys and liver. A testing panel for Marfan, aneurysm, and related disorders was negative. Subsequently, a 400 K array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) + SNP analysis was performed which identified a de novo suspected pathogenic deletion on chromosome 17q12 encompassing 28 genes. Despite the limited number of cases described in the literature with 17q12 rearrangements, our proband's phenotypic features both overlap and expand on previously reported cases. Since syndrome-specific DNA sequencing studies failed to provide an explanation for this patient's unusual habitus, we postulate that this case represents an expansion of the 17q12 microdeletion phenotype. Further analysis of the deleted interval is recommended for new genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:24991439

  3. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  4. 75 FR 29680 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... specify that the boxes, bins, or crates would have to be safeguarded from insects by covering with a lid, insect-proof mesh, or by some other barrier that prevents insects from entering the boxes or bins. Those... provide an additional layer of protection against insects of concern. The regulations also contain...

  5. Resistance to Degradation and Cellular Distribution are Important Features for the Antitumor Activity of Gomesin

    PubMed Central

    Buri, Marcus V.; Domingues, Tatiana M.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.; Casaes-Rodrigues, Rafael L.; Rodrigues, Elaine Guadelupe; Miranda, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Many reports have shown that antimicrobial peptides exhibit anticancer abilities. Gomesin (Gm) exhibits potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells by a membrane pore formation induced after well-orchestrated intracellular mechanisms. In this report, the replacements of the Cys by Ser or Thr, and the use D-amino acids in the Gm structure were done to investigate the importance of the resistance to degradation of the molecule with its cytotoxicity. [Thr2,6,11,15]-Gm, and [Ser2,6,11,15]-Gm exhibits low cytotoxicity, and low resistance to degradation, and after 24 h are present in localized area near to the membrane. Conversely, the use of D-amino acids in the analogue [D-Thr2,6,11,15]-D-Gm confers resistance to degradation, increases its potency, and maintained this peptide spread in the cytosol similarly to what happens with Gm. Replacements of Cys by Thr and Gln by L- or D-Pro ([D-Thr2,6,11,15, Pro9]-D-Gm, and [Thr2,6,11,15, D-Pro9]-Gm), which induced a similar β-hairpin conformation, also increase their resistance to degradation, and cytotoxicity, but after 24 h they are not present spread in the cytosol, exhibiting lower cytotoxicity in comparison to Gm. Additionally, chloroquine, a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor potentiated the effect of the peptides. Furthermore, the binding and internalization of peptides was determined, but a direct correlation among these factors was not observed. However, cholesterol ablation, which increase fluidity of cellular membrane, also increase cytotoxicity and internalization of peptides. β-hairpin spatial conformation, and intracellular localization/target, and the capability of entry are important properties of gomesin cytotoxicity. PMID:24312251

  6. Aspartylglucosaminuria in a Puerto Rican family: additional features of a panethnic disorder.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, D; Nakagawa, S; Marion, R W; Sachs, G S; Hahm, S Y; Goldman, H S

    1988-11-01

    We report on 3 Puerto Rican brothers with the clinical and laboratory findings of aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU). Their parents were first cousins. The affected sibs have the "cardinal" manifestations of AGU, including developmental disabilities, progressive "coarsening" of the face, and early onset of hepatosplenomegaly. Biochemical studies showed elevated levels of urinary aspartylglucosamine and very low activity of aspartylglucosaminidase(AGA) in cultured fibroblasts. With long term follow-up, previously undescribed manifestations were noted, including radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in early childhood and development of macro-orchidism during puberty. This family shows that AGU is not limited to individuals of Finnish background, but that the gene is panethnic in distribution and that additional changes, not previously noted, may present with advancing age. PMID:3228136

  7. Features of quasistable laminar flows of He II and an additional dissipative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, I. A.; Klokol, K. A.; Sokolov, S. S.; Sheshin, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quasistable laminar flow of He II at a temperature of 140 mK is studied experimentally. The liquid flow was excited by a vibrating quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of about 24 kHz. It was found that for velocities of the tuning fork oscillations from 0.046 to 0.16 m/s, the He II flow can be both quasistable laminar and turbulent. Transitions between these flow regimes were observed. When the velocity of the tuning fork oscillations increases more rapidly, the velocity at which the quasistable flow becomes unstable and undergoes a transition to a turbulent flow is higher. Mechanisms for the dissipation of the energy of the oscillating tines of the tuning fork in the quasistable laminar flow regime are analyzed. It is found that there is an additional mechanism for dissipation of the energy of the oscillating tuning fork beyond internal friction in the quartz. This mechanism is associated with mutual friction owing to scattering of thermal excitations of He II on quantized vortices and leads to a cubic dependence of the exciting force on the fluid velocity.

  8. Detection of Important Atmospheric and Surface Features by Employing Principal Component Image Transformation of GOES Imagery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillger, Donald W.; Ellrod, Gary P.

    2003-05-01

    The detection of dust, fire hot spots, and smoke from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is made easier by employing the principal component image (PCI) technique. PCIs are created by an eigenvector transformation of spectral band images from the five-band GOES Imager. The transformation is a powerful tool that provides a new set of images that are linear combinations of the original spectral band images. This facilitates viewing the explained variance or signal in the available imagery, allowing both gross and more subtle features in the imagery to be seen. Whereas this multispectral technique is normally applied to high-spatial-resolution land remote sensing imagery, the application is herein made to lower-spatial-resolution weather satellite imagery for the purpose of feature detection and enhancement. Features used as examples include atmospheric dust as well as forest and range fire hot spots and their resulting smoke plumes. The applications of PCIs to GOES utilized the three infrared window images (bands 2, 4, and 5) in dust situations as well as the visible image (band 1) in smoke situations. Two conclusions of this study are 1) atmospheric and surface features are more easily identified in multiband PCIs than in the enhanced single-band images or even in some two-band difference images and 2) the elimination of certain bands can be made either directly by inspection of the PCIs, discarding bands that do not to contribute to the PCIs showing the desired features, or by including all available bands and letting the transformation process indicate the bands that are useful for detecting the desired features. This technique will be increasingly useful with the introduction of new and increased numbers of spectral bands with current and future satellite instrumentation.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Hyperspectral Reflectance Patterns Influencing Detection of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management affecting an estimated 8.1 million hectares in sod production, recreational, and residential settings in the southeastern U.S. Reflectance characteristics of imported fire ant mound features (i.e., ant m...

  10. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  11. Taxonomically Important Features on the Surface of Floatoblasts in Plumatella (Bryozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Kevin T.

    2000-05-01

    : At the species level, bryozoans (class Phylactolaemata) in the family Plumatellidae are difficult to organize taxonomically. Of principal concern is the absence of consistent distinguishing features due mainly to plasticity of the group, a common problem with soft-bodied invertebrates. Yet, within the last three decades, analysis of distinctive chitinous statoblasts—using scanning electron microscopy—has resolved certain taxonomic questions. I examined statoblasts from 30 similar collections, the majority from the midwestern United States, and identified four distinct subgroups. Also, nine new statoblast surface features were identified: fold, polar grooves, bead, cave, demarcation, parasutural zone, ridge, sutural band, and sutural knob. The surface features of floating statoblasts (floatoblasts) provide useful data for species identification. Most consistently useful in plumatellids is a suture which varies from one species to the next. Mound-like tubercles and net-like ridges are next in the extent of variability. Finally, folds and polar grooves are present but vary even within floatoblasts from the same colony. Analysis of the suture in PLUMATELLA FUNGOSA, over a 5-day germination period, reveals all features at the site remain intact regardless of the initial age of the floatoblast. Only the suture line itself splits lengthwise to permit emergence of the new animal.

  12. Implications of Export/Import Reporting Requirements in the United States - International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Benjamin, Eugene L.; McNair, Gary W.

    2001-02-20

    The United States has signed but not ratified the US/IAEA Safeguards Additional Protocol. If ratified, the Additional Protocol will require the US to report to the IAEA certain nuclear-related exports and imports to the IAEA. This document identifies and assesses the issues associated with the US making those reports. For example, some regulatory changes appear to be necessary. The document also attempts to predict the impact on the DOE Complex by assessing the historical flow of exports and imports that would be reportable if the Additional Protocol were in force.

  13. Important structural features in coals and their relationship to coal reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze 8 Argonne premium coal samples. The most important heteroatom in coals is oxygen. There is a trend of increasing percentage of furans and ethers with rank. Influence of furans plus ethers are important and constant across all ranks for vitrinite rich coals. Strong bond cleavage may be more important than previously thought; this has strong implications for the choice of model systems for coal thermolysis.

  14. Importance of ion bombardment during coverage of Au nanoparticles on their structural features and optical response

    SciTech Connect

    Resta, V.; Peláez, R. J.; Afonso, C. N.

    2014-03-28

    This work studies the changes in the optical response and morphological features of 6 ± 1 nm diameter Au nanoparticles (NPs) when covered by a layer of a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The laser fluence used for ablating the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target is varied in order to modify the kinetic energy (KE) of the species bombarding the NPs during their coverage. When the ion KE < 200 eV, the structural features and optical properties of the NPs are close to those of uncovered ones. Otherwise, a shift to the blue and a strong damping of the surface plasmon resonance is observed as fluence is increased. There are two processes responsible for these changes, both related to aluminum ions arriving to the substrate during the coverage process, i.e., sputtering of the metal and implantation of aluminum species in the metal. Both processes have been simulated using standard models for ion bombardment, the calculated effective implanted depths allow explaining the observed changes in the optical response, and the use of a size-dependent sputtering coefficient for the Au NPs predicts the experimental sputtering fractions. In spite of the work is based on PLD, the concepts investigated and conclusions can straightforwardly be extrapolated to other physical vapor deposition techniques or processes involving ion bombardment of metal NPs by ions having KE > 200 eV.

  15. Clinically important features of porphyrin and heme metabolism and the porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Wehong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2014-01-01

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther's disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria. PMID:25372274

  16. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Weihong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther’s disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria. PMID:25372274

  17. Ecthyma gangrenosum: an important feature of pseudomonal sepsis in a previously well child.

    PubMed

    Goolamali, S I; Fogo, A; Killian, L; Shaikh, H; Brathwaite, N; Ford-Adams, M; Macfarlane, S

    2009-07-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare, distinctive skin disorder associated with potentially fatal underlying pseudomonal sepsis. Although typically occurring in neutropenic or immunocompromised patients, it can occasionally affect healthy children. The appearances are characteristic with small indurated vesicular papules progressing rapidly to infarcted necrotic areas with surrounding erythema and a typical black eschar. In young children, these are often accompanied by fever and diarrhoea. The absence of suppuration and slough distinguishes it from the more recognized pyoderma gangrenosum. Lesions can occur at any site although are most commonly found over the buttocks, limbs, axillae and perineum. We describe the case of a 28-month-old, previously well child who presented with typical features of ecthyma gangrenosum secondary to Pseudomonas infection who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment. Despite a thorough search, no underlying cause was found. Early recognition and prompt treatment with antipseudomonal antibiotics is vital to reduce morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:19094136

  18. Nonmotor Features in Parkinson's Disease: What Are the Most Important Associated Factors?

    PubMed

    Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Muldmaa, Mari; Lilles, Stella; Rosenthal, Marika; Taba, Nele; Taba, Pille

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY), the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL) Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE). Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as "mild" or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients' mood, daily activities, and quality of life. PMID:27195172

  19. Nonmotor Features in Parkinson's Disease: What Are the Most Important Associated Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Muldmaa, Mari; Lilles, Stella; Rosenthal, Marika; Taba, Nele; Taba, Pille

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY), the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL) Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE). Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as “mild” or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients' mood, daily activities, and quality of life. PMID:27195172

  20. Accessible surface area of proteins from purely sequence information and the importance of global features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the accessible surface area of proteins. The novelty of this approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Rather, sequential window information and the global monomer and dimer compositions of the chain are used. We find that much of the lost accuracy due to the elimination of evolutionary information is recouped by the use of global features. Furthermore, this new predictor produces similar results for proteins with or without sequence homologs deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and hence shows generalizability. Finally, these predictions are obtained in a small fraction (1/1000) of the time required to run mutation profile based prediction. All these factors indicate the possible usability of this work in de-novo protein structure prediction and in de-novo protein design using iterative searches. Funded in part by the financial support of the National Institutes of Health through Grants R01GM072014 and R01GM073095, and the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF MCB 1071785.

  1. Agrin, aquaporin-4, and astrocyte polarity as an important feature of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Wolburg, Hartwig; Noell, Susan; Wolburg-Buchholz, Karen; Mack, Andreas; Fallier-Becker, Petra

    2009-04-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not exclusively refer to brain endothelial cells, which are the site of the barrier proper. In the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that BBB endothelial cells depend considerably on the brain microenvironment to a degree exceeding the environmental influence in other organs. The concept of the BBB has been continuously developed over the decades, culminating now in the recognition that endothelial cell function in the brain is not limited to simply mediating energy and oxygen transfer between blood and neural tissue. Endothelial cells are rather "Janus-headed beings" that are active partners of both luminal molecules and cells, as well as subendothelial cells such as pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. In this overview, the authors present and discuss both the role of astroglial cells in managing the BBB and aspects of pathological alterations in the brain as far as the BBB is involved. After a brief introduction of the BBB that describes the structure and function of the brain capillary endothelial cells, the authors report on both the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes and the extracellular matrix between astrocytes/pericytes and endothelial cells. The AQP4 has an important impact on the homeostasis in the brain parenchyma; however, the mechanistic cascade from the composition of the astrocyte membrane to the maintenance of BBB properties in the endothelial cells, including their tight junction formation, is still completely unknown. PMID:19307424

  2. Experimental colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques recapitulates important features of pathogenic SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xing Pei; Lucero, Carissa M.; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Morcock, David R.; Deleage, Claire; Trubey, Charles M.; Smedley, Jeremy; Klatt, Nichole R.; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Kristoff, Jan; Xu, Amy; Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Keele, Brandon F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Choyke, Peter L.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Estes, Jacob D.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with resulting microbial translocation is hypothesized to significantly contribute to the heightened and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation characteristic to HIV infection. Here we employ a non-human primate model of chemically induced colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques that we developed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), to directly test this hypothesis. DSS treatment results in GI barrier damage with associated microbial translocation, inflammation and immune activation. The progression and severity of colitis are longitudinally monitored by a magnetic resonance imaging approach. DSS treatment of SIV-infected African green monkeys, a natural host species for SIV that does not manifest GI tract damage or chronic immune activation during infection, results in colitis with elevated levels of plasma SIV RNA, sCD14, LPS, CRP and mucosal CD4+ T-cell loss. Together these results support the hypothesis that GI tract damage leading to local and systemic microbial translocation, and associated immune activation, are important determinants of AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:26282376

  3. A national survey of the clinical features, treatment and importance of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Slatter, D H; Edwards, M E; Hawkins, C D; Wilcox, G E

    1982-09-01

    A postal survey of cattle producers throughout Australia was conducted to obtain information concerning the occurrence, signs and treatment of infectious bovine keratocojunctivitis, animals breeds, animal numbers and types, environmental conditions under which the animals were kept and management routines and systems of the animals (Slatter et al 1982). The most common clinical signs reported were ocular discharge (43.9%), corneal opacity (9.9%), or both (46.1%). The majority of respondents (54.8%) indicated duration of infections of at least 3 weeks. The condition was predominantly unilateral (74.7%) but 22.3% of respondents reported an equal occurrence of the condition unilaterally and bilaterally. The most frequently used drugs were homidium bromide (26.7%), oxytetracycline hydrochloride (22.8%), chloramphenicol derivatives (13.7%) and penicillin derivatives (13.5%). However, described treatment regimes indicated that therapeutic levels of antibiotics would not be maintained in the eyes of treated animals. Producers considered that 75% of affected animals showed reduced rates of weight gain, and 64% indicated they were more difficult to handle. An approximate figure of +22,000,000 was determined for loss of national production due to the disease, based on producers' estimates. In addition, a further cost of +1,566,500 was estimated for the labour involved in current treatment regimes. Beef and dairy producers spent different amounts on medications and treated for different durations. The economic significance of the disease justifies further studies on production losses due to the disease and cost effective methods of treatment. PMID:7159309

  4. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  5. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  6. Features of the occurrence of the additional stratification on the bottom-side F region over the equatorial location of Trivandrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Vineeth, C.; Kishore Kumar, K.

    2014-08-01

    The general features of occurrence of an additional layer on the bottom side of F region, referred to as F0.5 layer in the pre noon period, over the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat of 0.5° N) in India during the period from 2004 to 2007 are presented using ionosonde observations. The F0.5 layer has a June (northern summer) solsticial maximum probability of occurrence with secondary maxima during December (northern winter) solstice. The seasonal as well as the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of F0.5 layer as mentioned in this paper seems to be a result of the variations in the amplitude and phases of the tides and gravity waves, and inventory of the metallic ions of meteoric origin. This study brings out an important manifestation of morning time F layer base region dynamics.

  7. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    PubMed

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  8. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    PubMed Central

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  9. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  10. Atmospheric-water absorption features near 2.2 micrometers and their importance in high spectral resolution remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Clark, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atmospheric gases and water vapor is an accepted fact in terrestrial remote sensing. Until recently, only a general knowledge of atmospheric effects was required for analysis of remote sensing data; however, with the advent of high spectral resolution imaging devices, detailed knowledge of atmospheric absorption bands has become increasingly important for accurate analysis. Detailed study of high spectral resolution aircraft data at the U.S. Geological Survey has disclosed narrow absorption features centered at approximately 2.17 and 2.20 micrometers not caused by surface mineralogy. Published atmospheric transmission spectra and atmospheric spectra derived using the LOWTRAN-5 computer model indicate that these absorption features are probably water vapor. Spectral modeling indicates that the effects of atmospheric absorption in this region are most pronounced in spectrally flat materials with only weak absorption bands. Without correction and detailed knowledge of the atmospheric effects, accurate mapping of surface mineralogy (particularly at low mineral concentrations) is not possible.

  11. On the importance of anandamide structural features for its interactions with DPPC bilayers: effects on PLA2 activity.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, S; Ragni, L; Ambrosini, A; Paccamiccio, L; Mariani, P; Fiorini, R; Bertoli, E; Zolese, G

    2005-09-01

    The acylethanolamide anandamide (AEA) occurs in a variety of mammalian tissues and, as a result of its action on cannabinoid receptors, exhibits several cannabimimetic activities. Moreover, some of its effects are mediated through interaction with an ion channel-type vanilloid receptor. However, the chemical features of AEA suggest that some of its biological effects could be related to physical interactions with the lipidic part of the membrane. The present work studies the effect of AEA-induced structural modifications of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which is strictly dependent on lipid bilayer features. This study, performed by 2-dimethylamino-(6-lauroyl)-naphthalene fluorescence, demonstrates that the effect of AEA on PLA2 activity is concentration-dependent. In fact, at low AEA/DPPC molar ratios (from R = 0.001 to R = 0.04), there is an increase of the enzymatic activity, which is completely inhibited for R = 0.1. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the AEA affects DPPC membrane structural properties in a concentration-dependent manner. Because the biphasic effect of increasing AEA concentrations on PLA2 activity is related to the induced modifications of membrane bilayer structural properties, we suggest that AEA-phospholipid interactions may be important to produce, at least in part, some of the similarly biphasic responses of some physiological activities to increasing concentrations of AEA. PMID:15961786

  12. From the Arctic to fetal life: physiological importance and structural basis of an 'additional' chloride-binding site in haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, M Cristina; Castagnola, Massimo; Bertonati, Claudia; Galtieri, Antonio; Giardina, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Haemoglobins from mammals of sub-Arctic and Arctic species, as well as fetal human Hb, are all characterized by a significantly lower Delta H of oxygenation compared with the majority of mammalian haemoglobins from temperate species (exceptions are represented by some cold-resistant species, such as cow, horse and pig). This has been interpreted as an adaptive mechanism of great importance from a physiological point of view. To date, the molecular basis of this thermodynamic characteristic is still not known. In the present study, we show that binding of extra chloride (with respect to adult human Hb) ions to Hb would significantly contribute to lowering the overall heat of oxygenation, thus providing a molecular basis for the low effect of temperature on the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle. To this aim, the oxygen binding properties of bovine Hb, bear (Ursus arctos) Hb and horse Hb, which are representative of this series of haemoglobins, have been studied with special regard to the effect of heterotropic ligands, such as organic phosphates (namely 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and chloride. Functional results are consistent with a mechanism for ligand binding that involves an additional binding site for chloride ion. Analysis of computational chemistry results, obtained by the GRID program, further confirm the hypothesis that the reason for the lower Delta H of oxygenation is mainly due to an increase in the number of the oxygen-linked chloride-binding sites. PMID:14979874

  13. Is one enough? The case for non-additive influences of visual features on crossmodal Stroop interference

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Donohue, Sarah E.; Park, Christina J.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    When different perceptual signals arising from the same physical entity are integrated, they form a more reliable sensory estimate. When such repetitive sensory signals are pitted against other competing stimuli, such as in a Stroop Task, this redundancy may lead to stronger processing that biases behavior toward reporting the redundant stimuli. This bias would therefore, be expected to evoke greater incongruency effects than if these stimuli did not contain redundant sensory features. In the present paper we report that this is not the case for a set of three crossmodal, auditory-visual Stroop tasks. In these tasks participants attended to, and reported, either the visual or the auditory stimulus (in separate blocks) while ignoring the other, unattended modality. The visual component of these stimuli could be purely semantic (words), purely perceptual (colors), or the combination of both. Based on previous work showing enhanced crossmodal integration and visual search gains for redundantly coded stimuli, we had expected that relative to the single features, redundant visual features would have induced both greater visual distracter incongruency effects for attended auditory targets, and been less influenced by auditory distracters for attended visual targets. Overall, reaction times were faster for visual targets and were dominated by behavioral facilitation for the cross-modal interactions (relative to interference), but showed surprisingly little influence of visual feature redundancy. Post-hoc analyses revealed modest and trending evidence for possible increases in behavioral interference for redundant visual distracters on auditory targets, however, these effects were substantially smaller than anticipated and were not accompanied by a redundancy effect for behavioral facilitation or for attended visual targets. PMID:24198800

  14. Exploring QSTR modeling and toxicophore mapping for identification of important molecular features contributing to the chemical toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Subrata; Roy, Kunal

    2014-03-01

    Biodiversity deprivation can affect functions and services of the ecosystem. Changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to ecological changes. Bacterial communities are the main form of biomass in the ecosystem and one of largest populations on the planet. Bacterial communities provide important services to biodiversity. They break down pollutants, municipal waste and ingested food, and they are the primary route for recycling of organic matter to plants and other autotrophs, conversion of inorganic matter into new biological tissue using sunlight, management of energy crisis through use of biofuel. In the present study, computational chemistry and statistical modeling have been used to develop mathematical equations which can be applied to calculate toxicity of new/unknown chemicals/biofuels/metabolites in Escherichia coli. 2D and 3D descriptors were generated from molecular structure of compounds and mathematical models have been developed using genetic function approximation followed by multiple linear regression (GFA-MLR) method. Model validity was checked through defined internal (R(2)=0.751 and Q(2)=0.711), and external (Rpred(2)=0.773) statistical parameters. Molecular features responsible for toxicity were also assessed through 3D toxicophore study. The toxicophore-based model was validated (R=0.785) using qualitative statistical metrics and randomization test (Fischer validation). PMID:24246193

  15. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  16. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881901

  17. SU-E-J-261: The Importance of Appropriate Image Preprocessing to Augment the Information of Radiomics Image Features

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Fried, D; Fave, X; Mackin, D; Yang, J; Court, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate how different image preprocessing techniques, their parameters, and the different boundary handling techniques can augment the information of features and improve feature’s differentiating capability. Methods: Twenty-seven NSCLC patients with a solid tumor volume and no visually obvious necrotic regions in the simulation CT images were identified. Fourteen of these patients had a necrotic region visible in their pre-treatment PET images (necrosis group), and thirteen had no visible necrotic region in the pre-treatment PET images (non-necrosis group). We investigated how image preprocessing can impact the ability of radiomics image features extracted from the CT to differentiate between two groups. It is expected the histogram in the necrosis group is more negatively skewed, and the uniformity from the necrosis group is less. Therefore, we analyzed two first order features, skewness and uniformity, on the image inside the GTV in the intensity range [−20HU, 180HU] under the combination of several image preprocessing techniques: (1) applying the isotropic Gaussian or anisotropic diffusion smoothing filter with a range of parameter(Gaussian smoothing: size=11, sigma=0:0.1:2.3; anisotropic smoothing: iteration=4, kappa=0:10:110); (2) applying the boundaryadapted Laplacian filter; and (3) applying the adaptive upper threshold for the intensity range. A 2-tailed T-test was used to evaluate the differentiating capability of CT features on pre-treatment PT necrosis. Result: Without any preprocessing, no differences in either skewness or uniformity were observed between two groups. After applying appropriate Gaussian filters (sigma>=1.3) or anisotropic filters(kappa >=60) with the adaptive upper threshold, skewness was significantly more negative in the necrosis group(p<0.05). By applying the boundary-adapted Laplacian filtering after the appropriate Gaussian filters (0.5 <=sigma<=1.1) or anisotropic filters(20<=kappa <=50), the uniformity was

  18. Seasonal Changes in Broadband Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) disrupt soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, and residential settings. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the detection and seasonal monitoring of imported fire ant col...

