Science.gov

Sample records for additional important feature

  1. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  2. Feature Importance in Nonlinear Embeddings (FINE): Applications in Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B; Lee, George; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometry (QH) refers to the process of computationally modeling disease appearance on digital pathology images by extracting hundreds of image features and using them to predict disease presence or outcome. Since constructing a robust and interpretable classifier is challenging in a high dimensional feature space, dimensionality reduction (DR) is often implemented prior to classifier construction. However, when DR is performed it can be challenging to quantify the contribution of each of the original features to the final classification result. We have previously presented a method for scoring features based on their importance for classification on an embedding derived via principal components analysis (PCA). However, nonlinear DR involves the eigen-decomposition of a kernel matrix rather than the data itself, compounding the issue of classifier interpretability. In this paper we present feature importance in nonlinear embeddings (FINE), an extension of our PCA-based feature scoring method to kernel PCA (KPCA), as well as several NLDR algorithms that can be cast as variants of KPCA. FINE is applied to four digital pathology datasets to identify key QH features for predicting the risk of breast and prostate cancer recurrence. Measures of nuclear and glandular architecture and clusteredness were found to play an important role in predicting the likelihood of recurrence of both breast and prostate cancers. Compared to the t-test, Fisher score, and Gini index, FINE was able to identify a stable set of features that provide good classification accuracy on four publicly available datasets from the NIPS 2003 Feature Selection Challenge.

  3. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  4. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  5. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  6. Feature Import Vector Machine: A General Classifier with Flexible Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yazhen

    2015-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) and other reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) based classifier systems are drawing much attention recently due to its robustness and generalization capability. General theme here is to construct classifiers based on the training data in a high dimensional space by using all available dimensions. The SVM achieves huge data compression by selecting only few observations which lie close to the boundary of the classifier function. However when the number of observations are not very large (small n) but the number of dimensions/features are large (large p), then it is not necessary that all available features are of equal importance in the classification context. Possible selection of an useful fraction of the available features may result in huge data compression. In this paper we propose an algorithmic approach by means of which such an optimal set of features could be selected. In short, we reverse the traditional sequential observation selection strategy of SVM to that of sequential feature selection. To achieve this we have modified the solution proposed by Zhu and Hastie (2005) in the context of import vector machine (IVM), to select an optimal sub-dimensional model to build the final classifier with sufficient accuracy. PMID:27081431

  7. Important pharmacophoric features of pan PPAR agonists: common chemical feature analysis and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Sandeep; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2009-09-01

    HipHop program was used to generate a common chemical feature hypothesis for pan Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists. The top scoring hypothesis (hypo-1) was found to differentiate the pan agonists (actives) from subtype-specific and dual PPAR agonists (inactives). The importance of individual features in hypo-1 was assessed by deleting a particular feature to generate a new hypothesis and observing its discriminating ability between 'actives' and 'inactives'. Deletion of aromatic features AR-1 (hypo-1b), AR-2 (hypo-1e) and a Hydrophobic feature HYD-1 (hypo-1c) individually did not affect the discriminating power of the hypo-1 significantly. However, deletion of a Hydrogen Bond Acceptor (HBA) feature (hypo-1f) in the hydrophobic tail group was found to be highly detrimental for the specificity of hypo-1 leading to high hit rate of 'inactives'. Since hypo-1 did not produce any useful hits from the database search, hypo-1b, hypo-1c and hypo-1e were used for virtual screening leading to the identification of new potential pan PPAR ligands. The docking studies were used to predict the binding pose of the proposed molecules in PPARgamma active site.

  8. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  9. Application features of additives based on metakaolin in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Kramar, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the influence of additives based on metakaolin (U- YF, UM-YF and YF-UMD) on speed concrete strength development in the early stages of concrete hardening, as well as the strength increase in 28 days. The authors have proved that metakaolin gauging in concrete should not exceed 3%. Introduction of 5% of metakaolin or more entails the fault in concrete strength in the later stages of concrete hardening and decreases its resistance to the influence of sulfate and frosty environments. The most effective of the developed additives are UM-YF and UMD-YF which provide high sulfate and frost resistance to the concrete (up to 800 ... 1000 cycles). The above mentioned influence of additives on concrete properties is connected with an intended formation of structure of the cement matrix of concrete that is resistant to various aggressive environments.

  10. An Indian boy with additional features in Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krati; George, Renu; Balla, Evangelynn Singh; Oommen, Samuel P; Padankatti, Caroline S; Srivastava, Vivi M; Danda, Sumita

    2012-09-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS; OMIM: # 601803) is a rare sporadic genetic disorder characterized by pigmentary skin changes, distinctive dysmorphology, developmental delay, and mosaicism for tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. The authors report a case of PKS in a 2-y-old boy. He had pigmentary skin changes, characteristic facial features, developmental delay and hearing loss. He had sacral and post-auricular pits in addition, which has not yet been reported. A diagnosis of PKS was suspected on the basis of the patient's clinical features. Skin fibroblast culture was done which showed mosaic tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p consistent with Pallister-Killian syndrome. This case highlights the importance of dysmorphology as a diagnostic tool for recognition and accurate genetic counseling in genetic syndromes.

  11. Identification of Mitral Annulus Hinge Point Based on Local Context Feature and Additive SVM Classifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yangchun; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The position of the hinge point of mitral annulus (MA) is important for segmentation, modeling and multimodalities registration of cardiac structures. The main difficulties in identifying the hinge point of MA are the inherent noisy, low resolution of echocardiography, and so on. This work aims to automatically detect the hinge point of MA by combining local context feature with additive support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The innovations are as follows: (1) designing a local context feature for MA in cardiac ultrasound image; (2) applying the additive kernel SVM classifier to identify the candidates of the hinge point of MA; (3) designing a weighted density field of candidates which represents the blocks of candidates; and (4) estimating an adaptive threshold on the weighted density field to get the position of the hinge point of MA and exclude the error from SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on echocardiographic four-chamber image sequence of 10 pediatric patients. Compared with the manual selected hinge points of MA which are selected by professional doctors, the mean error is in 0.96 ± 1.04 mm. Additive SVM classifier can fast and accurately identify the MA hinge point.

  12. Mixing in the equatorial thermocline: the importance of small vertical scale velocity features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K. J.; Natarov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The overturning cells in the ocean are closed by isopycnic mixing. For the shallow sub-tropical cells the majority of this mixing occurs in the equatorial thermocline. In addition the level of mixing in the equatorial thermocline influences the characteristics of ENSO. Mixing in the equatorial thermocline is therefore important. But it is poorly understood. Here we present recent high vertical resolution observations that show a predominance of small vertical scale features in the velocity field in the equatorial thermocline. These features have a vertical scale of order 10m and a meridional coherency that can extend in excess of a hundred kilometres. Estimates suggest these features contribute significantly to both vertical and lateral mixing. We speculate that the observed small vertical scale features are produced by a combination of instabilities of the equatorial current system and wind-induced near-inertial oscillations, which in turn provide a significant control on the level of mixing in the equatorial thermocline. The picture is very different to that assumed in present-day climate models and calls for a rethinking of the way mixing processes are prescribed in such models.

  13. Anatomical features of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction: Additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Derkx, Salomé; Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Verdonk, Constance; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair is correlated with unfavourable left ventricular remodelling and poor outcome. This pictorial review describes the echocardiographic features of three types of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction, and the additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

  14. Importance of the texture features in a query from a spectral image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohonen, Oili; Hauta-Kasari, Markku

    2006-01-01

    A new, semantically meaningful technique for querying the images from a spectral image database is proposed. The technique is based on the use of both color- and texture features. The color features are calculated from spectral images by using the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) when methods of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are used for constructing the texture features. The importance of texture features in a querying is seen in experimental results, which are given by using a real spectral image database. Also the differences between the results gained by the use of co-occurrence matrix and LBP are introduced.

  15. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  16. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  17. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  18. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  19. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  20. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  1. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  2. 27 CFR 479.83 - Transfer tax in addition to import duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer tax in addition to import duty. 479.83 Section 479.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS,...

  3. 75 FR 66643 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... / Friday, October 29, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD15 Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. NIMEFI: gene regulatory network inference using multiple ensemble feature importance algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ruyssinck, Joeri; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Geurts, Pierre; Dhaene, Tom; Demeester, Piet; Saeys, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts, DREAM4 and DREAM5, have been established to benchmark network inference techniques using gene expression measurements. In these challenges the overall top performer was the GENIE3 algorithm. This method decomposes the network inference task into separate regression problems for each gene in the network in which the expression values of a particular target gene are predicted using all other genes as possible predictors. Next, using tree-based ensemble methods, an importance measure for each predictor gene is calculated with respect to the target gene and a high feature importance is considered as putative evidence of a regulatory link existing between both genes. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we generalize the regression decomposition strategy of GENIE3 to other feature importance methods. We compare the performance of support vector regression, the elastic net, random forest regression, symbolic regression and their ensemble variants in this setting to the original GENIE3 algorithm. To create the ensemble variants, we propose a subsampling approach which allows us to cast any feature selection algorithm that produces a feature ranking into an ensemble feature importance algorithm. We demonstrate that the ensemble setting is key to the network inference task, as only ensemble variants achieve top performance. As second contribution, we explore the effect of using rankwise averaged predictions of multiple ensemble algorithms as opposed to only one. We name this approach NIMEFI (Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance algorithms) and show that this approach outperforms all individual methods in general, although on a specific network a single method can perform better. An implementation of NIMEFI has been made publicly available.

  5. Structural features important for the biological activity of the potassium channel blocking dendrotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hollecker, M; Marshall, D L; Harvey, A L

    1993-10-01

    1. Dendrotoxins from mamba snake venoms are small proteins that block neuronal K+ channels. In order to investigate structural features associated with their biological activity, partially folded versions of dendrotoxins I and K from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) were prepared by selectively reducing one or more of their three S-S bonds. 2. The modified toxins were tested for ability to compete with 125I-labelled native toxin I to high affinity binding sites on rat brain synaptosomal membranes and for the ability to increase acetylcholine release in a neuromuscular preparation. 3. Binding affinity increased progressively as the toxins folded to the native conformation and the most biologically active of the modified species were those in which only the disulphide bond between residues 14 and 38 was not formed. These intermediates had native-like conformations as determined by circular dichroism but still had about 5-10 times lower affinity than native toxins. 4. Addition of negatively charged groups to block the free sulthydryls at positions 14 and 38 caused a further, marked loss of activity. 5. The results are consistent with the existence of two important regions in the dendrotoxin molecules. The region containing two of the disulphide bonds (around Cys5-Cys55 and Cys30-Cys51) and much of the secondary structure is essential for the binding affinity of the toxins, while the region around Cys14 and Cys38, equivalent to part of the antiprotease site of the homologous protease inhibitor from bovine pancreas (BPTI), plays an important role in the potency of dendrotoxins.

  6. Seasonal Shifts in the Hyperspectral Characterization of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  7. SEASONAL SHIFTS IN THE HYPERSPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND FEATURES IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  8. The importance of taxonomic resolution for additive beta diversity as revealed through DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bringloe, Trevor T; Cottenie, Karl; Martin, Gillian K; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2016-12-01

    Additive diversity partitioning (α, β, and γ) is commonly used to study the distribution of species-level diversity across spatial scales. Here, we first investigate whether published studies of additive diversity partitioning show signs of difficulty attaining species-level resolution due to inherent limitations with morphological identifications. Second, we present a DNA barcoding approach to delineate specimens of stream caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) and consider the importance of taxonomic resolution on classical (additive) measures of beta (β) diversity. Caddisfly larvae were sampled using a hierarchical spatial design in two regions (subarctic Churchill, Manitoba, Canada; temperate Pennsylvania, USA) and then additively partitioned according to Barcode Index Numbers (molecular clusters that serve as a proxy for species), genus, and family levels; diversity components were expressed as proportional species turnover. We screened 114 articles of additive diversity partitioning and found that a third reported difficulties with achieving species-level identifications, with a clear taxonomic tendency towards challenges identifying invertebrate taxa. Regarding our own study, caddisfly BINs appeared to show greater subregional turnover (e.g., proportional additive β) compared to genus or family levels. Diversity component studies failing to achieve species resolution due to morphological identifications may therefore be underestimating diversity turnover at larger spatial scales.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. ProFold: Protein Fold Classification with Additional Structural Features and a Novel Ensemble Classifier

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein fold classification plays an important role in both protein functional analysis and drug design. The number of proteins in PDB is very large, but only a very small part is categorized and stored in the SCOPe database. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method for protein fold classification. In recent years, a variety of classification methods have been used in many protein fold classification studies. In this study, we propose a novel classification method called proFold. We import protein tertiary structure in the period of feature extraction and employ a novel ensemble strategy in the period of classifier training. Compared with existing similar ensemble classifiers using the same widely used dataset (DD-dataset), proFold achieves 76.2% overall accuracy. Another two commonly used datasets, EDD-dataset and TG-dataset, are also tested, of which the accuracies are 93.2% and 94.3%, higher than the existing methods. ProFold is available to the public as a web-server. PMID:27660761

  11. Periadnexal Mucin as an Additional Histopathologic Feature of Chronic Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noo Ri; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Yoon, Na Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous mucinoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormal amount of mucin in the skin. However, the pathomechanism of an excessive mucin deposition in the skin is still unknown. Eczematous dermatitis is sub-classified histologically into acute, subacute, and chronic variants. The characteristic histopathologic findings for chronic eczema are variable. However, periadnexal mucin deposition is not known as a feature of chronic eczema. Objective To evaluate the presence of periadnexal mucin deposition in chronic eczematous dermatitis. Methods We analyzed the skin biopsy specimens from 36 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with chronic eczematous dermatitis. Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and periodic acid-Schiff stains were used to evaluate the mucin deposition in histologic sections. Two dermatologists and two dermatopathologists evaluated the degree of mucin deposition using a 4-point scale. Results Various amounts of mucin deposition were observed in the periadnexal area of patients who were diagnosed with chronic eczema. Mucin deposition was more visible after staining with mucin-specific stains. Evaluation of the staining analysis scores revealed that the staining intensities were significantly higher in patients with chronic eczema than age- and site-matched controls (normal, acute to subacute eczema, and psoriasis vulgaris). Conclusion Periadnexal mucin (secondary mucinoses) may be an additional finding of chronic eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25834351

  12. Assessment of translational importance of mammalian mRNA sequence features based on Ribo-Seq and mRNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Oxana A; Kondrakhin, Yury V; Yevshin, Ivan S; Valeev, Tagir F; Sharipov, Ruslan N

    2016-04-01

    Ribosome profiling technology (Ribo-Seq) allowed to highlight more details of mRNA translation in cell and get additional information on importance of mRNA sequence features for this process. Application of translation inhibitors like harringtonine and cycloheximide along with mRNA-Seq technique helped to assess such important characteristic as translation efficiency. We assessed the translational importance of features of mRNA sequences with the help of statistical analysis of Ribo-Seq and mRNA-Seq data. Translationally important features known from literature as well as proposed by the authors were used in analysis. Such comparisons as protein coding versus non-coding RNAs and high- versus low-translated mRNAs were performed. We revealed a set of features that allowed to discriminate the compared categories of RNA. Significant relationships between mRNA features and efficiency of translation were also established.

  13. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  14. Phonological Feature Re-Assembly and the Importance of Phonetic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that new phonological features can be acquired in second languages, but that both feature acquisition and feature re-assembly are affected by the robustness of phonetic cues in the input.