  19. Evolution of volcanic and tectonic features in caldera settings and their importance in the localization of ore deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Many calderas are located along regionally important fault zones that are intermittently active before and after the caldera cycle. In mineralized calderas, the ore deposits are controlled by structures developed during caldera formation and by regional faults which intersect and reactivate the caldera-related structures. The paper discusses the importance of the different stages of caldera formation in connection with the localization of ore deposits. -from Author

  20. Importance of the Anchor Group Position (Para versus Meta) in Tetraphenylmethane Tripods: Synthesis and Self-Assembly Features.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Marcin; Valášek, Michal; Homberg, Jan; Edelmann, Kevin; Gerhard, Lukas; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Fuhr, Olaf; Wächter, Tobias; Zharnikov, Michael; Kolivoška, Viliam; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Mészáros, Gábor; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Mayor, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    The efficient synthesis of tripodal platforms based on tetraphenylmethane with three acetyl-protected thiol groups in either meta or para positions relative to the central sp(3) carbon for deposition on Au (111) surfaces is reported. These platforms are intended to provide a vertical arrangement of the substituent in position 4 of the perpendicular phenyl ring and an electronic coupling to the gold substrate. The self-assembly features of both derivatives are analyzed on Au (111) surfaces by low-temperature ultra-high-vacuum STM, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and reductive voltammetric desorption studies. These experiments indicated that the meta derivative forms a well-ordered monolayer, with most of the anchoring groups bound to the surface, whereas the para derivative forms a multilayer film with physically adsorbed adlayers on the chemisorbed para monolayer. Single-molecule conductance values for both tripodal platforms are obtained through an STM break junction experiment. PMID:27505302

  1. The importance of HLA DRB1 gene allele to clinical features and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to diversity in ethnicity and geographic location of the studied populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA DRB1 alleles on the clinical features and disability of the patients with MS in Lithuania. Methods This was a prospective study of 120 patients with MS. HLA DRB1 alleles were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The first symptoms of MS in patients with HLA DRB1*15 allele manifested at younger age than in those without this allele (28.32 +/− 5.49 yrs vs. 30.94 +/− 8.43 yrs, respectively, p = 0.043). HLA DRB1*08 allele was more prevalent among relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients than among patients with progressive course of MS (25.0% vs. 8.3%, respectively, chi^2 = 6.000, p = 0.05). MS patients with this allele had lower relapse rate than those without this allele (1.00 +/− 0.97 and 1.44 +/− 0.85, respectively, p = 0.043). Degree of disability during the last visit was lower among the patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele (EDSS score 3.15 +/− 1.95 vs. 4.49 +/− 1.96, p = 0.006), and higher among those with HLA DRB1*15 allele (EDSS score 4.60 +/− 2.10 vs.4.05 +/− 1.94, p = 0.047) compared to patients without these alleles but there were no significant associations between these alleles and the duration of the disease to disability. HLA DRB1*08 allele (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0,039-0,8, p = 0.029) was demonstradet to be independent factor to take a longer time to reach an EDSS of 6, while HLA DRB1*01 allele (OR = 5.92, 95% CI 1,30-26,8, p = 0.021) was related in a shorter time to reach and EDSS of 6. Patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele had lower IgG index compared to patients without this allele (0.58 +/− 0.17 and 0.73 +/− 0.31, respectively, p

  2. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis of Surface Modification Consisting of Addition of Alluvium (Feature 23a)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to document the analysis that was conducted to evaluate the effect of a potential change to the TSPA-VA base case design that could improve long-term repository performance. The design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the topographic surface of Yucca Mountain. The modification consists of covering the land surface immediately above the repository foot-print with a thick layer of unconsolidated material utilizing rip-rap and plants to mitigate erosion. This surface modification is designated as Feature 23a or simply abbreviated as F23a. The fundamental aim of F23a is to reduce the net infiltration into the unsaturated zone by enhancing the potential for evapotranspiratiration at the surface; such a change would, in turn, reduce the seepage flux and the rate of radionuclide releases from the repository. Field and modeling studies of water movement in the unsaturated zone have indicated that shallow infiltration at the surface is almost negligible in locations where the bedrock is covered by a sufficiently thick soil layer. In addition to providing storage for meteoric water, a thick soil layer would slow the downward movement of soil moisture to such an extent that evaporation and transpiration could easily transfer most of the soil-water back to the atmosphere. Generic requirements for the effectiveness of this design feature are two-fold. First, the soil layer above the repository foot-print must be thick enough to provide sufficient storage of meteoric water (from episodic precipitation events) and accommodate plant roots. Second, the added soil layer must be engineered so as to mitigate thinning by erosional processes and have sufficient thickness to accommodate the roots of common desert plants. Under these two conditions, it is reasonable to expect that modification would be effective for a significant time period and the net infiltration and deep percolation flux would be reduced by orders of magnitude lower

  3. ECG-Based Detection of Early Myocardial Ischemia in a Computational Model: Impact of Additional Electrodes, Optimal Placement, and a New Feature for ST Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Axel; Schulze, Walther H. W.; Jiang, Yuan; Wilhelms, Mathias; Luik, Armin; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG), however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs). Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2–11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold. PMID:26587538

  4. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  5. The importance of heat evolution during the overcharge process and the protection mechanism of electrolyte additives for prismatic lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Shiun; Hu, Chi-Chang; Li, Yuan-Yao

    In this work, the rate of heat generation in the overcharge period for 103450 prismatic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) of the LiCoO 2-graphite jellyroll type with a basic electrolyte consisting of 1 M LiPF 6-PC/EC/EMC (1/3/5 in weight ratio) has been found to be more important than the gas evolution which was traditionally considered as the main reason in the overcharge protection mechanism. The cell voltage, charge current, and skin temperature were monitored during the charge process. For a single battery or batteries in parallel, LIBs without any additives is an acceptable design if the cell voltage is not charged above 4.55 V under the common charge program. The rate of heat generation from the polymerization of 3 wt% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) is high enough to cause the explosion or thermal runaway of a battery, which is not found for an LIB containing 2 wt% CHB + 1 wt% tert-amyl benzene (TAB). In the 12 V overcharge test at 1C, the thermal fuse was broken by the high skin temperature (ca. 80 °C) due to the polymerization of 3 wt% CHB, which was also the case for LIBs containing 2 wt% CHB + 1 wt% TAB. The disconnection of the thermal fuse, however, did not interrupt the thermal runaway of LIBs without any additives because the battery voltage was too high (ca. 4.9 V). The influence of specific surface area of active materials in the anode on the polymerization kinetics of additives has to be carefully considered in order to add correct amount of overcharge protection agents.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Association Angle between T-cell Receptor Vα/Vβ Domains Reveals Important Features for Epitope Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Krackhardt, Angela M; Antes, Iris

    2015-07-01

    T-cell receptors (TCR) play an important role in the adaptive immune system as they recognize pathogen- or cancer-based epitopes and thus initiate the cell-mediated immune response. Therefore there exists a growing interest in the optimization of TCRs for medical purposes like adoptive T-cell therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms behind T-cell signaling are still predominantly unknown. For small sets of TCRs it was observed that the angle between their Vα- and Vβ-domains, which bind the epitope, can vary and might be important for epitope recognition. Here we present a comprehensive, quantitative study of the variation in the Vα/Vβ interdomain-angle and its influence on epitope recognition, performing a systematic bioinformatics analysis based on a representative set of experimental TCR structures. For this purpose we developed a new, cuboid-based superpositioning method, which allows a unique, quantitative analysis of the Vα/Vβ-angles. Angle-based clustering led to six significantly different clusters. Analysis of these clusters revealed the unexpected result that the angle is predominantly influenced by the TCR-clonotype, whereas the bound epitope has only a minor influence. Furthermore we could identify a previously unknown center of rotation (CoR), which is shared by all TCRs. All TCR geometries can be obtained by rotation around this center, rendering it a new, common TCR feature with the potential of improving the accuracy of TCR structure prediction considerably. The importance of Vα/Vβ rotation for signaling was confirmed as we observed larger variances in the Vα/Vβ-angles in unbound TCRs compared to epitope-bound TCRs. Our results strongly support a two-step mechanism for TCR-epitope: First, preformation of a flexible TCR geometry in the unbound state and second, locking of the Vα/Vβ-angle in a TCR-type specific geometry upon epitope-MHC association, the latter being driven by rotation around the unique center of rotation. PMID:26185983

  7. Structural features important for the U12 snRNA binding and minor spliceosome assembly of Arabidopsis U11/U12-small nuclear ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Jung; Jung, Hyun Ju; Nguyen Dinh, Sy; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-07-01

    Although seven proteins unique to U12 intron-specific minor spliceosomes, denoted as U11/U12-65K, -59K, -48K, -35K, -31K, -25K, and -20K, have been identified in humans and the roles of some of them have been demonstrated, the functional role of most of these proteins in plants is not understood. A recent study demonstrated that Arabidopsis U11/U12-65K is essential for U12 intron splicing and normal plant development. However, the structural features and sequence motifs important for 65 K binding to U12 snRNA and other spliceosomal proteins remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated by domain-deletion analysis that the C-terminal region of the 65 K protein bound specifically to the stem-loop III of U12 snRNA, whereas the N-terminal region of the 65 K protein was responsible for interacting with the 59 K protein. Analysis of the interactions between each snRNP protein using yeast two-hybrid analysis and in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation and luciferase complementation imaging assays demonstrated that the core interactions among the 65 K, 59 K, and 48 K proteins were conserved between plants and animals, and multiple interactions were observed among the U11/U12-snRNP proteins. Taken together, these results reveal that U11/U12-65K is an indispensible component of the minor spliceosome complex by binding to both U11/U12-59K and U12 snRNA, and that multiple interactions among the U11/U12-snRNP proteins are necessary for minor spliceosome assembly. PMID:27232356

  8. Feature space discriminant analysis for hyperspectral data feature reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Maryam; Ghassemian, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral images contain a large number of spectral bands that allows us to distinguish different classes with more details. But, the number of available training samples is limited. Thus, feature reduction is an important step before classification of high dimensional data. Supervised feature extraction methods such as LDA, GDA, NWFE, and MMLDA use two criteria for feature reduction: between-class scatter and within-class scatter. We propose a supervised feature extraction method in this paper that uses a new criterion in addition to two mentioned measures. The proposed method, which is called feature space discriminant analysis (FSDA), at first, maximizes the between-spectral scatter matrix to increase the difference between extracted features. In the second step, FSDA, maximizes the between-class scatter matrix and minimizes the within-class scatter matrix simultaneously. The experimental results on five popular hyperspectral images show the better performance of FSDA in comparison with other supervised feature extraction methods in small sample size situation.

  9. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Yergeau, Etienne; Labbé, Diane; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Greer, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    A bacterial consortium (Mix3) composed of microorganisms originating from different environments (soils and wastewater) was obtained after enrichment in the presence of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives. After addition of the mixture, the development of the microbial composition of Mix3 was monitored at three different times (35, 113, and 222 days) using fingerprinting method and dominant bacterial species were identified. In parallel, 14 bacteria were isolated after 113 days and identified. Degradation capacities for Mix3 and the isolated bacterial strains were characterized and compared. At day 113, we induced the expression of catabolic genes in Mix3 by adding the substrate mixture to resting cells and the metatranscriptome was analyzed. After addition of the substrate mixture, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased at day 222 while a shift between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium was observed after 113 days. Mix3 was able to degrade 13 compounds completely, with partial degradation of isooctane and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, but tert-butyl alcohol was not degraded. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain IFP 2016 isolated from Mix3 showed almost the same degradation capacities as Mix3: these results were not observed with the other isolated strains. Transcriptomic results revealed that Actinobacteria and in particular, Rhodococcus species, were major contributors in terms of total and catabolic gene transcripts while other species were involved in cyclohexane degradation. Not all the microorganisms identified at day 113 were active except R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 that appeared to be a major player in the degradation activity observed in Mix3. PMID:25343979

  10. Geomorphological features in the southern Canary Island Volcanic Province: The importance of volcanic processes and massive slope instabilities associated with seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino, Desirée; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; López-González, Nieves; Medialdea, Teresa; Fernández-Salas, Luis-Miguel; González, Francisco-Javier; Rengel, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The margin of the continental slope of the Volcanic Province of Canary Islands is characterised by seamounts, submarine hills and large landslides. The seabed morphology including detailed morphology of the seamounts and hills was analysed using multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data, and very high resolution seismic profiles. Some of the elevation data are reported here for the first time. The shape and distribution of characteristics features such as volcanic cones, ridges, slides scars, gullies and channels indicate evolutionary differences. Special attention was paid to recent geological processes that influenced the seamounts. We defined various morpho-sedimentary units, which are mainly due to massive slope instability that disrupt the pelagic sedimentary cover. We also studied other processes such as the role of deep bottom currents in determining sediment distribution. The sediments are interpreted as the result of a complex mixture of material derived from a) slope failures on seamounts and submarine hills; and b) slides and slumps on the continental slope.

  11. Importance of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion in the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Hamartoma-Like Features: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kei; Kishimoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Nakatani, Yukio; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of pancreatic hamartoma-like solitary fibrous tumor which was differentiated from pancreatic hamartoma with the detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion, a specific mutation for solitary fibrous tumors. A pancreatic well-demarcated solid nodule, 21 × 17 mm, of 82-year-old man was surgically enucleated. Microscopic findings were close to a pancreatic hamartoma that consisted of sparsely distributed pancreatic ducts and acini in heavily collagenized fibrous stroma. Neither islet nor peripheral nerve existed in the tumor. The fibroblastic cells in the stroma were immune-positive for CD34, CD99, and bcl-2. But these expressions were not decisive in the differentiation between solitary fibrous tumor and pancreatic hamartoma, because CD34 was positive for both tumors, and CD99 and bcl-2 expressions were not elucidated in the previous cases of pancreatic hamartomas. Thus, we evaluated NAB2-STAT6 fusion. The fibroblastic cells were positive for STAT6 and sequencing analysis revealed the gene fusion between NAB2 exon 4 and STAT6 exon 2, with which the final diagnos is of solitary fibrous tumor was achieved. In conclusion, detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion has a great diagnostic value for pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors with hamartoma-like features. PMID:26425382

  12. Structure of the Low pH Conformation of Chandipura Virus G Reveals Important Features in the Evolution of the Vesiculovirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Eduard; Albertini, Aurélie A.; Raux, Hélène; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, John K.; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Gaudin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Chandipura virus (CHAV), a member of the vesiculovirus genus, is an emerging human pathogen. As for other rhabdoviruses, CHAV entry into susceptible cells is mediated by its single envelope glycoprotein G which is both involved in receptor recognition and fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Here, we have characterized the fusion properties of CHAV-G. As for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, the prototype of the genus) G, fusion is triggered at low pH below 6.5. We have also analyzed the biochemical properties of a soluble form of CHAV-G ectodomain (CHAV-Gth, generated by thermolysin limited-proteolysis of recombinant VSV particles in which the G gene was replaced by that of CHAV). The overall behavior of CHAV-Gth is similar to that previously reported for VSV-Gth. Particularly, CHAV-Gth pre-fusion trimer is not stable in solution and low-pH-induced membrane association of CHAV-Gth is reversible. Furthermore, CHAV-Gth was crystallized in its low pH post-fusion conformation and its structure was determined at 3.6Å resolution. An overall comparison of this structure with the previously reported VSV-Gth post-fusion conformation, shows a high structural similarity as expected from the comparison of primary structure. Among the three domains of G, the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) appears to be the most divergent and the largest differences are confined to the secondary structure of the major antigenic site of rhabdoviruses. Finally, local differences indicate that CHAV has evolved alternate structural solutions in hinge regions between PH and fusion domains but also distinct pH sensitive switches. Globally the comparison between the post fusion conformation of CHAV and VSV-G highlights several features essential for the protein’s function. It also reveals the remarkable plasticity of G in terms of local structures. PMID:25803715

  13. S. 1082: This Act may be cited as the Hazardous and Additional Waste Export and Import Act of 1991, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US Senate on May 15, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act. This legislation prohibits the export from and import into the United States of Hazardous and additional waste except in compliance with the requirements of this bill. The purpose of this act is to implement the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, done at Basel, Switzerland, March 22, 1989. Key sections of this bill address the following: international shipments of hazardous and additional waste; objectives and national policy; retention of existing authority; and conforming amendments.

  14. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  15. Noble reaction features of bromoborane in oxidative addition of B-Br σ-bond to [M(PMe3)2] (M=Pt or Pd): theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guixiang; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Through detailed calculations by density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) to fourth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory including single, double, and quadruple excitations [MP4(SDQ)] methods, we investigated the oxidative addition of the B-Br bond of dibromo(trimethylsiloxy)borane [Br(2)B(OSiMe(3))] to Pt(0) and Pd(0) complexes [M(PMe(3))(2)] (M = Pt or Pd) directly yielding a trans bromoboryl complex trans-[MBr{BBr(OSiMe(3))}(PMe(3))(2)]. Two reaction pathways are found for this reaction: One is a nucleophilic attack pathway which directly leads to the trans product, and the other is a stepwise reaction pathway which occurs through successive cis oxidative addition of the B-Br bond to [M(PMe(3))(2)] and thermal cis-trans isomerization. In the Pt system, the former course occurs with a much smaller energy barrier (E(a) = 5.8 kcal/mol) than the latter one (E(a) = 20.7 kcal/mol), where the DFT-calculated E(a) value is presented hereafter. In the Pd system, only the latter course is found in which the rate-determining steps is the cis-trans isomerization with the E(a) of 15.1 kcal/mol. Interestingly, the thermal cis-trans isomerization occurs on the singlet potential energy surface against our expectation. This unexpected result is understood in terms of the strong donation ability of the boryl group. Detailed analyses of electronic processes in all these reaction steps as well as remarkable characteristic features of [Br(2)B(OSiMe(3))] are also provided. PMID:21557562

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  2. Feature Characterization Library

    2006-08-03

    FCLib is a data analysis toolkit constructed to meet the needs of data discovery in large-scale, spatio-temporal data such as finite element simulation data. FCLib is a C library toolkit of building blocks that can be assembled into complex analyses. Important features of FCLib include the following: (1) Support of feature-based analysis, (2) minimization of low-oevel processing, (3) ease of use, and (4) applicable to the wide variety of science domains.

  3. Cytogenetic abnormalities additional to t(11;14) correlate with clinical features in leukaemic presentation of mantle cell lymphoma, and may influence prognosis: a study of 60 cases by FISH.

    PubMed

    Parry-Jones, N; Matutes, E; Morilla, R; Brito-Babapulle, V; Wotherspoon, A; Swansbury, G J; Catovsky, D

    2007-04-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), characterised by t(11;14)(q13;q32), has a poor prognosis. Many cases have additional cytogenetic abnormalities, and often have a complex karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was used to study 60 cases with leukaemic presentation of MCL, to determine the frequency, clinical correlations and prognostic impact of a panel of molecular cytogenetic abnormalities: 17p13 (TP53 locus), 13q14, 12 p11.1-q11 (centromere), 6q21 and 11q23. CD38 expression, of prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), was also studied, and correlations with clinical and cytogenetic abnormalities sought. Eighty per cent of cases had at least one abnormality in addition to t(11;14). Deletions at 17p13 (TP53) and 13q14 were most frequent and involved the majority of the leukaemic clone. Cases with TP53 deletion were more likely to have splenomegaly and marked leucocytosis (>30 x 10(9)/l), and less likely to have lymphadenopathy than those without deletion. Deletions at 11q23 and 6q21 were associated with extranodal disease. 13q14 and 11q23 deletions showed a trend towards worse prognosis by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, deletions at 13q14 and 6q21 were independent predictors of poor outcome. Deletion at 17p13 did not show prognostic impact in this series. CD38, positive in two-thirds of cases, was associated with male gender and nodal disease but not with any cytogenetic abnormality, or with survival. PMID:17391491

  4. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  5. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  6. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  7. On the Quasi-Extended Addition for Exploded Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalay, István

    2008-01-01

    In teaching primary teacher trainees, an awareness of the characteristic features, especially commutativity and associativity of basic operations play an important role. Owing to a deeply set automatism rooted in their primary and secondary education, teacher trainees think that such characteristics of addition are so trivial that they do not need…

  8. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Feature extraction from Doppler ultrasound signals for automated diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Güler, Inan

    2005-11-01

    This paper presented the assessment of feature extraction methods used in automated diagnosis of arterial diseases. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Different feature extraction methods were used to obtain feature vectors from ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial Doppler signals. In addition to this, the problem of selecting relevant features among the features available for the purpose of classification of Doppler signals was dealt with. Multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNNs) with different inputs (feature vectors) were used for diagnosis of ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial diseases. The assessment of feature extraction methods was performed by taking into consideration of performances of the MLPNNs. The performances of the MLPNNs were evaluated by the convergence rates (number of training epochs) and the total classification accuracies. Finally, some conclusions were drawn concerning the efficiency of discrete wavelet transform as a feature extraction method used for the diagnosis of ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial diseases. PMID:16278106

  10. Hepatocyte steatosis is an important predictor of response to interferon (IFN) monotherapy in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 2a: Virological features of IFN-resistant cases with hepatocyte steatosis.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Sezaki, Hitomi; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Someya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2005-04-01

    The role of hepatocyte steatosis in interferon (IFN) resistance is still unclear, especially in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a. The present study was conducted in 364 consecutive non-cirrhotic naive patients infected with genotype 2a, who were evaluated for the severity of steatosis and response to IFN monotherapy after a 24-week median duration of therapy. The patients were examined for factors associated with steatosis and treatment efficacy according to the grade of steatosis. Early viral kinetics was also evaluated in 64 patients for predictors of response to therapy. Nine IFN-resistant patients were assessed for the relationship between amino acid sequence of HCV core region/NS5A and severity of steatosis. Multivariate analysis identified two independent factors associated with steatosis; serum ferritin > or =200 microg/l and body mass index > or =25.0 kg/m(2). The sustained virological response rate in patients with high-grade steatosis was significantly lower than in the low-grade group. Study of early viral kinetics showed a significantly lower cumulative HCV-RNA negative rate for the high-grade than low-grade steatosis group. Sequence analysis of HCV core region/NS5A in IFN-resistant patients with or without steatosis failed to identify steatosis-specific amino acid substitutions associated with resistance. This study of HCV genotype 2a suggested that steatosis is associated with excess iron storage, and that it is an important predictor of efficacy of IFN monotherapy. Further large-scale studies are warranted to examine the role of amino acid substitutions on IFN resistance specific for steatosis. PMID:15714492

  11. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices. PMID:26555184

  12. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that design features are one of the most attractive integration method of most fields of engineering activities such as a design modelling, process planning or production scheduling. One of the most important tasks which are realized in the integration process of design and planning functions is a design translation meant as design data mapping into data which are important from process planning needs point of view, it is manufacturing data. A design geometrical shape translation process can be realized with application one of the following strategies: (i) designing with previously prepared design features library also known as DBF method it is design by feature, (ii) interactive design features recognition IFR, (iii) automatic design features recognition AFR. In case of the DBF method design geometrical shape is created with design features. There are two basic approaches for design modelling in DBF method it is classic in which a part design is modelled from beginning to end with application design features previously stored in a design features data base and hybrid where part is partially created with standard predefined CAD system tools and the rest with suitable design features. Automatic feature recognition consist in an autonomic searching of a product model represented with a specific design representation method in order to find those model features which might be potentially recognized as design features, manufacturing features, etc. This approach needs the searching algorithm to be prepared. The searching algorithm should allow carrying on the whole recognition process without a user supervision. Currently there are lots of AFR methods. These methods need the product model to be represented with B-Rep representation most often, CSG rarely, wireframe very rarely. In the IFR method potential features are being recognized by a user. This process is most often realized by a user who points out those surfaces which seem to belong to a

  13. [Important epidemiological features of the treatment of type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Seguí Díaz, M

    2014-07-01

    According to the various clinical practice guidelines, the recommendations for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are well-established, thus leading to homogenization of clinical practice and avoiding variability. However, it is well known that, depending on factors such as effectiveness, physiopathology, cost, adverse effects, preferences, and comorbidities, each patient will, in the long-term, receive different treatment of type 2 diabetes. The consensus document published last year and approved by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommends distinct targets for each patient with type 2 diabetes and argues for the individualization of the management and treatment of this disease. In other words, the document advocates a patient-centered approach, in which the various therapeutic alternatives are related mainly to distinct physiopathological factors, adverse effects, and the patient's comorbidities, as well as the patient's preferences. PMID:25311714

  14. The Adult Learning Environment: Importance of Physical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosko, R. S.; Hiemstra, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature primarily outside of educational circles on three topics--ergonomics, anthropometry, and proxemics--that affect the learning environment. It also discusses some implications in the hope that research and dialogue can be stimulated. (JOW)

  15. Feature++: Automatic Feature Construction for Clinical Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Hao, Bibo; Yu, Yiqin; Li, Jing; Hu, Gang; Xie, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of clinical data and knowledge, feature construction for clinical analysis becomes increasingly important and challenging. Given a clinical dataset with up to hundreds or thousands of columns, the traditional manual feature construction process is usually too labour intensive to generate a full spectrum of features with potential values. As a result, advanced large-scale data analysis technologies, such as feature selection for predictive modelling, cannot be fully utilized for clinical data analysis. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature construction framework for clinical data analysis, namely, Feature++. It leverages available public knowledge to understand the semantics of the clinical data, and is able to integrate external data sources to automatically construct new features based on predefined rules and clinical knowledge. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Feature++ in a typical predictive modelling use case with a public clinical dataset, and the results suggest that the proposed approach is able to fulfil typical feature construction tasks with minimal dataset specific configurations, so that more accurate models can be obtained from various clinical datasets in a more efficient way. PMID:27577443

  16. Transfer Learning across Feature-Rich Heterogeneous Feature Spaces via Feature-Space Remapping (FSR)

    PubMed Central

    Feuz, Kyle D.; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer learning aims to improve performance on a target task by utilizing previous knowledge learned from source tasks. In this paper we introduce a novel heterogeneous transfer learning technique, Feature- Space Remapping (FSR), which transfers knowledge between domains with different feature spaces. This is accomplished without requiring typical feature-feature, feature instance, or instance-instance co-occurrence data. Instead we relate features in different feature-spaces through the construction of meta-features. We show how these techniques can utilize multiple source datasets to construct an ensemble learner which further improves performance. We apply FSR to an activity recognition problem and a document classification problem. The ensemble technique is able to outperform all other baselines and even performs better than a classifier trained using a large amount of labeled data in the target domain. These problems are especially difficult because in addition to having different feature-spaces, the marginal probability distributions and the class labels are also different. This work extends the state of the art in transfer learning by considering large transfer across dramatically different spaces. PMID:27019767

  17. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  18. Sequence-Based Classification Using Discriminatory Motif Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Sen, Śaunak; Segal, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Most existing methods for sequence-based classification use exhaustive feature generation, employing, for example, all -mer patterns. The motivation behind such (enumerative) approaches is to minimize the potential for overlooking important features. However, there are shortcomings to this strategy. First, practical constraints limit the scope of exhaustive feature generation to patterns of length , such that potentially important, longer () predictors are not considered. Second, features so generated exhibit strong dependencies, which can complicate understanding of derived classification rules. Third, and most importantly, numerous irrelevant features are created. These concerns can compromise prediction and interpretation. While remedies have been proposed, they tend to be problem-specific and not broadly applicable. Here, we develop a generally applicable methodology, and an attendant software pipeline, that is predicated on discriminatory motif finding. In addition to the traditional training and validation partitions, our framework entails a third level of data partitioning, a discovery partition. A discriminatory motif finder is used on sequences and associated class labels in the discovery partition to yield a (small) set of features. These features are then used as inputs to a classifier in the training partition. Finally, performance assessment occurs on the validation partition. Important attributes of our approach are its modularity (any discriminatory motif finder and any classifier can be deployed) and its universality (all data, including sequences that are unaligned and/or of unequal length, can be accommodated). We illustrate our approach on two nucleosome occupancy datasets and a protein solubility dataset, previously analyzed using enumerative feature generation. Our method achieves excellent performance results, with and without optimization of classifier tuning parameters. A Python pipeline implementing the approach is available at http

  19. Pair normalized channel feature and statistics-based learning for high-performance pedestrian detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bobo; Wang, Guijin; Ruan, Zhiwei; Lin, Xinggang; Meng, Long

    2012-07-01

    High-performance pedestrian detection with good accuracy and fast speed is an important yet challenging task in computer vision. We design a novel feature named pair normalized channel feature (PNCF), which simultaneously combines and normalizes two channel features in image channels, achieving a highly discriminative power and computational efficiency. PNCF applies to both gradient channels and color channels so that shape and appearance information are described and integrated in the same feature. To efficiently explore the formidably large PNCF feature space, we propose a statistics-based feature learning method to select a small number of potentially discriminative candidate features, which are fed into the boosting algorithm. In addition, channel compression and a hybrid pyramid are employed to speed up the multiscale detection. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PNCF and its learning method. Our proposed detector outperforms the state-of-the-art on several benchmark datasets in both detection accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  1. S. 2375: a bill to disapprove of certain deferrals of Strategic Petroleum Reserve budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and to increase oil import fees. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this bill is to disapprove of certain deferrals of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) budget authority, to authorize additional appropriations to the SPR, and to increase oil import fees. The bill authorizes $1 billion for fiscal years 1987, 88, and 89 for crude oil acquisitions for the SPR and $163 million for storage and related facility construction during 1987. It also instructs the Energy Secretary to cease production from the Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills for six months to allow the reservoir depletion to stabilize.

  2. Isolated Gallbladder Intramucosal Metastatic Melanoma With Features Mimicking Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy A; Peevey, Joseph; Lo, Edward C; Guitart, Joan; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma has a variety of morphologic patterns and can metastasize and mimic any type of neoplastic process creating significant diagnostic difficulty. When metastasis to the gastrointestinal system is identified, it is most commonly associated with widely metastatic disease. We report a rare case of isolated gallbladder intramucosal metastatic melanoma with features mimicking lymphoepithelial carcinoma in an adult patient who presented with cholecystitis. Additionally, we report the imaging and morphologic features and discuss the importance of these findings along with a clear clinical history and immunohistochemical profile to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26041740

  3. Feature-Preserving Mesh Denoising via Anisotropic Surface Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zeyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this paper a robust surface mesh denoising method that can effectively remove mesh noise while faithfully preserving sharp features. This method utilizes surface fitting and projection techniques. Sharp features are preserved in the surface fitting algorithm by considering an anisotropic neighborhood of each vertex detected by the normal-weighted distance. In addition, to handle the mesh with a high level of noise, we perform a pre-filtering of surface normals prior to the neighborhood searching. A number of experimental results and comparisons demonstrate the excellent performance of our method in preserving important surface geometries while filtering mesh noise. PMID:22328806

  4. A comparative study of feature-salience ranking techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Jones, P; Partridge, D

    2001-07-01

    We assess the relative merits of a number of techniques designed to determine the relative salience of the elements of a feature set with respect to their ability to predict a category outcome-for example, which features of a character contribute most to accurate character recognition. A number of different neural-net-based techniques have been proposed (by us and others) in addition to a standard statistical technique, and we add a technique based on inductively generated decision trees. The salience of the features that compose a proposed set is an important problem to solve efficiently and effectively, not only for neural computing technology but also in order to provide a sound basis for any attempt to design an optimal computational system. The focus of this study is the efficiency and the effectiveness with which high-salience subsets of features can be identified in the context of ill-understood and potentially noisy real-world data. Our two simple approaches, weight clamping using a neural network and feature ranking using a decision tree, generally provide a good, consistent ordering of features. In addition, linear correlation often works well. PMID:11440599

  5. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  6. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach. PMID:26742135

  7. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  8. LBT Distributed Archive: Status and Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Thompson, D.; Grede, G.

    2011-07-01

    After the first release of the LBT Distributed Archive, this successful collaboration is continuing within the LBT corporation. The IA2 (Italian Center for Astronomical Archive) team had updated the LBT DA with new features in order to facilitate user data retrieval while abiding by VO standards. To facilitate the integration of data from any new instruments, we have migrated to a new database, developed new data distribution software, and enhanced features in the LBT User Interface. The DBMS engine has been changed to MySQL. Consequently, the data handling software now uses java thread technology to update and synchronize the main storage archives on Mt. Graham and in Tucson, as well as archives in Trieste and Heidelberg, with all metadata and proprietary data. The LBT UI has been updated with additional features allowing users to search by instrument and some of the more important characteristics of the images. Finally, instead of a simple cone search service over all LBT image data, new instrument specific SIAP and cone search services have been developed. They will be published in the IVOA framework later this fall.