  15. Importance of the nature of α-substituents in pyrrolidine organocatalysts in asymmetric Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mahendra P; Sharma, Akhilesh K; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2010-11-05

    The fundamental factors contributing toward the stereoselectivity in organocatalyzed asymmetric Michael reaction between aldehydes (propanal and 3-phenyl propanal) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are established by using density functional theory methods. Three of the most commonly employed α-substituted pyrrolidine organocatalysts are examined. Several key stereochemical modes of addition between (i) a model enamine or (ii) pyrrolidine enamines derived from aldehydes and secondary amine to MVK are examined. Among these possibilities, the addition of (E)-enamine to cis-MVK is found to have a lower activation barrier. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction is reported on the basis of the relative energies between pertinent diastereomeric transition states. Moderate selectivity is predicted for the reaction involving pyrrolidine catalysts I and II, which carry relatively less bulky α-substituents dimethylmethoxymethyl and diphenylmethyl, respectively. On the other hand, high selectivity is computed in the case of catalyst III having a sufficiently large α-substituent (diarylmethoxymethyl or diphenylprolinol methyl ether). The enantiomeric excess in the case of 3-phenyl propanal is found to be much higher as compared to that with unsubstituted propanal, suggesting potential for improvement in stereoselectivity by substrate modifications. The computed enantiomeric excess is found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental stereoselectivities. A detailed investigation on the geometries of the crucial transition states reveals that apart from steric interactions between the α-substituent and MVK, various other factors such as orbital interactions and weak stabilizing hydrogen-bonding interactions play a vital role in stereoselectivity. The results serve to establish the importance of cumulative effects of various stabilizing and destabilizing interactions at the transition state as responsible for the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. The

  16. Blood Falls: A novel management approach for a subglacial feature of outstanding scientific importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J. R.; Penhale, P. A.; Dahood, A.; Biletnikoff, N.; Harris, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Blood Falls is a subglacial feature located in the ablation zone of the Taylor Glacier, Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Blood Falls has a unique physical configuration, microbial ecology and geochemistry and consists of a subglacial brine reservoir and an iron-rich, saline surface discharge at the Taylor Glacier terminus. The feature provides a rare opportunity to sample properties of a subglacial reservoir and its ecosystem without the need for direct contact and is a key site for exobiological studies. The Blood Falls subglacial feature is globally unique and of outstanding scientific importance. As such, it warrants special protection from potential damage by drilling and/or surface activities. Moreover, currently subglacial environments are not represented in the Antarctic protected area network. To address these points, the United States National Science Foundation is working with the scientific community to develop at Blood Falls the first subglacial protected area in Antarctica. The protected area aims to maintain the integrity of the Blood Falls system, whilst allowing continued access for scientific and management purposes. Novel management approaches are being designed to protect the values of the site in three dimensions. Specific guidelines on activities conducted within the area, most notably drilling and coring, are being defined in a management plan. This new approach incorporates uncertainties in the location of the Blood Falls brine reservoir and the connectivity of the subglacial hydrological system of the Taylor Glacier. The management approaches employed at Blood Falls draw on the experience of the subglacial research community and potentially offer an effective framework for the protection of other subglacial environments.

  17. Clinical Features of Imported Loiasis: A Case Series from the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Makoto; Armstrong, Margaret; Boadi, Samuel; Lowe, Patricia; Chiodini, Peter L.; Doherty, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the background, clinical features, and treatment response of 50 cases of imported loiasis who presented between 2000 and 2014 to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD), London, United Kingdom. Of them, 29 were migrants from, and 21 were visitors to, countries where the disease is endemic. Clinical features differed between these groups. Migrants experienced fewer Calabar swellings (odds ratio [OR] = 0.12), more eye worm (OR = 3.4), more microfilaremia (OR = 3.5), lower filarial antibody levels, and lower eosinophil counts (P < 0.05 for all tests). Among 46 patients who were started on treatment at HTD, 33 (72%) received diethylcarbamazine (DEC) monotherapy as first-line treatment, and among 26 patients who were followed up after treatment, seven (27%) needed a second course of treatment. There were 46 courses of treatment with DEC, and 20 (43%) of them had reactions. All patients with microfilaremia > 3,000 microfilariae/mL and all those with an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (≥ 5 mg/L) before treatment had reactions (P = 0.10 and P = 0.01, respectively). These data suggest that monotherapy with DEC may not be the optimal treatment for patients with loiasis, particularly for those with a high microfilarial load. PMID:26101271

  18. Intelligence and Creativity in Problem Solving: The Importance of Test Features in Cognition Research

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues. PMID:28220098

  19. De-Orphaning the Structural Proteome through Reciprocal Comparison of Evolutionarily Important Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R. Matthew; Erdin, Serkan; Tran, Tuan A.; Kristensen, David M.; Lisewski, Andreas Martin; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Function prediction frequently relies on comparing genes or gene products to search for relevant similarities. Because the number of protein structures with unknown function is mushrooming, however, we asked here whether such comparisons could be improved by focusing narrowly on the key functional features of protein structures, as defined by the Evolutionary Trace (ET). Therefore a series of algorithms was built to (a) extract local motifs (3D templates) from protein structures based on ET ranking of residue importance; (b) to assess their geometric and evolutionary similarity to other structures; and (c) to transfer enzyme annotation whenever a plurality was reached across matches. Whereas a prototype had only been 80% accurate and was not scalable, here a speedy new matching algorithm enabled large-scale searches for reciprocal matches and thus raised annotation specificity to 100% in both positive and negative controls of 49 enzymes and 50 non-enzymes, respectively—in one case even identifying an annotation error—while maintaining sensitivity (∼60%). Critically, this Evolutionary Trace Annotation (ETA) pipeline requires no prior knowledge of functional mechanisms. It could thus be applied in a large-scale retrospective study of 1218 structural genomics enzymes and reached 92% accuracy. Likewise, it was applied to all 2935 unannotated structural genomics proteins and predicted enzymatic functions in 320 cases: 258 on first pass and 62 more on second pass. Controls and initial analyses suggest that these predictions are reliable. Thus the large-scale evolutionary integration of sequence-structure-function data, here through reciprocal identification of local, functionally important structural features, may contribute significantly to de-orphaning the structural proteome. PMID:18461181

  20. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  1. Duplication of distal 17q from a maternal translocation: an additional case with some unique features.

    PubMed Central

    Caine, A; Knapton, D M; Mueller, R F; Congdon, P J; Haigh, D

    1989-01-01

    A female with multiple dysmorphic features was found to have an unbalanced karyotype with duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 17 and deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 12. This was derived from a reciprocal translocation in the mother, 46,XX,t(12;17)(p13.3;q23). Clinical findings are presented and comparison with other reported cases of distal 17q duplication shows several unique features in our case. Images PMID:2810342

  2. 17 CFR 39.37 - Additional disclosure for systemically important derivatives clearing organizations and subpart C...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... systemically important derivatives clearing organizations and subpart C derivatives clearing organizations. 39.37 Section 39.37 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Provisions Applicable to Systemically Important Derivatives Clearing...

  3. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Charles Street, Roger Scheidt and Robert ZiBerna, the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, sit in the conference room inside the Mobile Command Center, a specially equipped vehicle. Nicknamed '''The Brute,''' it also features computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  4. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Robert ZiBerna, Roger Scheidt and Charles Street, the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, practice for an emergency scenario inside the Mobile Command Center, a specially equipped vehicle. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  5. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Charles Street, part of the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC, uses a phone on the specially equipped emergency response vehicle. The vehicle, nicknamed '''The Brute,''' serves as a mobile command center for emergency preparedness staff and other support personnel when needed. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  6. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This new specially equipped vehicle serves as a mobile command center for emergency preparedness staff and other support personnel when needed at KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It features a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine. It also can generate power with its onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or CCAFS.

  7. An Unrecognized Rash Progressing to Lyme Carditis: Important Features and Recommendations Regarding Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawn; Singla, Montish

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of 46-year-old man with no medical history, who complained of extreme fatigue, near-syncope, and palpitations. He initially presented in complete heart block. A transvenous pacemaker was placed in the emergency department, and he was started empirically on Ceftriaxone for Lyme disease. He was admitted and over the course of the next few days, his rhythm regressed to Mobitz type I first-degree atrioventricular block and then to normal sinus rhythm. This case report highlights some important features regarding Lyme carditis, a rare presentation of early disseminated Lyme disease (seen in a few weeks to months after the initial tick bite). In 25%-30% of patients, the characteristic targetoid rash may not be seen, a likely culprit of the disease not being detected early and progressing to disseminated disease. The most common cardiac complaint of Lyme disease is palpitations, occurring in 6.6% of patients, which may not accurately reflect progression into disseminated Lyme disease because it is a nonspecific finding. Conduction abnormality, occurring in 1.8% of patients, is a more specific finding of Borrelia invading cardiac tissue. Finally, this case report highlights a recommendation that patients with confirmed Lyme disease or those presenting with cardiac abnormalities or symptoms who have an atypical profile for a cardiac event should be screened with a 12-lead electrocardiogram, Lyme serology, and be considered for antibiotic therapy with the possibility of temporary pacing.

  8. Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria: Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharides and Their Relevance for Economically Important Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted. PMID:24796306

  9. Gram-negative marine bacteria: structural features of lipopolysaccharides and their relevance for economically important diseases.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-04-30

    Gram-negative marine bacteria can thrive in harsh oceanic conditions, partly because of the structural diversity of the cell wall and its components, particularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is composed of three main parts, an O-antigen, lipid A, and a core region, all of which display immense structural variations among different bacterial species. These components not only provide cell integrity but also elicit an immune response in the host, which ranges from other marine organisms to humans. Toll-like receptor 4 and its homologs are the dedicated receptors that detect LPS and trigger the immune system to respond, often causing a wide variety of inflammatory diseases and even death. This review describes the structural organization of selected LPSes and their association with economically important diseases in marine organisms. In addition, the potential therapeutic use of LPS as an immune adjuvant in different diseases is highlighted.

  10. 75 FR 29680 - Importation of Mexican Hass Avocados; Additional Shipping Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... specify that the boxes, bins, or crates would have to be safeguarded from insects by covering with a lid, insect-proof mesh, or by some other barrier that prevents insects from entering the boxes or bins. Those... provide an additional layer of protection against insects of concern. The regulations also contain...

  11. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  12. Resveratrol Administration Increases Transthyretin Protein Levels, Ameliorating AD Features: The Importance of Transthyretin Tetrameric Stability

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luís Miguel; Rodrigues, Daniela; Alemi, Mobina; Silva, Sara Costa; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo work showed that resveratrol has beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, resulting in increased expression of transthyretin (TTR). TTR binds amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, avoiding its aggregation and toxicity, and is reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in AD. Further, resveratrol binds TTR, stabilizing the native TTR tetrameric structure. To further explore the mechanism of neuroprotection conferred by TTR in AD, resveratrol was administered in the diet to 5- to 8-month-old AD transgenic female mice carrying just 1 copy of the mouse TTR gene for 2 months. Effects in brain Aβ burden were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and total brain Aβ levels by ELISA, showing a striking decrease in both parameters in treated animals. In addition, total brain lipoprotein-related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) levels were increased in treated animals, although its gene expression was unaltered. To further understand the mechanism(s) underlying such improvement in AD features, we measured TTR plasma levels, showing that TTR increased in resveratrol-treated mice, whereas liver TTR gene transcription was not altered. These results strengthen the stability hypothesis, which postulates that TTR is unstable in AD, leading to accelerated clearance and lower levels. Therefore, resveratrol, which stabilizes the TTR tetramer results in TTR-normalized clearance, increases the protein plasma levels. In turn, stabilized TTR binds more strongly to Aβ peptide, avoiding its aggregation. Our results represent a step forward in the understanding of the mechanism underlying TTR protection in AD and highlight the possibility of using TTR stabilization as a therapeutic target in AD. PMID:27385446

  13. Importance of perceived naturalness for acceptance of food additives and cultured meat.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2017-03-14

    Four experiments examined some factors influencing the perceived naturalness of food products and their biasing effect on risk perception. The results of Experiment 1a showed that three food additives displaying their respective E-numbers (i.e., codes for food additives in the European Union and Switzerland) decreased perceived naturalness. Experiment 1b demonstrated that mentioning possible health effects decreased the perceived naturalness of a plant-based food additive. This experiment further showed that it would not matter for perceived naturalness whether the food was synthetic or nature-identical. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggested that the same risk associated with meat consumption was much more acceptable for traditionally produced meat compared with in-vitro meat. Experiment 3 further indicated that the perceived naturalness of the meat (i.e., traditional or cultured meat) had a full mediation effect on participants' evaluation of the acceptability of the risk of colon cancer associated with the meat consumption. Even if the new production method (i.e., cultured meat) was more environmentally friendly and less harmful to animals, the perceived lack of naturalness might reduce the acceptability of the risk associated with such a product. The present study provides evidence that consumers rely on symbolic information when evaluating foods, which may lead to biased judgments and decisions.

  14. Assessment of Relative Importance of Tablet Computer Features in Supporting Direct Electronic Documentation of Encounters by Eye Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kacmaz, Roje O.; Arbanas, Jennifer M.; Lee, Paul P.; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive utilization of mobile devices at the point of care will depend on device acceptance by the providers. We conducted focus groups involving nine eye care professionals to evaluate and elucidate the most important features of a tablet Personal Computer (PC) for data entry at the point of care. Ease of use, and quality and size of display were considered to be the most critical features of such a mobile device by the majority of the participants. Keyboard and weight of device were deemed to be the least important features of a tablet PC. PMID:16779288

  15. Implications of Export/Import Reporting Requirements in the United States - International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Benjamin, Eugene L.; McNair, Gary W.

    2001-02-20

    The United States has signed but not ratified the US/IAEA Safeguards Additional Protocol. If ratified, the Additional Protocol will require the US to report to the IAEA certain nuclear-related exports and imports to the IAEA. This document identifies and assesses the issues associated with the US making those reports. For example, some regulatory changes appear to be necessary. The document also attempts to predict the impact on the DOE Complex by assessing the historical flow of exports and imports that would be reportable if the Additional Protocol were in force.

  16. Taxonomically Important Features on the Surface of Floatoblasts in Plumatella (Bryozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Kevin T.

    2000-05-01

    : At the species level, bryozoans (class Phylactolaemata) in the family Plumatellidae are difficult to organize taxonomically. Of principal concern is the absence of consistent distinguishing features due mainly to plasticity of the group, a common problem with soft-bodied invertebrates. Yet, within the last three decades, analysis of distinctive chitinous statoblasts—using scanning electron microscopy—has resolved certain taxonomic questions. I examined statoblasts from 30 similar collections, the majority from the midwestern United States, and identified four distinct subgroups. Also, nine new statoblast surface features were identified: fold, polar grooves, bead, cave, demarcation, parasutural zone, ridge, sutural band, and sutural knob. The surface features of floating statoblasts (floatoblasts) provide useful data for species identification. Most consistently useful in plumatellids is a suture which varies from one species to the next. Mound-like tubercles and net-like ridges are next in the extent of variability. Finally, folds and polar grooves are present but vary even within floatoblasts from the same colony. Analysis of the suture in PLUMATELLA FUNGOSA, over a 5-day germination period, reveals all features at the site remain intact regardless of the initial age of the floatoblast. Only the suture line itself splits lengthwise to permit emergence of the new animal.