  9. Feature-by-Feature – Evaluating De Novo Sequence Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence assembly (WGSA) problem is among one of the most studied problems in computational biology. Despite the availability of a plethora of tools (i.e., assemblers), all claiming to have solved the WGSA problem, little has been done to systematically compare their accuracy and power. Traditional methods rely on standard metrics and read simulation: while on the one hand, metrics like N50 and number of contigs focus only on size without proportionately emphasizing the information about the correctness of the assembly, comparisons performed on simulated dataset, on the other hand, can be highly biased by the non-realistic assumptions in the underlying read generator. Recently the Feature Response Curve (FRC) method was proposed to assess the overall assembly quality and correctness: FRC transparently captures the trade-offs between contigs' quality against their sizes. Nevertheless, the relationship among the different features and their relative importance remains unknown. In particular, FRC cannot account for the correlation among the different features. We analyzed the correlation among different features in order to better describe their relationships and their importance in gauging assembly quality and correctness. In particular, using multivariate techniques like principal and independent component analysis we were able to estimate the “excess-dimensionality” of the feature space. Moreover, principal component analysis allowed us to show how poorly the acclaimed N50 metric describes the assembly quality. Applying independent component analysis we identified a subset of features that better describe the assemblers performances. We demonstrated that by focusing on a reduced set of highly informative features we can use the FRC curve to better describe and compare the performances of different assemblers. Moreover, as a by-product of our analysis, we discovered how often evaluation based on simulated data, obtained with state of the art

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Collaborative Writing Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong Mei Fung

    2010-01-01

    As part of a research study on collaborative writing, this paper discusses defining and facilitating features that occur during face-to-face collaboration, based on the literature and research. The defining features are mutual interaction, negotiations, conflict, and shared expertise. Facilitating features include affective factors, use of L1,…

  13. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. PMID:21731544

  14. Three-dimensional object recognition using wavelets for feature denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Kasparis, Takis; Schiavone, Guy A.

    1996-06-01

    Recognition of 3D objects independent of size, position, and rotation is an important and difficult subject in computer vision. A 3D feature extraction method referred to as the Open Ball Operator (OBO) is proposed as an approach to solving the 3D object recognition problem. The OBO feature extraction method has the three characteristics of invariance to rotation, scaling, and translation invariance. Additionally, the OBO is capable of distinguishing between convexities and concavities in the surface of 3D object. The OBO also exhibits a good robustness to noise and uncertainty caused by inaccuracies in 3D measurements. A wavelet de- noising method is used for filtering out noise contained in the feature vectors of 3D objects.

  15. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  16. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  17. Lean histogram of oriented gradients features for effective eye detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Riti; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Reliable object detection is very important in computer vision and robotics applications. The histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) is established as one of the most popular hand-crafted features, which along with support vector machine (SVM) classification provides excellent performance for object recognition. We investigate dimensionality deduction on HOG features in combination with SVM classifiers to obtain efficient feature representation and improved classification performance. In addition to lean HOG features, we explore descriptors resulting from dimensionality reduction on histograms of binary descriptors. We consider three-dimensionality reduction techniques: standard principal component analysis, random projections, a computationally efficient linear mapping that is data independent, and locality preserving projections (LPP), which learns the manifold structure of the data. Our methods focus on the application of eye detection and were tested on an eye database created using the BioID and FERET face databases. Our results indicate that manifold learning is beneficial to classification utilizing HOG features. To demonstrate the broader usefulness of lean HOG features for object class recognition, we evaluated our system's classification performance on the CalTech-101 dataset with favorable outcomes.

  18. Development of alexithymic personality features

    PubMed Central

    Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the development of alexithymic personality features. Modern brain imaging technologies provide interesting data on the associations of alexithymia with different aberrations in brain function related to emotion regulation; however, the development of these deviations is poorly understood. A notable amount of research covers the relation of alexithymia to different environmental factors. Many of these associations, for example, with low socio-economic status and general psychopathology in childhood, are well established. However, the retrospective and cross-sectional designs commonly used in these studies, as well as the use of self-report measures, hinder the ability to firmly establish causality. Certain individual developmental factors, such as lagging speech development and congenital cardiac malformations in childhood, have been associated with the development of alexithymia. Regarding the stability of alexithymia, a systematic review of the literature was conducted for this paper. In addition to being characterized as a personality feature in the general population, alexithymia also clearly has a state-like dimension that results in increases and decreases in alexithymic features in conjunction with mental disorder symptoms. An essential question is whether the alexithymic features in adulthood are, in fact, infantile features of a restricted ability to identify and describe emotions that simply persist in individuals through adolescence to adulthood. To firmly establish the roots of alexithymia development, longitudinal studies, particularly in younger populations, are needed. Furthermore, multifaceted study settings are encouraged. PMID:25540724

  19. Genomic features defining exonic variants that modulate splicing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single point mutations at both synonymous and non-synonymous positions within exons can have severe effects on gene function through disruption of splicing. Predicting these mutations in silico purely from the genomic sequence is difficult due to an incomplete understanding of the multiple factors that may be responsible. In addition, little is known about which computational prediction approaches, such as those involving exonic splicing enhancers and exonic splicing silencers, are most informative. Results We assessed the features of single-nucleotide genomic variants verified to cause exon skipping and compared them to a large set of coding SNPs common in the human population, which are likely to have no effect on splicing. Our findings implicate a number of features important for their ability to discriminate splice-affecting variants, including the naturally occurring density of exonic splicing enhancers and exonic splicing silencers of the exon and intronic environment, extensive changes in the number of predicted exonic splicing enhancers and exonic splicing silencers, proximity to the splice junctions and evolutionary constraint of the region surrounding the variant. By extending this approach to additional datasets, we also identified relevant features of variants that cause increased exon inclusion and ectopic splice site activation. Conclusions We identified a number of features that have statistically significant representation among exonic variants that modulate splicing. These analyses highlight putative mechanisms responsible for splicing outcome and emphasize the role of features important for exon definition. We developed a web-tool, Skippy, to score coding variants for these relevant splice-modulating features. PMID:20158892

  20. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  1. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  2. On the 5D Extra-Force according to Basini Capozziello Ponce De Leon Formalism and five important features: Kar Sinha Gravitational Bending of Light, Chung Freese Superluminal Behaviour, Maartens Clarkson Black Strings, experimental measures of Extra Dimensions on board International Space Station (ISS) and the existence of the Particle Z due to a higher dimensional spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loup, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    We use the Conformal Metric as described in Kar Sinha work on Gravitational Bending of Light in a 5 D Spacetime to recompute the equations of the 5 D Force in Basini Capozziello Ponce De Leon Formalism and we arrive at a result that possesses some advantages. The equations of the Extra Force as proposed by Ponce De Leon are now more elegant in Conformal Formalism and many algebraic terms can be simplified or even suppressed. Also we recompute the Kar Sinha Gravitational Bending of Light affected by the presence of the Extra Dimension and analyze the Superluminal Chung Freese Features of this Formalism describing the advantages of the Chung Freese BraneWorld when compared to other Superluminal spacetime metrics (e.g. Warp Drive) and we describe why the Extra Dimension is invisible and how the Extra Dimension could be made visible at least in theory. We also examine the Maartens Clarkson Black Holes in 5 D (Black Strings) coupled to massive Kaluza Klein graviton modes predicted by Extra Dimensions theories and we study experimental detection of Extra Dimensions on-board LIGO and LISA Space Telescopes. We also propose the use of International Space Station (ISS) to measure the additional terms (resulting from the presence of Extra Dimensions) in the Kar Sinha Gravitational Bending of Light in Outer Space to verify if we really lives in a Higher Dimensional Spacetime. Also we demonstrate that Particle Z can only exist if the 5 D spacetime exists.

  3. Attention enhances feature integration.

    PubMed

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  4. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  10. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  11. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  12. Gait recognition based on fusion features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haizhen; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Xi

    2009-10-01

    Gait recognition and analysis is a promising biometrics technology finding applications in numerous sectors of our society. This paper proposes a new fusion algorithm where the static and dynamic features are fused to obtain optimal performance. The new fusion algorithm divides decision situations into two categories. The wavelet moment is used to describe the static features of gait sequence images, and the three widths of the body contour are used to describe the dynamic features. In addition, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for feature transformation of spatial templates is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs an encouraging recognition rate.

  13. System Complexity Reduction via Feature Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Houtao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation transforms a set of system complexity reduction problems to feature selection problems. Three systems are considered: classification based on association rules, network structure learning, and time series classification. Furthermore, two variable importance measures are proposed to reduce the feature selection bias in tree…

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Internal versus external features in triggering the brain waveforms for conjunction and feature faces in recognition.

    PubMed

    Nie, Aiqing; Jiang, Jingguo; Fu, Qiao

    2014-08-20

    Previous research has found that conjunction faces (whose internal features, e.g. eyes, nose, and mouth, and external features, e.g. hairstyle and ears, are from separate studied faces) and feature faces (partial features of these are studied) can produce higher false alarms than both old and new faces (i.e. those that are exactly the same as the studied faces and those that have not been previously presented) in recognition. The event-related potentials (ERPs) that relate to conjunction and feature faces at recognition, however, have not been described as yet; in addition, the contributions of different facial features toward ERPs have not been differentiated. To address these issues, the present study compared the ERPs elicited by old faces, conjunction faces (the internal and the external features were from two studied faces), old internal feature faces (whose internal features were studied), and old external feature faces (whose external features were studied) with those of new faces separately. The results showed that old faces not only elicited an early familiarity-related FN400, but a more anterior distributed late old/new effect that reflected recollection. Conjunction faces evoked similar late brain waveforms as old internal feature faces, but not to old external feature faces. These results suggest that, at recognition, old faces hold higher familiarity than compound faces in the profiles of ERPs and internal facial features are more crucial than external ones in triggering the brain waveforms that are characterized as reflecting the result of familiarity. PMID:25003951

  17. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Vessel Classification in Cosmo-Skymed SAR Data Using Hierarchical Feature Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makedonas, A.; Theoharatos, C.; Tsagaris, V.; Anastasopoulos, V.; Costicoglou, S.

    2015-04-01

    SAR based ship detection and classification are important elements of maritime monitoring applications. Recently, high-resolution SAR data have opened new possibilities to researchers for achieving improved classification results. In this work, a hierarchical vessel classification procedure is presented based on a robust feature extraction and selection scheme that utilizes scale, shape and texture features in a hierarchical way. Initially, different types of feature extraction algorithms are implemented in order to form the utilized feature pool, able to represent the structure, material, orientation and other vessel type characteristics. A two-stage hierarchical feature selection algorithm is utilized next in order to be able to discriminate effectively civilian vessels into three distinct types, in COSMO-SkyMed SAR images: cargos, small ships and tankers. In our analysis, scale and shape features are utilized in order to discriminate smaller types of vessels present in the available SAR data, or shape specific vessels. Then, the most informative texture and intensity features are incorporated in order to be able to better distinguish the civilian types with high accuracy. A feature selection procedure that utilizes heuristic measures based on features' statistical characteristics, followed by an exhaustive research with feature sets formed by the most qualified features is carried out, in order to discriminate the most appropriate combination of features for the final classification. In our analysis, five COSMO-SkyMed SAR data with 2.2m x 2.2m resolution were used to analyse the detailed characteristics of these types of ships. A total of 111 ships with available AIS data were used in the classification process. The experimental results show that this method has good performance in ship classification, with an overall accuracy reaching 83%. Further investigation of additional features and proper feature selection is currently in progress.

  19. New features in MEDM.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K., Jr.

    1999-04-13

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  2. Ensemble methods with simple features for document zone classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Agam, Gady; Xie, Bingqing

    2012-01-01

    Document layout analysis is of fundamental importance for document image understanding and information retrieval. It requires the identification of blocks extracted from a document image via features extraction and block classification. In this paper, we focus on the classification of the extracted blocks into five classes: text (machine printed), handwriting, graphics, images, and noise. We propose a new set of features for efficient classifications of these blocks. We present a comparative evaluation of three ensemble based classification algorithms (boosting, bagging, and combined model trees) in addition to other known learning algorithms. Experimental results are demonstrated for a set of 36503 zones extracted from 416 document images which were randomly selected from the tobacco legacy document collection. The results obtained verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed set of features in comparison to the commonly used Ocropus recognition features. When used in conjunction with the Ocropus feature set, we further improve the performance of the block classification system to obtain a classification accuracy of 99.21%.

  3. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  4. Evaluation of textural features for multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ulya; Can, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem; Yalabik, Nese

    2011-11-01

    Remote sensing is a field that has wide use, leading to the fact that it has a great importance. Therefore performance of selected features plays a great role. In order to gain some perspective on useful textural features, we have brought together state-of-art textural features in recent literature, yet to be applied in remote sensing field, as well as presenting a comparison with traditional ones. Therefore we selected most commonly used textural features in remote sensing that are grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor features. Other selected features are local binary patterns (LBP), edge orientation features extracted after applying steerable filter, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features. Color histogram feature is also used and compared. Since most of these features are histogram-based, we have compared performance of bin-by-bin comparison with a histogram comparison method named as diffusion distance method. During obtaining performance of each feature, k-nearest neighbor classification method (k-NN) is applied.

  5. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  6. Volcanic features of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Features in Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Larry W.; Harris, Craig C.; Simmons, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    A systematic, uniform search of Voyage 2 photopolarimeter system (PSS) data set for all significant features of Saturn's rings is described. On August 25, 1981, the PSS observed the occultation of the star Delta Scorpii by the rings of Saturn, and the timing of the data taking was rapid enough that the spatial resolution in the radial direction in the ring plane was better than 100 m. Tabular information and figures for 216 significant features that were found are presented.

  8. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  9. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  10. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  11. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  15. Graphing Important People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

  16. Endemicity of chytridiomycosis features pathogen overdispersion.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Laura F; Phillott, Andrea D; Scheele, Benjamin C; Berger, Lee; Cashins, Scott D; Bell, Sara C; Puschendorf, Robert; Skerratt, Lee F

    2016-05-01

    Pathogens can be critical drivers of the abundance and distribution of wild animal populations. The presence of an overdispersed pathogen load distribution between hosts (where few hosts harbour heavy parasite burdens and light infections are common) can have an important stabilizing effect on host-pathogen dynamics where infection intensity determines pathogenicity. This may potentially lead to endemicity of an introduced pathogen rather than extirpation of the host and/or pathogen. Overdispersed pathogen load distributions have rarely been considered in wild animal populations as an important component of the infection dynamics of microparasites such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Here we examined the abundance, distribution and transmission of the model fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, cause of amphibian chytridiomycosis) between wild-caught Litoria rheocola (common mist frogs) to investigate the effects of an overdispersed pathogen load distribution on the host population in the wild. We quantified host survival, infection incidence and recovery probabilities relative to infectious burden, and compared the results of models where pathogen overdispersion either was or was not considered an important feature of host-pathogen dynamics. We found the distribution of Bd load between hosts to be highly overdispersed. We found that host survival was related to infection burden and that accounting for pathogen overdispersion allowed us to better understand infection dynamics and their implications for disease control. In addition, we found that the pattern of host infections and recoveries varied markedly with season whereby (i) infections established more in winter, consistent with temperature-dependent effects on fungal growth, and (ii) recoveries (loss of infection) occurred frequently in the field throughout the year but were less likely in winter. Our results suggest that pathogen overdispersion is an important feature of endemic

  17. Budget constrained non-monotonic feature selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiqin; Xu, Zenglin; Lyu, Michael R; King, Irwin

    2015-11-01

    Feature selection is an important problem in machine learning and data mining. We consider the problem of selecting features under the budget constraint on the feature subset size. Traditional feature selection methods suffer from the "monotonic" property. That is, if a feature is selected when the number of specified features is set, it will always be chosen when the number of specified feature is larger than the previous setting. This sacrifices the effectiveness of the non-monotonic feature selection methods. Hence, in this paper, we develop an algorithm for non-monotonic feature selection that approximates the related combinatorial optimization problem by a Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) problem. We justify the performance guarantee for the derived solution when compared to the global optimal solution for the related combinatorial optimization problem. Finally, we conduct a series of empirical evaluation on both synthetic and real-world benchmark datasets for the classification and regression tasks to demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed framework compared with the baseline feature selection approaches. PMID:26433049

  18. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  19. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  20. 48 CFR 452.236-70 - Additive or Deductive Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additive or Deductive... Additive or Deductive Items. As prescribed in 436.205, insert the following provision: Additive or... listed in the schedule) those additive or deductive bid items providing the most features of the...

  1. 48 CFR 452.236-70 - Additive or Deductive Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additive or Deductive... Additive or Deductive Items. As prescribed in 436.205, insert the following provision: Additive or... listed in the schedule) those additive or deductive bid items providing the most features of the...

  2. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  3. Feature Selection for Wheat Yield Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruß, Georg; Kruse, Rudolf

    Carrying out effective and sustainable agriculture has become an important issue in recent years. Agricultural production has to keep up with an everincreasing population by taking advantage of a field’s heterogeneity. Nowadays, modern technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and a multitude of developed sensors enable farmers to better measure their fields’ heterogeneities. For this small-scale, precise treatment the term precision agriculture has been coined. However, the large amounts of data that are (literally) harvested during the growing season have to be analysed. In particular, the farmer is interested in knowing whether a newly developed heterogeneity sensor is potentially advantageous or not. Since the sensor data are readily available, this issue should be seen from an artificial intelligence perspective. There it can be treated as a feature selection problem. The additional task of yield prediction can be treated as a multi-dimensional regression problem. This article aims to present an approach towards solving these two practically important problems using artificial intelligence and data mining ideas and methodologies.

  4. Scan registration using planar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Brumana, R.; Scaioni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Point cloud acquisition by using laser scanners provides an efficient way for 3D as-built modelling of indoor/outdoor urban environments. In the case of large structures, multiple scans may be required to cover the entire scene and registration is needed to merge them together. In general, the identification of corresponding geometric features among a series of scans can be used to compute the 3D rigid-body transformation useful for the registration of each scan into the reference system of the final point cloud. Different automatic or semi-automatic methods have been developed to this purpose. Several solutions based on artificial targets are available, which however may not be suitable in any situations. Methods based on surface matching (like ICP and LS3D) can be applied if the scans to align have a proper geometry and surface texture. In the case of urban and architectural scenes that present the prevalence of a few basic geometric shapes ("Legoland" scenes) the availability of many planar features is exploited here for registration. The presented technique does not require artificial targets to be added to the scanned scene. In addition, unlike other surface-based techniques (like ICP) the planar feature-based registration technique is not limited to work in a pairwise manner but it can handle the simultaneous alignment of multiple scans. Finally, some applications are presented and discussed to show how this technique can achieve accuracy comparable to a consolidated registration method.

  5. Qualification of security printing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Aronoff, Jason S.; Arnabat, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the statistical and hardware processes involved in qualifying two related printing features for their deployment in product (e.g. document and package) security. The first is a multi-colored tiling feature that can also be combined with microtext to provide additional forms of security protection. The color information is authenticated automatically with a variety of handheld, desktop and production scanners. The microtext is authenticated either following magnification or manually by a field inspector. The second security feature can also be tile-based. It involves the use of two inks that provide the same visual color, but differ in their transparency to infrared (IR) wavelengths. One of the inks is effectively transparent to IR wavelengths, allowing emitted IR light to pass through. The other ink is effectively opaque to IR wavelengths. These inks allow the printing of a seemingly uniform, or spot, color over a (truly) uniform IR emitting ink layer. The combination converts a uniform covert ink and a spot color to a variable data region capable of encoding identification sequences with high density. Also, it allows the extension of variable data printing for security to ostensibly static printed regions, affording greater security protection while meeting branding and marketing specifications.

  6. Three featured plenary sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

  7. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  8. Feature selection for splice site prediction: A new method using EDA-based feature ranking

    PubMed Central

    Saeys, Yvan; Degroeve, Sven; Aeyels, Dirk; Rouzé, Pierre; Van de Peer, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Background The identification of relevant biological features in large and complex datasets is an important step towards gaining insight in the processes underlying the data. Other advantages of feature selection include the ability of the classification system to attain good or even better solutions using a restricted subset of features, and a faster classification. Thus, robust methods for fast feature selection are of key importance in extracting knowledge from complex biological data. Results In this paper we present a novel method for feature subset selection applied to splice site prediction, based on estimation of distribution algorithms, a more general framework of genetic algorithms. From the estimated distribution of the algorithm, a feature ranking is derived. Afterwards this ranking is used to iteratively discard features. We apply this technique to the problem of splice site prediction, and show how it can be used to gain insight into the underlying biological process of splicing. Conclusion We show that this technique proves to be more robust than the traditional use of estimation of distribution algorithms for feature selection: instead of returning a single best subset of features (as they normally do) this method provides a dynamical view of the feature selection process, like the traditional sequential wrapper methods. However, the method is faster than the traditional techniques, and scales better to datasets described by a large number of features. PMID:15154966

  9. Escalator design features evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

  10. Some nanostructural features in ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wen, S L

    1987-12-01

    Nanostructural features in some ceramics have been discussed and reviewed. Based on our research results and recent published investigations, many topics, such as grain, grain boundary, interface film, grain boundary engineering, microcrack, microdomain, nanodomain, domain boundary, and phase transformation, etc., have been dealt with; and many materials, such as Si3N4, beta''-Al2O3, MgO, SiC, (Hg, Cd) Te, BNN, ZrO2, PLZT, CdSe, Ca10(PO4)6, (OH)2, etc., have been involved. The results are important to understand the relation between the structure and property of materials and to improve the materials' technology. PMID:3505597

  11. Wildfire smoke detection using temporospatial features and random forest classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Byoungchul; Kwak, Joon-Young; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2012-01-01

    We propose a wildfire smoke detection algorithm that uses temporospatial visual features and an ensemble of decision trees and random forest classifiers. In general, wildfire smoke detection is particularly important for early warning systems because smoke is usually generated before flames; in addition, smoke can be detected from a long distance owing to its diffusion characteristics. In order to detect wildfire smoke using a video camera, temporospatial characteristics such as color, wavelet coefficients, motion orientation, and a histogram of oriented gradients are extracted from the preceding 100 corresponding frames and the current keyframe. Two RFs are then trained using independent temporal and spatial feature vectors. Finally, a candidate block is declared as a smoke block if the average probability of two RFs in a smoke class is maximum. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to various wildfire-smoke and smoke-colored videos and performed better than other related algorithms.

  12. Walker-Warburg Syndrome: A Case with multiple uncommon features

    PubMed Central

    Bedri, Hibba A.; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Jadallah, Yosif M.

    2011-01-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disorder, caused by defective glycosylation of α-dystroglycan that is important for muscle integrity and neuronal migration. Mutations in six genes involved in the glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, FCMD, FKRP and LARGE) have been identified in WWS patients, and others remain under study. Prenatal diagnosis may be possible by means of prenatal ultrasonography, or magnetic resonance imaging. We report a patient demonstrating the typical clinical features of lissencephaly, congenital muscular dystrophy and ocular abnormalities, in addition to other features including hydrocephalus, occipital encephalocele, agenesis of the corpus collosum, microphthalmia, ventricular septal defect, and rocker bottom feet deformity.

  13. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  16. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  17. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  18. Feature Selection and Pedestrian Detection Based on Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony. PMID:26295480

  19. Feature Selection and Pedestrian Detection Based on Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony. PMID:26295480

  20. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  1. Feature- Spring 2010

    Cancer.gov

    NCI CAM News is a twice yearly newsletter produced by OCCAM to bring you information on the National Cancer Institute's latest CAM activities. Featured in the newsletter are: Highlights of NCI-sponsored CAM research Resources for researchers such as funding opportunities and grant writing workshops Upcoming meetings and lectures

  2. Multiple importance sampling for PET.

    PubMed

    Szirmay-Kalos, Laszló; Magdics, Milán; Tóth, Balázs

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes the application of multiple importance sampling in fully 3-D positron emission tomography to speed up the iterative reconstruction process. The proposed method combines the results of lines of responses (LOR) driven and voxel driven projections keeping their advantages, like importance sampling, performance and parallel execution on graphics processing units. Voxel driven methods can focus on point like features while LOR driven approaches are efficient in reconstructing homogeneous regions. The theoretical basis of the combination is the application of the mixture of the samples generated by the individual importance sampling methods, emphasizing a particular method where it is better than others. The proposed algorithms are built into the Tera-tomo system. PMID:24710165

  3. Robust feature detection using sonar sensors for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jinwoo; Ahn, Sunghwan; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2005-12-01

    Sonar sensor is an attractive tool for the SLAM of mobile robot because of their economic aspects. This cheap sensor gives relatively accurate range readings if disregarding angular uncertainty and specular reflections. However, these defects make feature detection difficult for the most part of the SLAM. This paper proposed a robust sonar feature detection algorithm. This algorithm gives feature detection methods for both point features and line features. The point feature detection method was based on the TBF scheme. Moreover, three additional processes improved the performance of feature detection as follows; 1) stable intersections, 2) efficient sliding window update and 3) removal of the false point features on the wall. The line feature detection method was based on the basic property of adjacent sonar sensors. Along the line feature, three adjacent sonar sensors gave similar range readings. Using this sensor property, it proposed a novel algorithm for line feature detection, which is simple and the feature can be obtained by using only current sensor data. The proposed feature detection algorithm gives a good solution for the SLAM of mobile robots because it gives accurate feature information for both the point and line features even with sensor errors. Furthermore, a sufficient number of features are available to correct mobile robot pose. Experimental results for point feature and line feature detection demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm in a home-like environment.

  4. The Importance of Internal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2015-02-10

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  5. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  6. CMB cold spot from inflationary feature scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Yin-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from WMAP and Planck maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at ℓ ∼ 20.

  7. Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David

    1993-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data are investigated. Developments with regard to sensors for Earth observation are moving in the direction of providing much higher dimensional multispectral imagery than is now possible. In analyzing such high dimensional data, processing time becomes an important factor. With large increases in dimensionality and the number of classes, processing time will increase significantly. To address this problem, a multistage classification scheme is proposed which reduces the processing time substantially by eliminating unlikely classes from further consideration at each stage. Several truncation criteria are developed and the relationship between thresholds and the error caused by the truncation is investigated. Next an approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. It is shown that all the features needed for classification can be extracted from decision boundaries. A characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is introduced. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: it predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal means or equal covariances as some previous algorithms do. In addition, the decision boundary feature extraction algorithm can be used both for parametric and non-parametric classifiers. Finally, some problems encountered in analyzing high dimensional data are studied and possible solutions are proposed. First, the increased importance of the second order statistics in analyzing high dimensional data is recognized

  8. Biosafety Features of Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Schambach, Axel; Zychlinski, Daniela; Ehrnstroem, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decades, lentiviral vectors have evolved as a benchmark tool for stable gene transfer into cells with a high replicative potential. Their relatively flexible genome and ability to transduce many forms of nondividing cells, combined with the potential for cell-specific pseudotyping, provides a rich resource for numerous applications in experimental platforms and therapeutic settings. Here, we give an overview of important biosafety features of lentiviral vectors, with detailed discussion of (i) the principles of the lentiviral split-genome design used for the construction of packaging cells; (ii) the relevance of modifications introduced into the lentiviral long terminal repeat (deletion of enhancer/promoter sequences and introduction of insulators); (iii) the basic features of mRNA processing, including the Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE) interaction and the modifications of the 3′ untranslated region of lentiviral vectors with various post-transcriptional regulatory elements affecting transcriptional termination, polyadenylation, and differentiation-specific degradation of mRNA; and (iv) the characteristic integration pattern with the associated risk of transcriptional interference with cellular genes. We conclude with considerations regarding the importance of cell targeting via envelope modifications. Along this course, we address canonical biosafety issues encountered with any type of viral vector: the risks of shedding, mobilization, germline transmission, immunogenicity, and insertional mutagenesis. PMID:23311447

  9. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life's quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life's quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  10. Landscape Features Shape Genetic Structure in Threatened Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that landscape features can strongly affect spatial patterns of gene flow and genetic variation. Understanding landscape effects on genetic variation is important in conservation for defining management units and understanding movement patterns. The landscape may have little effect on gene flow, however, in highly mobile species such as birds. We tested for genetic breaks associated with landscape features in the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), a threatened subspecies associated with old forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and extreme southwestern Canada. We found little evidence for distinct genetic breaks in northern spotted owls using a large microsatellite dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range genotyped at 10 loci). Nonetheless, dry low-elevation valleys and the Cascade and Olympic Mountains restrict gene flow, while the Oregon Coast Range facilitates it. The wide Columbia River is not a barrier to gene flow. In addition, inter-individual genetic distance and latitude were negatively related, likely reflecting northward colonization following Pleistocene glacial recession. Our study shows that landscape features may play an important role in shaping patterns of genetic variation in highly vagile taxa such as birds.

  11. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  12. Unidentified Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, Christine

    2015-03-01

    When referring to unidentified infrared emission features, one has in mind the series of aromatic IR bands (AIBs) between 3.3 and 15 μm that are observed in emission in many environments where UV photons irradiate interstellar matter. These bands are now used by astronomers to classify objects and characterize local physical conditions. However, a deep analysis cannot proceed without understanding the properties of the band carriers. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are attractive candidates but interstellar species are still poorly characterized. Various studies emphasize the need for tackling the link between molecular aromatic species, aliphatic material and very small carbonaceous grains. Other unidentified emission features such as the 6.9, 21 and 30 μm bands could be involved in the evolutionary scenario.