  17. The relative importance of external and internal features of facial composites.

    PubMed

    Frowd, Charlie; Bruce, Vicki; McIntyre, Alex; Hancock, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Three experiments are reported that compare the quality of external with internal regions within a set of facial composites using two matching-type tasks. Composites are constructed with the aim of triggering recognition from people familiar with the targets, and past research suggests internal face features dominate representations of familiar faces in memory. However the experiments reported here show that the internal regions of composites are very poorly matched against the faces they purport to represent, while external feature regions alone were matched almost as well as complete composites. In Experiments 1 and 2 the composites used were constructed by participant-witnesses who were unfamiliar with the targets and therefore were predicted to demonstrate a bias towards the external parts of a face. In Experiment 3 we compared witnesses who were familiar or unfamiliar with the target items, but for both groups the external features were much better reproduced in the composites, suggesting it is the process of composite construction itself which is responsible for the poverty of the internal features. Practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. The importance of visual features in generic vs. specialized object recognition: a computational study

    PubMed Central

    Ghodrati, Masoud; Rajaei, Karim; Ebrahimpour, Reza

    2014-01-01

    It is debated whether the representation of objects in inferior temporal (IT) cortex is distributed over activities of many neurons or there are restricted islands of neurons responsive to a specific set of objects. There are lines of evidence demonstrating that fusiform face area (FFA-in human) processes information related to specialized object recognition (here we say within category object recognition such as face identification). Physiological studies have also discovered several patches in monkey ventral temporal lobe that are responsible for facial processing. Neuronal recording from these patches shows that neurons are highly selective for face images whereas for other objects we do not see such selectivity in IT. However, it is also well-supported that objects are encoded through distributed patterns of neural activities that are distinctive for each object category. It seems that visual cortex utilize different mechanisms for between category object recognition (e.g., face vs. non-face objects) vs. within category object recognition (e.g., two different faces). In this study, we address this question with computational simulations. We use two biologically inspired object recognition models and define two experiments which address these issues. The models have a hierarchical structure of several processing layers that simply simulate visual processing from V1 to aIT. We show, through computational modeling, that the difference between these two mechanisms of recognition can underlie the visual feature and extraction mechanism. It is argued that in order to perform generic and specialized object recognition, visual cortex must separate the mechanisms involved in within category from between categories object recognition. High recognition performance in within category object recognition can be guaranteed when class-specific features with intermediate size and complexity are extracted. However, generic object recognition requires a distributed universal

  19. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Weihong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther’s disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria. PMID:25372274

  20. Clinically important features of porphyrin and heme metabolism and the porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Wehong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2014-11-03

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther's disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria.

  1. Identifying and establishing consensus on the most important safety features of GP computer systems: e-Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Sheikh, Aziz; Cantrill, Judy; Morris, Caroline J; Fernando, Bernard; Bainbridge, Mike; Horsfield, Pete; Teasdale, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to identify and establish consensus on the most important safety features of GP computer systems, with a particular emphasis on medicines management. We used a two-round electronic Delphi survey, completed by a 21-member multidisciplinary expert panel, all from the UK. The main outcome measure was percentage agreement of the panel members on the importance of the presence of a number of different safety features (presented as clinical statements) on GP computer systems. We found 90% or greater agreement on the importance of 32 (58%) statements. These statements, indicating issues considered to be of considerable importance (rated as important or very important), related to: computerised alerts; the need to avoid spurious alerts; making it difficult to override critical alerts; having audit trails of such overrides; support for safe repeat prescribing; effective computer-user interface; importance of call and recall management; and the need to be able to run safety reports. The high level of agreement among the expert panel members indicates clear themes and priorities that need to be addressed in any further improvement of safety features in primary care computing systems.

  2. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: importance of vehicle fleet and local features.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Yao, Zhiliang; Wang, Xintong; Zheng, Bo; Streets, David G; Wang, Qidong; Ding, Yan

    2011-10-01

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control.

  3. Nonmotor Features in Parkinson's Disease: What Are the Most Important Associated Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Muldmaa, Mari; Lilles, Stella; Rosenthal, Marika; Taba, Nele; Taba, Pille

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY), the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL) Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE). Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as “mild” or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients' mood, daily activities, and quality of life. PMID:27195172

  4. Nonmotor Features in Parkinson's Disease: What Are the Most Important Associated Factors?

    PubMed

    Kadastik-Eerme, Liis; Muldmaa, Mari; Lilles, Stella; Rosenthal, Marika; Taba, Nele; Taba, Pille

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY), the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL) Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE). Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as "mild" or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients' mood, daily activities, and quality of life.

  5. Importance of Molecular Features of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer for Choice of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Approximately 85% of lung cancer is categorized as non–small cell lung cancer, and traditionally, non–small cell lung cancer has been treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Targeted agents that inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway have been developed and integrated into the treatment regimens in non–small cell lung cancer. Currently, approved epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors include the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib. Molecular determinants, such as epidermal growth factor receptor–activating mutations, have been associated with response to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be used to guide treatment choices in patients with non–small cell lung cancer. Thus, treatment choice for patients with non–small cell lung cancer depends on molecular features of tumors; however, improved techniques are required to increase the specificity and efficiency of molecular profiling so that these methods can be incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review provides an overview of how genetic analysis is currently used to direct treatment choices in non–small cell lung cancer. PMID:21514411

  6. Experimental colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques recapitulates important features of pathogenic SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xing Pei; Lucero, Carissa M.; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino L.; Morcock, David R.; Deleage, Claire; Trubey, Charles M.; Smedley, Jeremy; Klatt, Nichole R.; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Kristoff, Jan; Xu, Amy; Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Keele, Brandon F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Alvord, W. Gregory; Choyke, Peter L.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Estes, Jacob D.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with resulting microbial translocation is hypothesized to significantly contribute to the heightened and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation characteristic to HIV infection. Here we employ a non-human primate model of chemically induced colitis in SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques that we developed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), to directly test this hypothesis. DSS treatment results in GI barrier damage with associated microbial translocation, inflammation and immune activation. The progression and severity of colitis are longitudinally monitored by a magnetic resonance imaging approach. DSS treatment of SIV-infected African green monkeys, a natural host species for SIV that does not manifest GI tract damage or chronic immune activation during infection, results in colitis with elevated levels of plasma SIV RNA, sCD14, LPS, CRP and mucosal CD4+ T-cell loss. Together these results support the hypothesis that GI tract damage leading to local and systemic microbial translocation, and associated immune activation, are important determinants of AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:26282376

  7. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  8. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    PubMed

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-03-14

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and (1)H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL(-)(1)). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties.

  9. Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections.

    PubMed

    Houe, H

    1999-01-01

    Infections with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are widespread throughout the world. Although the prevalence of infection varies among surveys, the infection tends to be endemic in many populations, reaching a maximum level of 1-2% of the cattle being persistently infected (PI) and 60-85% of the cattle being antibody positive. Persistently infected cattle are the main source for transmission of the virus. However, acutely infected cattle as well as other ruminants, either acutely or persistently infected, may transmit the virus. Transmission is most efficient by direct contact. However, as infections have been observed in closed, non-pasturing herds, other transmission routes seem likely to have some practical importance. Differences in BVDV prevalence among regions or introduction of virus in herds previously free of BVDV are often associated with particular epidemiological determinants such as cattle population density, animal trade and pasturing practices. However, on a few occasions there have been no obvious explanations for infection of individual herds. Estimates of economic losses due to BVDV infection vary depending on the immune status of the population and the pathogenicity of the infecting virus strains. Introduction of the infection into a totally susceptible population invariably causes extensive losses until a state of equilibrium is reached. Infection with highly virulent BVDV strains causing severe clinical signs and death after acute infection gives rise to substantial economical losses. At an estimated annual incidence of acute infections of 34%, the total annual losses were estimated as US$ 20 million per million calvings when modeling the losses due to a low-virulent BVDV strain. At the same incidence of infection, the losses due to a high-virulent BVDV strain were estimated as US$ 57 million per million calvings. Low-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum losses at an incidence of 45%, whereas high-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum

  10. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  11. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  12. Addition of Ezetimibe to statins for patients at high cardiovascular risk: Systematic review of patient-important outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yutong; Guyatt, Gordon Henry; Alexander, Paul Elias; El Dib, Regina; Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Vandvik, Per Olav; Nunnally, Mark E; Gomaa, Huda; Morgan, Rebecca L; Agarwal, Arnav; Zhang, Ying; Bhatnagar, Neera; Spencer, Frederick A

    2017-01-16

    Ezetimibe is widely used in combination with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein. We sought to examine the impact of ezetimibe when added to statins on patient-important outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched through July, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ezetimibe combined with statins versus statins alone that followed patients for at least 6 months and reported on at least one of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and non-fatal strokes were included. Pairs of reviewers extracted study data and assessed risk of bias independently and in duplicate. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We conducted a narrative review with complementary subgroup and sensitivity analyses. IMPROVE-IT study enrolled 93% of all patients enrolled in the 8 included trials. Our analysis of the IMPROVE-IT study results showed that in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events, ezetimibe added to statins was associated with i) a likely reduction in non-fatal MI (17 fewer/1000 treated over 6 years, moderate certainty in evidence); ii) a possible reduction in non-fatal stroke (6 fewer/1000 treated over 6 years, low certainty); iii) no impact on myopathy (moderate certainty); iv) potentially no impact on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death (both moderate certainty); and v) possibly no impact on cancer (low certainty). Addition of ezetimibe to moderate-dose statins is likely to result in 17 fewer MIs and possibly 6 fewer strokes/1000 treated over 6 years but is unlikely to reduce all-cause mortality or cardiovascular death. Patients who place a high value on a small absolute reduction in MI and are not adverse to use of an additional medication over a long duration may opt for ezetimibe in addition to statin therapy. Our analysis revealed no increased specific harms associated with addition of ezetimibe to statins.

  13. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    PubMed Central

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  14. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  15. Atmospheric-water absorption features near 2.2 micrometers and their importance in high spectral resolution remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Clark, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atmospheric gases and water vapor is an accepted fact in terrestrial remote sensing. Until recently, only a general knowledge of atmospheric effects was required for analysis of remote sensing data; however, with the advent of high spectral resolution imaging devices, detailed knowledge of atmospheric absorption bands has become increasingly important for accurate analysis. Detailed study of high spectral resolution aircraft data at the U.S. Geological Survey has disclosed narrow absorption features centered at approximately 2.17 and 2.20 micrometers not caused by surface mineralogy. Published atmospheric transmission spectra and atmospheric spectra derived using the LOWTRAN-5 computer model indicate that these absorption features are probably water vapor. Spectral modeling indicates that the effects of atmospheric absorption in this region are most pronounced in spectrally flat materials with only weak absorption bands. Without correction and detailed knowledge of the atmospheric effects, accurate mapping of surface mineralogy (particularly at low mineral concentrations) is not possible.

  16. Exploring QSTR modeling and toxicophore mapping for identification of important molecular features contributing to the chemical toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Subrata; Roy, Kunal

    2014-03-01

    Biodiversity deprivation can affect functions and services of the ecosystem. Changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to ecological changes. Bacterial communities are the main form of biomass in the ecosystem and one of largest populations on the planet. Bacterial communities provide important services to biodiversity. They break down pollutants, municipal waste and ingested food, and they are the primary route for recycling of organic matter to plants and other autotrophs, conversion of inorganic matter into new biological tissue using sunlight, management of energy crisis through use of biofuel. In the present study, computational chemistry and statistical modeling have been used to develop mathematical equations which can be applied to calculate toxicity of new/unknown chemicals/biofuels/metabolites in Escherichia coli. 2D and 3D descriptors were generated from molecular structure of compounds and mathematical models have been developed using genetic function approximation followed by multiple linear regression (GFA-MLR) method. Model validity was checked through defined internal (R(2)=0.751 and Q(2)=0.711), and external (Rpred(2)=0.773) statistical parameters. Molecular features responsible for toxicity were also assessed through 3D toxicophore study. The toxicophore-based model was validated (R=0.785) using qualitative statistical metrics and randomization test (Fischer validation).

  17. Modification of Baselines for Gasoline Produced or Imported for Use in Hawaii, Alaska, and U.S. Territories Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This documents for modifications to fuel regulations to allow refiners and importers of conventional gasoline used in Hawaii, Alaska and U.S. Territories to petition EPA to change the way in which they calculate emissions from such gasoline.

  18. Direct electric current modifies important cellular aspects and ultrastructure features of Candida albicans yeasts: Influence of doses and polarities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Dos Santos, Eldio Gonçalves; Capella, Francielle Neves Carvalho; Homsani, Fortune; de Pointis Marçal, Carina; Dos Santos Valle, Roberta; de Araújo Abi-Chacra, Érika; Braga-Silva, Lys Adriana; de Oliveira Sales, Marcelo Henrique; da Silva Neto, Inácio Domingos; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Holandino, Carla

    2017-02-01

    Available treatments against human fungal pathogens present high levels of resistance, motivating the development of new antifungal therapies. In this context, the present work aimed to analyze direct electric current (DC) antifungal action, using an in vitro apparatus equipped with platinum electrodes. Candida albicans yeast cells were submitted to three distinct conditions of DC treatment (anodic flow-AF; electroionic flow-EIF; and cathodic flow-CF), as well as different charges, ranging from 0.03 to 2.40 C. Our results indicated C. albicans presented distinct sensibility depending on the DC intensity and polarity applied. Both the colony-forming unit assay and the cytometry flow with propidium iodide indicated a drastic reduction on cellular viability after AF treatment with 0.15 C, while CF- and EIF-treated cells stayed alive when DC doses were increased up to 2.40 C. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy revealed important ultrastructural alterations in AF-treated yeasts, including cell structure disorganization, ruptures in plasmatic membrane, and cytoplasmic rarefaction. This work emphasizes the importance of physical parameters (polarity and doses) in cellular damage, and brings new evidence for using electrotherapy to treat C. albicans pathology process. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:95-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  20. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes.

  1. Methacrylic Zwitterionic, Thermoresponsive, and Hydrophilic (Co)Polymers via Cu(0)-Polymerization: The Importance of Halide Salt Additives.

    PubMed

    Simula, Alexandre; Anastasaki, Athina; Haddleton, David M

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of hydrophilic, thermoresponsive, and zwitterionic polymethacrylates is reported by Cu(0)-mediated reversible deactivation radical polymerization in water and/or water/alcohol mixtures. The predisproportionation of [Cu(I) (PMDETA)Cl] in water prior to initiator and monomer addition is exploited to yield well-defined polymethacrylates with full monomer conversions in 30 min. The addition of supplementary halide salts (NaCl) enables the synthesis of various molecular weight poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] (PEGMA475) (DPn = 10-80, Mn ≈ 10,000-40 000 g mol(-1)) with full monomer conversion and narrow molecular weight distributions attained in all cases (Đ ≈ 1.20-1.30). A bifunctional PEG initiator (average Mn ≈ 1000 g mol(-1)) is utilized for the polymerization of a wide range of methacrylates including 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, 2-morpholinoethyl methacrylate, [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide, and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. Despite the high water content, high end group fidelity is demonstrated by in situ chain extensions and block copolymerizations with PEGMA475 yielding well-defined functional telechelic pentablock copolymers within 2.5 h.

  2. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias.

  3. Features and machine learning classification of connected speech samples from patients with autopsy proven Alzheimer's disease with and without additional vascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Rentoumi, Vassiliki; Raoufian, Ladan; Ahmed, Samrah; de Jager, Celeste A; Garrard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mixed vascular and Alzheimer-type dementia and pure Alzheimer's disease are both associated with changes in spoken language. These changes have, however, seldom been subjected to systematic comparison. In the present study, we analyzed language samples obtained during the course of a longitudinal clinical study from patients in whom one or other pathology was verified at post mortem. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to confirm the presence of differences in language produced by members of the two groups using quantitative methods of evaluation; and secondly to ascertain the most informative sources of variation between the groups. We adopted a computational approach to evaluate digitized transcripts of connected speech along a range of language-related dimensions. We then used machine learning text classification to assign the samples to one of the two pathological groups on the basis of these features. The classifiers' accuracies were tested using simple lexical features, syntactic features, and more complex statistical and information theory characteristics. Maximum accuracy was achieved when word occurrences and frequencies alone were used. Features based on syntactic and lexical complexity yielded lower discrimination scores, but all combinations of features showed significantly better performance than a baseline condition in which every transcript was assigned randomly to one of the two classes. The classification results illustrate the word content specific differences in the spoken language of the two groups. In addition, those with mixed pathology were found to exhibit a marked reduction in lexical variation and complexity compared to their pure AD counterparts.