  13. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  14. North Polar Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows banded terrain of the north polar region of Mars. The bands are exposures of layered material, possibly composed of dust and ice. The dark, rounded to elliptical mounds in this image might be the locations of ancient sand dunes that were completely buried in the north polar layered material. In more recent times, these mounds have been exhumed from within the layered material. Alternatively, the dark features are not ancient, exhumed dunes, but perhaps the remnants of a dark layer of material that once covered the entire area shown in the image. These features are located near 79.9oN, 31.4oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. Generalized feature extraction using expansion matching.

    PubMed

    Nandy, D; Ben-Arie, J

    1999-01-01

    A novel generalized feature extraction method based on the expansion matching (EXM) method and on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) is presented. The method provides an efficient way to locate complex features of interest like corners and junctions with reduced number of filtering operations. The EXM method is used to design optimal detectors for a set of model elementary features. The KL representation of these model EXM detectors is used to filter the image and detect candidate interest points from the energy peaks of the eigen coefficients. The KL coefficients at these candidate points are then used to efficiently reconstruct the response and differentiate real junctions and corners from arbitrary features in the image. The method is robust to additive noise and is able to successfully extract, classify, and find the myriad compositions of corner and junction features formed by combinations of two or more edges or lines. This method differs from previous works in several aspects. First, it treats the features not as distinct entities, but as combinations of elementary features. Second, it employs an optimal set of elementary feature detectors based on the EM approach. Third, the method incorporates a significant reduction in computational complexity by representing a large set of EXM filters by a relatively small number of eigen filters derived by the KL transform of the basic EXM filter set. This is a novel application of the KL transform, which is usually employed to represent signals and not impulse responses as in our present work. PMID:18262862

  16. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  17. Features in visual search combine linearly

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Single features such as line orientation and length are known to guide visual search, but relatively little is known about how multiple features combine in search. To address this question, we investigated how search for targets differing in multiple features (intensity, length, orientation) from the distracters is related to searches for targets differing in each of the individual features. We tested race models (based on reaction times) and co-activation models (based on reciprocal of reaction times) for their ability to predict multiple feature searches. Multiple feature searches were best accounted for by a co-activation model in which feature information combined linearly (r = 0.95). This result agrees with the classic finding that these features are separable i.e., subjective dissimilarity ratings sum linearly. We then replicated the classical finding that the length and width of a rectangle are integral features—in other words, they combine nonlinearly in visual search. However, to our surprise, upon including aspect ratio as an additional feature, length and width combined linearly and this model outperformed all other models. Thus, length and width of a rectangle became separable when considered together with aspect ratio. This finding predicts that searches involving shapes with identical aspect ratio should be more difficult than searches where shapes differ in aspect ratio. We confirmed this prediction on a variety of shapes. We conclude that features in visual search co-activate linearly and demonstrate for the first time that aspect ratio is a novel feature that guides visual search. PMID:24715328

  18. Isidis Planitia Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    26 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the most typical features of Isidis Planitia at full (1.5 meters -- 5 feet -- per pixel) resolution. The typical features are: (1) light-toned, ripple-like dunes and (2) mounds with summit pits. The dunes are formed by wind. The double-cone feature in the lower right quarter of the image is similar to many mounds and chains of mounds or cones found all across Isidis Planitia. These were seen at lower resolution in Viking orbiter images in the 1970s and were generally considered to be either small volcanoes or ice-cored mounds known as pingoes. With high resolution MOC images, it became apparent that many of these mounds may simply be the remnants of crater and pit chain floors, elevated above the surrounding plains as the layers of rock into which they formed were stripped away. Like much of Mars, there are more questions than answers. This image is located near 8.6oN, 268.2oW, and covers an area about 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  19. Ceraunius Tholus Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 December 2004 Today's Mars Picture of the Day features two images. The top picture is a mosaic of Viking orbiter images acquired in the late 1970s. The lower image is a high resolution picture from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). The Viking mosaic shows Ceraunius Tholus, a volcano in the Tharsis region that was first viewed in images obtained by Mariner 9 in 1972. Several channels run down the slope of the Ceraunius Tholus volcano. The deepest of those channels ends in an elliptical crater. The elliptical crater was formed by a very oblique meteor impact. Where the channel meets the floor of the elliptical crater, there is a small mound of material. Presumably, this material was deposited in the elliptical crater after running down through the channel on the volcano's northwest flank.

    Near the top/center of the mound in the elliptical crater is a small, circular depression. Some have speculated for years that this depression is related to volcanism, others thought that it may be an impact crater. The MGS MOC image (lower of the two images) shows that crater. It is not the source of lava flows or any other volcanic features. Most likely, it is an old impact crater. This feature is located near 25.2oN, 97.7oW. The MOC image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. Visual Constraints for the Perception of Quantitative Depth from Temporal Interocular Unmatched Features

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available. PMID:20493899

  1. 40 CFR 720.57 - Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports. 720.57 Section 720.57... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Notice Form § 720.57 Imports. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the... or she intends to import for a commercial purpose. In addition, each importer must comply with...

  2. 40 CFR 720.57 - Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Imports. 720.57 Section 720.57... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Notice Form § 720.57 Imports. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the... or she intends to import for a commercial purpose. In addition, each importer must comply with...

  3. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  4. Python import replacement

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  5. SENT: semantic features in text

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es. PMID:19458159

  6. Features of MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L. J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R. A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H. G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.; Waters, L.; Wilcox, T.; Zukaitis, T.

    2014-06-01

    MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory's X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. These new features are summarized in this document. Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers.

  7. qFeature

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-14

    This package contains statistical routines for extracting features from multivariate time-series data which can then be used for subsequent multivariate statistical analysis to identify patterns and anomalous behavior. It calculates local linear or quadratic regression model fits to moving windows for each series and then summarizes the model coefficients across user-defined time intervals for each series. These methods are domain agnostic—but they have been successfully applied to a variety of domains, including commercial aviation and electric power grid data.

  8. qFeature

    2015-09-14

    This package contains statistical routines for extracting features from multivariate time-series data which can then be used for subsequent multivariate statistical analysis to identify patterns and anomalous behavior. It calculates local linear or quadratic regression model fits to moving windows for each series and then summarizes the model coefficients across user-defined time intervals for each series. These methods are domain agnostic—but they have been successfully applied to a variety of domains, including commercial aviation andmore » electric power grid data.« less

  9. Epignathus with Fetiform Features

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil Y; Shrikrishna, U; Shetty, Jayaprakash; Sitaram, Aishwarya

    2011-01-01

    Epignathus is an extremely rare oropharyngeal teratoma that commonly arises from the palate, leading to a high mortality (80–100%) due to airway obstruction in the neonatal period. We present a case of epignathus immature teratoma with fetiform features, originating from basisphenoid in a 28-week preterm male baby, who succumbed to death immediately after birth. Since epignathus is a life-threatening condition at the time of delivery, a prenatal diagnosis is essential to coordinate the treatment and appropriate management by securing the airway, either by endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy followed by complete resection of the tumor. PMID:21701667

  10. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  11. Community Perceptions of Specific Skin Features of Possible Melanoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baade, Peter D.; Balanda, Kevin P.; Stanton, Warren R.; Lowe, John B.; Del Mar, Chris B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Melanoma can be curable if detected early. One component of detecting melanoma is an awareness of the important features of the disease. It is currently not clear which features the community view as indicative of melanoma. Objective: To investigate which features of the skin members of an urban community believe may indicate skin…

  12. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  13. Local Feature Selection for Data Classification.

    PubMed

    Armanfard, Narges; Reilly, James P; Komeili, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Typical feature selection methods choose an optimal global feature subset that is applied over all regions of the sample space. In contrast, in this paper we propose a novel localized feature selection (LFS) approach whereby each region of the sample space is associated with its own distinct optimized feature set, which may vary both in membership and size across the sample space. This allows the feature set to optimally adapt to local variations in the sample space. An associated method for measuring the similarities of a query datum to each of the respective classes is also proposed. The proposed method makes no assumptions about the underlying structure of the samples; hence the method is insensitive to the distribution of the data over the sample space. The method is efficiently formulated as a linear programming optimization problem. Furthermore, we demonstrate the method is robust against the over-fitting problem. Experimental results on eleven synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the viability of the formulation and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition we show several examples where localized feature selection produces better results than a global feature selection method. PMID:26390448

  14. Neuroimaging features of tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sobri, M; Merican, J S; Nordiyana, M; Valarmathi, S; Ai-Edrus, S A

    2006-03-01

    Tuberculous meningitis leads to a high mortality rate. However, it responds well to chemotherapy if the treatment is started early. Neuroimaging is one of the most important initial investigations. There were 42 patients diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis in Kuala Lumpur Hospital based on clinical criteria, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and response to anti-tuberculous treatment over a 7 year period. Relevant information was obtained from patients' medical case notes and neuroimaging findings were evaluated. Male to female ratio was 3:1. The three major ethnics and the immigrant groups in Malaysia were represented in this study. The majority of the cases involved the Malays followed by immigrants, Chinese and Indians. The patients' age ranged from 18 to 62 years old with the mean age of 34.4 years. There were 95.2% (n = 40) of patients who presented with various neuroimaging abnormalities and only 2 (4.8%) patients had normal neuroimaging findings. Hydrocephalus and meningeal enhancement were the two commonest neuroimaging features. Other features include infarction, enhancing lesion, tuberculoma, abcess, oedema and calcification. Contrasted CT scan is an adequate neuroimaging tool to unmask abnormal findings in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:16708732

  15. Clinical and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterisation of Children with Developmental Delay and Dysmorphic Features

    PubMed Central

    BERTOK, Sara; ŽERJAV TANŠEK, Mojca; KOTNIK, Primož; BATTELINO, Tadej; VOLK, Marija; PECILE, Vanna; CLEVA, Lisa; GASPARINI, Paolo; KOVAČ, Jernej; HOVNIK, Tinka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Developmental delay and dysmorphic features affect 1 – 3 % of paediatric population. In the last few years molecular cytogenetic high resolution techniques (comparative genomic hybridization arrays and single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays) have been proven to be a first-tier choice for clinical diagnostics of developmental delay and dysmorphic features. Methods and results In the present article we describe the clinical advantages of molecular cytogenetic approach (comparative genomic hybridization arrays and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays) in the diagnostic procedure of two children with developmental delay, dysmorphic features and additional morphological phenotypes. Additionally, we demonstrate the necessity of fluorescent in situ hybridization utilisation to identify the localisation and underlying mechanism of detected chromosomal rearrangement. Conclusions Two types of chromosomal abnormalities were identified and confirmed using different molecular genetic approaches. Comparative genomic hybridization arrays and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays are hereby presented as important methods to identify chromosomal imbalances in patients with developmental delay and dysmorphic features. We emphasize the importance of molecular genetic testing in patients’ parents for the demonstration of the origin and clinical importance of the aberrations prior determined in the patients. The results obtained using molecular cytogenetic high resolution techniques methods are the cornerstone for proper genetic counselling to the affected families.

  16. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge. PMID:25861377

  17. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  18. Cell nuclear features for classification from fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynen, Susanne; Hunter, Edward; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2000-04-01

    In clinical cytology, nuclear features play an important role in cell and tissue classification. To increase efficiency and decrease subjectivity of cytological results, automation of the analytic process has been proposed and discussed by many authors. This automation can be achieved by estimating the probability of occurrence of a certain class given particular features of a microscope specimen. In this paper, feature sets that might be used as inputs for mathematical cytological classification algorithms are reviewer. The primary goal was to determine the important properties of these features sets, i.e., are there mathematically efficient features that provide a more or less compete description of the cell. Under what conditions will these feature then result in optimal classification of the cells using quantitative fluorescence staining. And how would these mathematical features relate to conventional features that a human observer understands. Example human observer features are size, shape, and chromaticity o the cell nucleus while example mathematical features are image moments. If the cell image can be completely reconstructed from the feature set, then it should be possible to derive the conventional features used by human observers from the mathematical feature set for presentation to clinicians. Finally, the suitability of different mathematical decision making algorithms like probabilistic reasoning, clustering or neural networks are also briefly evaluated in the context of a mathematically complete feature set.

  19. Optical security features by using information carrier digital screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Ferenc

    2002-04-01

    Jura is an Austrian-Hungarian company providing security printers with proprietary security printing design software, complete security printing pre=press systems (HW + SW), ultrahigh resolution image setters developed for security printing market, security features, developed by Jura for security printing in general, proprietary security features, destined for document personalization systems. In addition to supply such products Jura is providing its customers with full technical support, as integration, installation, training, hot-line remote and/or on-site support, service and maintenance worldwide. Research and development have always been in the focus of Jura's activity. Development and testing of new software, new security features are the most important parts of the work. Jura was the first on the world to release her Engraver Software enabling artist-engravers to create engraving-styled portraits digitally. This development, incompatibility with Jura's security design software package, enabled a full digital workflow for banknote origination. Jura made a lot of remarkable steps to develop security features also for Document Personalization. This development links the personal data with the photography of the document' holder by encoding personal data to the photography, invisibly for naked human eye, however, decodable by an appropriate decoding device. This feature exists also in machine-readable digital version. Experts of Jura started the research and development on digital screening 15 years ago for commercial printing and 10 years ago on special screens for security printing technologies. In very early stage of this development, when knowledge of creating each screen-dot individually in shape, form and position was acquired, the idea was born to use the screen dots as secondary data holder for encoded messages.

  20. A systematic comparison of feature space effects on disease classifier performance for phenotype identification of five diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotfila, Christopher; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    Automated phenotype identification plays a critical role in cohort selection and bioinformatics data mining. Natural Language Processing (NLP)-informed classification techniques can robustly identify phenotypes in unstructured medical notes. In this paper, we systematically assess the effect of naive, lexically normalized, and semantic feature spaces on classifier performance for obesity, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CAD), hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. We train support vector machines (SVMs) using individual feature spaces as well as combinations of these feature spaces on two small training corpora (730 and 790 documents) and a combined (1520 documents) training corpus. We assess the importance of feature spaces and training data size on SVM model performance. We show that inclusion of semantically-informed features does not statistically improve performance for these models. The addition of training data has weak effects of mixed statistical significance across disease classes suggesting larger corpora are not necessary to achieve relatively high performance with these models. PMID:26241355

  1. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Cristhian; Barrera, Fernando; Lumbreras, Felipe; Sappa, Angel D.; Toledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH) descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  2. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  3. Wood Recognition Using Image Texture Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang-jun; Zhang, Guang-qun; Qi, Heng-nian

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy. PMID:24146821

  4. Gender recognition based on face geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Guo, Zhaoli; Cai, Chao

    2013-10-01

    Automatic gender recognition based on face images plays an important role in computer vision and machine vision. In this paper, a novel and simple gender recognition method based on face geometric features is proposed. The method is divided in three steps. Firstly, Pre-processing step provides standard face images for feature extraction. Secondly, Active Shape Model (ASM) is used to extract geometric features in frontal face images. Thirdly, Adaboost classifier is chosen to separate the two classes (male and female). We tested it on 2570 pictures (1420 males and 1150 females) downloaded from the internet, and encouraging results were acquired. The comparison of the proposed geometric feature based method and the full facial image based method demonstrats its superiority.

  5. A new approach to modeling the influence of image features on fixation selection in scenes

    PubMed Central

    Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Which image characteristics predict where people fixate when memorizing natural images? To answer this question, we introduce a new analysis approach that combines a novel scene-patch analysis with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Our method allows for (1) directly describing the relationship between continuous feature value and fixation probability, and (2) assessing each feature's unique contribution to fixation selection. To demonstrate this method, we estimated the relative contribution of various image features to fixation selection: luminance and luminance contrast (low-level features); edge density (a mid-level feature); visual clutter and image segmentation to approximate local object density in the scene (higher-level features). An additional predictor captured the central bias of fixation. The GLMM results revealed that edge density, clutter, and the number of homogenous segments in a patch can independently predict whether image patches are fixated or not. Importantly, neither luminance nor contrast had an independent effect above and beyond what could be accounted for by the other predictors. Since the parcellation of the scene and the selection of features can be tailored to the specific research question, our approach allows for assessing the interplay of various factors relevant for fixation selection in scenes in a powerful and flexible manner. PMID:25752239

  6. A new approach to modeling the influence of image features on fixation selection in scenes.

    PubMed

    Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Which image characteristics predict where people fixate when memorizing natural images? To answer this question, we introduce a new analysis approach that combines a novel scene-patch analysis with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Our method allows for (1) directly describing the relationship between continuous feature value and fixation probability, and (2) assessing each feature's unique contribution to fixation selection. To demonstrate this method, we estimated the relative contribution of various image features to fixation selection: luminance and luminance contrast (low-level features); edge density (a mid-level feature); visual clutter and image segmentation to approximate local object density in the scene (higher-level features). An additional predictor captured the central bias of fixation. The GLMM results revealed that edge density, clutter, and the number of homogenous segments in a patch can independently predict whether image patches are fixated or not. Importantly, neither luminance nor contrast had an independent effect above and beyond what could be accounted for by the other predictors. Since the parcellation of the scene and the selection of features can be tailored to the specific research question, our approach allows for assessing the interplay of various factors relevant for fixation selection in scenes in a powerful and flexible manner. PMID:25752239

  7. Emergy and Its Importance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy is an important quantity needed for public policy analysis that is based on a complex methodology. The intent of this Environmental Research Brief is to define emergy and its importance in a manner that is accessible to everyone with at least a high school education. Emer...

  8. Statistics over features: EEG signals analysis.

    PubMed

    Derya Ubeyli, Elif

    2009-08-01

    This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the features representing the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of electroencephalographic changes. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signals recorded from healthy volunteers with eyes open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures) were classified. The selected Lyapunov exponents, wavelet coefficients and the power levels of power spectral density (PSD) values obtained by eigenvector methods of the EEG signals were used as inputs of the MLPNN trained with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The classification results confirmed that the proposed MLPNN has potential in detecting the electroencephalographic changes. PMID:19555931

  9. A Review of Feature Selection and Feature Extraction Methods Applied on Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Zena M.; Gillies, Duncan F.

    2015-01-01

    We summarise various ways of performing dimensionality reduction on high-dimensional microarray data. Many different feature selection and feature extraction methods exist and they are being widely used. All these methods aim to remove redundant and irrelevant features so that classification of new instances will be more accurate. A popular source of data is microarrays, a biological platform for gathering gene expressions. Analysing microarrays can be difficult due to the size of the data they provide. In addition the complicated relations among the different genes make analysis more difficult and removing excess features can improve the quality of the results. We present some of the most popular methods for selecting significant features and provide a comparison between them. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined in order to provide a clearer idea of when to use each one of them for saving computational time and resources. PMID:26170834

  10. [Feature extraction for breast cancer data based on geometric algebra theory and feature selection using differential evolution].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hong, Wenxue

    2014-12-01

    The feature extraction and feature selection are the important issues in pattern recognition. Based on the geometric algebra representation of vector, a new feature extraction method using blade coefficient of geometric algebra was proposed in this study. At the same time, an improved differential evolution (DE) feature selection method was proposed to solve the elevated high dimension issue. The simple linear discriminant analysis was used as the classifier. The result of the 10-fold cross-validation (10 CV) classification of public breast cancer biomedical dataset was more than 96% and proved superior to that of the original features and traditional feature extraction method. PMID:25868233

  11. Feature Selection with Neighborhood Entropy-Based Cooperative Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones. PMID:25276120

  12. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  13. Unique components of the plant mitochondrial protein import apparatus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James

    2013-02-01

    The basic mitochondrial protein import apparatus was established in the earliest eukaryotes. Over the subsequent course of evolution and the divergence of the plant, animal and fungal lineages, this basic import apparatus has been modified and expanded in order to meet the specific needs of protein import in each kingdom. In the plant kingdom, the arrival of the plastid complicated the process of protein trafficking and is thought to have given rise to the evolution of a number of unique components that allow specific and efficient targeting of mitochondrial proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytosol, to their final location in the organelle. This includes the evolution of two unique outer membrane import receptors, plant Translocase of outer membrane 20 kDa subunit (TOM20) and Outer membrane protein of 64 kDa (OM64), the loss of a receptor domain from an ancestral import component, Translocase of outer membrane 22 kDa subunit (TOM22), evolution of unique features in the disulfide relay system of the inter membrane space, and the addition of an extra membrane spanning domain to another ancestral component of the inner membrane, Translocase of inner membrane 17 kDa subunit (TIM17). Notably, many of these components are encoded by multi-gene families and exhibit differential sub-cellular localisation and functional specialisation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22406071

  14. Quantification of upland thermokarst features with high resolution remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belshe, E. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Grosse, G.

    2013-09-01

    Climate-induced changes to permafrost are altering high latitude landscapes in ways that could increase the vulnerability of the vast soil carbon pools of the region. Permafrost thaw is temporally dynamic and spatially heterogeneous because, in addition to the thickening of the active layer, localized thermokarst features form when ice-rich permafrost thaws and the ground subsides. Thermokarst produces a diversity of landforms and alters the physical environment in dynamic ways. To estimate potential changes to the carbon cycle it is imperative to quantify the size and distribution of thermokarst landforms. By performing a supervised classification on a high resolution IKONOS image, we detected and mapped small, irregular thermokarst features occurring within an upland watershed in discontinuous permafrost of Interior Alaska. We found that 12% of the Eight Mile Lake (EML) watershed has undergone thermokarst, predominantly in valleys where tussock tundra resides. About 35% of the 3.7 km2 tussock tundra class has likely transitioned to thermokarst. These landscape level changes created by permafrost thaw at EML have important implications for ecosystem carbon cycling because thermokarst features are forming in carbon-rich areas and are altering the hydrology in ways that increase seasonal thawing of the soil.

  15. Feature-Based Attention and Feature-Based Expectation.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Christopher; Egner, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Foreknowledge of target stimulus features improves visual search performance as a result of 'feature-based attention' (FBA). Recent studies have reported that 'feature-based expectation' (FBE) also heightens decision sensitivity. Superficially, it appears that the latter work has simply rediscovered (and relabeled) the effects of FBA. However, this is not the case. Here we explain why. PMID:27079632

  16. Extremely high-dimensional feature selection via feature generating samplings.

    PubMed

    Li, Shutao; Wei, Dan

    2014-06-01

    To select informative features on extremely high-dimensional problems, in this paper, a sampling scheme is proposed to enhance the efficiency of recently developed feature generating machines (FGMs). Note that in FGMs O(mlogr) time complexity should be taken to order the features by their scores; the entire computational cost of feature ordering will become unbearable when m is very large, for example, m > 10(11) , where m is the feature dimensionality and r is the size of the selected feature subset. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose a feature generating sampling method, which can reduce this computational complexity to O(Gslog(G)+G(G+log(G))) while preserving the most informative features in a feature buffer, where Gs is the maximum number of nonzero features for each instance and G is the buffer size. Moreover, we show that our proposed sampling scheme can be deemed as the birth-death process based on random processes theory, which guarantees to include most of the informative features for feature selections. Empirical studies on real-world datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed sampling method. PMID:23864272

  17. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  18. Additive discrete 1D linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Healy, John J.; Guo, Chang-liang; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-09-01

    The continuous linear canonical transforms (LCT) can describe a wide variety of wave field propagations through paraxial (first order) optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically calculate the LCT are therefore important in modelling scalar wave field propagations and are also of interest for many digital signal processing applications. The continuous LCT is additive, but discretization can remove this property. In this paper we discuss three special cases of the LCT for which constraints can be identified to ensure the DLCT is additive.

  19. Guidance in feature extraction to resolve uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Michael; Streltsov, Simon; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Automated Feature Extraction (AFE) plays a critical role in image understanding. Often the imagery analysts extract features better than AFE algorithms do, because analysts use additional information. The extraction and processing of this information can be more complex than the original AFE task, and that leads to the "complexity trap". This can happen when the shadow from the buildings guides the extraction of buildings and roads. This work proposes an AFE algorithm to extract roads and trails by using the GMTI/GPS tracking information and older inaccurate maps of roads and trails as AFE guides.

  20. ROCS-derived features for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kearnes, Steven; Pande, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    Rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) is a standard tool for the calculation of 3D shape and chemical ("color") similarity. ROCS uses unweighted sums to combine many aspects of similarity, yielding parameter-free models for virtual screening. In this report, we decompose the ROCS color force field into color components and color atom overlaps, novel color similarity features that can be weighted in a system-specific manner by machine learning algorithms. In cross-validation experiments, these additional features significantly improve virtual screening performance relative to standard ROCS. PMID:27624668

  1. [Notable imported infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Japanese doctors are somewhat unfamiliar with imported infectious diseases, however, the following imported infectious diseases are notable: cholera, which is currently endemic in Haiti and which there is a possibility of it being imported to Japan from endemic areas; typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, whose causative organisms showing low sensitivity to fluoroquinolones have become predominant; rabies, which exhibits a high mortality; avian influenza H5N1, which has the possibility of changing into a new type of human influenza; chikungunya fever, in which the number of Japanese patients is increasing; and cyclosporiasis, which led to a number of food poisonings in the USA and Canada, and as a growing number of Japanese travel abroad, the number of infected Japanese patients returning from endemic areas will increase. It is thus important to identify the presence of these diseases on diagnosis. PMID:21560415

  2. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  3. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  4. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  5. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  6. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  7. Characteristics of 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome: Review and description of two additional patients.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Keiko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    Many new microdeletion syndromes have been characterized in the past decade, including 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome. More than 10 patients with this syndrome have been described. Recently, we encountered two additional patients with 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome. All patients showed variable degrees of intellectual disability, with the autistic features characteristic of this syndrome. Seven out of 16 patients (44%) showed structural abnormalities in the brain, which is also an important feature of this syndrome. The shortest region of microdeletion overlap among the patients includes two genes, USP34 and XPO1. Although these genes have some functional relevance to cancer, they have not been associated with neurological functions. Diagnosis of additional patients with 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome and identification of pathogenic mutations in this region will help identify the genes responsible for the neurological features of the syndrome. PMID:25900130

  8. Additional Improvements to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the feedback of the user community, three major features have been added to the NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE. These features include: first, further improvements to the numerics of the code so that more time steps can be run and so that the code is more stable; second, inclusion and refinement of the roughness prediction model described in an earlier paper; third, inclusion of multi-element trajectory and ice accretion capabilities to LEWICE. This paper will describe each of these advancements in full and make comparisons with the experimental data available. Further refinement of these features and inclusion of additional features will be performed as more feedback is received.

  9. Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation. PMID:19805409

  10. Genetic Features of Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Studies Publications Lab Staff Contact Info Links Genetic Features Quick Navigation Introduction X-monosomy X-mosaicism ... Figure 3. X Chromosome Abnormalities Figure 4. Mosaicism Genetic Features of Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome is a ...

  11. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    PubMed

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  12. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  13. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  14. Clinical features of actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefond, Simon; Catroux, Mélanie; Melenotte, Cléa; Karkowski, Ludovic; Rolland, Ludivine; Trouillier, Sébastien; Raffray, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Actinomycosis is a rare heterogeneous anaerobic infection with misleading clinical presentations that delay diagnosis. A significant number of misdiagnosed cases have been reported in specific localizations, but studies including various forms of actinomycosis have rarely been published. We performed a multicenter retrospective chart review of laboratory-confirmed actinomycosis cases from January 2000 until January 2014. We described clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis, and management of actinomycosis of clinical significance. Twenty-eight patients were included from 6 hospitals in France. Disease was diagnosed predominately in the abdomen/pelvis (n = 9), orocervicofacial (n = 5), cardiothoracic (n = 5), skeletal (n = 3), hematogenous (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 2), and intracranially (n = 1). Four patients (14%) were immunocompromised. In most cases (92 %), the diagnosis of actinomycosis was not suspected on admission, as clinical features were not specific. Diagnosis was obtained from either microbiology (50%, n = 14) or histopathology (42%, n = 12), or from both methods (7%, n = 2). Surgical biopsy was needed for definite diagnosis in 71% of cases (n = 20). Coinfection was found in 13 patients (46%), among which 3 patients were diagnosed from histologic criteria only. Two-thirds of patients were treated with amoxicillin. Median duration of antibiotics was 120 days (interquartile range 60–180), whereas the median follow-up time was 12 months (interquartile range 5.25–18). Two patients died. This study highlights the distinct and miscellaneous patterns of actinomycosis to prompt accurate diagnosis and earlier treatments, thus improving the outcome. Surgical biopsy should be performed when possible while raising histologist's and microbiologist's awareness of possible actinomycosis to enhance the chance of diagnosis and use specific molecular methods. PMID:27311002

  15. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  16. Sensor-oriented feature usability evaluation in fingerprint segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Gongping

    2013-06-01

    Existing fingerprint segmentation methods usually process fingerprint images captured by different sensors with the same feature or feature set. We propose to improve the fingerprint segmentation result in view of an important fact that images from different sensors have different characteristics for segmentation. Feature usability evaluation, which means to evaluate the usability of features to find the personalized feature or feature set for different sensors to improve the performance of segmentation. The need for feature usability evaluation for fingerprint segmentation is raised and analyzed as a new issue. To address this issue, we present a decision-tree-based feature-usability evaluation method, which utilizes a C4.5 decision tree algorithm to evaluate and pick the best suitable feature or feature set for fingerprint segmentation from a typical candidate feature set. We apply the novel method on the FVC2002 database of fingerprint images, which are acquired by four different respective sensors and technologies. Experimental results show that the accuracy of segmentation is improved, and time consumption for feature extraction is dramatically reduced with selected feature(s).

  17. Cascaded ensemble of convolutional neural networks and handcrafted features for mitosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e. undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). While handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely unsupervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal to attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. In this paper, we present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing performance by

  18. Mitosis detection in breast cancer pathology images by combining handcrafted and convolutional neural network features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is the mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e., undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently, mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields (HPFs) on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical, or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Although handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely supervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal in attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. We present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color, and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing the performance

  19. Mitosis detection in breast cancer pathology images by combining handcrafted and convolutional neural network features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is the mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e., undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently, mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields (HPFs) on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical, or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Although handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely supervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal in attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. We present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color, and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing the

  20. Dramatic Improvements to Feature Based Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyansky, V. N.; Morris, R. D.; Kuehnel, F. O.; Maluf, D. A.; Cheeseman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The camera registration extracted from feature based stereo is usually considered sufficient to accurately localize the 3D points. However, for natural scenes the feature localization is not as precise as in man-made environments. This results in small camera registration errors. We show that even very small registration errors result in large errors in dense surface reconstruction. We describe a method for registering entire images to the inaccurate surface model. This gives small, but crucially important improvements to the camera parameters. The new registration gives dramatically better dense surface reconstruction.

  1. Challenges in electronic importing of health data.

    PubMed

    Burwen, D R; Seawright, M F

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this article is to increase awareness among public health personnel of the complexities involved in integrating existing data systems. This article describes the electronic importing feature of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) software package called staffTRAK-TB, and users' experience with it. PMID:10724698

  2. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  3. Feature centrality: naming versus imagining.

    PubMed

    Sloman, S A; Ahn, W K

    1999-05-01

    Being white is central to whether we call an animal a "polar bear," but it is fairly peripheral to our concept of what a polar bear is. We propose that a feature is central to category naming in proportion to the feature's category validity--the probability of the feature, given the category. In contrast, a feature is conceptually central in a representation of the object to the extent that the feature is depended on by other features. Further, we propose that naming and conceptual centrality are more likely to disagree for features that hold at more specific levels (such as is white, which holds only for the specific category of polar bear) than for features that hold at intermediate levels of abstraction (such as has claws, which holds for all bears). In support of these hypotheses, we report evidence that increasing the abstractness of category features has a greater effect on judgments of conceptual centrality than on judgments of name centrality and that other category features depend more on intermediate-level category features than on specific ones. PMID:10355241

  4. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  5. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  6. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  7. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  8. Multi-task feature selection via supervised canonical graph matching for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liye; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Tang, Xiaoying; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for ASD diagnosis using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our method deals explicitly with the distributional differences of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) features extracted from MR images. We project linearly the GM and WM features onto a canonical space where their correlations are mutually maximized. In this canonical space, features that are highly correlated with the class labels are selected for ASD diagnosis. In addition, graph matching is employed to preserve the geometrical relationships between samples when projected onto the canonical space. Our evaluations based on a public ASD dataset show that the proposed method outperforms all competing methods on all clinically important measures in differentiating ASD patients from healthy individuals. PMID:25761828

  9. Feature extraction via KPCA for classification of gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianning; Wang, Jue; Liu, Li

    2007-06-01

    Automated recognition of gait pattern change is important in medical diagnostics as well as in the early identification of at-risk gait in the elderly. We evaluated the use of Kernel-based Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) to extract more gait features (i.e., to obtain more significant amounts of information about human movement) and thus to improve the classification of gait patterns. 3D gait data of 24 young and 24 elderly participants were acquired using an OPTOTRAK 3020 motion analysis system during normal walking, and a total of 36 gait spatio-temporal and kinematic variables were extracted from the recorded data. KPCA was used first for nonlinear feature extraction to then evaluate its effect on a subsequent classification in combination with learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs). Cross-validation test results indicated that the proposed technique could allow spreading the information about the gait's kinematic structure into more nonlinear principal components, thus providing additional discriminatory information for the improvement of gait classification performance. The feature extraction ability of KPCA was affected slightly with different kernel functions as polynomial and radial basis function. The combination of KPCA and SVM could identify young-elderly gait patterns with 91% accuracy, resulting in a markedly improved performance compared to the combination of PCA and SVM. These results suggest that nonlinear feature extraction by KPCA improves the classification of young-elderly gait patterns, and holds considerable potential for future applications in direct dimensionality reduction and interpretation of multiple gait signals. PMID:17509708

  10. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)—minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements.

  11. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-21

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)-minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements. PMID:27362527

  12. AVNG authentication features

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; White, Greg; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement (called authentication). An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information. To achieve both goals, the IB allows only very limited, previously agreed-on information to be displayed to the monitoring party. In addition to this limited information from the potentially classified measurement, other measurements are performed and procedures are put in place for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. In this presentation, we will discuss the techniques used in the AVNG attribute measuring system to facilitate authentication of the verification measurements by the monitors. These techniques include measuring unclassified items while allowing more information to be displayed; having the monitor understand the system function, design, and implementation; and randomly selecting the order of measurements.

  13. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hulle, Severine Van; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J; Schepper, Jean De

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  14. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hulle, Severine Van; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J.; Schepper, Jean De

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  15. Addition of nanoscaled bioinspired surface features: A revolution for bone related implants and scaffolds?

    PubMed

    Bruinink, Arie; Bitar, Malak; Pleskova, Miriam; Wick, Peter; Krug, Harald F; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Our expanding ability to handle the "literally invisible" building blocks of our world has started to provoke a seismic shift on the technology, environment and health sectors of our society. During the last two decades, it has become increasingly evident that the "nano-sized" subunits composing many materials—living, natural and synthetic—are becoming more and more accessible for predefined manipulations at the nanosize scale. The use of equally nanoscale sized or functionalised tools may, therefore, grant us unprecedented prospects to achieve many therapeutic aims. In the past decade it became clear that nano-scale surface topography significantly influences cell behaviour and may, potentially, be utilised as a powerful tool to enhance the bioactivity and/ or integration of implanted devices. In this review, we briefly outline the state of the art and some of the current approaches and concepts for the future utilisation of nanotechnology to create biomimetic implantable medical devices and scaffolds for in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering,with a focus on bone. Based on current knowledge it must be concluded that not the materials and surfaces themselves but the systematic biological evaluation of these new material concepts represent the bottleneck for new biomedical product development based on nanotechnological principles. PMID:23468287

  16. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  17. Semantic point cloud interpretation based on optimal neighborhoods, relevant features and efficient classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Martin; Jutzi, Boris; Hinz, Stefan; Mallet, Clément

    2015-07-01

    3D scene analysis in terms of automatically assigning 3D points a respective semantic label has become a topic of great importance in photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. In this paper, we address the issue of how to increase the distinctiveness of geometric features and select the most relevant ones among these for 3D scene analysis. We present a new, fully automated and versatile framework composed of four components: (i) neighborhood selection, (ii) feature extraction, (iii) feature selection and (iv) classification. For each component, we consider a variety of approaches which allow applicability in terms of simplicity, efficiency and reproducibility, so that end-users can easily apply the different components and do not require expert knowledge in the respective domains. In a detailed evaluation involving 7 neighborhood definitions, 21 geometric features, 7 approaches for feature selection, 10 classifiers and 2 benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that the selection of optimal neighborhoods for individual 3D points significantly improves the results of 3D scene analysis. Additionally, we show that the selection of adequate feature subsets may even further increase the quality of the derived results while significantly reducing both processing time and memory consumption.

  18. Object-Based Analysis of LIDAR Geometric Features for Vegetation Detection in Shaded Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Lin, ChinSu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chun-Lin

    2016-06-01

    The extraction of land cover information from remote sensing data is a complex process. Spectral information has been widely utilized in classifying remote sensing images. However, shadows limit the use of multispectral images because they result in loss of spectral radiometric information. In addition, true reflectance may be underestimated in shaded areas. In land cover classification, shaded areas are often left unclassified or simply assigned as a shadow class. Vegetation indices from remote sensing measurement are radiation-based measurements computed through spectral combination. They indicate vegetation properties and play an important role in remote sensing of forests. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is an active remote sensing technique that produces a true orthophoto at a single wavelength. This study investigated three types of geometric lidar features where NDVI values fail to represent meaningful forest information. The three features include echo width, normalized eigenvalue, and standard deviation of the unit weight observation of the plane adjustment, and they can be derived from waveform data and discrete point clouds. Various feature combinations were carried out to evaluate the compensation of the three lidar features to vegetation detection in shaded areas. Echo width was found to outperform the other two features. Furthermore, surface characteristics estimated by echo width were similar to that by normalized eigenvalues. Compared to the combination of only NDVI and mean height difference, those including one of the three features had a positive effect on the detection of vegetation class.

  19. Modeling Network Intrusion Detection System Using Feature Selection and Parameters Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Seong; Park, Jong Sou

    Previous approaches for modeling Intrusion Detection System (IDS) have been on twofold: improving detection model(s) in terms of (i) feature selection of audit data through wrapper and filter methods and (ii) parameters optimization of detection model design, based on classification, clustering algorithms, etc. In this paper, we present three approaches to model IDS in the context of feature selection and parameters optimization: First, we present Fusion of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) (FuGAS), which employs combinations of GA and SVM through genetic operation and it is capable of building an optimal detection model with only selected important features and optimal parameters value. Second, we present Correlation-based Hybrid Feature Selection (CoHyFS), which utilizes a filter method in conjunction of GA for feature selection in order to reduce long training time. Third, we present Simultaneous Intrinsic Model Identification (SIMI), which adopts Random Forest (RF) and shows better intrusion detection rates and feature selection results, along with no additional computational overheads. We show the experimental results and analysis of three approaches on KDD 1999 intrusion detection datasets.

  20. 40 CFR 273.70 - Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Persons managing universal waste that is imported from an OECD country as specified in 40 CFR 262.58(a)(1) are subject to paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, in addition to the requirements of 40...

  1. Feature Point Descriptors: Infrared and Visible Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ricaurte, Pablo; Chilán, Carmen; Aguilera-Carrasco, Cristhian A.; Vintimilla, Boris X.; Sappa, Angel D.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript evaluates the behavior of classical feature point descriptors when they are used in images from long-wave infrared spectral band and compare them with the results obtained in the visible spectrum. Robustness to changes in rotation, scaling, blur, and additive noise are analyzed using a state of the art framework. Experimental results using a cross-spectral outdoor image data set are presented and conclusions from these experiments are given. PMID:24566634

  2. New PAMTRAK features

    SciTech Connect

    Dahly, B.; Anspach, J.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia is developing a Personnel and Material Tracking System (PAMTRAK) which uses a variety of techniques to monitor material inside a vault in real-time. It can detect material movement using video cameras inside the vault or motion sensors attached to the material. It also contains two prototype attribute monitoring systems that continuously measure material weight, temperature or movement. A site can use any of these alone or together to extend physical inventory intervals. PAMTRAK can reduce the cost of storing material by reducing inventory frequency and radiation exposure to workers. Analysis at Savannah River in 1992 estimated that installing PAMTRAK in the 7 active and future vaults at that site would save $1,073,000 per year by reducing inventory frequency from monthly to yearly. Performing similar calculations now, assuming lower radiation exposure limits of 700m Rem per year, new inventory reduction guidelines allowing a baseline interval of 6 months, and an achieved inventory interval of 3 years, results in an estimated average savings of $400,000 per year. PAMTRAK, since it is real-time, can detect theft or diversion soon enough to give the guard force a chance of recovering the material and apprehending the perpetrator. In performing an inventory a site typically checks only a fraction of the material using random, statistical sampling, while PAMTRAK monitors all material in the vault. In addition to static environments such as vaults, PAMTRAK can be used to protect material in active work areas. Several of the sensor types can ignore activity around material but still report alarms if the material is moved or handled. PAMTRAK includes a personnel tracking capability that allows a site to monitor and restrict personnel movements. It can exclude workers from designated areas unless they have explicit permission to be there. It can also enforce the 2-person rule by requiring a worker to be accompanied by at least one other qualified worker.

  3. Speech dereverberation for enhancement and recognition using dynamic features constrained deep neural networks and feature adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiong; Zhao, Shengkui; Ha Nguyen, Duc Hoang; Zhong, Xionghu; Jones, Douglas L.; Chng, Eng Siong; Li, Haizhou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates deep neural networks (DNN) based on nonlinear feature mapping and statistical linear feature adaptation approaches for reducing reverberation in speech signals. In the nonlinear feature mapping approach, DNN is trained from parallel clean/distorted speech corpus to map reverberant and noisy speech coefficients (such as log magnitude spectrum) to the underlying clean speech coefficients. The constraint imposed by dynamic features (i.e., the time derivatives of the speech coefficients) are used to enhance the smoothness of predicted coefficient trajectories in two ways. One is to obtain the enhanced speech coefficients with a least square estimation from the coefficients and dynamic features predicted by DNN. The other is to incorporate the constraint of dynamic features directly into the DNN training process using a sequential cost function. In the linear feature adaptation approach, a sparse linear transform, called cross transform, is used to transform multiple frames of speech coefficients to a new feature space. The transform is estimated to maximize the likelihood of the transformed coefficients given a model of clean speech coefficients. Unlike the DNN approach, no parallel corpus is used and no assumption on distortion types is made. The two approaches are evaluated on the REVERB Challenge 2014 tasks. Both speech enhancement and automatic speech recognition (ASR) results show that the DNN-based mappings significantly reduce the reverberation in speech and improve both speech quality and ASR performance. For the speech enhancement task, the proposed dynamic feature constraint help to improve cepstral distance, frequency-weighted segmental signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and log likelihood ratio metrics while moderately degrades the speech-to-reverberation modulation energy ratio. In addition, the cross transform feature adaptation improves the ASR performance significantly for clean-condition trained acoustic models.

  4. Overt security features through digital printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Haubrich, Scott; Kornbrekke, Ralph; Shah, Jainisha; Bhatia, Rimple; Hardman, Ned; Einhorn, Rich

    2006-02-01

    Digital printing technology represents a counterfeiting threat and a counterfeiting deterrence opportunity. Digital reproduction methods have been used to produce holographic and printed features similar to those on banknotes. As digital technology continues to improve, the quality of those features will become nearly indistinguishable from intaglio printing, offset printing and holograms. Optically active devices and inks have been useful to slow counterfeiters, but security document and feature designers need more tools. The toolbox for digital technologies is very large and being exploited by the counterfeiters, but their toolbox has been limited to commercially available digital technologies. Security designers also need to take advantage of this toolbox with the additional lever of secure materials. By leveraging digital technologies with secure materials, variable information and integration with other security features, security document designers can create new, attractive features that are hard to replicate. The high level of difficulty to create security materials in the sub-micron to nanometer size range with multiple functionalities is one barrier. Creating inks that are formulated to fit the stringent requirements for custom digital printing methods creates another barrier to unauthorized reproduction. All of the other valuable aspects of digital technology are therefore accessible only to those with access to these secure materials. Leveraging these digital materials to make optical effects make them useful for the end-user authentication. Furthermore, use of digital technologies allows the incorporation of variable data that can be authenticated visually or using proprietary algorithms and detection / sorting equipment.

  5. Interactive music composition driven by feature evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaliakatsos-Papakostas, Maximos A; Floros, Andreas; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary music composition is a prominent technique for automatic music generation. The immense adaptation potential of evolutionary algorithms has allowed the realisation of systems that automatically produce music through feature and interactive-based composition approaches. Feature-based composition employs qualitatively descriptive music features as fitness landmarks. Interactive composition systems on the other hand, derive fitness directly from human ratings and/or selection. The paper at hand introduces a methodological framework that combines the merits of both evolutionary composition methodologies. To this end, a system is presented that is organised in two levels: the higher level of interaction and the lower level of composition. The higher level incorporates the particle swarm optimisation algorithm, along with a proposed variant and evolves musical features according to user ratings. The lower level realizes feature-based music composition with a genetic algorithm, according to the top level features. The aim of this work is not to validate the efficiency of the currently utilised setup in each level, but to examine the convergence behaviour of such a two-level technique in an objective manner. Therefore, an additional novelty in this work concerns the utilisation of artificial raters that guide the system through the space of musical features, allowing the exploration of its convergence characteristics: does the system converge to optimal melodies, is this convergence fast enough for potential human listeners and is the trajectory to convergence "interesting' and "creative" enough? The experimental results reveal that the proposed methodological framework represents a fruitful and robust, novel approach to interactive music composition. PMID:27386275

  6. Feature isolation and quantification of evolving datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Identifying and isolating features is an important part of visualization and a crucial step for the analysis and understanding of large time-dependent data sets (either from observation or simulation). In this proposal, we address these concerns, namely the investigation and implementation of basic 2D and 3D feature based methods to enhance current visualization techniques and provide the building blocks for automatic feature recognition, tracking, and correlation. These methods incorporate ideas from scientific visualization, computer vision, image processing, and mathematical morphology. Our focus is in the area of fluid dynamics, and we show the applicability of these methods to the quantification and tracking of three-dimensional vortex and turbulence bursts.

  7. Automated Extraction of Secondary Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne M.; Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become standard practice in the design and development of the major components used for air and space propulsion. To aid in the post-processing and analysis phase of CFD many researchers now use automated feature extraction utilities. These tools can be used to detect the existence of such features as shocks, vortex cores and separation and re-attachment lines. The existence of secondary flow is another feature of significant importance to CFD engineers. Although the concept of secondary flow is relatively understood there is no commonly accepted mathematical definition for secondary flow. This paper will present a definition for secondary flow and one approach for automatically detecting and visualizing secondary flow.

  8. Report of subpanel on feature extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in feature extraction for Earth resource observation systems is reviewed and research tasks are proposed. Issues in the subpixel feature estimation problem are defined as: (1) the identification of image models which adequately describe the data and the sensor it is using; (2) the construction of local feature models based on those image models; and (3) the problem of trying to understand these effects of preprocessing on the entire process. The development of ground control point (GCP) libraries for automated selection presents two concerns. One is the organization of these GCP libraries for rectification problems, i.e., the problems of automatically selecting by computer the specific GCP's for particular registration tasks. Second is the importance of integrating ground control patterns in a data base management system, allowing interface to a large number of sensor image types with an automatic selection system. The development of data validation criteria for the comparison of different extraction techniques is also discussed.

  9. Facial symmetry assessment based on geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoping; Cao, Hanqiang

    2015-12-01

    Face image symmetry is an important factor affecting the accuracy of automatic face recognition. Selecting high symmetrical face image could improve the performance of the recognition. In this paper, we proposed a novel facial symmetry evaluation scheme based on geometric features, including centroid, singular value, in-plane rotation angle of face and the structural similarity index (SSIM). First, we calculate the value of the four features according to the corresponding formula. Then, we use fuzzy logic algorithm to integrate the value of the four features into a single number which represents the facial symmetry. The proposed method is efficient and can adapt to different recognition methods. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in improving the robustness of face detection and recognition.

  10. Acceleration feature points of unsteady shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, Jens; Reininghaus, Jan; Hotz, Ingrid; Hege, Hans-Christian; Noack, Bernd R.; Daviller, Guillaume; Comte, Pierre; Morzyúski, Marek

    2012-11-01

    We generalize velocity topology with centers (vortices) and saddle points in a Galilean-invariant manner. In particular, a computationally robust (derivative-free) framework for their extraction of two-dimensional unsteady flows is presented. The key enabler is the definition of feature points based on the acceleration magnitude. The extracted feature points are tracked over time resulting in corresponding trajectories. Using homological persistence and lifetime of features, a spatiotemporal importance measure for vortex core lines is introduced that enables a hierarchical filtering. As example, homological persistence is shown to discriminate between hydrodynamic and aeroacoustic flow structures. Our framework is applied to analytic examples as well as simulations of a cylinder wake, of a two-dimensional mixing layer and of a jet. Partially supported by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and the German Research Foundation.

  11. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  12. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons.

    PubMed

    Barth, E; Zetzsche, C; Rentschler, I

    1998-07-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features. PMID:9656473

  13. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  14. Enhanced modeling features within TREETOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Kumar, Manoj N.

    1989-01-01

    The original motivation for TREETOPS was to build a generic multi-body simulation and remove the burden of writing multi-body equations from the engineers. The motivation of the enhancement was twofold: (1) to extend the menu of built-in features (sensors, actuators, constraints, etc.) that did not require user code; and (2) to extend the control system design capabilities by linking with other government funded software (NASTRAN and MATLAB). These enhancements also serve to bridge the gap between structures and control groups. It is common on large space programs for the structures groups to build hi-fidelity models of the structure using NASTRAN and for the controls group to build lower order models because they lack the tools to incorporate the former into their analysis. Now the controls engineers can accept the hi-fidelity NASTRAN models into TREETOPS, add sensors and actuators, perform model reduction and couple the result directly into MATLAB to perform their design. The controller can then be imported directly into TREETOPS for non-linear, time-history simulation.

  15. Prebiologically Important Interstellar Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-C.; Charnley, S. B.; Tseng, W.-L.; Snyder, L. E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Kisiel, Z.; Thorwirth, S.; Bohn, R. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2004-06-01

    Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically important molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically important molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have important implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.

  16. Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Joana; Massano, João

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, disabling, neurodegenerative disorder. In addition to classical motor symptoms, non-motor features are now widely accepted as part of the clinical picture, and cognitive decline is a very important aspect of the disease, as it brings an additional significant burden for the patient and caregivers. The diagnosis of cognitive decline in PD, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, can be extremely challenging, remaining largely based on clinical and cognitive assessments. Diagnostic criteria and methods for PD dementia and MCI have been recently issued by expert work groups. This manuscript has synthesized relevant data in order to obtain a pragmatic and updated review regarding cognitive decline in PD, from milder stages to dementia. This text will summarize clinical features, diagnostic methodology, and therapeutic issues of clinical decline in PD. Relevant clinical genetic issues, including recent advances, will also be approached. PMID:22654785

  17. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  18. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  19. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dershowitz, William S.; Curran, Brendan; Einstein, Herbert; LaPointe, Paul; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate

    2002-07-26

    The report presents summaries of technology development for discrete feature modeling in support of the improved oil recovery (IOR) for heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, the report describes the demonstration of these technologies at project study sites.

  20. Revisiting Additivity Violation of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Motohisa

    2014-12-01

    We prove additivity violation of minimum output entropy of quantum channels by straightforward application of -net argument and Lévy's lemma. The additivity conjecture was disproved initially by Hastings. Later, a proof via asymptotic geometric analysis was presented by Aubrun, Szarek and Werner, which uses Dudley's bound on Gaussian process (or Dvoretzky's theorem with Schechtman's improvement). In this paper, we develop another proof along Dvoretzky's theorem in Milman's view, showing additivity violation in broader regimes than the existing proofs. Importantly,Dvoretzky's theorem works well with norms to give strong statements, but these techniques can be extended to functions which have norm-like structures-positive homogeneity and triangle inequality. Then, a connection between Hastings' method and ours is also discussed. In addition, we make some comments on relations between regularized minimum output entropy and classical capacity of quantum channels.

  1. Webcam classification using simple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramoun, Thitiporn; Choe, Jeehyun; Li, He; Chen, Qingshuang; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat; Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of sensors are connected to the Internet and many of these sensors are cameras. The "Internet of Things" will contain many "things" that are image sensors. This vast network of distributed cameras (i.e. web cams) will continue to exponentially grow. In this paper we examine simple methods to classify an image from a web cam as "indoor/outdoor" and having "people/no people" based on simple features. We use four types of image features to classify an image as indoor/outdoor: color, edge, line, and text. To classify an image as having people/no people we use HOG and texture features. The features are weighted based on their significance and combined. A support vector machine is used for classification. Our system with feature weighting and feature combination yields 95.5% accuracy.

  2. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  3. T-RECS: STABLE SELECTION OF DYNAMICALLY FORMED GROUPS OF FEATURES WITH APPLICATION TO PREDICTION OF CLINICAL OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace T.; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Raghu, Vineet; Kaminski, Naftali; Benos, Panayiotis V.

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is used extensively in biomedical research for biomarker identification and patient classification, both of which are essential steps in developing personalized medicine strategies. However, the structured nature of the biological datasets and high correlation of variables frequently yield multiple equally optimal signatures, thus making traditional feature selection methods unstable. Features selected based on one cohort of patients, may not work as well in another cohort. In addition, biologically important features may be missed due to selection of other co-clustered features We propose a new method, Tree-guided Recursive Cluster Selection (T-ReCS), for efficient selection of grouped features. T-ReCS significantly improves predictive stability while maintains the same level of accuracy. T-ReCS does not require an a priori knowledge of the clusters like group-lasso and also can handle “orphan” features (not belonging to a cluster). T-ReCS can be used with categorical or survival target variables. Tested on simulated and real expression data from breast cancer and lung diseases and survival data, T-ReCS selected stable cluster features without significant loss in classification accuracy. PMID:25592602

  4. Nonparametric Facial Feature Localization Using Segment-Based Eigenfeatures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Chul; Sibbing, Dominik; Kobbelt, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a nonparametric facial feature localization method using relative directional information between regularly sampled image segments and facial feature points. Instead of using any iterative parameter optimization technique or search algorithm, our method finds the location of facial feature points by using a weighted concentration of the directional vectors originating from the image segments pointing to the expected facial feature positions. Each directional vector is calculated by linear combination of eigendirectional vectors which are obtained by a principal component analysis of training facial segments in feature space of histogram of oriented gradient (HOG). Our method finds facial feature points very fast and accurately, since it utilizes statistical reasoning from all the training data without need to extract local patterns at the estimated positions of facial features, any iterative parameter optimization algorithm, and any search algorithm. In addition, we can reduce the storage size for the trained model by controlling the energy preserving level of HOG pattern space. PMID:26819588

  5. Nonparametric Facial Feature Localization Using Segment-Based Eigenfeatures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Chul; Sibbing, Dominik; Kobbelt, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a nonparametric facial feature localization method using relative directional information between regularly sampled image segments and facial feature points. Instead of using any iterative parameter optimization technique or search algorithm, our method finds the location of facial feature points by using a weighted concentration of the directional vectors originating from the image segments pointing to the expected facial feature positions. Each directional vector is calculated by linear combination of eigendirectional vectors which are obtained by a principal component analysis of training facial segments in feature space of histogram of oriented gradient (HOG). Our method finds facial feature points very fast and accurately, since it utilizes statistical reasoning from all the training data without need to extract local patterns at the estimated positions of facial features, any iterative parameter optimization algorithm, and any search algorithm. In addition, we can reduce the storage size for the trained model by controlling the energy preserving level of HOG pattern space. PMID:26819588

  6. Multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection for hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mahesh

    2012-02-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of three feature selection methods based on multinomial logistic regression, and compares the performance of the best multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach with the support vector machine based recurring feature elimination approach. Two hyperspectral datasets, one consisting of 65 features (DAIS data) and other with 185 features (AVIRIS data) were used. Result suggests that a total of between 15 and 10 features selected by using the multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approach as proposed by Cawley and Talbot achieve a significant improvement in classification accuracy in comparison to the use of all the features of the DAIS and AVIRIS datasets. In addition to the improved performance, the Cawley and Talbot approach does not require any user-defined parameter, thus avoiding the requirement of a model selection stage. In comparison, the other two multinomial logistic regression-based feature selection approaches require one user-defined parameter and do not perform as well as the Cawley and Talbot approach in terms of (i) the number of features required to achieve classification accuracy comparable to that achieved using the full dataset, and (ii) the classification accuracy achieved by the selected features. The Cawley and Talbot approach was also found to be computationally more efficient than the SVM-RFE technique, though both use the same number of selected features to achieve an equal or even higher level of accuracy than that achieved with full hyperspectral datasets.

  7. Some peculiar features of hydrodynamic instability development.

    PubMed

    Meshkov, E

    2013-11-28

    We discuss the results of experiments that illustrate some features of a turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) structure at a gas-liquid interface (Rayleigh-Taylor instability) and at a gas-gas interface accelerated by shock waves (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability). The important feature is the existence of a heavier substance concentration (density) jump at the interface between the heavy medium and the TMZ. It is found that the existence of this jump is a generic feature of any developed TMZ and is the necessary condition for its continuous development. In the case of a gas-liquid interface, the stable existence of this jump is connected with the stability of the cupola of gas bubbles penetrating into the liquid in a TMZ. The important feature of the development of interface instability accelerated by an unsteady shock is the decaying ability (up to full suppression) of the interface instability in the case when a decaying wave passes through the interface in the direction from light gas to heavy gas. PMID:24146012

  8. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This camper-equipped truck known as '''Old Blue''' served as mobile field command center for the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC. It has been replaced with a larger vehicle that includes a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine, plus its own onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  9. The environmental impact statement: an important addition to the certification of early deaths.

    PubMed

    Pacy, H

    1978-05-20

    An environmental impact statement (EIS) has been made in conjunction with a prospective study of 56 consecutive deaths of persons under 60 years of age in a local population. EIS is the cheapest and the quickest means by which to continually highlight the weaknesses of a national health system. PMID:683064

  10. 75 FR 66643 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 29680- 29684, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0016) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations... must be covered with a lid, insect-proof mesh, or other material to protect the avocados from...

  11. Selenium-an important additive for lead-acid battery alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kallup, B.E.; Berndt, D.