  4. SU-E-J-261: The Importance of Appropriate Image Preprocessing to Augment the Information of Radiomics Image Features

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Fried, D; Fave, X; Mackin, D; Yang, J; Court, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate how different image preprocessing techniques, their parameters, and the different boundary handling techniques can augment the information of features and improve feature’s differentiating capability. Methods: Twenty-seven NSCLC patients with a solid tumor volume and no visually obvious necrotic regions in the simulation CT images were identified. Fourteen of these patients had a necrotic region visible in their pre-treatment PET images (necrosis group), and thirteen had no visible necrotic region in the pre-treatment PET images (non-necrosis group). We investigated how image preprocessing can impact the ability of radiomics image features extracted from the CT to differentiate between two groups. It is expected the histogram in the necrosis group is more negatively skewed, and the uniformity from the necrosis group is less. Therefore, we analyzed two first order features, skewness and uniformity, on the image inside the GTV in the intensity range [−20HU, 180HU] under the combination of several image preprocessing techniques: (1) applying the isotropic Gaussian or anisotropic diffusion smoothing filter with a range of parameter(Gaussian smoothing: size=11, sigma=0:0.1:2.3; anisotropic smoothing: iteration=4, kappa=0:10:110); (2) applying the boundaryadapted Laplacian filter; and (3) applying the adaptive upper threshold for the intensity range. A 2-tailed T-test was used to evaluate the differentiating capability of CT features on pre-treatment PT necrosis. Result: Without any preprocessing, no differences in either skewness or uniformity were observed between two groups. After applying appropriate Gaussian filters (sigma>=1.3) or anisotropic filters(kappa >=60) with the adaptive upper threshold, skewness was significantly more negative in the necrosis group(p<0.05). By applying the boundary-adapted Laplacian filtering after the appropriate Gaussian filters (0.5 <=sigma<=1.1) or anisotropic filters(20<=kappa <=50), the uniformity was

  5. Lung parenchymal invasion in pulmonary carcinoid tumor: an important histologic feature suggesting the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae Jun; Cho, Junhun; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Han, Joungho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2013-05-01

    The majority of previous studies on pulmonary carcinoid tumor have usually focused on clinical behavior or outcome, seldom considering histopathologic features. We retrospectively collected 63 cases of resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors from 1995 to 2011 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The clinical and pathological features were correlated and survival analyses were performed. Forty cases (63.5%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 23 cases (36.5%) were classified as atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO classification criteria. AC patients showed a higher frequency of current smoking status and a higher stage of the tumor by the American Joint Committee on Cancer than TC patients. The disease was associated with death and recurrence in five and seven patients, respectively, with almost all of the associations found in AC patients. The five-year survival rate of TC and AC were 100% and 83.5%, respectively, with AC showing poorer prognosis than TC in overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.005 and p=0.002). Lung parenchymal invasion was observed more commonly in AC than in TC (39.1% vs 12.5%, p=0.01) and was a poor prognostic factor in OS and DFS. Rosette-like arrangements were found only in six cases of AC, while abundant basophilic cytoplasm mimicking paraganglioma and ossification were found only in TC. Through the comprehensive study of pulmonary carcinoid tumor in Korea, we suggest that lung parenchymal invasion could be a useful histologic feature to suspect the diagnosis of AC in daily practice as well as to predict the prognosis of carcinoid tumor.

  6. Practical application of the Average Information Content Maximization (AIC-MAX) algorithm: selection of the most important structural features for serotonin receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Warszycki, Dawid; Śmieja, Marek; Kafel, Rafał

    2017-02-09

    The Average Information Content Maximization algorithm (AIC-MAX) based on mutual information maximization was recently introduced to select the most discriminatory features. Here, this methodology was applied to select the most significant bits from the Klekota-Roth fingerprint for serotonin receptors ligands as well as to select the most important features for distinguishing ligands with activity for one receptor versus another. The interpretation of selected bits and machine-learning experiments performed using the reduced interpretations outperformed the raw fingerprints and indicated the most important structural features of the analyzed ligands in terms of activity and selectivity. Moreover, the AIC-MAX methodology applied here for serotonin receptor ligands can also be applied to other target classes.

  7. The relative importance of road density and physical watershed features in determining coastal marsh water quality in Georgian Bay.

    PubMed

    Decatanzaro, Rachel; Cvetkovic, Maja; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    We used a GIS-based approach to examine the influence of road density and physical watershed features (watershed size, wetland cover, and bedrock type) on water quality in coastal marshes of Georgian Bay, Ontario. We created a GIS that included landscape information and water-quality data from a 9-year synoptic survey of 105 coastal marshes covering 28 quaternary watersheds. Multiple regressions and partial correlations were used to discern confounding effects of human-induced (road density) versus natural physical watershed determinants of water quality. Road density was the dominant factor influencing many water quality variables, showing positive correlations with specific conductivity (COND), total suspended solids (TSS), and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and a negative correlation with overall Water Quality Index scores. Road density also showed positive correlations with total nitrate nitrogen (TNN) and total phosphorus (TP). By comparison, larger watershed area was the main factor leading to elevated TP concentrations. The proportion of the watershed occupied by wetlands explained the largest amount of variation in TNN concentrations (negative correlation) and was also negatively correlated with COND and positively correlated with TSS and ISS when we controlled for road density. Bedrock type did not have a significant effect in any of the models. Our findings suggest that road density is currently the overriding factor governing water quality of coastal marshes in Georgian Bay during the summer low-flow period. We recommend that natural variation in physical watershed characteristics be considered when developing water quality standards and management practices for freshwater coastal areas.

  8. Importance of the Anchor Group Position (Para versus Meta) in Tetraphenylmethane Tripods: Synthesis and Self-Assembly Features.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Marcin; Valášek, Michal; Homberg, Jan; Edelmann, Kevin; Gerhard, Lukas; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Fuhr, Olaf; Wächter, Tobias; Zharnikov, Michael; Kolivoška, Viliam; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Mészáros, Gábor; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Mayor, Marcel

    2016-09-05

    The efficient synthesis of tripodal platforms based on tetraphenylmethane with three acetyl-protected thiol groups in either meta or para positions relative to the central sp(3) carbon for deposition on Au (111) surfaces is reported. These platforms are intended to provide a vertical arrangement of the substituent in position 4 of the perpendicular phenyl ring and an electronic coupling to the gold substrate. The self-assembly features of both derivatives are analyzed on Au (111) surfaces by low-temperature ultra-high-vacuum STM, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and reductive voltammetric desorption studies. These experiments indicated that the meta derivative forms a well-ordered monolayer, with most of the anchoring groups bound to the surface, whereas the para derivative forms a multilayer film with physically adsorbed adlayers on the chemisorbed para monolayer. Single-molecule conductance values for both tripodal platforms are obtained through an STM break junction experiment.

  9. Epidemiology and clinical features of vivax malaria imported to Europe: Sentinel surveillance data from TropNetEurop

    PubMed Central

    Mühlberger, N; Jelinek, T; Gascon, J; Probst, M; Zoller, T; Schunk, M; Beran, J; Gjørup, I; Behrens, RH; Clerinx, J; Björkman, A; McWhinney, P; Matteelli, A; Lopez-Velez, R; Bisoffi, Z; Hellgren, U; Puente, S; Schmid, ML; Myrvang, B; Holthoff-Stich, ML; Laferl, H; Hatz, C; Kollaritsch, H; Kapaun, A; Knobloch, J; Iversen, J; Kotlowski, A; Malvy, DJM; Kern, P; Fry, G; Siikamaki, H; Schulze, MH; Soula, G; Paul, M; Prat, J Gómez i; Lehmann, V; Bouchaud, O; Cunha, S da; Atouguia, J; Boecken, G

    2004-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives To present epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria collected at European level. Material and methods Data of primary cases of P. vivax malaria reported between January 1999 and September 2003 were analysed, focusing on disease frequency, patient characteristics, place of infection, course of disease, treatment and differences between network-member countries. Results Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9%) were attributed to P. vivax. European travellers and immigrants were the largest patient groups, but their proportion varied among the reporting countries. The main regions of infection in descending order were the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, South America and Western and Eastern Africa, as a group accounting for more than 60% of the cases. Regular use of malaria chemoprophylaxis was reported by 118 patients. With 86 (inter-quartile range 41–158) versus 31 days (inter-quartile range 4–133) the median symptom onset was significantly delayed in patients with chemoprophylaxis (p < 0.0001). Common complaints were fever, headache, fatigue, and musculo-skeletal symptoms. All patients survived and severe clinical complications were rare. Hospitalization was provided for 60% and primaquine treatment administered to 83.8% of the patients, but frequencies varied strongly among reporting countries. Conclusions TropNetEurop data can contribute to the harmonization of European treatment policies. PMID:15003128

  10. Molecular features of the L-type amino acid transporter 2 determine different import and export profiles for thyroid hormones and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katrin M; Neef, Dominik; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Köhrle, Josef; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2017-03-05

    The L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) imports amino acids (AA) and also certain thyroid hormones (TH), e.g. 3,3'-T2 and T3, but not rT3 and T4. We utilized LAT2 mutations (Y130A, N133S, F242W) that increase 3,3'-T2 import and focus here on import and export capacity for AA, T4, T3, BCH and derivatives thereof to delineate molecular features. Transport studies and analysis of competitive inhibition of import by radiolabelled TH and AA were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Only Y130A, a pocket widening mutation, enabled import for T4 and increased it for T3. Mutant F242W showed increased 3,3'-T2 import but no import rates for other TH derivatives. No export was detected for any TH by LAT2-wild type (WT). Mutations Y130A and N133S enabled only the export of 3,3'-T2, while N133S also increased AA export. Thus, distinct molecular LAT2-features determine bidirectional AA transport but only an unidirectional 3,3'-T2 and T3 import.

  11. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate prediction of the initiation of translation in sequences of mRNA is an important activity for genome annotation. However, obtaining an accurate prediction is not always a simple task and can be modeled as a problem of classification between positive sequences (protein codifiers) and negative sequences (non-codifiers). The problem is highly imbalanced because each molecule of mRNA has a unique translation initiation site and various others that are not initiators. Therefore, this study focuses on the problem from the perspective of balancing classes and we present an undersampling balancing method, M-clus, which is based on clustering. The method also adds features to sequences and improves the performance of the classifier through the inclusion of knowledge obtained by the model, called InAKnow. Results Through this methodology, the measures of performance used (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and adjusted accuracy) are greater than 93% for the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus organisms, and varied between 72.97% and 97.43% for the other organisms evaluated: Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Nasonia vitripennis. The precision increases significantly by 39% and 22.9% for Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, when the knowledge obtained by the model is included. For the other organisms, the precision increases by between 37.10% and 59.49%. The inclusion of certain features during training, for example, the presence of ATG in the upstream region of the Translation Initiation Site, improves the rate of sensitivity by approximately 7%. Using the M-Clus balancing method generates a significant increase in the rate of sensitivity from 51.39% to 91.55% (Mus musculus) and from 47.45% to 88.09% (Rattus norvegicus). Conclusions In order to solve the problem of TIS prediction, the results indicate that the methodology proposed in this work is adequate, particularly when using the

  12. An Individual with Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) and Additional Features Expands the Phenotype Associated with Mutations in KAT6B

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H.; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2 bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and Genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject’s phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes. PMID:24458743

  13. An individual with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and additional features expands the phenotype associated with mutations in KAT6B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Chun; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Medne, Livija; Zackai, Elaine H; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2014-04-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in FOXL2. We identified an individual with BPES and additional phenotypic features who did not have a FOXL2 mutation. We used whole exome sequencing to identify a de novo mutation in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B) in this individual. The mutation was a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift which resulted in a premature stop codon. The resulting truncated protein does not have the C-terminal serine/methionine transcription activation domain necessary for interaction with other transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. This mutation likely has a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect, similar to those observed in other genetic disorders resulting from KAT6B mutations, including Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson (SBBYSS) and genitopatellar syndrome (GTPTS). Thus, our subject's phenotype broadens the spectrum of clinical findings associated with mutations in KAT6B. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with BPES without a FOXL2 mutation should be tested for KAT6B mutations. The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation mediated by KAT6B appears crucial to early developmental processes, which when perturbed can lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypic outcomes.

  14. The importance of heat evolution during the overcharge process and the protection mechanism of electrolyte additives for prismatic lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Shiun; Hu, Chi-Chang; Li, Yuan-Yao

    In this work, the rate of heat generation in the overcharge period for 103450 prismatic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) of the LiCoO 2-graphite jellyroll type with a basic electrolyte consisting of 1 M LiPF 6-PC/EC/EMC (1/3/5 in weight ratio) has been found to be more important than the gas evolution which was traditionally considered as the main reason in the overcharge protection mechanism. The cell voltage, charge current, and skin temperature were monitored during the charge process. For a single battery or batteries in parallel, LIBs without any additives is an acceptable design if the cell voltage is not charged above 4.55 V under the common charge program. The rate of heat generation from the polymerization of 3 wt% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) is high enough to cause the explosion or thermal runaway of a battery, which is not found for an LIB containing 2 wt% CHB + 1 wt% tert-amyl benzene (TAB). In the 12 V overcharge test at 1C, the thermal fuse was broken by the high skin temperature (ca. 80 °C) due to the polymerization of 3 wt% CHB, which was also the case for LIBs containing 2 wt% CHB + 1 wt% TAB. The disconnection of the thermal fuse, however, did not interrupt the thermal runaway of LIBs without any additives because the battery voltage was too high (ca. 4.9 V). The influence of specific surface area of active materials in the anode on the polymerization kinetics of additives has to be carefully considered in order to add correct amount of overcharge protection agents.

  15. Characterization of pulmonary nodules on computer tomography (CT) scans: the effect of additive white noise on features selection and classification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osicka, Teresa; Freedman, Matthew T.; Ahmed, Farid

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this project is to use computer analysis to classify small lung nodules, identified on CT, into likely benign and likely malignant categories. We compared discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) based features and a modification of classical features used and reported by others. To determine the best combination of features for classification, several intensities of white noise were added to the original images to determine the effect of such noise on classification accuracy. Two different approaches were used to determine the effect of noise: in the first method the best features for classification of nodules on the original image were retained as noise was added. In the second approach, we recalculated the results to reselect the best classification features for each particular level of added noise. The CT images are from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). For this study, nodules were extracted in window frames of three sizes. Malignant nodules were cytologically or histogically diagnosed, while benign had two-year follow-up. A linear discriminant analysis with Fisher criterion (FLDA) approach was used for feature selection and classification, and decision matrix for matched sample to compare the classification accuracy. The initial features mode revealed sensitivity to both the amount of noise and the size of window frame. The recalculated feature mode proved more robust to noise with no change in terms of classification accuracy. This indicates that the best features for computer classification of lung nodules will differ with noise, and, therefore, with exposure.

  16. Oxidative addition of Pd to C-H, C-C and C-Cl bonds: Importance of relativistic effects in DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, Axel; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2001-09-01

    To assess the importance of relativistic effects for the quantum chemical description of oxidative addition reactions of palladium to C-H, C-C and C-Cl bonds, we have carried out a systematic study of the corresponding reactions of CH4, C2H6 and CH3Cl with Pd-d10 using nonrelativistic (NR), quasirelativistic (QR), and zeroth-order regularly approximated (ZORA) relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at the BP86/TZ(2)P level. Relativistic effects are important according to both QR and ZORA, the former yielding similar but somewhat more pronounced effects than the latter, more reliable method: activation barriers are reduced by 6-14 kcal/mol and reaction enthalpies become 15-20 kcal/mol more exothermic if one goes from NR to ZORA. This yields, for example, 298 K activation enthalpies ΔH298≠ of -5.0 (C-H), 9.6 (C-C) and -6.0 kcal/mol (C-Cl) relative to the separate reactants at ZORA-BP86/TZ(2)P. In accordance with gas-phase experiments on reactions of Pd with alkanes, we find reaction profiles with pronounced potential wells for reactant complexes (collisionally stabilized and observed in experiments for alkanes larger than CH4) at -11.4 (CH4), -11.6 (C2H6) and -15.6 kcal/mol (CH3Cl) relative to separated reactants [ZORA-BP86/TZ(2)P]. Furthermore, we analyze the height of and the relativistic effects on the activation energies ΔE≠ in terms of the activation strain ΔEstrain≠ of and the transition-state interaction ΔEint≠ between the reactants in the activated complex, with ΔE≠=ΔEstrain≠+ΔEint≠.