    1984-10-01

    New investigation methods such as metallographic preparation techniques and acoustic emission analysis elucidated details of the grain refining mechanism caused by selenium. With the help of these two techniques, the alloy composition and the production conditions were optimized, resulting in the production of high quality grids. The grids based on these alloys exhibit very regular surface structures which favour the adherence of the active material. The fine-grain globulitic structure with optimal casting quality prevents deep corrosion along the grain boundaries. The corrosion attack is homogeneous over the surface. Typical corrosion damage such as pitting or severe grid growth does not appear.

  12. Imaging features of spinal tanycytic ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Michal; Jayajothi, Anandapadmanabhan; Brandner, Sebastian; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Lee, Cheong Hung; Davagnanam, Indran

    2016-02-01

    Tanycytic ependymoma is an unusual morphological variant of WHO grade II ependymoma, typically arising from the cervical or thoracic spinal cord. Although the literature deals extensively with pathological features of this tumour entity, imaging features have not been well characterised. The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spinal tanycytic ependymomas reported in the literature to date, exemplified by a case of a patient with tanycytic ependymoma of the conus medullaris presenting to our hospital. A Medline search of the English literature for all previously published cases of spinal tanycytic ependymoma was carried out and the reported MRI features reviewed. The tumours were found to be typically well-demarcated masses, predominantly showing isointensity on T1-weighted signal, and T2-weighted hyperintensity, with variable patterns of contrast enhancement. A cystic component was seen in half of the cases, and in a minority a mural nodule was present within the cyst wall. Associated syrinx formation was observed in one-third of the cases and haemorrhage was rare, which may be helpful pointers in differentiating the lesion from other ependymoma subtypes. In conclusion, MRI characteristics of spinal tanycytic ependymoma are variable and non-specific, and radiological diagnosis thus remains challenging, although certain predominant features are identified in this report. Knowledge of these is important in the diagnostic differentiation from other intramedullary and extramedullary spinal tumours in order to guide appropriate surgical management. PMID:26755489

  13. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Direct carbon-carbon bond formation via reductive soft enolization: a syn-selective Mannich addition of α-iodo thioesters.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ngoc; Sauer, Scott J; Seraphin-Hatcher, Cyndie; Coltart, Don M

    2016-08-16

    The β-amino carboxylic acid moiety is a key feature of numerous important biologically active compounds. We describe a syn-selective direct Mannich addition reaction that uses α-iodo thioesters and sulfonyl imines and produces β-amino thioesters. Enolate formation is achieved by reductive soft enolization. The products of the reaction provide straightforward access to biologically important β-lactams through a variety of known reactions. PMID:27492274

  15. Analysis of Glass-Filled Nylon in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John; LaBarre, Erin; Forrest, Ryan; Crane, Emily

    2016-03-01

    At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), glass bead-filled polyamide (a.k.a. nylon) (GFN) is being used frequently for functional parts and systems, built using a laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) system. Since these parts have performance requirements, it is important to understand the mechanical properties of the additively-made GFN as a function of build orientation and build parameters. In addition, the performance of the AM system used to manufacture these parts must be evaluated in order to understand its capabilities, especially in order to determine the dimensional precision and repeatability of features built with this system. This paper summarizes recent APL efforts to characterize the GFN powder, the mechanical properties of parts made with GFN, and the performance of the laser PBF machine while running GFN using an AM test artifact.

  16. Migration issues important -- Mongolia.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Migration and urbanization are issues that require increasing attention in Mongolia. Mr. Sodov Sonin, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, stated at the Forum that fertility has declined, but mortality, in particular the mortality of children and mothers, is still too high. In addition, there is a significant gap between the knowledge of and behaviors concerning reproductive health, which is one of the causes of the country's high abortion rates. However, on the positive side, literacy is high among women--70% of the students in Mongolia's higher educational institutions are female and the State recognizes equal rights for women. Moreover, programs that promote health and education, including the National Program on Reproductive Health, are being implemented; but despite all these, Mongolia still lacks the human and financial resources to implement the ICPD Program of Action satisfactorily. The country also needs dramatic changes in mind-set and in terms of capacity building, given its ongoing socioeconomic transition. PMID:12295512

  17. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  18. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  19. Salient motion features for video quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Mirković, Milan; Zlokolica, Vladimir; Pokrić, Maja; Crnojević, Vladimir; Kukolj, Dragan

    2011-04-01

    Design of algorithms that are able to estimate video quality as perceived by human observers is of interest for a number of applications. Depending on the video content, the artifacts introduced by the coding process can be more or less pronounced and diversely affect the quality of videos, as estimated by humans. While it is well understood that motion affects both human attention and coding quality, this relationship has only recently started gaining attention among the research community, when video quality assessment (VQA) is concerned. In this paper, the effect of calculating several objective measure features, related to video coding artifacts, separately for salient motion and other regions of the frames of the sequence is examined. In addition, we propose a new scheme for quality assessment of coded video streams, which takes into account salient motion. Standardized procedure has been used to calculate the Mean Opinion Score (MOS), based on experiments conducted with a group of non-expert observers viewing standard definition (SD) sequences. MOS measurements were taken for nine different SD sequences, coded using MPEG-2 at five different bit-rates. Eighteen different published approaches related to measuring the amount of coding artifacts objectively on a single-frame basis were implemented. Additional features describing the intensity of salient motion in the frames, as well as the intensity of coding artifacts in the salient motion regions were proposed. Automatic feature selection was performed to determine the subset of features most correlated to video quality. The results show that salient-motion-related features enhance prediction and indicate that the presence of blocking effect artifacts and blurring in the salient regions and variance and intensity of temporal changes in non-salient regions influence the perceived video quality. PMID:20876020

  20. Quick survey of smartphone features and functions.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2014-06-01

    What do you do when you leave the house without your smartphone? Do you sleep with it beside your bed? For us, these devices are as much a part of our lives as the belts around our waists. But, how long has it been since you surveyed the market? We provide a topical update on the current features and functions of these immensely important devices. PMID:24958977

  1. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  2. Quick Survey of Smartphone Features and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Felkey, Bill G.

    2014-01-01

    What do you do when you leave the house without your smartphone? Do you sleep with it beside your bed? For us, these devices are as much a part of our lives as the belts around our waists. But, how long has it been since you surveyed the market? We provide a topical update on the current features and functions of these immensely important devices. PMID:24958977

  3. Memetic Feature Selection: Benchmarking Hybridization Schemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esseghir, M. A.; Goncalves, Gilles; Slimani, Yahya

    Feature subset selection is an important preprocessing and guiding step for classification. The combinatorial nature of the problem have made the use of evolutionary and heuristic methods indispensble for the exploration of high dimensional problem search spaces. In this paper, a set of hybridization schemata of genetic algorithm with local search are investigated through a memetic framework. Empirical study compares and discusses the effectiveness of the proposed local search procedure as well as their components.

  4. Effect of object identification algorithms on feature based verification scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, Michael; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Many modern spatial verification techniques rely on feature identification algorithms. We study the importance of the choice of algorithm and its parameters for the resulting scores. SAL is used as an example to show that these choices have a statistically significant impact on the distributions of object dependent scores. Non-continuous operators used for feature identification are identified as the underlying reason for the observed stability issues, with implications for many feature based verification techniques.

  5. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:23438264

  6. Texture feature analysis for computer-aided diagnosis on pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Han, Fangfang; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Guopeng; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Li, Lihong; Moore, William; Lu, Hongbing; Zhao, Hong; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation of malignant and benign pulmonary nodules is of paramount clinical importance. Texture features of pulmonary nodules in CT images reflect a powerful character of the malignancy in addition to the geometry-related measures. This study first compared three well-known types of two-dimensional (2D) texture features (Haralick, Gabor, and local binary patterns or local binary pattern features) on CADx of lung nodules using the largest public database founded by Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative and then investigated extension from 2D to three-dimensional (3D) space. Quantitative comparison measures were made by the well-established support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and the p values from hypothesis t tests. While the three feature types showed about 90% differentiation rate, the Haralick features achieved the highest AUC value of 92.70% at an adequate image slice thickness, where a thinner or thicker thickness will deteriorate the performance due to excessive image noise or loss of axial details. Gain was observed when calculating 2D features on all image slices as compared to the single largest slice. The 3D extension revealed potential gain when an optimal number of directions can be found. All the observations from this systematic investigation study on the three feature types can lead to the conclusions that the Haralick feature type is a better choice, the use of the full 3D data is beneficial, and an adequate tradeoff between image thickness and noise is desired for an optimal CADx performance. These conclusions provide a guideline for further research on lung nodule differentiation using CT imaging. PMID:25117512

  7. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  8. Munitions related feature extraction from LIDAR data.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Barry L.

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of former military munitions ranges is critical in the identification of areas likely to contain residual unexploded ordnance (UXO). Although these ranges are large, often covering tens-of-thousands of acres, the actual target areas represent only a small fraction of the sites. The challenge is that many of these sites do not have records indicating locations of former target areas. The identification of target areas is critical in the characterization and remediation of these sites. The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the DoD have been developing and implementing techniques for the efficient characterization of large munitions ranges. As part of this process, high-resolution LIDAR terrain data sets have been collected over several former ranges. These data sets have been shown to contain information relating to former munitions usage at these ranges, specifically terrain cratering due to high-explosives detonations. The location and relative intensity of crater features can provide information critical in reconstructing the usage history of a range, and indicate areas most likely to contain UXO. We have developed an automated procedure using an adaptation of the Circular Hough Transform for the identification of crater features in LIDAR terrain data. The Circular Hough Transform is highly adept at finding circular features (craters) in noisy terrain data sets. This technique has the ability to find features of a specific radius providing a means of filtering features based on expected scale and providing additional spatial characterization of the identified feature. This method of automated crater identification has been applied to several former munitions ranges with positive results.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  10. [Importance of helicopter rescue].

    PubMed

    Hofer, G; Voelckel, W G

    2014-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) have become a main part of prehospital emergency medical services over the last 40 years. Recently, an ongoing discussion about financial shortage and personal shortcomings question the role of cost-intensive air rescue. Thus, the value of HEMS must be examined and discussed appropriately. Since the number of physician-staffed ground ambulances may decrease due to the limited availability of qualified physicians, HEMS may fill the gap. In addition patient transfer to specialized hospitals will require an increasing number of air transports in order to minimize prehospital time. The higher risk ratio for HEMS missions when compared with ground rescue requires a rigorous quality management system. When it comes to missions in remote and exposed areas, the scope of medical treatment must be adjusted to the individual situation. Medical competence is key in order to balance guideline compliant or maximal care versus optimal care characterized as a mission-specific, individualized emergency care concept. Although, medical decision making and treatment is typically based on the best scientific evidence, personal skills, competence, and the mission scenario will determine the scope of interventions suitable to improve outcome. Thus, the profile of requirements for the HEMS medical crew is high. PMID:24618925

  11. Feature-Based Registration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Klinder, Tobias; von Berg, Jens

    In contrast to intensity-based image registration, where a similarity measure is typically evaluated at each voxel location, feature-based registration works on a sparse set of image locations. Therefore, it needs an explicit step of interpolation to supply a dense deformation field. In this chapter, the application of feature-based registration to pulmonary image registration as well as hybrid methods, combining feature-based with intensity-based registration, is discussed. In contrast to pure feature based registration methods, hybrid methods are increasingly proposed in the pulmonary context and have the potential to out-perform purely intensity based registration methods. Available approaches will be classified along the categories feature type, correspondence definition, and interpolation type to finally achieve a dense deformation field.

  12. Seeding and Harvest: A Framework for Unsupervised Feature Selection Problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Cai, Yuanli; Shi, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Feature selection, also known as attribute selection, is the technique of selecting a subset of relevant features for building robust object models. It is becoming more and more important for large-scale sensors applications with AI capabilities. The core idea of this paper is derived from a straightforward and intuitive principle saying that, if a feature subset (pattern) has more representativeness, it should be more self-organized, and as a result it should be more insensitive to artificially seeded noise points. In the light of this heuristic finding, we established the whole set of theoretical principles, based on which we proposed a two-stage framework to evaluate the relative importance of feature subsets, called seeding and harvest (S&H for short). At the first stage, we inject a number of artificial noise points into the original dataset; then at the second stage, we resort to an outlier detector to identify them under various feature patterns. The more precisely the seeded points can be extracted under a particular feature pattern, the more valuable and important the corresponding feature pattern should be. Besides, we compared our method with several state-of-the-art feature selection methods on a number of real-life datasets. The experiment results significantly confirm that our method can accomplish feature reduction tasks with high accuracy as well as low computing complexity. PMID:23271599

  13. The Enigmatic Thirteen Micron Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz e Souza, Nelson

    Low and intermediate mass stars (0.8--8 solar masses) will eventually evolve into Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and pulsate out their atmosphere into the space around them. That ejected material will eventually cool and form dust. Understanding the nature and formation of cosmic dust is crucial to understanding the Universe. Evolved intermediate mass stars (i.e. AGB stars) are major contributors of dust to the cosmos. Dust around AGB stars are studied by means of infrared spectroscopy from which we observe several interesting spectral features. The observed AGB star spectra have been classified according to their shapes and wavelength positions of the dust features. Alongside the main spectral features around 8-12mum, there is an enigmatic 13mum feature that appears in about half the oxygen-rich AGB stars. The carrier of this feature has not yet been unequivocally identified but has been attributed to various dust species, including corundum (crystalline Al2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4), and silica (SiO2). While there have been several attempts to determine the cause of this 13mum feature, previous studies have been somewhat contradictory. In order to investigate the origin and characteristics of this spectral feature we observe variations in the 13mum feature over varying stellar parameters. We have also acquired spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of nearby O-rich AGB stars using Michelle on Gemini North. Here we present data on the 13mum feature strength mapped over space around their respective AGB star. The most popular hypothesis for the carrier of the 13mm feature is not supported by our findings.

  14. Clinicopathologic Features of Pediatric Oligodendrogliomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Tihan, Tarik; Lin, Doris; McDonald, William; Nigro, Janice; Feuerstein, Burt; Jackson, Sadhana; Cohen, Kenneth; Burger, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are an important adult form of diffuse gliomas with a distinctive clinical and genetic profile. Histologically similar tumors occurring rarely in children are incompletely characterized. We studied 50 patients with oligodendrogliomas (median age at diagnosis 8 y, range 7mo to 20 y). Tumors resembling dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or pilocytic astrocytomas or those having a “mixed” histology were excluded. Tumors at first diagnosis were low grade (n=38) or anaplastic (n=12). Histologic features included uniform round cells with perinuclear halos (100%), secondary structures (predominantly perineuronal satellitosis) (90%), calcifications (46%), and microcysts (44%). Sequential surgical specimens were obtained in 8 low-grade oligodendroglioma patients, with only 1 progressing to anaplasia. Studies for 1p19q performed in 40 cases demonstrated intact 1p19q loci in 29 (73%), 1p19q codeletion in 10 (25%), and 1p deletion with intact 19q in 1 (2%). Except for 2 young patients (3 and 11 y of age), patients with 1p19q codeletion were older than 16 years at diagnosis. Mutant IDH1 (R132H) protein immunohistochemistry was positive in 4 (of 22) (18%) cases, 3 of which also had 1p19q codeletion, whereas 1p19q status was not available on the fourth case. There was a nonsignificant trend for worse overall survival in grade III tumors, but no significant association with age, extent of resection, or 1p19q status. In summary, oligodendrogliomas with classic histology occur in the pediatric population but lack 1p19q codeletion and IDH1 (R132H) mutations in most instances. They are predominantly low grade, recur/clinically progress in a subset, but demonstrate a relatively low frequency of histologic progression. PMID:24805856

  15. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  16. New and Improved Integrated Optical Design Analysis (IODA) Software Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, Edward; Moore, James D., Jr.; Montgomery, Edward E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New features have been added to IODA to support testing of lightweight optics. Algorithms have been developed to predict actuator influence functions and positions to correct for gravity loading effects. New features have also been added to import measured test data and to compare measured data with predicted data.

  17. Evaluating Feature-Category Relations Using Semantic Fluency Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, P.; Morais, J.; Kolinsky, R.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between semantic features and semantic categories has been raised by Warrington and colleagues, who claimed that sensory and functional-associative features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living and nonliving things (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). In the…

  18. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  19. [Food additives from the viewpoint of the food chemist].

    PubMed

    Lück, E

    1987-01-01

    Food additives serve the consumer and are a necessity for food retailers and producers. Additives, such as vitamin D and iodine, increase the nutritional physiological value of foodstuffs. Additives, which improve food preservation by preventing microbiological deterioration are especially important. Some additives are added during food production and have no further use in the finished product. They are no longer present (solvents, clarifying agents). With regard to health, many food additives are better tested than most foods. PMID:3442082

  20. Imaging Features of Adult Choledochal Cysts: a Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Jin; Yi, Bum Ha; Lee, A Leum; Moon, Jong Ho; Chang, Yun Woo

    2009-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital anomalies which are principally diagnosed by disproportional dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts. In addition, choledochal cysts are believed to arise from the anomalous union of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct outside the duodenal wall which is also proximal to the sphincter of the Oddi mechanism. The various types of choledochal cysts have been classified on the basis of these anomalous unions (Komi classification) and their anatomical locations (Todani classification). The multidetector computed tomography with reformatted imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography represent the important techniques providing the anatomical resolution and detail required to properly diagnose and classify choledochal cysts and their associated abnormal features of the biliary tree, as well as their pancreaticobile duct union. This study describes the various imaging features of a choledochal cyst in adults according to the various types of anomalous unions of the pancreaticobile duct according to Komi's classification and anatomic location according to Todani's classification. Lastly, we also review and discuss the associated abnormal findings developed in biliary systems. PMID:19182506

  1. Ocular manifestations as key features for diagnosing mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Summers, C Gail; Ashworth, Jane L

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) requires awareness of the multisystem disease manifestations and their diverse presentation in terms of time of onset and severity. Many patients with MPS remain undiagnosed for years and progressively develop irreversible pathologies, which ultimately lead to premature death. To foster timely treatment and ensure a better outcome, it is of utmost importance to recognize and evaluate the typical ocular features that present fairly early in the course of the disease in many children with MPS. These include corneal clouding, ocular hypertension/glaucoma, retinal degeneration, optic disc swelling and optic nerve atrophy. Other associations include pseudo-exophthalmos, amblyopia, strabismus and large refractive errors requiring spectacle correction. While some ocular manifestations require specialized equipment for detecting abnormalities, light sensitivity, pseudo-exophthalmos and strabismus are often apparent on a routine physical examination. In addition, patients may be symptomatic from vision impairment, photosensitivity, night blindness and visual field constriction. Combined with the skeletal/joint complications and other manifestations, these ocular features are key in the differential diagnosis of children with joint abnormalities. Rheumatologists should have a high index of suspicion for MPS to facilitate early diagnosis. Referral to a geneticist, a metabolic specialist or physician who specializes in MPS can confirm the diagnosis and provide disease management. Consultation with an ophthalmologist who has expertise in MPS is also needed for thorough examination of the eyes and regular follow-up care. PMID:22210668

  2. Automatic lip reading by using multimodal visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Shohei; Ohya, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Since long time ago, speech recognition has been researched, though it does not work well in noisy places such as in the car or in the train. In addition, people with hearing-impaired or difficulties in hearing cannot receive benefits from speech recognition. To recognize the speech automatically, visual information is also important. People understand speeches from not only audio information, but also visual information such as temporal changes in the lip shape. A vision based speech recognition method could work well in noisy places, and could be useful also for people with hearing disabilities. In this paper, we propose an automatic lip-reading method for recognizing the speech by using multimodal visual information without using any audio information such as speech recognition. First, the ASM (Active Shape Model) is used to track and detect the face and lip in a video sequence. Second, the shape, optical flow and spatial frequencies of the lip features are extracted from the lip detected by ASM. Next, the extracted multimodal features are ordered chronologically so that Support Vector Machine is performed in order to learn and classify the spoken words. Experiments for classifying several words show promising results of this proposed method.

  3. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  4. Issues and special features of animal health research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  5. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative approximation of the latent variables, finds uncorrelated projections that extract slowly varying features ordered by their temporal consistency and constancy. In this paper, we propose a number of extensions in both the deterministic and the probabilistic SFA optimization frameworks. In particular, we derive a novel deterministic SFA algorithm that is able to identify linear projections that extract the common slowest varying features of two or more sequences. In addition, we propose an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to perform inference in a probabilistic formulation of SFA and similarly extend it in order to handle two and more time-varying data sequences. Moreover, we demonstrate that the probabilistic SFA (EM-SFA) algorithm that discovers the common slowest varying latent space of multiple sequences can be combined with dynamic time warping techniques for robust sequence time-alignment. The proposed SFA algorithms were applied for facial behavior analysis, demonstrating their usefulness and appropriateness for this task. PMID:26068878

  6. Noise, Edge Extraction and Visibility of Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Noise, whether due to the image-gathering device or some other reason, reduces the visibility of fine features in an image. Several techniques attempt to mitigate the impact of noise by performing a low-pass filtering operation on the acquired data. This is based on the assumption that the uncorrelated noise has high-frequency content and thus will be suppressed by low-pass filtering. A result of this operation is that edges in a noisy image also tend to get blurred, and, in some cases, may get completely lost due to the low-pass filtering. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the impact of noise on fine feature visibility by using computer-generated targets of known spatial detail. Additionally, we develop a new scheme for noise-reduction based on the connectivity of edge-features. The overall impact of this scheme is to reduce overall noise, yet retain the high frequency content that make edge-features sharp.

  7. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  8. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numericalmore » modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.« less

  9. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  10. A comparison of feature selection methods for multitemporal tree species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipkins, Kyle; Förster, Michael; Clasen, Anne; Schmidt, Tobias; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    The problem of feature selection is a significant one in classification problems, where the addition of too many features to the classification fails to lead to significant increases in classification accuracy. This problem is especially significant within the context of multitemporal remote sensing classifications, where the costs and efforts associated with the acquisition of additional imagery can be extensive. It would thus be beneficial to identify the most important seasons for acquiring imagery for specific land cover types. This study uses a phenologically-adjusted 21 date RapidEye time-series in order to evaluate two methods of feature selection. The two methods compared in this study are a genetic algorithm (GA) and a semi-exhaustive method (EXH), both of which compare permutations of sequential date and band combinations. These methods are employed using a seven class support vector machine classification on a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-transformed dataset. Overall accuracy (OAA) is used as the performance metric, and OAA significance is assessed using the McNemar test. The results from the feature selection methods are compared on the basis of phenological seasons selected across all iterations and the ideal number of combinations, based on the ratio of better performing classifications to all other classifications. The results suggest that the GA has a moderate but insignificant correlation when compared with the EXH for identifying ideal phenological seasons (overall Spearman's ρ= 0.60, p = 0.13), but is comparable when considering the number of seasons and image combinations.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.

  12. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  13. The identity of the discriminator base has an impact on CCA addition

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Sandra; Bonin, Sonja; Götze, Oskar; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CCA-adding enzymes synthesize and maintain the C-C-A sequence at the tRNA 3′-end, generating the attachment site for amino acids. While tRNAs are the most prominent substrates for this polymerase, CCA additions on non-tRNA transcripts are described as well. To identify general features for substrate requirement, a pool of randomized transcripts was incubated with the human CCA-adding enzyme. Most of the RNAs accepted for CCA addition carry an acceptor stem-like terminal structure, consistent with tRNA as the main substrate group for this enzyme. While these RNAs show no sequence conservation, the position upstream of the CCA end was in most cases represented by an adenosine residue. In tRNA, this position is described as discriminator base, an important identity element for correct aminoacylation. Mutational analysis of the impact of the discriminator identity on CCA addition revealed that purine bases (with a preference for adenosine) are strongly favoured over pyrimidines. Furthermore, depending on the tRNA context, a cytosine discriminator can cause a dramatic number of misincorporations during CCA addition. The data correlate with a high frequency of adenosine residues at the discriminator position observed in vivo. Originally identified as a prominent identity element for aminoacylation, this position represents a likewise important element for efficient and accurate CCA addition. PMID:25958396

  14. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  15. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  16. Microstamping of freestanding bipolymer features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, P. M.; Robert, C.

    2001-06-01

    Microscale bipolymer features have been fabricated by microstamping. Rigid silicon stamps with microwells as small as 40 fl in volume were used. Bipolymer columns, 2 μm by 2 μm in cross section and 10 μm tall, were stamped from these small microwells. The top 1.5 μm of each column was made of polyetherimide with the remaining 8.5 μm being made from an ethyl cyanoacrylate. The ability to accurately fabricate microscale features consisting of more than one polymer has many potential uses. As an example, the potential use of bipolymer features in nerve guides is discussed.

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  19. Methods of EEG signal features extraction using linear analysis in frequency and time-frequency domains.

    PubMed

    Al-Fahoum, Amjed S; Al-Fraihat, Ausilah A

    2014-01-01

    Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information. More recently, a variety of methods have been widely used to extract the features from EEG signals, among these methods are time frequency distributions (TFD), fast fourier transform (FFT), eigenvector methods (EM), wavelet transform (WT), and auto regressive method (ARM), and so on. In general, the analysis of EEG signal has been the subject of several studies, because of its ability to yield an objective mode of recording brain stimulation which is widely used in brain-computer interface researches with application in medical diagnosis and rehabilitation engineering. The purposes of this paper, therefore, shall be discussing some conventional methods of EEG feature extraction methods, comparing their performances for specific task, and finally, recommending the most suitable method for feature extraction based on performance. PMID:24967316

  20. Feature selection and classifier parameters estimation for EEG signals peak detection using particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Adam, Asrul; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Tumari, Mohd Zaidi Mohd; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. PMID:25243236

  1. Feature Selection and Classifier Parameters Estimation for EEG Signals Peak Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Asrul; Mohd Tumari, Mohd Zaidi; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. PMID:25243236

  2. Enhancement of ELDA Tracker Based on CNN Features and Adaptive Model Update.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changxin; Shi, Huizhang; Yu, Jin-Gang; Sang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Appearance representation and the observation model are the most important components in designing a robust visual tracking algorithm for video-based sensors. Additionally, the exemplar-based linear discriminant analysis (ELDA) model has shown good performance in object tracking. Based on that, we improve the ELDA tracking algorithm by deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and adaptive model update. Deep CNN features have been successfully used in various computer vision tasks. Extracting CNN features on all of the candidate windows is time consuming. To address this problem, a two-step CNN feature extraction method is proposed by separately computing convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Due to the strong discriminative ability of CNN features and the exemplar-based model, we update both object and background models to improve their adaptivity and to deal with the tradeoff between discriminative ability and adaptivity. An object updating method is proposed to select the "good" models (detectors), which are quite discriminative and uncorrelated to other selected models. Meanwhile, we build the background model as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to adapt to complex scenes, which is initialized offline and updated online. The proposed tracker is evaluated on a benchmark dataset of 50 video sequences with various challenges. It achieves the best overall performance among the compared state-of-the-art trackers, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm. PMID:27092505

  3. Enhancement of ELDA Tracker Based on CNN Features and Adaptive Model Update

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Changxin; Shi, Huizhang; Yu, Jin-Gang; Sang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Appearance representation and the observation model are the most important components in designing a robust visual tracking algorithm for video-based sensors. Additionally, the exemplar-based linear discriminant analysis (ELDA) model has shown good performance in object tracking. Based on that, we improve the ELDA tracking algorithm by deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and adaptive model update. Deep CNN features have been successfully used in various computer vision tasks. Extracting CNN features on all of the candidate windows is time consuming. To address this problem, a two-step CNN feature extraction method is proposed by separately computing convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Due to the strong discriminative ability of CNN features and the exemplar-based model, we update both object and background models to improve their adaptivity and to deal with the tradeoff between discriminative ability and adaptivity. An object updating method is proposed to select the “good” models (detectors), which are quite discriminative and uncorrelated to other selected models. Meanwhile, we build the background model as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to adapt to complex scenes, which is initialized offline and updated online. The proposed tracker is evaluated on a benchmark dataset of 50 video sequences with various challenges. It achieves the best overall performance among the compared state-of-the-art trackers, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm. PMID:27092505

  4. Methods of EEG Signal Features Extraction Using Linear Analysis in Frequency and Time-Frequency Domains

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fahoum, Amjed S.; Al-Fraihat, Ausilah A.

    2014-01-01

    Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information. More recently, a variety of methods have been widely used to extract the features from EEG signals, among these methods are time frequency distributions (TFD), fast fourier transform (FFT), eigenvector methods (EM), wavelet transform (WT), and auto regressive method (ARM), and so on. In general, the analysis of EEG signal has been the subject of several studies, because of its ability to yield an objective mode of recording brain stimulation which is widely used in brain-computer interface researches with application in medical diagnosis and rehabilitation engineering. The purposes of this paper, therefore, shall be discussing some conventional methods of EEG feature extraction methods, comparing their performances for specific task, and finally, recommending the most suitable method for feature extraction based on performance. PMID:24967316

  5. Digital mammography: Mixed feature neural network with spectral entropy decision for detection of microcalcifications

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, B. |; Qian, W.; Clarke, L.P.