  17. Features and prognostic impact of distant metastasis in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations: importance of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ryoko; Kato, Ryoji; Otoshi, Takehiro; Kawamura, Takahisa; Tamai, Koji; Shibata, Yumi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nagata, Kazuma; Otsuka, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-06-01

    Mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signaling pathways were associated with multiple brain and intra-pulmonary metastases, oncogenic progression and metastasis. However, features of metastasis to other organs and the independent prognostic influence of metastatic lesions were not elucidated in patients with lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. Between January 2007 and April 2012, we treated 277 patients diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Studied were 246 patients with available tumor EGFR mutation data who also underwent radiographic evaluation of lung, abdominal, brain, and bone metastases. The EGFR mutated group (N = 98) had significantly more metastatic lesions in the brain and bone than the wild-type group (N = 148): brain, 3 (1-93) versus 2 (1-32) median (range), P = 0.023; bone, 3 (1-43) versus 2 (1-27), P = 0.035, respectively. In addition, EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple than non-multiple lung metastases (24/40 vs. 12/42, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that bone metastasis was a significant independent negative predictive factor of overall survival (OS) in patients with mutated [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.64; P = 0.011] and wild-type EGFR (HR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.37-3.20; P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with mutated EGFR had more lung, brain, and bone metastases, and bone metastasis was an independent negative predictor of OS.

  18. Photocatalytic activation of pyridine for addition reactions: an unconventional reaction feature between a photo-induced hole and electron on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongge; Yan, Yan; Ji, Hongwei; Chen, Chuncheng; Zhao, Jincai

    2015-12-21

    TiO2 photocatalysis can be performed for the addition of pyridines to vinylarenes in an anti-Markovnikov manner. Seven examples with considerable yields (56-91%) and selectivity were demonstrated. A comparative survey of the involved process through ESR revealed a novel concerted two electron transfer pathway for these photocatalytic bimolecular addition reactions.

  19. The addition of STEPPS in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid borderline personality features: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) both are severe and chronic psychiatric disorders. Both disorders have overlapping symptoms, and current research shows that the presence of a BPD has an adverse effect on the course of BD. The limited research available shows an unfavorable illness course, a worse prognosis and response to medication, longer treatment duration, more frequent psychiatric admissions, higher drop-out, increased risk of substance abuse, increased risk of suicide, and more impairment of social and occupational functioning. However, there is no research available on the effect of specific psychotherapeutic treatment for this patients. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of a RCT to investigate the presence of borderline personality features in patients treated for BD (study part 1) and the effectiveness of STEPPS (Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving) added to treatment as usual (TAU) for BD compared to TAU in patients with BD and comorbid borderline personality features (study part 2). STEPPS is a validated and effective intervention for BPD. The study population consists of patients treated for BD at specialized outpatient clinics for BD in the Netherlands. At first the prevalence of comorbid borderline personality features in outpatients with BD is investigated. Inclusion criteria for study part 2 is defined as having three or more of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria of BPD, including impulsivity and anger bursts. Primary outcomes will be the frequency and severity of manic and depressive recurrences as well as severity, course and burden of borderline personality features. Secondary outcomes will be quality of life, utilizing mental healthcare and psychopathologic symptoms not primarily related to BD or BPD. Assessment will be at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at 12 and 18 months follow-up. Discussion This will be the first randomized controlled trial

  20. Sub-Tg features of glasses formed by cooling glycerol under pressure - Additional incompatibility of vibrational with configurational states in the depressurized, high density glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Ove; Johari, G. P.

    2016-11-01

    The vibrational state of a glass is naturally incompatible with its configurational state, which makes the glass structurally unstable. When a glass is kept at constant temperature, both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass change with time until it becomes metastable (equilibrium) liquid and the two states become compatible. The process, known as structural relaxation, occurs at a progressively higher rate during heating, and the properties of a glass change accordingly. We add to this incompatibility by depressurizing a glass that had been formed by cooling a liquid under a high pressure, p, and then investigate the effects of the added incompatibility by studying thermal conductivity, κ , and the heat capacity per unit volume ρ Cp of the depressurized glass. We use glycerol for the purpose and study first the changes in the features of κ and of ρ Cp during glass formation on cooling under a set of different p. We then partially depressurize the glass and study the effect of the p-induced instability on the features of κ and ρ Cp as the glass is isobarically heated to the liquid state. At a given low p, the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at high-p had a higher κ than the glass configuration that was formed by cooling at a low p. The difference is more when the glass is formed at a higher p and/or is depressurized to a lower p. On heating at a low p, its κ decreases before its glass-liquid transition range is reached. The effect is the opposite of the increase in κ observed on heating a glass at the same p under which it was formed. It is caused by thermally assisted loss of the added incompatibility of configurational and vibrational states of a high-p formed glass kept at low p. If a glass formed under a low-p is pressurized and then heated under high p, it would show the opposite effect, i.e., its κ would first increase to its high p value before its glass-to-liquid transition range.

  1. Expressions of Social Conventions and Language Features in Arabic, German, Japanese and Korean and Their Importance in a Proficiency Oriented Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Marianne; And Others

    Teachers of Arabic, German, Japanese, and Korean at the Defense Language Institute describe classroom activities that have proven effective in preparing their adult, military language students for contact with another culture. Cultural awareness and understanding of the culture's sociolinguistic features are emphasized because of their importance…

  2. Importance of large-scale bathymetry features on 2011 Tohoku tsunami waveforms through comparison of simulations with the spatially dense ALBACORE OBS array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, M. D.; Lynett, P. J.; Legg, M. R.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011, a deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) off the coast of Southern California recorded the tsunami resulting from the Mw=9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake with very high spatial resolution. The ALBACORE (Asthenosphere and Lithosphere Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) OBS array spanned a region that was 150 km north-south by 400 km east-west, extending into deep open ocean west of the Patton escarpment. In that array, 22 stations with a spacing of 75 km had differential pressure gauges (DPGs) that recorded water pressure waveform data continuously at 50 samples/second. The DPG tsunami records across the entire array show multiple large-amplitude, coherent phases arriving one hour to more than 36 hours after the initial tsunami phase. To determine the source of the large-amplitude coherent phases, gravity ocean wave propagation calculations were carried out for the Pacific Ocean. Simulated pressure waveforms were compared with data for the ALBACORE stations, as well as for the NOAA DART buoys. The linear, non-dispersive shallow-water simulations include bottom frictional effects, and use the USGS NEIC Tohoku slip model and ETOPO2 (two-minute spatial resolution) bathymetry. The predicted travel times of the initial arrivals are found to be less than 1% different from the observed travel times in the southern California ALBACORE DPG data. In order to gauge the effects of large-scale features in Pacific Ocean bathymetry, several large-scale features were individually removed, and simulations were carried out for the modified bathymetry. The removed features include the Emperor Seamount chain, Hawaiian Islands, Oceania, French Polynesia, and the South American coastline. The results show that the removal of these features has an effect on the arrival time of the phases that depends on the feature proximity to the direct path, but their removal does not have a significant effect on the frequency content or phase

  3. Community-Based Health Education Programs Designed to Improve Clinical Measures Are Unlikely to Reduce Short-Term Costs or Utilization Without Additional Features Targeting These Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burton, Joe; Eggleston, Barry; Brenner, Jeffrey; Truchil, Aaron; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Lewis, Megan A

    2016-06-07

    Stakeholders often expect programs for persons with chronic conditions to "bend the cost curve." This study assessed whether a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program offered as part of a multicomponent initiative could affect emergency department (ED) visits, hospital stays, and the associated costs for an underserved population in addition to the clinical indicators that DSME programs attempt to improve. The program was implemented in Camden, New Jersey, by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers to address disparities in diabetes care. Data used are from medical records and from patient-level information about hospital services from Camden's hospitals. Using multivariate regression models to control for individual characteristics, changes in utilization over time and changes relative to 2 comparison groups were assessed. No reductions in ED visits, inpatient stays, or costs for participants were found over time or relative to the comparison groups. High utilization rates and costs for diabetes are associated with longer term disease progression and its sequelae; thus, DSME or peer support may not affect these in the near term. Some clinical indicators improved among participants, and these might lead to fewer costly adverse health events in the future. DSME deployed at the community level, without explicit segmentation and targeting of high health care utilizers or without components designed to affect costs and utilization, should not be expected to reduce short-term medical needs for participating individuals or care-seeking behaviors such that utilization is reduced. Stakeholders must include financial outcomes in a program's design if those outcomes are to improve. (Population Health Management 20XX;XX:XXX-XXX).

  4. Cytosolic Delivery of Granzyme B by Bacterial Toxins: Evidence that Endosomal Disruption, in Addition to Transmembrane Pore Formation, Is an Important Function of Perforin

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Kylie A.; Blink, Elizabeth; Sutton, Vivien R.; Froelich, Christopher J.; Jans, David A.; Trapani, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    Granule-mediated cell killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes requires the combined actions of a membranolytic protein, perforin, and granule-associated granzymes, but the mechanism by which they jointly kill cells is poorly understood. We have tested a series of membrane-disruptive agents including bacterial pore-forming toxins and hemolytic complement for their ability to replace perforin in facilitating granzyme B-mediated cell death. As with perforin, low concentrations of streptolysin O and pneumolysin (causing <10% 51Cr release) permitted granzyme B-dependent apoptosis of Jurkat and Yac-1 cells, but staphylococcal alpha-toxin and complement were ineffective, regardless of concentration. The ensuing nuclear apoptotic damage was caspase dependent and included cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, suggesting a mode of action similar to that of perforin. The plasma membrane lesions formed at low dose by perforin, pneumolysin, and streptolysin did not permit diffusion of fluorescein-labeled proteins as small as 8 kDa into the cell, indicating that large membrane defects are not necessary for granzymes (32 to 65 kDa) to enter the cytosol and induce apoptosis. The endosomolytic toxin, listeriolysin O, also effected granzyme B-mediated cell death at concentrations which produced no appreciable cell membrane damage. Cells pretreated with inhibitors of endosomal trafficking such as brefeldin A took up granzyme B normally but demonstrated seriously impaired nuclear targeting of granzyme B when perforin was also added, indicating that an important role of perforin is to disrupt vesicular protein trafficking. Surprisingly, cells exposed to granzyme B with perforin concentrations that produced nearly maximal 51Cr release (1,600 U/ml) also underwent apoptosis despite excluding a 8-kDa fluorescein-labeled protein marker. Only at concentrations of >4,000 U/ml were perforin pores demonstrably large enough to account for transmembrane diffusion of granzyme B. We conclude that pore

  5. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  6. Importance of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion in the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Solitary Fibrous Tumor with Hamartoma-Like Features: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kei; Kishimoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Nakatani, Yukio; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of pancreatic hamartoma-like solitary fibrous tumor which was differentiated from pancreatic hamartoma with the detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion, a specific mutation for solitary fibrous tumors. A pancreatic well-demarcated solid nodule, 21 × 17 mm, of 82-year-old man was surgically enucleated. Microscopic findings were close to a pancreatic hamartoma that consisted of sparsely distributed pancreatic ducts and acini in heavily collagenized fibrous stroma. Neither islet nor peripheral nerve existed in the tumor. The fibroblastic cells in the stroma were immune-positive for CD34, CD99, and bcl-2. But these expressions were not decisive in the differentiation between solitary fibrous tumor and pancreatic hamartoma, because CD34 was positive for both tumors, and CD99 and bcl-2 expressions were not elucidated in the previous cases of pancreatic hamartomas. Thus, we evaluated NAB2-STAT6 fusion. The fibroblastic cells were positive for STAT6 and sequencing analysis revealed the gene fusion between NAB2 exon 4 and STAT6 exon 2, with which the final diagnos is of solitary fibrous tumor was achieved. In conclusion, detection of NAB2-STAT6 fusion has a great diagnostic value for pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors with hamartoma-like features. PMID:26425382

  7. Identifying important structural features of ionic liquid stationary phases for the selective separation of nonpolar analytes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Ingram, Isaiah C; Hantao, Leandro W; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-03-20

    A series of dicationic ionic liquid (IL)-based stationary phases were evaluated as secondary columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons from kerosene. In order to understand the role that structural features of ILs play on the selectivity of nonpolar analytes, the solvation parameter model was used to probe the solvation properties of the IL-based stationary phases. It was observed that room temperature ILs containing long free alkyl side chain substituents and long linker chains between the two cations possess less cohesive forces and exhibited the highest resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The anion component of the IL did not contribute significantly to the overall separation, as similar selectivities toward aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed when examining ILs with identical cations and different anions. In an attempt to further examine the separation capabilities of the IL-based GC stationary phases, columns of the best performing stationary phases were prepared with higher film thickness and resulted in enhanced selectivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  8. Comparative analysis of the noncollagenous NC1 domain of type IV collagen: identification of structural features important for assembly, function, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Netzer, K O; Suzuki, K; Itoh, Y; Hudson, B G; Khalifah, R G

    1998-06-01

    Type IV collagen alpha1-alpha6 chains have important roles in the assembly of basement membranes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder, and Alport syndrome, a hereditary renal disease. We report comparative sequence analyses and structural predictions of the noncollagenous C-terminal globular NC1 domain (28 sequences). The inferred tree verified that type IV collagen sequences fall into two groups, alpha1-like and alpha2-like, and suggested that vertebrate alpha3/alpha4 sequences evolved before alpha1/alpha2 and alpha5/alpha6. About one fifth of NC1 residues were identified to confer either the alpha1 or alpha2 group-specificity. These residues accumulate opposite charge in subdomain B of alpha1 (positive) and alpha2 (negative) sequences and may play a role in the stoichiometric chain selection upon type IV collagen assembly. Neural network secondary structure prediction on multiple aligned sequences revealed a subdomain core structure consisting of six hydrophobic beta-strands and one short alpha-helix with a significant hydrophobic moment. The existence of opposite charges in the alpha-helices may carry implications for intersubdomain interactions. The results provide a rationale for defining the epitope that binds Goodpasture autoantibodies and a framework for understanding how certain NC1 mutations may lead to Alport syndrome. A search algorithm, based entirely on amino acid properties, yielded a possible similarity of NC1 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) and prompted an investigation of a possible functional relationship. The results indicate that NC1 preparations decrease the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 (MMP-2, MMP-3) toward a peptide substrate, though not to [14C]-gelatin. We suggest that an ancestral NC1 may have been incorporated into type IV collagen as an evolutionarily mobile domain carrying proteinase inhibitor function.

  9. S. 1082: This Act may be cited as the Hazardous and Additional Waste Export and Import Act of 1991, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US Senate on May 15, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act. This legislation prohibits the export from and import into the United States of Hazardous and additional waste except in compliance with the requirements of this bill. The purpose of this act is to implement the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, done at Basel, Switzerland, March 22, 1989. Key sections of this bill address the following: international shipments of hazardous and additional waste; objectives and national policy; retention of existing authority; and conforming amendments.

  10. Cascade Michael addition/cycloketalization of cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds: important role of the tethered alcohol of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds on reaction rate and regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongliang; Song, Liyan; Liu, Yuan; Tong, Rongbiao

    2014-09-19

    Reactions of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds proceed primarily by cascade Knoevenagel condensation/six-π-electron electrocyclization (K6EC, formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition), while α,β-unsaturated ketones usually react with cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in a 1,4-addition manner. This paper discloses our findings that under acidic conditions, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (ketones and aldehydes) with a tethered alcohol react with cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in a highly regioselective 1,4-addition fashion via in situ generation of a hypothetical α-methylene cyclic oxonium ion as the reactive Michael acceptor. Our studies uncovered the important effect of the tethered alcohol on the reaction rate and/or efficiency and some new mechanistic aspects of the cascade Michael addition/cycloketalization. Finally, the substrate scope was examined, and 43 analogues of penicipyrone and tenuipyrone were prepared in good to excellent yields.

  11. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Clustering granulometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Marcel; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Barrera, Junior; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2002-05-01

    Granulometric features have been widely used for classification, segmentation and recently in estimation of parameters in shape models. In this paper we study the inference of clustering based on granulometric features for a collection of structuring probes in the context of random models. We use random Boolean models to represent grains of different shapes and structure. It is known that granulometric features are excellent descriptors of shape and structure of grains. Inference based on clustering these features helps to analyze the consistency of these features and clustering algorithms. This greatly aids in classifier design and feature selection. Features and the order of their addition play a role in reducing the inference errors. We study four different types of feature addition methods and the effect of replication in reducing the inference errors.

  14. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  15. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. In situ formation of the first proteinogenically functionalized [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– structure reveals unprecedented chemical and geometrical features of the Anderson-type cluster† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental details and additional figures are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc07004c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Bijelic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of polyoxometalates (POMs) in a protein environment is an almost unexplored but highly relevant research field as important biological and pharmacological attributes of certain POMs are based on their interactions with proteins. We report on the A-type Anderson–Evans polyoxotungstate, [TeW6O24]6– (TEW), mediated crystallization of Coreopsis grandiflora aurone synthase (cgAUS1) using ∼0.24 mM protein and 1.0 mM TEW. The 1.78 Å crystal structure reveals the covalent binding of TEW to the protein under the formation of an unprecedented polyoxotungstate cluster, [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– (GluTEW). The polyoxotungstate–protein complex exhibits the first covalent bond between a protein and the A-type Anderson–Evans cluster, an archetype where up to now no hybrid structures exist. The polyoxotungstate is modified at two of its six addenda tungsten atoms, which covalently bind to the carboxylic oxygen atoms of glutamic acid (Glu157), leading to W–O distances of ∼2.35 Å. This ligand substitution reaction is accompanied by a reduction of the coordination number of two μ3 polyoxotungstate oxygen atoms. This is so far unique since all known hybridizations of the Anderson–Evans POM with organic units have been obtained via the functionalization of the B-type Anderson–Evans structure through its bridging oxygen atoms. The structure reported here proves the reactivity of this POM archetype's addenda atoms as it has been administered into the protein solution as a pre-assembled cluster. Moreover, the novel cluster [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– displays the great versatility of the Anderson–Evans POM class. PMID:27722437

  18. AQUATOX Features and Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Numerous features have been included to facilitate the modeling process, from model setup and data input, presentation and analysis of results, to easy export of results to spreadsheet programs for additional analysis.

  19. An Analysis of the Assessment of Glycated Hemoglobin Using A1cNow+™ Point-of-Care Device Compared to Central Laboratory Testing—an Important Addition to Pharmacist-Managed Diabetes Programs?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alan W.

    2008-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic is accelerating rapidly. If no progress is made in early detection, then early intervention and treatment-to-goal diabetes care will become an overwhelming burden on our health care system. Better utilization of self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes not on insulin could be achieved with regular review of hemoglobin A1c (A1C) values. Educating patients about the importance of diet, exercise, and medication compliance is enhanced when evidence of average blood glucose control can be presented to the patient directly. Affordable, accurate point-of-care testing of A1C with A1cNow+™ (Bayer HealthCare, Terrytown, NY) utilized in pharmacist-managed outpatient diabetes programs may prove to be an important clinical tool for improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost of the expanding diabetes epidemic. PMID:19885268

  20. The effectiveness of selected feed and water additives for reducing Salmonella spp. of public health importance in broiler chickens: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression approach.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Farrar, Ashley M; Wilkins, Wendy; Bucher, Oliver; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilhelm, Barbara J; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2012-10-01

    Eating inappropriately prepared poultry meat is a major cause of foodborne salmonellosis. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of feed and water additives (other than competitive exclusion and antimicrobials) on reducing Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens using systematic review-meta-analysis and to explore sources of heterogeneity found in the meta-analysis through meta-regression. Six electronic databases were searched (Current Contents (1999-2009), Agricola (1924-2009), MEDLINE (1860-2009), Scopus (1960-2009), Centre for Agricultural Bioscience (CAB) (1913-2009), and CAB Global Health (1971-2009)), five topic experts were contacted, and the bibliographies of review articles and a topic-relevant textbook were manually searched to identify all relevant research. Study inclusion criteria comprised: English-language primary research investigating the effects of feed and water additives on the Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chickens. Data extraction and study methodological assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently using pretested forms. Seventy challenge studies (n=910 unique treatment-control comparisons), seven controlled studies (n=154), and one quasi-experiment (n=1) met the inclusion criteria. Compared to an assumed control group prevalence of 44 of 1000 broilers, random-effects meta-analysis indicated that the Salmonella cecal colonization in groups with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharide, lactose, whey, dried milk, lactulose, lactosucrose, sucrose, maltose, mannanoligosaccharide) added to feed or water was 15 out of 1000 broilers; with lactose added to feed or water it was 10 out of 1000 broilers; with experimental chlorate product (ECP) added to feed or water it was 21 out of 1000. For ECP the concentration of Salmonella in the ceca was decreased by 0.61 log(10)cfu/g in the treated group compared to the control group. Significant heterogeneity (Cochran's Q-statistic p≤0.10) was observed

  1. Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ilsa C; Oliveira, Maria E G; Madruga, Marta S; Gullón, Beatriz; Pacheco, Maria T B; Gomes, Ana M P; Batista, Ana S M; Pintado, Maria M E; Souza, Evandro L; Queiroga, Rita C R E

    2016-10-12

    The effects of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and inulin on the quality characteristics of creamy goat cheese during refrigerated storage were evaluated. The manufactured cheeses included the addition of starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - R-704) (CC); starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05 and inulin (CLA); starter culture, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CBB); or starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CLB). In the synbiotic cheeses (CLA, CBB and CLB), the counts of L. acidophilus LA-05 and B. lactis BB-12 were greater than 6log CFU g(-1), the amount of inulin was greater than 6 g per 100 g, and the firmness was reduced. The cheeses evaluated had high brightness values (L*), with a predominance of yellow (b*). CC had higher contents of proteins, lipids and minerals compared to the other cheeses. There was a decrease in the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and an increase of medium-chain (MCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in the synbiotic cheeses compared to CC. The amount of conjugated linoleic acid increased in CLA, CBB and CLB. The highest depth of proteolysis and the greatest changes in the release of free amino acids were found in CLB. The addition of inulin and probiotics, alone or in co-culture, did not affect the cheese acceptance. Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential.

  2. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  3. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  4. Feature Characterization Library

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Wendy; Gentile, Ann; McCoy, Renata

    2006-08-03

    FCLib is a data analysis toolkit constructed to meet the needs of data discovery in large-scale, spatio-temporal data such as finite element simulation data. FCLib is a C library toolkit of building blocks that can be assembled into complex analyses. Important features of FCLib include the following: (1) Support of feature-based analysis, (2) minimization of low-oevel processing, (3) ease of use, and (4) applicable to the wide variety of science domains.

  5. On the Quasi-Extended Addition for Exploded Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szalay, István

    2008-01-01

    In teaching primary teacher trainees, an awareness of the characteristic features, especially commutativity and associativity of basic operations play an important role. Owing to a deeply set automatism rooted in their primary and secondary education, teacher trainees think that such characteristics of addition are so trivial that they do not need…

  6. Ultrasonography and cytology as predictors of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): Importance of the differential diagnosis with the invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2017-03-02

    The noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC) has an excellent prognosis even if treated only by lobectomy.(1-3) Recently, it was proposed that this tumor should no longer be considered "cancer" and be given the denomination "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP).(2) There is great interest in knowing the preoperative characteristics of NIFTP since, in view of a high probability of this diagnosis (higher than that of malignancy), less extensive surgery would be more indicated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  8. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  9. Imported malaria.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M G

    1974-01-01

    There have been 4 waves of imported malaria in the USA. They occurred during the colonization of the country and during the Second World War, the UN Police Action in Korea, and the Viet-Nam conflict. The first 3 episodes are briefly described and the data on imported malaria from Viet-Nam are discussed in detail.Endemic malaria is resurgent in many tropical countries and international travel is also on the rise. This increases the likelihood of malaria being imported from an endemic area and introduced into a receptive area. The best defence for countries threatened by imported malaria is a vigorous surveillance programme. The principles of surveillance are discussed and an example of their application is provided by a description of the methods used to conduct surveillance of malaria in the USA.

  10. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  11. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  12. [Imported histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Stete, Katarina; Kern, Winfried V; Rieg, Siegbert; Serr, Annerose; Maurer, Christian; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    Infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are rare in Germany, and mostly imported from endemic areas. Infections can present as localized or disseminated diseases in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent hosts. A travel history may be a major clue for diagnosing histoplasmosis. Diagnostic tools include histology, cultural and molecular detection as well as serology. Here we present four cases of patients diagnosed and treated in Freiburg between 2004 and 2013 that demonstrate the broad range of clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis: an immunocompetent patient with chronic basal meningitis; a patient with HIV infection and fatal disseminated disease; a patient with pulmonary and cutaneous disease and mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy; and an immunosuppressed patient with disseminated involvement of lung, bone marrow and adrenal glands.

  13. Cherubism: Clinicoradiographic Features and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Janete Dias; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Cherubism is a congenital childhood disease of autosomal dominant inheritance. This disease is characterized by painless bilateral enlargement of the jaws, in which bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. The condition has sui generis clinical, radiographic and histological features, of which the clinician should be aware for a better differential diagnosis in the presence of a fibro-osseous lesion affecting the bones of the maxillomandibular complex. The purpose of present paper was to review the literature and to report the most important aspects of cherubism in order to facilitate the study of this disease Material and Methods Literature was reviewed about cherubism, emphasizing the relevant clinicoradiographic features and treatment. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed and Scielo electronic databases. The keywords used for search were adolescent, cherubism, cherubism/physiopathology, cherubism/treatment, cherubism/radiography. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors' article files and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional publications. Those studies that described new features about cherubism were included in this review. Results In total 44 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Studies that described new features about cherubism physiopathology, diagnostics and treatment were reviewed. Conclusions Despite the exceptions, cherubism is a clinically well-characterized disease. In cases of a suspicion of cherubism, radiographic examination is essential since the clinical presentation, the location and distribution of the lesions may define the diagnosis. Histopathological examination is complementary. Nowadays, genetic tests should be used for final diagnosis of cherubism. PMID:24421967

  14. Semantic significance: a new measure of feature salience.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2014-04-01

    According to the feature-based model of semantic memory, concepts are described by a set of semantic features that contribute, with different weights, to the meaning of a concept. Interestingly, this theoretical framework has introduced numerous dimensions to describe semantic features. Recently, we proposed a new parameter to measure the importance of a semantic feature for the conceptual representation-that is, semantic significance. Here, with speeded verification tasks, we tested the predictive value of our index and investigated the relative roles of conceptual and featural dimensions on the participants' performance. The results showed that semantic significance is a good predictor of participants' verification latencies and suggested that it efficiently captures the salience of a feature for the computation of the meaning of a given concept. Therefore, we suggest that semantic significance can be considered an effective index of the importance of a feature in a given conceptual representation. Moreover, we propose that it may have straightforward implications for feature-based models of semantic memory, as an important additional factor for understanding conceptual representation.

  15. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2016-07-20

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  16. Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scot B.; Stieglitz, Ronald D.

    1990-11-01

    A geologic investigation of the northern part of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin for a state funded water quality project revealed that karstification of the Silurian aquifer is more extensive than previously believed. Sinkholes and small insurgent features, solution modified crevices, pavements, caves and springs were inventories and mapped. These features are generally smaller and less densely developed than those in most limestone terranes; however, they are important to the geomorphology and water quality of the peninsula. Continental glaciation has strongly influenced both the distribution and the present surface morphology of the karst features. Ice scour has formed a stepped bedrock topography, contributed to pavement formation and may have removed some preglacial features. Deposition has plugged and masked features in places. In addition, subglacial water circulation, and ice loading and unloading may have influenced karst development.

  17. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  18. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  19. [Important epidemiological features of the treatment of type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Seguí Díaz, M

    2014-07-01

    According to the various clinical practice guidelines, the recommendations for the treatment of type 2 diabetes are well-established, thus leading to homogenization of clinical practice and avoiding variability. However, it is well known that, depending on factors such as effectiveness, physiopathology, cost, adverse effects, preferences, and comorbidities, each patient will, in the long-term, receive different treatment of type 2 diabetes. The consensus document published last year and approved by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommends distinct targets for each patient with type 2 diabetes and argues for the individualization of the management and treatment of this disease. In other words, the document advocates a patient-centered approach, in which the various therapeutic alternatives are related mainly to distinct physiopathological factors, adverse effects, and the patient's comorbidities, as well as the patient's preferences.

  20. The Adult Learning Environment: Importance of Physical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosko, R. S.; Hiemstra, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature primarily outside of educational circles on three topics--ergonomics, anthropometry, and proxemics--that affect the learning environment. It also discusses some implications in the hope that research and dialogue can be stimulated. (JOW)

  1. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely accepted that design features are one of the most attractive integration method of most fields of engineering activities such as a design modelling, process planning or production scheduling. One of the most important tasks which are realized in the integration process of design and planning functions is a design translation meant as design data mapping into data which are important from process planning needs point of view, it is manufacturing data. A design geometrical shape translation process can be realized with application one of the following strategies: (i) designing with previously prepared design features library also known as DBF method it is design by feature, (ii) interactive design features recognition IFR, (iii) automatic design features recognition AFR. In case of the DBF method design geometrical shape is created with design features. There are two basic approaches for design modelling in DBF method it is classic in which a part design is modelled from beginning to end with application design features previously stored in a design features data base and hybrid where part is partially created with standard predefined CAD system tools and the rest with suitable design features. Automatic feature recognition consist in an autonomic searching of a product model represented with a specific design representation method in order to find those model features which might be potentially recognized as design features, manufacturing features, etc. This approach needs the searching algorithm to be prepared. The searching algorithm should allow carrying on the whole recognition process without a user supervision. Currently there are lots of AFR methods. These methods need the product model to be represented with B-Rep representation most often, CSG rarely, wireframe very rarely. In the IFR method potential features are being recognized by a user. This process is most often realized by a user who points out those surfaces which seem to belong to a

  2. CAFÉ-Map: Context Aware Feature Mapping for mining high dimensional biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar; Asif, Amina; Arif, Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Feature selection and ranking is of great importance in the analysis of biomedical data. In addition to reducing the number of features used in classification or other machine learning tasks, it allows us to extract meaningful biological and medical information from a machine learning model. Most existing approaches in this domain do not directly model the fact that the relative importance of features can be different in different regions of the feature space. In this work, we present a context aware feature ranking algorithm called CAFÉ-Map. CAFÉ-Map is a locally linear feature ranking framework that allows recognition of important features in any given region of the feature space or for any individual example. This allows for simultaneous classification and feature ranking in an interpretable manner. We have benchmarked CAFÉ-Map on a number of toy and real world biomedical data sets. Our comparative study with a number of published methods shows that CAFÉ-Map achieves better accuracies on these data sets. The top ranking features obtained through CAFÉ-Map in a gene profiling study correlate very well with the importance of different genes reported in the literature. Furthermore, CAFÉ-Map provides a more in-depth analysis of feature ranking at the level of individual examples.

  3. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  4. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  5. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  6. Feature utility in polarimetric radar image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Ian G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1989-01-01

    The information content in polarimetric SAR images is examined, and the polarimetric image variables containing the information that is important to the classification of terrain features in the images are determined. It is concluded that accurate classification can be done when just over half of the image variables are retained. A reduction in image data dimensionality gives storage savings, and can lead to the improvement of classifier performance. In addition, it is shown that a simplified radar system with only phase-calibrated CO-POL or SINGLE TX channels can give classification performance which approaches that of a fully polarimetric radar.