    1996-10-01

    A computationally efficient mixed feature based neural network (MFNN) is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCC`s) in digitized mammograms. The MFNN employs features computed in both the spatial and spectral domain and uses spectral entropy as a decision parameter. Backpropagation with Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed to allow more efficient network training as required for evaluation of different features, input images, and related error analysis. A previously reported, wavelet-based image-enhancement method is also employed to enhance microcalcification clusters for improved detection. The relative performance of the MFNN for both the raw and enhanced images is evaluated using a common image database of 30 digitized mammograms, with 20 images containing 21 biopsy proven MCC`s and ten normal cases. The computed sensitivity (true positive (TP) detection rate) was 90.1% with an average low false positive (FP) detection of 0.71 MCCs/image for the enhanced images using a modified k-fold validation error estimation technique. The corresponding computed sensitivity for the raw images was reduced to 81.4% and with 0.59 FP`s MCCs/image. A relative comparison to an earlier neural network (NN) design, using only spatially related features, suggests the importance of the addition of spectral domain features when the raw image data are analyzed.

  6. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  7. Geochemical dynamics in selected Yellowstone hydrothermal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G.; Kamyshny, A.; Findlay, A.; Nuzzio, D.

    2010-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park has a wide diversity of thermal features, and includes springs with a range of pH conditions that significantly impact sulfur speciation. We have utilized a combination of voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the intermediate sulfur chemistry of Cinder Pool, Evening Primrose, Ojo Caliente, Frying Pan, Azure, and Dragon thermal springs. These measurements additionally have demonstrated the geochemical dynamics inherent in these systems; significant variability in chemical speciation occur in many of these thermal features due to changes in gas supply rates, fluid discharge rates, and thermal differences that occur on second time scales. The dynamics of the geochemical settings shown may significantly impact how microorganisms interact with the sulfur forms in these systems.

  8. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-04-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments.

  9. Integrated feature extraction and selection for neuroimage classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yong; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Feature extraction and selection are of great importance in neuroimage classification for identifying informative features and reducing feature dimensionality, which are generally implemented as two separate steps. This paper presents an integrated feature extraction and selection algorithm with two iterative steps: constrained subspace learning based feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) based feature selection. The subspace learning based feature extraction focuses on the brain regions with higher possibility of being affected by the disease under study, while the possibility of brain regions being affected by disease is estimated by the SVM based feature selection, in conjunction with SVM classification. This algorithm can not only take into account the inter-correlation among different brain regions, but also overcome the limitation of traditional subspace learning based feature extraction methods. To achieve robust performance and optimal selection of parameters involved in feature extraction, selection, and classification, a bootstrapping strategy is used to generate multiple versions of training and testing sets for parameter optimization, according to the classification performance measured by the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve. The integrated feature extraction and selection method is applied to a structural MR image based Alzheimer's disease (AD) study with 98 non-demented and 100 demented subjects. Cross-validation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve performance of the traditional subspace learning based classification.

  10. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments. PMID:27121171

  11. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments. PMID:27121171

  12. Robust spike classification based on frequency domain neural waveform features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenhui; Yuan, Yuan; Si, Jennie

    2013-12-01

    Objective. We introduce a new spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features of the spike snippets. The goal for the algorithm is to provide high classification accuracy, low false misclassification, ease of implementation, robustness to signal degradation, and objectivity in classification outcomes. Approach. In this paper, we propose a spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features (CFDF). It makes use of frequency domain contents of the recorded neural waveforms for spike classification. The self-organizing map (SOM) is used as a tool to determine the cluster number intuitively and directly by viewing the SOM output map. After that, spike classification can be easily performed using clustering algorithms such as the k-Means. Main results. In conjunction with our previously developed multiscale correlation of wavelet coefficient (MCWC) spike detection algorithm, we show that the MCWC and CFDF detection and classification system is robust when tested on several sets of artificial and real neural waveforms. The CFDF is comparable to or outperforms some popular automatic spike classification algorithms with artificial and real neural data. Significance. The detection and classification of neural action potentials or neural spikes is an important step in single-unit-based neuroscientific studies and applications. After the detection of neural snippets potentially containing neural spikes, a robust classification algorithm is applied for the analysis of the snippets to (1) extract similar waveforms into one class for them to be considered coming from one unit, and to (2) remove noise snippets if they do not contain any features of an action potential. Usually, a snippet is a small 2 or 3 ms segment of the recorded waveform, and differences in neural action potentials can be subtle from one unit to another. Therefore, a robust, high performance classification system like the CFDF is necessary. In addition, the proposed algorithm

  13. Comparative tectonic features on Ceres and other planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; von der Gathen, I.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Schulzeck, F.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Naß, A.; Preusker, F.; Schenk, P.; Schroeder, S.; Stephan, K.; Wagner, R. J.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Dawn Framing Camera images of Ceres' surface indicate that tectonic processes have played an important role in the surface formation history and alterations. We study structures expected to be the result of tectonic deformation and crustal stresses, which may enable us to reconstruct the formation process of the surface and the topographic signature. Tectonic features on Ceres such as troughs, ridges, scarps, fractures, depressions and domes are analogous to those on other planetary bodies like Enceladus, Ganymede, Europa and Mercury. Comparing these surface features will provide additional information about possible scenarios of crustal formation on Ceres. First investigations show that craters, like Urvara (46°S and 249°E), display sets of trenches radiating from the craters interior. They were likely formed by extensional tectonics linked to the impact. Similar features were also found on Mercury's surface. It is expected that other tectonic deformations on Ceres also influence the appearance of craters and crater walls. Comparatively small scale fissures on Ceres' surface, frequently arranged subparallel, seem to appear in terrain that looks smooth in the images. Fractures, cracks and scarps on Ceres can be found on Enceladus, Europa and Mercury in similar patterns. The "tiger stripes" on Enceladus are possible large scale analogous. Ridges on Europa, Enceladus and Ganymede are lineaments that dominate their entire surface. Those on Ceres' however, are more irregularly shaped and less distinct. On Ceres surface troughs seem to be relatively rare. However, they show similarities to troughs on Enceladus and Mercury, and could also be related to those on Europa and Ganymede. Domes are distributed over Ceres' entire surface and have a relatively regular shape. Analogous exist on Europa (relatively irregular or with halos) and Ganymede in the crater interiors.

  14. A novel feature selection method and its application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Chow, Tommy W. S.; Huang, Di

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel feature selection method based on rough sets and mutual information is proposed. The dependency of each feature guides the selection, and mutual information is employed to reduce the features which do not favor addition of dependency significantly. So the dependency of the subset found by our method reaches maximum with small number of features. Since our method evaluates both definitive relevance and uncertain relevance by a combined selection criterion of dependency and class-based distance metric, the feature subset is more relevant than other rough sets based methods. As a result, the subset is near optimal solution. In order to verify the contribution, eight different classification applications are employed. Our method is also employed on a real Alzheimer's disease dataset, and finds a feature subset where classification accuracy arrives at 81.3%. Those present results verify the contribution of our method. PMID:25530672

  15. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.

  16. Retinal image quality assessment using generic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasih, Mahnaz; Langlois, J. M. Pierre; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2014-03-01

    Retinal image quality assessment is an important step in automated eye disease diagnosis. Diagnosis accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of retinal images, because poor image quality might prevent the observation of significant eye features and disease manifestations. A robust algorithm is therefore required in order to evaluate the quality of images in a large database. We developed an algorithm for retinal image quality assessment based on generic features that is independent from segmentation methods. It exploits the local sharpness and texture features by applying the cumulative probability of blur detection metric and run-length encoding algorithm, respectively. The quality features are combined to evaluate the image's suitability for diagnosis purposes. Based on the recommendations of medical experts and our experience, we compared a global and a local approach. A support vector machine with radial basis functions was used as a nonlinear classifier in order to classify images to gradable and ungradable groups. We applied our methodology to 65 images of size 2592×1944 pixels that had been graded by a medical expert. The expert evaluated 38 images as gradable and 27 as ungradable. The results indicate very good agreement between the proposed algorithm's predictions and the medical expert's judgment: the sensitivity and specificity for the local approach are respectively 92% and 94%. The algorithm demonstrates sufficient robustness to identify relevant images for automated diagnosis.

  17. Monocular precrash vehicle detection: features and classifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zehang; Bebis, George; Miller, Ronald

    2006-07-01

    Robust and reliable vehicle detection from images acquired by a moving vehicle (i.e., on-road vehicle detection) is an important problem with applications to driver assistance systems and autonomous, self-guided vehicles. The focus of this work is on the issues of feature extraction and classification for rear-view vehicle detection. Specifically, by treating the problem of vehicle detection as a two-class classification problem, we have investigated several different feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis, wavelets, and Gabor filters. To evaluate the extracted features, we have experimented with two popular classifiers, neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). Based on our evaluation results, we have developed an on-board real-time monocular vehicle detection system that is capable of acquiring grey-scale images, using Ford's proprietary low-light camera, achieving an average detection rate of 10 Hz. Our vehicle detection algorithm consists of two main steps: a multiscale driven hypothesis generation step and an appearance-based hypothesis verification step. During the hypothesis generation step, image locations where vehicles might be present are extracted. This step uses multiscale techniques not only to speed up detection, but also to improve system robustness. The appearance-based hypothesis verification step verifies the hypotheses using Gabor features and SVMs. The system has been tested in Ford's concept vehicle under different traffic conditions (e.g., structured highway, complex urban streets, and varying weather conditions), illustrating good performance. PMID:16830921

  18. MEVTV Workshop on Tectonic Features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Thomas R. (Editor); Golombek, Matthew P. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The state of knowledge of tectonic features on Mars was determined and kinematic and mechanical models were assessed for their origin. Three sessions were held: wrinkle ridges and compressional structure; strike-slip faults; and extensional structures. Each session began with an overview of the features under discussion. In the case of wrinkle ridges and extensional structures, the overview was followed by keynote addresses by specialists working on similar structures on the Earth. The first session of the workshop focused on the controversy over the relative importance of folding, faulting, and intrusive volcanism in the origin of wrinkle ridges. The session ended with discussions of the origin of compressional flank structures associated with Martian volcanoes and the relationship between the volcanic complexes and the inferred regional stress field. The second day of the workshop began with the presentation and discussion of evidence for strike-slip faults on Mars at various scales. In the last session, the discussion of extensional structures ranged from the origin of grabens, tension cracks, and pit-crater chains to the origin of Valles Marineris canyons. Shear and tensile modes of brittle failure in the formation of extensional features and the role of these failure modes in the formation of pit-crater chains and the canyons of Valles Marineris were debated. The relationship of extensional features to other surface processes, such as carbonate dissolution (karst) were also discussed.

  19. MEVTV workshop on tectonic features on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, T.R.; Golombek, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The state of knowledge of tectonic features on Mars was determined and kinematic and mechanical models were assessed for their origin. Three sessions were held: wrinkle ridges and compressional structure; strike-slip faults; and extensional structures. Each session began with an overview of the features under discussion. In the case of wrinkle ridges and extensional structures, the overview was followed by keynote addresses by specialists working on similar structures on the Earth. The first session of the workshop focused on the controversy over the relative importance of folding, faulting, and intrusive volcanism in the origin of wrinkle ridges. The session ended with discussions of the origin of compressional flank structures associated with Martian volcanoes and the relationship between the volcanic complexes and the inferred regional stress field. The second day of the workshop began with the presentation and discussion of evidence for strike-slip faults on Mars at various scales. In the last session, the discussion of extensional structures ranged from the origin of grabens, tension cracks, and pit-crater chains to the origin of Valles Marineris canyons. Shear and tensile modes of brittle failure in the formation of extensional features and the role of these failure modes in the formation of pit-crater chains and the canyons of Valles Marineris were debated. The relationship of extensional features to other surface processes, such as carbonate dissolution (karst) were also discussed.

  20. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  1. Visualizing Meta-Features in Proteomic Maps

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The steps of a high-throughput proteomics experiment include the separation, differential expression and mass spectrometry-based identification of proteins. However, the last and more challenging step is inferring the biological role of the identified proteins through their association with interaction networks, biological pathways, analysis of the effect of post-translational modifications, and other protein-related information. Results In this paper, we present an integrative visualization methodology that allows combining experimentally produced proteomic features with protein meta-features, typically coming from meta-analysis tools and databases, in synthetic Proteomic Feature Maps. Using three proteomics analysis scenarios, we show that the proposed visualization approach is effective in filtering, navigating and interacting with the proteomics data in order to address visually challenging biological questions. The novelty of our approach lies in the ease of integration of any user-defined proteomic features in easy-to-comprehend visual representations that resemble the familiar 2D-gel images, and can be adapted to the user's needs. The main capabilities of the developed VIP software, which implements the presented visualization methodology, are also highlighted and discussed. Conclusions By using this visualization and the associated VIP software, researchers can explore a complex heterogeneous proteomics dataset from different perspectives in order to address visually important biological queries and formulate new hypotheses for further investigation. VIP is freely available at http://pelopas.uop.gr/~egian/VIP/index.html. PMID:21798033

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  3. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  4. Cholinergic influences on feature binding.

    PubMed

    Botly, Leigh C P; De Rosa, Eve

    2007-04-01

    The binding problem refers to the fundamental challenge of the central nervous system to integrate sensory information registered by multiple brain regions to form a unified neural representation of a stimulus. Human behavioral, neuropsychological, and functional neuroimaging evidence suggests a fundamental role for attention in feature binding; however, its neurochemical basis is currently unknown. This study examined whether acetylcholine (ACh), a neuromodulator that has been implicated in attentional processes, plays a critical role in feature binding. Using a within-subjects pharmacological design and the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, the present experiments demonstrate, in a rat model, a critical role for the cortical muscarinic cholinergic system in feature binding. Specifically, ACh and the attentional resources that it supports are essential for the initial feature binding process but are not required to maintain neural representations of bound stimuli. PMID:17469916

  5. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18984479

  6. Pair importance measures in systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Xue, D.; Cho, N.

    1986-01-01

    Importance measures in systems unreliability (or unavailability) analysis provide useful information in identifying components which are critical with regard to the availability or reliability of a system. Various importance measures known in the reliability literature are defined for a single component. This paper extends previous work to define importance measures for a pair of components of the system (accident sequence, core damage frequency, or health risks as appropriate), and illustrates the usefulness of these pairwise importance measures in nuclear power plants. The pairwise importance measures are immediately applicable to risk-based evaluation of the technical specifications; in addition, pairwise importances could play an important role in systems interaction studies by highlighting pairs of events between which a coupling would be significant if it existed.

  7. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  8. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  9. Optical security features for plastic card documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossick Schott, Joachim

    1998-04-01

    Print-on-demand is currently a major trend in the production of paper based documents. This fully digital production philosophy will likely have ramifications also for the secure identification document market. Here, plastic cards increasingly replace traditionally paper based security sensitive documents such as drivers licenses and passports. The information content of plastic cards can be made highly secure by using chip cards. However, printed and other optical security features will continue to play an important role, both for machine readable and visual inspection. Therefore, on-demand high resolution print technologies, laser engraving, luminescent pigments and laminated features such as holograms, kinegrams or phase gratings will have to be considered for the production of secure identification documents. Very important are also basic optical, surface and material durability properties of the laminates as well as the strength and nature of the adhesion between the layers. This presentation will address some of the specific problems encountered when optical security features such as high resolution printing and laser engraving are to be integrated in the on-demand production of secure plastic card identification documents.

  10. Radiological Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir; Shukla, Akash; Paunipagar, Bhawan

    2014-01-01

    Present article is a review of radiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma on various imaging modalities. With the advancement in imaging techniques, biopsy is rarely needed for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), unlike other malignancies. Imaging is useful not only for diagnosis but also for surveillance, therapy and assessing response to treatment. The classical and the atypical radiological features of HCC have been described. PMID:25755613

  11. Correlative feature analysis on FFDM

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Yading; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li Hui; Sennett, Charlene

    2008-12-15

    Identifying the corresponding images of a lesion in different views is an essential step in improving the diagnostic ability of both radiologists and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Because of the nonrigidity of the breasts and the 2D projective property of mammograms, this task is not trivial. In this pilot study, we present a computerized framework that differentiates between corresponding images of the same lesion in different views and noncorresponding images, i.e., images of different lesions. A dual-stage segmentation method, which employs an initial radial gradient index (RGI) based segmentation and an active contour model, is applied to extract mass lesions from the surrounding parenchyma. Then various lesion features are automatically extracted from each of the two views of each lesion to quantify the characteristics of density, size, texture and the neighborhood of the lesion, as well as its distance to the nipple. A two-step scheme is employed to estimate the probability that the two lesion images from different mammographic views are of the same physical lesion. In the first step, a correspondence metric for each pairwise feature is estimated by a Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN). Then, these pairwise correspondence metrics are combined using another BANN to yield an overall probability of correspondence. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the individual features and the selected feature subset in the task of distinguishing corresponding pairs from noncorresponding pairs. Using a FFDM database with 123 corresponding image pairs and 82 noncorresponding pairs, the distance feature yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.81{+-}0.02 with leave-one-out (by physical lesion) evaluation, and the feature metric subset, which included distance, gradient texture, and ROI-based correlation, yielded an AUC of 0.87{+-}0.02. The improvement by using multiple feature metrics was statistically

  12. Characterizing mammographic images by using generic texture features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Although mammographic density is an established risk factor for breast cancer, its use is limited in clinical practice because of a lack of automated and standardized measurement methods. The aims of this study were to evaluate a variety of automated texture features in mammograms as risk factors for breast cancer and to compare them with the percentage mammographic density (PMD) by using a case-control study design. Methods A case-control study including 864 cases and 418 controls was analyzed automatically. Four hundred seventy features were explored as possible risk factors for breast cancer. These included statistical features, moment-based features, spectral-energy features, and form-based features. An elaborate variable selection process using logistic regression analyses was performed to identify those features that were associated with case-control status. In addition, PMD was assessed and included in the regression model. Results Of the 470 image-analysis features explored, 46 remained in the final logistic regression model. An area under the curve of 0.79, with an odds ratio per standard deviation change of 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.65), was obtained with validation data. Adding the PMD did not improve the final model. Conclusions Using texture features to predict the risk of breast cancer appears feasible. PMD did not show any additional value in this study. With regard to the features assessed, most of the analysis tools appeared to reflect mammographic density, although some features did not correlate with PMD. It remains to be investigated in larger case-control studies whether these features can contribute to increased prediction accuracy. PMID:22490545

  13. Category dimensionality and feature knowledge: When more features are learned as easily as fewer

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments compared the learning of lower-dimensional family-resemblance categories (four dimensions) to the learning of higher-dimensional ones (eight dimensions). Category learning models incorporating error-driven learning, hypothesis-testing, or limited capacity attention predict that additional dimensions should either increase learning difficulty or decrease learning of individual features. Contrary to these predictions, the experiments showed no slower learning of high-dimensional categories, while subjects learning high-dimensional categories learned more features than those learning low-dimensional categories. This result obtained both in standard learning with feedback and in noncontingent, observational learning. Our results show that, rather than interfering with learning, categories with more dimensions cause subjects to learn more. We contrast the learning of family-resemblance categories with learning in classical conditioning and probability learning paradigms, in which competition among features is well documented. PMID:16569148

  14. Coding visual features extracted from video sequences.

    PubMed

    Baroffio, Luca; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Visual features are successfully exploited in several applications (e.g., visual search, object recognition and tracking, etc.) due to their ability to efficiently represent image content. Several visual analysis tasks require features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques to reduce the required bit budget, while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper, we propose, for the first time, a coding architecture designed for local features (e.g., SIFT, SURF) extracted from video sequences. To achieve high coding efficiency, we exploit both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intraframe and interframe coding modes. In addition, we propose a coding mode decision based on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed coding scheme can be conveniently adopted to implement the analyze-then-compress (ATC) paradigm in the context of visual sensor networks. That is, sets of visual features are extracted from video frames, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs visual analysis. This is in contrast to the traditional compress-then-analyze (CTA) paradigm, in which video sequences acquired at a node are compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing. In this paper, we compare these coding paradigms using metrics that are routinely adopted to evaluate the suitability of visual features in the context of content-based retrieval, object recognition, and tracking. Experimental results demonstrate that, thanks to the significant coding gains achieved by the proposed coding scheme, ATC outperforms CTA with respect to all evaluation metrics. PMID:24818244

  15. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  16. Hairy cell leukemia: clinical features and therapeutic advances.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Golomb, H M

    1987-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder which has been extensively studied over the past decade. Much has been learned regarding the diagnosis, natural history, biology, and treatment of this unique neoplasm. The disease most commonly affects middle aged men and characteristic clinical features include splenomegaly, cytopenias, and usually the presence in the peripheral blood of distinctive 'hairy cells' with irregular cytoplasmic projections. Diagnosis can usually be confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Although the natural history can be extremely variable among patients, complications are usually referable to the cytopenias, with anemia and infection being most frequent. In addition to pyogenic infections, patients are susceptible to unusual organisms including atypical mycobacterium, legionella, and fungi. The requirement of red blood cell transfusion, severe granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia, frequent infections, or painful splenomegaly are all indications for treatment. Splenectomy is the standard initial treatment of choice. However, in the past few years there have been exciting major advances in the therapeutic modalities for HCL. Recombinant alpha-interferon is highly effective, with beneficial responses occurring in close to 90% of patients. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of interferon for HCL. This represents the first time a biological response modifier has been approved for the treatment of human disease. In addition, preliminary results with the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, 2'deoxycoformycin (dcf), have been encouraging. Further clinical trials are required in order to determine the optimal sequential treatment strategy for HCL. The exact mechanisms of action of both interferon and dcf in HCL remain to be elucidated. A better understanding of the unusual features of the hairy cell and the underlying biological effect of these two agents in HCL may have important applications in other

  17. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  18. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  19. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  20. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  1. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  2. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  3. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  4. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  5. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  6. Statistics over features for internal carotid arterial disorders detection.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to extract the representative features of the internal carotid arterial (ICA) Doppler ultrasound signals and to present the accurate classification model. This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the extracted features (Lyapunov exponents and the power levels of the power spectral density estimates obtained by the eigenvector methods) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the extracted feature vectors. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Mixture of experts (ME) and modified mixture of experts (MME) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of arterial disorders. Three types of ICA Doppler signals (Doppler signals recorded from healthy subjects, subjects having stenosis, and subjects having occlusion) were classified. The classification results confirmed that the proposed ME and MME has potential in detecting the arterial disorders. PMID:18179791

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  8. The Importance of "What": Infants Use Featural Information to Index Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Wu, Rachel; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic spatial indexing is the ability to encode, remember, and track the location of complex events. For example, in a previous study, 6-month-old infants were familiarized to a toy making a particular sound in a particular location, and later they fixated that empty location when they heard the sound presented alone ("Journal of Experimental…

  9. Beacon Hill end moraine, Boston: new explanation of an important urban feature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    The usefulness of geology to engineers is in direct proportion to how well it helps us predict the subsurface; these predictions, in turn, depend on our knowledge of the geomorphic processes that molded the terrain. The uncertainties of interpretation are particularly great in glaciated terrain because our understanding of both glacial processes and history is so incomplete, a fact well illustrated in Beacon Hill. Recent construction activities in the eastern part of the hill, until now classified as a drumlin, have shown that it is better interpreted as an end moraine formed by a Wisconsonian glacial readvance. Instead of the firm till that was anticipated as foundation material, excavations exposed a complex of sand, gravel, and clay, with only minor zones of till. The structure of these deposits strongly suggests that originally they were plates of the glacial bed that froze to the glacier and were transported englacially. Thrust faulting and other deformations are glacial structures formed within the ice in the glacier's terminal zone. In spite of the complex englacial history, these deposits lost little of their original appearance and intergranular relationships. Upon deglaciation, the frozen moraine thawed, and slumping formed complex secondary structures on the ridge's lower flanks.

  10. Neuromuscular development in Patellogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and its importance for reconstructing ancestral gastropod bodyplan features

    PubMed Central

    Kristof, Alen; de Oliveira, André Luiz; Kolbin, Konstantin G.; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Within Gastropoda, limpets (Patellogastropoda) are considered the most basal branching taxon and its representatives are thus crucial for research into evolutionary questions. Here, we describe the development of the neuromuscular system in Lottia cf. kogamogai. In trochophore larvae, first serotonin-like immunoreactivity (lir) appears in the apical organ and in the prototroch nerve ring. The arrangement and number of serotonin-lir cells in the apical organ (three flask-shaped, two round cells) are strikingly similar to those in putatively derived gastropods. First, FMRFamide-lir appears in veliger larvae in the Anlagen of the future adult nervous system including the cerebral and pedal ganglia. As in other gastropods, the larvae of this limpet show one main and one accessory retractor as well as a pedal retractor and a prototroch muscle ring. Of these, only the pedal retractor persists until after metamorphosis and is part of the adult shell musculature. We found a hitherto undescribed, paired muscle that inserts at the base of the foot and runs towards the base of the tentacles. An apical organ with flask-shaped cells, one main and one accessory retractor muscle is commonly found among gastropod larvae and thus might have been part of the last common ancestor. PMID:26869747

  11. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  12. Improving of nutraceutical features of many important mediterranean vegetables by inoculation with a new commercial product.

    PubMed

    Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian C; Petito, Raffaele; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies show that fruits, vegetables and cereals can play a nutraceutical role for their content of many antioxidant phytochemicals such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid and phenolics. A commercial inoculant (MICOSAT F(®)) containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could improve the nutritional value in crops. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of AMF on the production level of carotenoids, AsA, phenols including antocyanins and saponins, proteins, total antioxidant activity and nitrates in fruits, vegetables, legumes and durum wheat var. grecale, whose consumption is largely recommended according to Mediterranean diet. The treatment increased the antioxidant activity in strawberries (37.50%), in giant lentils (29.17%) and in durum wheat (63.63%) but decreased it in kiwi (31.81%) and in grape (19.81%). Nitrate levels decreased significantly in strawberries (39.78%) and in tomato intended for transformation (37.79%). The application of MICOSAT F(®) enhanced the levels of several secondary metabolites. However, the amount of phytochemicals and respective by-products were reduced in some cases. Environmental conditions and modality of AMF inoculation could module both primary and secondary metabolites. PMID:26044864

  13. Neuropathic ocular pain: an important yet underevaluated feature of dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Galor, A; Levitt, R C; Felix, E R; Martin, E R; Sarantopoulos, C D

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye has gained recognition as a public health problem given its prevalence, morbidity, and cost implications. Dry eye can have a variety of symptoms including blurred vision, irritation, and ocular pain. Within dry eye-associated ocular pain, some patients report transient pain whereas others complain of chronic pain. In this review, we will summarize the evidence that chronicity is more likely to occur in patients with dysfunction in their ocular sensory apparatus (ie, neuropathic ocular pain). Clinical evidence of dysfunction includes the presence of spontaneous dysesthesias, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and corneal nerve morphologic and functional abnormalities. Both peripheral and central sensitizations likely play a role in generating the noted clinical characteristics. We will further discuss how evaluating for neuropathic ocular pain may affect the treatment of dry eye-associated chronic pain. PMID:25376119

  14. The Venezuelan School System: Some Important Features for the Definition of the Process of Educational Decentralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregui, Luis Bravo; Blanco, Carlos Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    Reports initial results of an investigation into achievements of Venezuelan state policies since 1958. The state remains the main driving force for school development. Venezuelan education is both public and centrally organized; the central government is the highest authority in educational matters. Decentralization as a way to reform rural…

  15. Realizing the recognition features of model antipsychotic compounds by important protein: Photochemical and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Peng, Wei; Chao, Ming-Wei; Peng, Yu-Kui

    2015-07-01

    Phenothiazine and its derivatives are the most effective antipsychotic drugs. They have been used in the treatment of serious mental and emotional symptoms including bipolar disorder, organic psychoses, psychotic depression and schizophrenia. However, these drugs cause serious side effects such as akathisia, hyperprolactinaemia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In this work we investigated the molecular recognition of two typical phenothiazine compounds, phenosafranin and safranin O by the most pivotal heme protein hemoglobin using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, extrinsic 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescent probe, circular dichroism (CD) along with computational modeling. Results show phenothiazines complex with protein via formation of adducts at 298 K with moderate strengths of 3.555×10(4) M(-1) and 2.567×10(4) M(-1) for the hemoglobin-phenosafranin and hemoglobin-safranin O, respectively. We also found phenothiazines were effectors at the protein allosteric site, which affects the allosteric equilibrium. Further, time-resolved fluorescence and hydrophobic ANS experiments showed the static mechanism is dominated for the shrinkage in the fluorescence intensity of β-37 Trp residue at the α1β2 interface. The stoichiometric proportion of the protein-drug adduct is 1:1, as derived from Job's plot. Several crucial noncovalent bonds, including hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in stabilizing the noncovalent conjugates. Based on three-dimensional fluorescence, we concluded that the conformation of hemoglobin is partially destabilized after recognition with phenothiazines. These alterations were confirmed by far-UV CD spectra that showed the α-helix of protein decreased from 78.3% in free hemoglobin to 62.8% and 64.8% in hemoglobin-phenosafranin and hemoglobin-safranin O, respectively. Computer-aided molecular docking was consistent, indicating that both phenothiazines are situated within the pocket composed of α1 and β2 subunits. Affinity of hemoglobin to phenosafranin is superior compared with safranin O. This difference may be explained by the methyl group substituent on A- and C-rings, and by the different molecular volume between phenosafranin and safranin O. Our data provides further explanation of the overall pharmacokinetics of phenothiazines and sheds light on the allosteric regulation of heme proteins. PMID:25863440

  16. Larvae of five horticulturally important species of Chrysopodes (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): shared generic features, descriptions and keys

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia S.; Tauber, Catherine A.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An expanded list of generic level larval characteristics is presented for Chrysopodes; it includes a reinterpretation of the mesothoracic and metathoracic structure and setation. Keys, descriptions and images of Semaphoront A (first instar) and Semaphoront B (second and third instars) are offered for identifying five species of Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes) that are commonly reported from horticultural habitats in the Neotropical region. PMID:23653514

  17. The Importance of Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Are You Sleep-Deprived? The Importance of Sleep Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Many people view sleep as merely a "down time," when their brains ...