  7. DNA Import into Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Yu M; Dietrich, A; Weber-Lotfi, F; Ibrahim, N; Klimenko, E S; Tarasenko, V I; Bolotova, T A; Koulintchenko, M V

    2016-10-01

    In recent decades, it has become evident that the condition for normal functioning of mitochondria in higher eukaryotes is the presence of membrane transport systems of macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids). Natural competence of the mitochondria in plants, animals, and yeasts to actively uptake DNA may be directly related to horizontal gene transfer into these organelles occurring at much higher rate compared to the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, in contrast with import of proteins and tRNAs, little is known about the biological role and molecular mechanism underlying import of DNA into eukaryotic mitochondria. In this review, we discuss current state of investigations in this area, particularly specificity of DNA import into mitochondria and its features in plants, animals, and yeasts; a tentative mechanism of DNA import across the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes; experimental data evidencing several existing, but not yet fully understood mechanisms of DNA transfer into mitochondria. Currently available data regarding transport of informational macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) into the mitochondria do not rule out that the mechanism of protein and tRNA import as well as tRNA and DNA import into the mitochondria may partially overlap.

  8. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  9. Novel Features for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Woon, W. L.; Cichocki, A.

    2007-01-01

    While conventional approaches of BCI feature extraction are based on the power spectrum, we have tried using nonlinear features for classifying BCI data. In this paper, we report our test results and findings, which indicate that the proposed method is a potentially useful addition to current feature extraction techniques. PMID:18364991

  10. Feature dimensionality reduction for myoelectric pattern recognition: a comparison study of feature selection and feature projection methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of the feature dimensionality reduction strategies on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals toward developing a practical myoelectric control system. Two dimensionality reduction strategies, feature selection and feature projection, were tested on both EMG feature sets, respectively. A feature selection based myoelectric pattern recognition system was introduced to select the features by eliminating the redundant features of EMG recordings instead of directly choosing a subset of EMG channels. The Markov random field (MRF) method and a forward orthogonal search algorithm were employed to evaluate the contribution of each individual feature to the classification, respectively. Our results from 15 healthy subjects indicate that, with a feature selection analysis, independent of the type of feature set, across all subjects high overall accuracies can be achieved in classification of seven different forearm motions with a small number of top ranked original EMG features obtained from the forearm muscles (average overall classification accuracy >95% with 12 selected EMG features). Compared to various feature dimensionality reduction techniques in myoelectric pattern recognition, the proposed filter-based feature selection approach is independent of the type of classification algorithms and features, which can effectively reduce the redundant information not only across different channels, but also cross different features in the same channel. This may enable robust EMG feature dimensionality reduction without needing to change ongoing, practical use of classification algorithms, an important step toward clinical utility.

  11. Object localization using adaptive feature selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S. Youngkyoo; Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Seongdeok

    2009-01-01

    'Fast and robust' are the most beautiful keywords in computer vision. Unfortunately they are in trade-off relationship. We present a method to have one's cake and eat it using adaptive feature selections. Our chief insight is that it compares reference patterns to query patterns, so that it selects smartly more important and useful features to find target. The probabilities of pixels in the query to belong to the target are calculated from importancy of features. Our framework has three distinct advantages: 1 - It saves computational cost dramatically to the conventional approach. This framework makes it possible to find location of an object in real-time. 2 - It can smartly select robust features of a reference pattern as adapting to a query pattern. 3- It has high flexibility on any feature. It doesn't matter which feature you may use. Lots of color space, texture, motion features and other features can fit perfectly only if the features meet histogram criteria.

  12. Pair normalized channel feature and statistics-based learning for high-performance pedestrian detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bobo; Wang, Guijin; Ruan, Zhiwei; Lin, Xinggang; Meng, Long

    2012-07-01

    High-performance pedestrian detection with good accuracy and fast speed is an important yet challenging task in computer vision. We design a novel feature named pair normalized channel feature (PNCF), which simultaneously combines and normalizes two channel features in image channels, achieving a highly discriminative power and computational efficiency. PNCF applies to both gradient channels and color channels so that shape and appearance information are described and integrated in the same feature. To efficiently explore the formidably large PNCF feature space, we propose a statistics-based feature learning method to select a small number of potentially discriminative candidate features, which are fed into the boosting algorithm. In addition, channel compression and a hybrid pyramid are employed to speed up the multiscale detection. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PNCF and its learning method. Our proposed detector outperforms the state-of-the-art on several benchmark datasets in both detection accuracy and efficiency.

  13. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  14. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  15. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  16. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  17. Covariance based outlier detection with feature selection.

    PubMed

    Zwilling, Chris E; Wang, Michelle Y

    2016-08-01

    The present covariance based outlier detection algorithm selects from a candidate set of feature vectors that are best at identifying outliers. Features extracted from biomedical and health informatics data can be more informative in disease assessment and there are no restrictions on the nature and number of features that can be tested. But an important challenge for an algorithm operating on a set of features is for it to winnow the effective features from the ineffective ones. The powerful algorithm described in this paper leverages covariance information from the time series data to identify features with the highest sensitivity for outlier identification. Empirical results demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  1. A Features Selection for Crops Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifan; Shao, Luyi; Yin, Qiang; Hong, Wen

    2016-08-01

    The components of the polarimetric target decomposition reflect the differences of target since they linked with the scattering properties of the target and can be imported into SVM as the classification features. The result of decomposition usually concentrate on part of the components. Selecting a combination of components can reduce the features that importing into the SVM. The features reduction can lead to less calculation and targeted classification of one target when we classify a multi-class area. In this research, we import different combinations of features into the SVM and find a better combination for classification with a data of AGRISAR.

  2. Robustness of chemometrics-based feature selection methods in early cancer detection and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Lawton, Carl; Na, Young Jeong; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2013-03-13

    In omics studies aimed at the early detection and diagnosis of cancer, bioinformatics tools play a significant role when analyzing high dimensional, complex datasets, as well as when identifying a small set of biomarkers. However, in many cases, there are ambiguities in the robustness and the consistency of the discovered biomarker sets, since the feature selection methods often lead to irreproducible results. To address this, both the stability and the classification power of several chemometrics-based feature selection algorithms were evaluated using the Monte Carlo sampling technique, aiming at finding the most suitable feature selection methods for early cancer detection and biomarker discovery. To this end, two data sets were analyzed, which comprised of MALDI-TOF-MS and LC/TOF-MS spectra measured on serum samples in order to diagnose ovarian cancer. Using these datasets, the stability and the classification power of multiple feature subsets found by different feature selection methods were quantified by varying either the number of selected features, or the number of samples in the training set, with special emphasis placed on the property of stability. The results show that high consistency does not necessarily guarantee high predictive power. In addition, differences in the stability, as well as agreement in feature lists between several feature selection methods, depend on several factors, such as the number of available samples, feature sizes, quality of the information in the dataset, etc. Among the tested methods, only the variable importance in projection (VIP)-based method shows complementary properties, providing both highly consistent and accurate subsets of features. In addition, successive projection analysis (SPA) was excellent with regards to maintaining high stability over a wide range of experimental conditions. The stability of several feature selection methods is highly variable, stressing the importance of making the proper choice among

  3. Discriminative analysis of lip motion features for speaker identification and speech-reading.

    PubMed

    Cetingül, H Ertan; Yemez, Yücel; Erzin, Engin; Tekalp, A Murat

    2006-10-01

    There have been several studies that jointly use audio, lip intensity, and lip geometry information for speaker identification and speech-reading applications. This paper proposes using explicit lip motion information, instead of or in addition to lip intensity and/or geometry information, for speaker identification and speech-reading within a unified feature selection and discrimination analysis framework, and addresses two important issues: 1) Is using explicit lip motion information useful, and, 2) if so, what are the best lip motion features for these two applications? The best lip motion features for speaker identification are considered to be those that result in the highest discrimination of individual speakers in a population, whereas for speech-reading, the best features are those providing the highest phoneme/word/phrase recognition rate. Several lip motion feature candidates have been considered including dense motion features within a bounding box about the lip, lip contour motion features, and combination of these with lip shape features. Furthermore, a novel two-stage, spatial, and temporal discrimination analysis is introduced to select the best lip motion features for speaker identification and speech-reading applications. Experimental results using an hidden-Markov-model-based recognition system indicate that using explicit lip motion information provides additional performance gains in both applications, and lip motion features prove more valuable in the case of speech-reading application.

  4. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  5. [Diagnosing imported helminthiasis].

    PubMed

    Pardo, Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Galindo, Inmaculada; Belhassen, Moncef; Cordero, Miguel; Muro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in cases of imported helminthiasis in Spain because of two complementary causes: immigration and international travel. Although the prevalence of helminthiasis is high in the immigrant population, the risk of transmission to the Spanish population is low. In this review, we provide clues to aid in the diagnosis of the helminthiasis, highlighting the geographic characteristics, clinical findings and analytical results of the most frequent types. The low sensitivity of the classic parasitological diagnostic test, mainly in tissue helminthiasis, is described. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the common serological methods for detecting related circulating antigens and antibodies are presented. Certain molecular methods used in the diagnosis of imported helminthiasis and the best strategies for screening of this condition are discussed.

  6. Feature-by-Feature – Evaluating De Novo Sequence Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence assembly (WGSA) problem is among one of the most studied problems in computational biology. Despite the availability of a plethora of tools (i.e., assemblers), all claiming to have solved the WGSA problem, little has been done to systematically compare their accuracy and power. Traditional methods rely on standard metrics and read simulation: while on the one hand, metrics like N50 and number of contigs focus only on size without proportionately emphasizing the information about the correctness of the assembly, comparisons performed on simulated dataset, on the other hand, can be highly biased by the non-realistic assumptions in the underlying read generator. Recently the Feature Response Curve (FRC) method was proposed to assess the overall assembly quality and correctness: FRC transparently captures the trade-offs between contigs' quality against their sizes. Nevertheless, the relationship among the different features and their relative importance remains unknown. In particular, FRC cannot account for the correlation among the different features. We analyzed the correlation among different features in order to better describe their relationships and their importance in gauging assembly quality and correctness. In particular, using multivariate techniques like principal and independent component analysis we were able to estimate the “excess-dimensionality” of the feature space. Moreover, principal component analysis allowed us to show how poorly the acclaimed N50 metric describes the assembly quality. Applying independent component analysis we identified a subset of features that better describe the assemblers performances. We demonstrated that by focusing on a reduced set of highly informative features we can use the FRC curve to better describe and compare the performances of different assemblers. Moreover, as a by-product of our analysis, we discovered how often evaluation based on simulated data, obtained with state of the art

  7. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  8. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  9. Sparse feature fidelity for perceptual image quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua-Wen; Yang, Hua; Gan, Yong; Wang, Ming-Hui

    2013-10-01

    The prediction of an image quality metric (IQM) should be consistent with subjective human evaluation. As the human visual system (HVS) is critical to visual perception, modeling of the HVS is regarded as the most suitable way to achieve perceptual quality predictions. Sparse coding that is equivalent to independent component analysis (ICA) can provide a very good description of the receptive fields of simple cells in the primary visual cortex, which is the most important part of the HVS. With this inspiration, a quality metric called sparse feature fidelity (SFF) is proposed for full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) on the basis of transformation of images into sparse representations in the primary visual cortex. The proposed method is based on the sparse features that are acquired by a feature detector, which is trained on samples of natural images by an ICA algorithm. In addition, two strategies are designed to simulate the properties of the visual perception: 1) visual attention and 2) visual threshold. The computation of SFF has two stages: training and fidelity computation, in addition, the fidelity computation consists of two components: feature similarity and luminance correlation. The feature similarity measures the structure differences between the two images, whereas the luminance correlation evaluates brightness distortions. SFF also reflects the chromatic properties of the HVS, and it is very effective for color IQA. The experimental results on five image databases show that SFF has a better performance in matching subjective ratings compared with the leading IQMs.

  10. Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. PMID:21731544

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Like-feature detection in geo-spatial sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Ashok; Seth, Sharad; Cueto, Kevin

    2001-06-01

    The emergence of a new generation of satellites, increased dependence on computer-aided cartography, and conversion of paper-based maps along with the universal acceptance of the World Wide Web as a distribution medium, has resulted in widespread availability of geospatial data. Geospatial information systems have the potential to use this wealth of data to provide high-level decision support in important military, agricultural, urban planning, transportation and environmental monitoring applications. There are many challenges to take full advantage of this geo-spatial data collection. The first step in integration is to determine the correspondence between features in different sources. This problem, called like-feature detection is addressed in this paper. In addition to using the individual attributes of features, we use the geographic context abstracted as proximity graphs, to improve the matching process. The proximity graph models the surroundings of a feature in a source and provides a measure of similarity between features in two sources. Pair-wise similarity between features of two sources is then extended to multiple sources in a graph- theoretic framework. Experiments conducted to demonstrate the viability of our approach using a variety of data sources including satellite imagery, maps, and gazetteers show that the approach is effective.

  16. Lean histogram of oriented gradients features for effective eye detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Riti; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Reliable object detection is very important in computer vision and robotics applications. The histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) is established as one of the most popular hand-crafted features, which along with support vector machine (SVM) classification provides excellent performance for object recognition. We investigate dimensionality deduction on HOG features in combination with SVM classifiers to obtain efficient feature representation and improved classification performance. In addition to lean HOG features, we explore descriptors resulting from dimensionality reduction on histograms of binary descriptors. We consider three-dimensionality reduction techniques: standard principal component analysis, random projections, a computationally efficient linear mapping that is data independent, and locality preserving projections (LPP), which learns the manifold structure of the data. Our methods focus on the application of eye detection and were tested on an eye database created using the BioID and FERET face databases. Our results indicate that manifold learning is beneficial to classification utilizing HOG features. To demonstrate the broader usefulness of lean HOG features for object class recognition, we evaluated our system's classification performance on the CalTech-101 dataset with favorable outcomes.

  17. Feature-aided tracking (FAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

    2004-08-01

    Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

  18. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Törnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  19. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  20. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  1. Development of alexithymic personality features

    PubMed Central

    Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the development of alexithymic personality features. Modern brain imaging technologies provide interesting data on the associations of alexithymia with different aberrations in brain function related to emotion regulation; however, the development of these deviations is poorly understood. A notable amount of research covers the relation of alexithymia to different environmental factors. Many of these associations, for example, with low socio-economic status and general psychopathology in childhood, are well established. However, the retrospective and cross-sectional designs commonly used in these studies, as well as the use of self-report measures, hinder the ability to firmly establish causality. Certain individual developmental factors, such as lagging speech development and congenital cardiac malformations in childhood, have been associated with the development of alexithymia. Regarding the stability of alexithymia, a systematic review of the literature was conducted for this paper. In addition to being characterized as a personality feature in the general population, alexithymia also clearly has a state-like dimension that results in increases and decreases in alexithymic features in conjunction with mental disorder symptoms. An essential question is whether the alexithymic features in adulthood are, in fact, infantile features of a restricted ability to identify and describe emotions that simply persist in individuals through adolescence to adulthood. To firmly establish the roots of alexithymia development, longitudinal studies, particularly in younger populations, are needed. Furthermore, multifaceted study settings are encouraged. PMID:25540724

  2. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  6. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  7. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  8. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. Decision boundary feature selection for non-parametric classifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Feature selection has been one of the most important topics in pattern recognition. Although many authors have studied feature selection for parametric classifiers, few algorithms are available for feature selection for nonparametric classifiers. In this paper we propose a new feature selection algorithm based on decision boundaries for nonparametric classifiers. We first note that feature selection for pattern recognition is equivalent to retaining 'discriminantly informative features', and a discriminantly informative feature is related to the decision boundary. A procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary for nonparametric classification is proposed. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm finds effective features for the nonparametric classifier with Parzen density estimation.

  12. Extraction of essential features by quantum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilinski, Artur

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of feature extraction, as an essential and important search of dataset. This problem describe the real ownership of the signals and images. Searches features are often difficult to identify because of data complexity and their redundancy. Here is shown a method of finding an essential features groups, according to the defined issues. To find the hidden attributes we use a special algorithm DQAL with the quantum density for thej-th features from original data, that indicates the important set of attributes. Finally, they have been generated small sets of attributes for subsets with different properties of features. They can be used to the construction of a small set of essential features. All figures were made in Matlab6.