  18. Human recognition by body shape features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ming; Guan, Ling

    2005-03-01

    Non-invasive biometrics is of particular importance because of its application under surveillance environment. Although traditional research in this field is mostly focused on gait recognition, feature based on human body shape is one of the alternate choices we can rely on. Here we propose a body shape based identification system, trying to explore the its distinguishing power in biometrics. Robust image processing procedures such as Wiener filter are implemented to extract binary silhouettes from frontal-view human walking video. The Kalman filter, usually adopted as a powerful tool to facilitate tracking in computer vision applications, here functions as a reliable estimator to recover body shape information from the corrupted observations. The dynamically extracted static feature vectors are then compared to templates to achieve identification. We provide experimental results to demonstrate the performance of our system.

  19. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED. PMID:26530404

  20. Effective Automated Feature Construction and Selection for Classification of Biological Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Uday; De Jong, Kenneth; Shehu, Amarda

    2014-01-01

    Background Many open problems in bioinformatics involve elucidating underlying functional signals in biological sequences. DNA sequences, in particular, are characterized by rich architectures in which functional signals are increasingly found to combine local and distal interactions at the nucleotide level. Problems of interest include detection of regulatory regions, splice sites, exons, hypersensitive sites, and more. These problems naturally lend themselves to formulation as classification problems in machine learning. When classification is based on features extracted from the sequences under investigation, success is critically dependent on the chosen set of features. Methodology We present an algorithmic framework (EFFECT) for automated detection of functional signals in biological sequences. We focus here on classification problems involving DNA sequences which state-of-the-art work in machine learning shows to be challenging and involve complex combinations of local and distal features. EFFECT uses a two-stage process to first construct a set of candidate sequence-based features and then select a most effective subset for the classification task at hand. Both stages make heavy use of evolutionary algorithms to efficiently guide the search towards informative features capable of discriminating between sequences that contain a particular functional signal and those that do not. Results To demonstrate its generality, EFFECT is applied to three separate problems of importance in DNA research: the recognition of hypersensitive sites, splice sites, and ALU sites. Comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms show that the framework is both general and powerful. In addition, a detailed analysis of the constructed features shows that they contain valuable biological information about DNA architecture, allowing biologists and other researchers to directly inspect the features and potentially use the insights obtained to assist wet-laboratory studies on retainment or

  1. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Importation § 478.112 Importation by a licensed importer. (a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall... the Director has authorized the importation of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition. (b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to import or bring a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition...

  2. Diverse and composite features for ECG signals processing.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2008-01-01

    The automated diagnostic systems employing diverse and composite features for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were analyzed and their accuracies were determined. Because of the importance of making the right decision, classification procedures classifying the ECG signals with high accuracy were investigated. The classification accuracies of multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), and mixture of experts (ME) trained on composite features and modified mixture of experts (MME) trained on diverse features were compared. The inputs of these automated diagnostic systems were composed of diverse or composite features (wavelet coefficients and power levels of the power spectral density estimates obtained by the eigenvector methods) and were chosen according to the network structures. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the MME trained on diverse features achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the other automated diagnostic systems trained on composite features. PMID:18408257

  3. Developments in multisensor ocean feature monitoring: the ocean fronts feature analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownsword, Chris; Jory, Ian

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally oceanographic features such as fronts and eddies have been monitored using satellites equipped with optical sensors such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The disadvantage of using AVHRR, however, is that it requires cloud free conditions to view the Earth's surface. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides all weather, day/night image acquisition capabilities. Currently little is known about the effects of sea surface temperature variations on the returned SAR signal, though it is known that some variation in surface roughness is present where oceanographic features occur. Research into these phenomena is being undertaken at the Defence Research Agency (DRA) in Farnborough, U.K.. To investigate the capabilities of SAR, for ocean front detection, the Ocean Fronts Feature Analysis System (OFFAS) has been developed by Earth Observation Sciences Limited under contract to DRA. Using OFFAS, AVHRR data is used to verify and validate the SAR responses to oceanographic features. This paper is an update to that presented at Oceanology International '94, in Brighton which discussed the research and development work into the use of SAR data from the ERS-1 satellite to identify oceanographic features. Since then the modifications to the software, mentioned in that paper, have been made. OFFAS II now provides the capability to geometrically rectify the images to a regular map projection prior to the simultaneous display and manipulation of both image types. Thus allowing faster location of features of interest identified within a reference image (e.g. AVHRR), delineation of them using a tracing procedure, then the automatic redrawing of the trace on the corresponding target image (e.g. SAR). In addition the geometrically rectified SAR images can be mosaiced together, this is particularly useful where large oceanographic features span more than one image. To date, trials performed using OFFAS have indicated its value in aiding interpretation

  4. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  5. Johnson-McMillin Microtia Syndrome: New Additional Family.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Gebril, Ola Hosny; Abdelraouf, Ehab Ragaa; Shafie, Mohammed Akmal; Bahgat, Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly that is found with different prevalence among various populations. The exact etiology of ear anomalies is still unknown. We describe a new additional family with this rare disorder; Johnson-McMillin syndrome (JMS) where mother, son, and distant grandmother have multiple features of JMS in the form of microtia, facial asymmetry, ear malformation, hearing defect, and hypotrichosis. Variable presentations in this family could be referred to phenotype variation supporting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. We observed that the mother was very sad and suffered from feelings of guilt. We found that she had isolated herself from family and community out of fear of being stigmatized and hurt. We concluded that the occurrence of microtia is of public health importance, adhering to traditional marriage customs in Egypt increases women's risk of giving birth to a disabled child, yet the mothers are blamed and shamed for their children's birth defects by their husbands, families, and communities, while the fathers are not stigmatized. PMID:25374870

  6. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  7. Automatic Feature-Based Grouping During Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P.; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard, or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. The features were always irrelevant to the task instructions. We found that inter-target grouping improved performance for all feature types, except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were at times large (>15% decrement in ac curacy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2) and relative to a “diversity” condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking. PMID:23458095

  8. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  9. Classifier dependent feature preprocessing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Benjamin M., II; Peterson, Gilbert L.

    2008-04-01

    In mobile applications, computational complexity is an issue that limits sophisticated algorithms from being implemented on these devices. This paper provides an initial solution to applying pattern recognition systems on mobile devices by combining existing preprocessing algorithms for recognition. In pattern recognition systems, it is essential to properly apply feature preprocessing tools prior to training classification models in an attempt to reduce computational complexity and improve the overall classification accuracy. The feature preprocessing tools extended for the mobile environment are feature ranking, feature extraction, data preparation and outlier removal. Most desktop systems today are capable of processing a majority of the available classification algorithms without concern of processing while the same is not true on mobile platforms. As an application of pattern recognition for mobile devices, the recognition system targets the problem of steganalysis, determining if an image contains hidden information. The measure of performance shows that feature preprocessing increases the overall steganalysis classification accuracy by an average of 22%. The methods in this paper are tested on a workstation and a Nokia 6620 (Symbian operating system) camera phone with similar results.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  11. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  12. 48 CFR 1436.571 - Additive and deductive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... items. 1436.571 Section 1436.571 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Additive and deductive items. If it appears that funds available for a construction project may be insufficient for all the desired features, the CO may provide in the solicitation for a base bid item...

  13. 48 CFR 1436.571 - Additive and deductive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... items. 1436.571 Section 1436.571 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Additive and deductive items. If it appears that funds available for a construction project may be insufficient for all the desired features, the CO may provide in the solicitation for a base bid item...

  14. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  15. Adaptive unsupervised slow feature analysis for feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xingjian; Liu, Chuancai; Wang, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Slow feature analysis (SFA) extracts slowly varying features out of the input data and has been successfully applied on pattern recognition. However, SFA heavily relies on the constructed time series when SFA is applied on databases that neither have obvious temporal structure nor have label information. Traditional SFA constructs time series based on k-nearest neighborhood (k-NN) criterion. Specifically, the time series set constructed by k-NN criterion is likely to include noisy time series or lose suitable time series because the parameter k is difficult to determine. To overcome these problems, a method called adaptive unsupervised slow feature analysis (AUSFA) is proposed. First, AUSFA designs an adaptive criterion to generate time series for characterizing submanifold. The constructed time series have two properties: (1) two points of time series lie on the same submanifold and (2) the submanifold of the time series is smooth. Second, AUSFA seeks projections that simultaneously minimize the slowness scatter and maximize the fastness scatter to extract slow discriminant features. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark face databases demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  16. Visual attention to features by associative learning.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Moskowitz, Joshua B; Pratt, Jay

    2014-11-01

    Expecting a particular stimulus can facilitate processing of that stimulus over others, but what is the fate of other stimuli that are known to co-occur with the expected stimulus? This study examined the impact of learned association on feature-based attention. The findings show that the effectiveness of an uninformative color transient in orienting attention can change by learned associations between colors and the expected target shape. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned two distinct sequences of stimulus-response-outcome, where stimuli were defined by shape ('S' vs. 'H'), responses were localized key-presses (left vs. right), and outcomes were colors (red vs. green). Next, in a test phase, while expecting a target shape (80% probable), participants showed reliable attentional orienting to the color transient associated with the target shape, and showed no attentional orienting with the color associated with the alternative target shape. This bias seemed to be driven by learned association between shapes and colors, and not modulated by the response. In addition, the bias seemed to depend on observing target-color conjunctions, since encountering the two features disjunctively (without spatiotemporal overlap) did not replicate the findings. We conclude that associative learning - likely mediated by mechanisms underlying visual object representation - can extend the impact of goal-driven attention to features associated with a target stimulus. PMID:25173722

  17. SAPHIRE 8 New Features and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software performs probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculations. SAPHIRE is used in support of NRC’s risk-informed programs such as the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program, Management Directive 8.3, “NRC Incident Investigation Program,” or the Significance Determination Process (SDP). It is also used to develop and run the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models. SAPHIRE Version 8 is a new version of the software with an improved interface and capabilities to support risk-informed programs. SAPHIRE Version 8 is designed to easily handle larger and more complex models. Applications of previous SAPHIRE versions indicated the need to build and solve models with a large number of sequences. Risk assessments that include endstate evaluations for core damage frequency and large, early release frequency evaluations have greatly increased the number of sequences required. In addition, the complexity of the models has increased since risk assessments evaluate both potential internal and external events, as well as different plant operational states. Special features of SAPHIRE 8 help create and run integrated models which may be composed of different model types. SAPHIRE 8 includes features and capabilities that are new or improved over the current Version 7 to address the new requirements for risk-informed programs and SPAR models. These include: • Improved User Interfaces • Model development • Methods • General Support Features

  18. Retinal vasculature classification using novel multifractal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Ward, W. O. C.; Duan, Jinming; Auer, D. P.; Gowland, Penny; Bai, L.

    2015-11-01

    Retinal blood vessels have been implicated in a large number of diseases including diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular diseases, which cause damages to retinal blood vessels. The availability of retinal vessel imaging provides an excellent opportunity for monitoring and diagnosis of retinal diseases, and automatic analysis of retinal vessels will help with the processes. However, state of the art vascular analysis methods such as counting the number of branches or measuring the curvature and diameter of individual vessels are unsuitable for the microvasculature. There has been published research using fractal analysis to calculate fractal dimensions of retinal blood vessels, but so far there has been no systematic research extracting discriminant features from retinal vessels for classifications. This paper introduces new methods for feature extraction from multifractal spectra of retinal vessels for classification. Two publicly available retinal vascular image databases are used for the experiments, and the proposed methods have produced accuracies of 85.5% and 77% for classification of healthy and diabetic retinal vasculatures. Experiments show that classification with multiple fractal features produces better rates compared with methods using a single fractal dimension value. In addition to this, experiments also show that classification accuracy can be affected by the accuracy of vessel segmentation algorithms.

  19. Tunable features of magnetoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuxiang; Zhai, Junyi; Priya, Shashank; Li, Jie-Fang; Viehland, Dwight

    2009-06-01

    We have found that magnetostrictive FeBSiC alloy ribbons laminated with piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) fiber can act as a tunable transformer when driven under resonant conditions. These composites were also found to exhibit the strongest resonant magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 750 V/cm-Oe. The tunable features were achieved by applying small dc magnetic biases of -5 features include 1) a high voltage gain of -55 features can be attributed to large changes in the piezomagnetic coefficient and permeability of the magnetostrictive phase under H(dc). PMID:19574118

  20. Image segmentation using random features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Geoff; Gao, Junbin; Antolovich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for selecting random features via compressed sensing to improve the performance of Normalized Cuts in image segmentation. Normalized Cuts is a clustering algorithm that has been widely applied to segmenting images, using features such as brightness, intervening contours and Gabor filter responses. Some drawbacks of Normalized Cuts are that computation times and memory usage can be excessive, and the obtained segmentations are often poor. This paper addresses the need to improve the processing time of Normalized Cuts while improving the segmentations. A significant proportion of the time in calculating Normalized Cuts is spent computing an affinity matrix. A new algorithm has been developed that selects random features using compressed sensing techniques to reduce the computation needed for the affinity matrix. The new algorithm, when compared to the standard implementation of Normalized Cuts for segmenting images from the BSDS500, produces better segmentations in significantly less time.

  1. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we search for possible features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. WWI offers the inflaton potential parametrizations that generate a wide variety of features in the primordial power spectra incorporating most of the localized and non-local inflationary features that are obtained upon reconstruction from temperature and polarization angular power spectrum. At the same time, in a single framework it allows us to have a background parameter estimation with a nearly free-form primordial spectrum. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides more than 13 improvement in χ2 fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow roll inflaton potential. We find that the differences between the temperature and polarization data in constraining background cosmological parameters such as baryon density, cold dark matter density are reduced to a good extent if we use primordial power spectra from WWI. We also discuss the extent of bispectra obtained from the best potentials in arbitrary triangular configurations using the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO).

  2. Feature identification and location experiment.

    PubMed

    Sivertson, W E; Wilson, R G; Bullock, G F; Schappell, R T

    1982-12-01

    The feature identification and location experiment (FILE) senses radiation from the earth in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 micrometers and compares ratios of the reflected solar radiation in the two wavelengths to make real-time classification decisions about four primary features: water, vegetation, bare land, and a cloud-snow-ice class. The radiance ratio classification algorithm successfully made automatic data-selection decisions. The classification image obtained on the mission is providing information needed to evaluate the FILE algorithm and system performance. PMID:17790593

  3. Joint Analysis of Dependent Features within Compound Spectra Can Improve Detection of Differential Features

    PubMed Central

    Trutschel, Diana; Schmidt, Stephan; Grosse, Ivo; Neumann, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical technology in metabolomics. After the initial feature detection and alignment steps, the raw data processing results in a high-dimensional data matrix of mass spectral features, which is then subjected to further statistical analysis. Univariate tests like Student’s t-test and Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) are hypothesis tests, which aim to detect differences between two or more sample classes, e.g., wildtype-mutant or between different doses of treatments. In both cases, one of the underlying assumptions is the independence between metabolic features. However, in mass spectrometry, a single metabolite usually gives rise to several mass spectral features, which are observed together and show a common behavior. This paper suggests to group the related features of metabolites with CAMERA into compound spectra, and then to use a multivariate statistical method to test whether a compound spectrum (and thus the actual metabolite) is differential between two sample classes. The multivariate method is first demonstrated with an analysis between wild-type and an over-expression line of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For a quantitative evaluation data sets with a simulated known effect between two sample classes were analyzed. The spectra-wise analysis showed better detection results for all simulated effects. PMID:26442246

  4. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. PMID:23956227

  5. Statistical feature selection for enhanced detection of brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Colen, Rivka R.

    2014-09-01

    Feature-based methods are widely used in the brain tumor recognition system. Robust of early cancer detection is one of the most powerful image processing tools. Specifically, statistical features, such as geometric mean, harmonic mean, mean excluding outliers, median, percentiles, skewness and kurtosis, have been extracted from brain tumor glioma to aid in discriminating two levels namely, Level I and Level II using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the diagnosis of brain tumor. Statistical feature describes the major characteristics of each level from glioma which is an important step to evaluate heterogeneity of cancer area pixels. In this paper, we address the task of feature selection to identify the relevant subset of features in the statistical domain, while discarding those that are either redundant or confusing, thereby improving the performance of feature-based scheme to distinguish between Level I and Level II. We apply a Decision Structure algorithm to find the optimal combination of nonhomogeneity based statistical features for the problem at hand. We employ a Naïve Bayes classifier to evaluate the performance of the optimal statistical feature based scheme in terms of its glioma Level I and Level II discrimination capability and use real-data collected from 17 patients have a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Dataset provided from 3 Tesla MR imaging system by MD Anderson Cancer Center. For the specific data analyzed, it is shown that the identified dominant features yield higher classification accuracy, with lower number of false alarms and missed detections, compared to the full statistical based feature set. This work has been proposed and analyzed specific GBM types which Level I and Level II and the dominant features were considered as feature aid to prognostic indicators. These features were selected automatically to be better able to determine prognosis from classical imaging studies.

  6. Automated simultaneous multiple feature classification of MTI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Neal R.; Theiler, James P.; Balick, Lee K.; Pope, Paul A.; Szymanski, John J.; Perkins, Simon J.; Porter, Reid B.; Brumby, Steven P.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; David, Nancy A.; Galassi, Mark C.

    2002-08-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a highly capable system, GENIE, for the two-class problem of detecting a single feature against a background of non-feature. In addition to the two-class case, however, a commonly encountered remote sensing task is the segmentation of multispectral image data into a larger number of distinct feature classes or land cover types. To this end we have extended our existing system to allow the simultaneous classification of multiple features/classes from multispectral data. The technique builds on previous work and its core continues to utilize a hybrid evolutionary-algorithm-based system capable of searching for image processing pipelines optimized for specific image feature extraction tasks. We describe the improvements made to the GENIE software to allow multiple-feature classification and describe the application of this system to the automatic simultaneous classification of multiple features from MTI image data. We show the application of the multiple-feature classification technique to the problem of classifying lava flows on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, using MTI image data and compare the classification results with standard supervised multiple-feature classification techniques.

  7. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  8. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  9. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  10. Is magnetic topology important for heating the solar atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Parnell, Clare E; Stevenson, Julie E H; Threlfall, James; Edwards, Sarah J

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide enough area, to explain the energy losses throughout the solar atmosphere? Here, we consider this question for the three different solar regions: active regions, open-field regions and the quiet Sun. We find that the heating of active regions and open-field regions is highly unlikely to be due to reconnection or wave dissipation at topological features, but it is possible that these may play a role in the heating of the quiet Sun. In active regions, the absence of a complex topology may play an important role in allowing large energies to build up and then, subsequently, be explosively released in the form of a solar flare. Additionally, knowledge of the intricate boundaries of open-field regions (which the magnetic skeleton provides) could be very important in determining the main acceleration mechanism(s) of the solar wind. PMID:25897085

  11. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  12. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  13. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  14. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOEpatents

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  15. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  16. Tumors of the Testis: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Berney, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the most frequently encountered tumor of the testis; pure and mixed malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), with emphasis on adult (postpubertal) TGCTs and their differential diagnoses. We additionally review TGCT in the postchemotherapy setting, and findings to be integrated into the surgical pathology report, including staging of testicular tumors and other problematic issues. The clinical features, gross pathologic findings, key histologic features, common differential diagnoses, the use of immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations in TGCTs are discussed. PMID:26612222

  17. [Utility of noise addition image made by using water phantom and image addition and subtraction software].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryo; Ogawa, Masato; Mituzono, Hiroki; Aoki, Takahiro; Hayano, Mizuho; Watanabe, Yuka

    2010-08-20

    In optimizing exposures, it is very important to evaluate the impact of image noise on image quality. To realize this, there is a need to evaluate how much image noise will make the subject disease invisible. But generally it is very difficult to shoot images of different quality in a clinical examination. Thus, a method to create a noise addition image by adding the image noise to raw data has been reported. However, this approach requires a special system, so it is difficult to implement in many facilities. We have invented a method to easily create a noise addition image by using the water phantom and image add-subtract software that accompanies the device. To create a noise addition image, first we made a noise image by subtracting the water phantom with different SD. A noise addition image was then created by adding the noise image to the original image. By using this method, a simulation image with intergraded SD can be created from the original. Moreover, the noise frequency component of the created noise addition image is as same as the real image. Thus, the relationship of image quality to SD in the clinical image can be evaluated. Although this method is an easy method of LDSI creation on image data, a noise addition image can be easily created by using image addition and subtraction software and water phantom, and this can be implemented in many facilities. PMID:20953102

  18. An adaptive multi-feature segmentation model for infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2016-04-01

    Active contour models (ACM) have been extensively applied to image segmentation, conventional region-based active contour models only utilize global or local single feature information to minimize the energy functional to drive the contour evolution. Considering the limitations of original ACMs, an adaptive multi-feature segmentation model is proposed to handle infrared images with blurred boundaries and low contrast. In the proposed model, several essential local statistic features are introduced to construct a multi-feature signed pressure function (MFSPF). In addition, we draw upon the adaptive weight coefficient to modify the level set formulation, which is formed by integrating MFSPF with local statistic features and signed pressure function with global information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can make up for the inadequacy of the original method and get desirable results in segmenting infrared images.

  19. Recognizing Materials using Perceptually Inspired Features

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Liu, Ce; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Our world consists not only of objects and scenes but also of materials of various kinds. Being able to recognize the materials that surround us (e.g., plastic, glass, concrete) is important for humans as well as for computer vision systems. Unfortunately, materials have received little attention in the visual recognition literature, and very few computer vision systems have been designed specifically to recognize materials. In this paper, we present a system for recognizing material categories from single images. We propose a set of low and mid-level image features that are based on studies of human material recognition, and we combine these features using an SVM classifier. Our system outperforms a state-of-the-art system [Varma and Zisserman, 2009] on a challenging database of real-world material categories [Sharan et al., 2009]. When the performance of our system is compared directly to that of human observers, humans outperform our system quite easily. However, when we account for the local nature of our image features and the surface properties they measure (e.g., color, texture, local shape), our system rivals human performance. We suggest that future progress in material recognition will come from: (1) a deeper understanding of the role of non-local surface properties (e.g., extended highlights, object identity); and (2) efforts to model such non-local surface properties in images. PMID:23914070

  20. Feature selection for ordinal text classification.

    PubMed

    Baccianella, Stefano; Esuli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Ordinal classification (also known as ordinal regression) is a supervised learning task that consists of estimating the rating of a data item on a fixed, discrete rating scale. This problem is receiving increased attention from the sentiment analysis and opinion mining community due to the importance of automatically rating large amounts of product review data in digital form. As in other supervised learning tasks such as binary or multiclass classification, feature selection is often needed in order to improve efficiency and avoid overfitting. However, although feature selection has been extensively studied for other classification tasks, it has not for ordinal classification. In this letter, we present six novel feature selection methods that we have specifically devised for ordinal classification and test them on two data sets of product review data against three methods previously known from the literature, using two learning algorithms from the support vector regression tradition. The experimental results show that all six proposed metrics largely outperform all three baseline techniques (and are more stable than these others by an order of magnitude), on both data sets and for both learning algorithms. PMID:24320850

  1. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.

  2. Perceptual approaches to finding features in data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.

    2013-03-01

    Electronic imaging applications hinge on the ability to discover features in data. For example, doctors examine diagnostic images for tumors, broken bones and changes in metabolic activity. Financial analysts explore visualizations of market data to find correlations, outliers and interaction effects. Seismologists look for signatures in geological data to tell them where to drill or where an earthquake may begin. These data are very diverse, including images, numbers, graphs, 3-D graphics, and text, and are growing exponentially, largely through the rise in automatic data collection technologies such as sensors and digital imaging. This paper explores important trends in the art and science of finding features in data, such as the tension between bottom-up and top-down processing, the semantics of features, and the integration of human- and algorithm-based approaches. This story is told from the perspective of the IS and T/SPIE Conference on Human Vision and Electronic Imaging (HVEI), which has fostered research at the intersection between human perception and the evolution of new technologies.

  3. Features of Positive Developmental Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gootman, Jennifer Appleton

    2004-01-01

    There is very little research that directly specifies what programs can do to facilitate positive adolescent development, or how to tailor these programs to the individual needs of adolescents. However, there is a broad base of knowledge about how development occurs that can be drawn upon. Research demonstrates that certain features of the…

  4. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  5. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    ScienceCinema

    Brian Cox

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  6. FCLib: The Feature Characterization Library.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann C.; Doyle, Wendy S. K.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip; Ulmer, Craig D.

    2008-11-01

    The Feature Characterization Library (FCLib) is a software library that simplifies the process of interrogating, analyzing, and understanding complex data sets generated by finite element applications. This document provides an overview of the library, a description of both the design philosophy and implementation of the library, and examples of how the library can be utilized to extract understanding from raw datasets.

  7. Where Do Features Come From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to learn multiple layers of non-linear features by backpropagating error derivatives through a feedforward neural network. This is a very effective learning procedure when there is a huge amount of labeled training data, but for many learning tasks very few labeled examples are available. In an effort to overcome the need for…

  8. HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF NEW ENGLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data set portrays the polygon and line water features of New England. The file was produced by joining the individual State hydrography layers from the 1:2,000,000-scale Digital Line Graph (DLG) data produced by the USGS. This is a revised version of the March 1999 data set...

  9. Campus Landscape: Functions, Forms, Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dober, Richard P.

    This guide provides information, instruction, and ideas on planning and designing every aspect of the campus landscape, from parking lots to playing fields. Using real-world examples of classic and contemporary campus landscapes, it features coverage of landscape restoration and regeneration; provides an assessment matrix for consistent, effective…

  10. Magnetron tuner has locking feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martucci, V. J.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetron tuning arrangement features a means of moving a tuning ring axially within an anode cavity by a system of reduction gears engaging a threaded tuning shaft of lead screw. The shaft positions the tuning ring for the desired magnetron output frequency, and a washer prevents backlash.

  11. Consumer Controlled Housing. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarnulis, Edward, Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" reports on consumer-controlled housing for persons with developmental disabilities, and explores housing and service options that empower individuals with disabilities to live their lives with independence, privacy, and freedom of choice. It includes an excerpt from the Association for Retarded Citizens position statement on…

  12. Self-Advocacy. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; Ward, Nancy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This feature issue newsletter looks at issues the self-advocacy movement is raising and the contributions it is making to the lives of people with developmental disabilities. Articles by self-advocates and advisors to self-advocacy organizations talk about their self-advocacy experiences, barriers to self-advocacy, and ways to support it. Primary…

  13. China English: Its Distinctive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei-dong; Dai, Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to expound that China English boasting its own distinctive features on the levels of phonology, words, sentences and discourse has been playing an irreplaceable role in intercultural activities, though still in its infancy and in the process of developing and perfecting itself, and it now makes every effort to move towards…

  14. Faithful Contrastive Features in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct…

  15. NIF featured on BBC "Horizon"

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Cox

    2010-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was featured in the BBC broadcast "Horizon" hosted by physicist Brian Cox. Here is the NIF portion of the program, which was entitled "Can We Make A Star On Earth?" This video is used with the express permission of the BBC.

  16. Feature Selection and Effective Classifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Choubey, Suresh K.; Raghavan, Vijay V.; Sever, Hayri

    1998-01-01

    Develops and analyzes four algorithms for feature selection in the context of rough set methodology. Experimental results confirm the expected relationship between the time complexity of these algorithms and the classification accuracy of the resulting upper classifiers. When compared, results of upper classifiers perform better than lower…

  17. Feature - OCCAM Newsletter spring 2013

    Cancer.gov

    NCI CAM News is a twice yearly newsletter produced by OCCAM to bring you information on the National Cancer Institute's latest CAM activities. Featured in the newsletter are: Highlights of NCI-sponsored CAM research Resources for researchers such as funding opportunities and grant writing workshops Upcoming meetings and lectures

  18. Feature - OCCAM Newsletter Spring 2011

    Cancer.gov

    NCI CAM News is a twice yearly newsletter produced by OCCAM to bring you information on the National Cancer Institute's latest CAM activities. Featured in the newsletter are: Highlights of NCI-sponsored CAM research Resources for researchers such as funding opportunities and grant writing workshops Upcoming meetings and lectures

  19. Feature - OCCAM Newsletter spring 2012

    Cancer.gov

    NCI CAM News is a twice yearly newsletter produced by OCCAM to bring you information on the National Cancer Institute's latest CAM activities. Featured in the newsletter are: Highlights of NCI-sponsored CAM research Resources for researchers such as funding opportunities and grant writing workshops Upcoming meetings and lectures

  20. Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.