  13. Graphing Important People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

  14. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Feature space analysis of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.; Peck, Donald J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents development and performance evaluation of an MRI feature space method. The method is useful for: identification of tissue types; segmentation of tissues; and quantitative measurements on tissues, to obtain information that can be used in decision making (diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation of treatment). The steps of the work accomplished are as follows: (1) Four T2-weighted and two T1-weighted images (before and after injection of Gadolinium) were acquired for ten tumor patients. (2) Images were analyed by two image analysts according to the following algorithm. The intracranial brain tissues were segmented from the scalp and background. The additive noise was suppressed using a multi-dimensional non-linear edge- preserving filter which preserves partial volume information on average. Image nonuniformities were corrected using a modified lowpass filtering approach. The resulting images were used to generate and visualize an optimal feature space. Cluster centers were identified on the feature space. Then images were segmented into normal tissues and different zones of the tumor. (3) Biopsy samples were extracted from each patient and were subsequently analyzed by the pathology laboratory. (4) Image analysis results were compared to each other and to the biopsy results. Pre- and post-surgery feature spaces were also compared. The proposed algorithm made it possible to visualize the MRI feature space and to segment the image. In all cases, the operators were able to find clusters for normal and abnormal tissues. Also, clusters for different zones of the tumor were found. Based on the clusters marked for each zone, the method successfully segmented the image into normal tissues (white matter, gray matter, and CSF) and different zones of the lesion (tumor, cyst, edema, radiation necrosis, necrotic core, and infiltrated tumor). The results agreed with those obtained from the biopsy samples. Comparison of pre- to post-surgery and radiation

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  20. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  1. System Complexity Reduction via Feature Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Houtao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation transforms a set of system complexity reduction problems to feature selection problems. Three systems are considered: classification based on association rules, network structure learning, and time series classification. Furthermore, two variable importance measures are proposed to reduce the feature selection bias in tree…

  2. Biochemical and clinical features of hereditary hyperprolinemia.

    PubMed

    Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    There are two classifications of hereditary hyperprolinemia: type I (HPI) and type II (HPII). Each type is caused by an autosomal recessive inborn error of the proline metabolic pathway. HPI is caused by an abnormality in the proline-oxidizing enzyme (POX). HPII is caused by a deficiency of Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDh). The clinical features of HPI are unclear. Nephropathy, uncontrolled seizures, mental retardation or schizophrenia have been reported in HPI, but a benign phenotype without neurological problems has also been reported. The clinical features of HPII are also unclear. In addition, the precise incidences of HPI and HPII are unknown. Only two cases of HPI and one case of HPII have been identified in Japan through a questionnaire survey and by a study of previous reports. This suggests that hyperprolinemia is a very rare disease in Japan, consistent with earlier reports in Western countries. The one case of HPII found in Japan was diagnosed in an individual with influenza-associated encephalopathy. This suggests that HPII might reduce the threshold for convulsions, thereby increasing the sensitivity of individuals with influenza-associated encephalopathy. The current study presents diagnostic criteria for HPI and HPII, based on plasma proline level, with or without measurements of urinary P5C. In the future, screening for HPI and HPII in healthy individuals, or patients with relatively common diseases such as developmental disabilities, epilepsy, schizophrenia or behavioral problems will be important.

  3. Defeating feature fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rust, Roland T; Thompson, Debora Viana; Hamilton, Rebecca W

    2006-02-01

    Consider a coffeemaker that offers 12 drink options, a car with more than 700 features on the dashboard, and a mouse pad that's also a clock, calculator, and FM radio. All are examples of "feature bloat", or "featuritis", the result of an almost irresistible temptation to load products with lots of bells and whistles. The problem is that the more features a product boasts, the harder it is to use. Manufacturers that increase a product's capability--the number of useful functions it can perform--at the expense of its usability are exposing their customers to feature fatigue. The authors have conducted three studies to gain a better understanding of how consumers weigh a product's capability relative to its usability. They found that even though consumers know that products with more features are harder to use, they initially choose high-feature models. They also pile on more features when given the chance to customize a product for their needs. Once consumers have actually worked with a product, however, usability starts to matter more to them than capability. For managers in consumer products companies, these findings present a dilemma: Should they maximize initial sales by designing high-feature models, which consumers consistently choose, or should they limit the number of features in order to enhance the lifetime value of their customers? The authors' analytical model guides companies toward a happy middle ground: maximizing the net present value of the typical customer's profit stream. The authors also advise companies to build simpler products, help consumers learn which products suit their needs, develop products that do one thing very well, and design market research in which consumers use actual products or prototypes.

  4. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  5. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  6. Ensemble methods with simple features for document zone classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Agam, Gady; Xie, Bingqing

    2012-01-01

    Document layout analysis is of fundamental importance for document image understanding and information retrieval. It requires the identification of blocks extracted from a document image via features extraction and block classification. In this paper, we focus on the classification of the extracted blocks into five classes: text (machine printed), handwriting, graphics, images, and noise. We propose a new set of features for efficient classifications of these blocks. We present a comparative evaluation of three ensemble based classification algorithms (boosting, bagging, and combined model trees) in addition to other known learning algorithms. Experimental results are demonstrated for a set of 36503 zones extracted from 416 document images which were randomly selected from the tobacco legacy document collection. The results obtained verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed set of features in comparison to the commonly used Ocropus recognition features. When used in conjunction with the Ocropus feature set, we further improve the performance of the block classification system to obtain a classification accuracy of 99.21%.

  7. Structure damage detection based on random forest recursive feature elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qifeng; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Qingqing; Yang, Fan; Luo, Linkai

    2014-05-01

    Feature extraction is a key former step in structural damage detection. In this paper, a structural damage detection method based on wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and random forest recursive feature elimination (RF-RFE) is proposed. In order to gain the most effective feature subset and to improve the identification accuracy a two-stage feature selection method is adopted after WPD. First, the damage features are sorted according to original random forest variable importance analysis. Second, using RF-RFE to eliminate the least important feature and reorder the feature list each time, then get the new feature importance sequence. Finally, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, as a benchmark classifier, is used to evaluate the extracted feature subset. A four-storey steel shear building model is chosen as an example in method verification. The experimental results show that using the fewer features got from proposed method can achieve higher identification accuracy and reduce the detection time cost.

  8. ECG Beats Classification Using Mixture of Features

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Samit

    2014-01-01

    Classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of heart disease. This paper proposes the design of an efficient system for classification of the normal beat (N), ventricular ectopic beat (V), supraventricular ectopic beat (S), fusion beat (F), and unknown beat (Q) using a mixture of features. In this paper, two different feature extraction methods are proposed for classification of ECG beats: (i) S-transform based features along with temporal features and (ii) mixture of ST and WT based features along with temporal features. The extracted feature set is independently classified using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). The performances are evaluated on several normal and abnormal ECG signals from 44 recordings of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. In this work, the performances of three feature extraction techniques with MLP-NN classifier are compared using five classes of ECG beat recommended by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) standards. The average sensitivity performances of the proposed feature extraction technique for N, S, F, V, and Q are 95.70%, 78.05%, 49.60%, 89.68%, and 33.89%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature extraction techniques show better performances compared to other existing features extraction techniques. PMID:27350985

  9. Evaluation of textural features for multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ulya; Can, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem; Yalabik, Nese

    2011-11-01

    Remote sensing is a field that has wide use, leading to the fact that it has a great importance. Therefore performance of selected features plays a great role. In order to gain some perspective on useful textural features, we have brought together state-of-art textural features in recent literature, yet to be applied in remote sensing field, as well as presenting a comparison with traditional ones. Therefore we selected most commonly used textural features in remote sensing that are grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor features. Other selected features are local binary patterns (LBP), edge orientation features extracted after applying steerable filter, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features. Color histogram feature is also used and compared. Since most of these features are histogram-based, we have compared performance of bin-by-bin comparison with a histogram comparison method named as diffusion distance method. During obtaining performance of each feature, k-nearest neighbor classification method (k-NN) is applied.

  10. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  11. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  12. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  13. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  14. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  15. New features in MEDM.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K., Jr.

    1999-04-13

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use.

  16. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  17. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Volcanic features of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Feature Leads That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents advice to scholastic journalists on writing leads for feature stories. Discusses using a summary, a question, a direct quote, a first-person account, alliteration, a shocking statement, contrast, historical reference, descriptions, narratives, metaphors, and similes. (RS)

  3. The Importance of Internal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2015-02-10

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  4. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  7. Qualification of security printing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Aronoff, Jason S.; Arnabat, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the statistical and hardware processes involved in qualifying two related printing features for their deployment in product (e.g. document and package) security. The first is a multi-colored tiling feature that can also be combined with microtext to provide additional forms of security protection. The color information is authenticated automatically with a variety of handheld, desktop and production scanners. The microtext is authenticated either following magnification or manually by a field inspector. The second security feature can also be tile-based. It involves the use of two inks that provide the same visual color, but differ in their transparency to infrared (IR) wavelengths. One of the inks is effectively transparent to IR wavelengths, allowing emitted IR light to pass through. The other ink is effectively opaque to IR wavelengths. These inks allow the printing of a seemingly uniform, or spot, color over a (truly) uniform IR emitting ink layer. The combination converts a uniform covert ink and a spot color to a variable data region capable of encoding identification sequences with high density. Also, it allows the extension of variable data printing for security to ostensibly static printed regions, affording greater security protection while meeting branding and marketing specifications.

  8. Wildfire smoke detection using temporospatial features and random forest classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Byoungchul; Kwak, Joon-Young; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2012-01-01

    We propose a wildfire smoke detection algorithm that uses temporospatial visual features and an ensemble of decision trees and random forest classifiers. In general, wildfire smoke detection is particularly important for early warning systems because smoke is usually generated before flames; in addition, smoke can be detected from a long distance owing to its diffusion characteristics. In order to detect wildfire smoke using a video camera, temporospatial characteristics such as color, wavelet coefficients, motion orientation, and a histogram of oriented gradients are extracted from the preceding 100 corresponding frames and the current keyframe. Two RFs are then trained using independent temporal and spatial feature vectors. Finally, a candidate block is declared as a smoke block if the average probability of two RFs in a smoke class is maximum. The proposed algorithm was successfully applied to various wildfire-smoke and smoke-colored videos and performed better than other related algorithms.

  9. Essential and expendable features of the circadian timekeeping mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Paul E

    2006-12-01

    Circadian clocks control behavioral, physiological and metabolic rhythms via one or more transcriptional feedback loops. In animals, two conserved feedback loops are thought to keep circadian time by mediating rhythmic transcription in opposite phases of the circadian cycle. Recent work in cyanobacteria nevertheless demonstrates that rhythmic transcription is dispensable for circadian timekeeping, raising the possibility that some features of the transcriptional feedback loops in animals are also expendable. Indeed, one of the two feedback loops is not necessary for circadian timekeeping in animals, but rhythmic transcription and post-translational modifications are both essential for keeping circadian time. These results not only confirm additional requirements within the animal circadian timekeeping mechanism, but also raise important questions about the function of conserved, yet expendable, features of the circadian timekeeping mechanism in animals.

  10. Three featured plenary sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    The conference included three plenary sessions. The plenary on Governance, Security, Economy, and the Ecosystem of the Changing Arctic featured Vera Alexander, president, Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.; Alan Thornhill, chief environmental officer, U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management; and Fran Ulmer, chair, U.S. Arctic Research Commission. A plenary on the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea featured Ambassador David Balton, deputy assistant secretary for oceans and fisheries, U.S. Department of State; and Rear Admiral Frederick Kenney Jr., judge advocate general and chief counsel, U.S. Coast Guard. The plenary on Science and the 21st Century featured Phil Keslin, chief technology officer, small lab within Google.

  11. Feature Selection and Pedestrian Detection Based on Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shihong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Weiming; Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Ding, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian detection have been currently devoted to the extraction of effective pedestrian features, which has become one of the obstacles in pedestrian detection application according to the variety of pedestrian features and their large dimension. Based on the theoretical analysis of six frequently-used features, SIFT, SURF, Haar, HOG, LBP and LSS, and their comparison with experimental results, this paper screens out the sparse feature subsets via sparse representation to investigate whether the sparse subsets have the same description abilities and the most stable features. When any two of the six features are fused, the fusion feature is sparsely represented to obtain its important components. Sparse subsets of the fusion features can be rapidly generated by avoiding calculation of the corresponding index of dimension numbers of these feature descriptors; thus, the calculation speed of the feature dimension reduction is improved and the pedestrian detection time is reduced. Experimental results show that sparse feature subsets are capable of keeping the important components of these six feature descriptors. The sparse features of HOG and LSS possess the same description ability and consume less time compared with their full features. The ratios of the sparse feature subsets of HOG and LSS to their full sets are the highest among the six, and thus these two features can be used to best describe the characteristics of the pedestrian and the sparse feature subsets of the combination of HOG-LSS show better distinguishing ability and parsimony. PMID:26295480

  12. Genetic and morphologic features for melanoma classification

    PubMed Central

    Broekaert, Sigrid M.C.; Roy, Ritu; Okamoto, Ichiro; van den Oord, Joost; Bauer, Jürgen; Garbe, Claus; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Busam, Klaus J.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cook, Martin G.; Elder, David E.; McCarthy, Stanley W.; Mihm, Martin C; Schadendorf, Dirk; Scolyer, Richard A.; Spatz, Alain; Bastian, Boris C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Melanoma is comprised of biologically distinct subtypes. The defining clinical, histomorphologic and molecular features are not fully established. This study sought to validate the association between genetic and histomorphologic features previously described, determine their reproducibility, and association with important clinical variables. Detailed clinical and histomorphologic features of 365 primary cutaneous melanomas were assessed by 11 pathologists and correlated with mutation status of BRAF and NRAS. There was substantial agreement in the quantitative assessment of histomorphologic features showing similar or better interobserver reproducibility than the established WHO classification scheme. We confirmed that melanomas with BRAF mutations showed characteristic morphologic features (p<0.0001) and metastasized more frequently to regional lymph nodes (p=0.046). Importantly, melanomas without mutations were a heterogeneous group, with a subset having very similar features clinical and morphological features than those with BRAF mutation raising the possibility that they are biologically related. Our study confirms an association between histomorphologic features, mutation status and pattern of metastasis, providing criteria for a refined melanoma classification aimed at defining biologically homogeneous disease subgroups. PMID:20874733

  13. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  14. Escalator design features evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Deshpande, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Escalators are available with design features such as dual speed (90 and 120 fpm), mat operation and flat steps. These design features were evaluated based on the impact of each on capital and operating costs, traffic flow, and safety. A human factors engineering model was developed to analyze the need for flat steps at various speeds. Mat operation of escalators was found to be cost effective in terms of energy savings. Dual speed operation of escalators with the higher speed used during peak hours allows for efficient operation. A minimum number of flat steps required as a function of escalator speed was developed to ensure safety for the elderly.

  15. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  16. Robust feature point matching with sparse model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Tang, Jin; Luo, Bin; Lin, Liang

    2014-12-01

    Feature point matching that incorporates pairwise constraints can be cast as an integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem. Since it is NP-hard, approximate methods are required. The optimal solution for IQP matching problem is discrete, binary, and thus sparse in nature. This motivates us to use sparse model for feature point matching problem. The main advantage of the proposed sparse feature point matching (SPM) method is that it generates sparse solution and thus naturally imposes the discrete mapping constraints approximately in the optimization process. Therefore, it can optimize the IQP matching problem in an approximate discrete domain. In addition, an efficient algorithm can be derived to solve SPM problem. Promising experimental results on both synthetic points sets matching and real-world image feature sets matching tasks show the effectiveness of the proposed feature point matching method.

  17. Dermoscopic features of livedoid vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Lin, Chi-Ling; Cheng, Yang-Chun; Lin, Yung-Song

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Livedoid vasculopathy (atrophie blanche) is a form of thrombotic vasculopathy. It is characterized by small ulcers that become crusted, and heal after several months to produce white atrophic scars. The most commonly affected sites are the lower legs, in particular the dorsum of the feet and ankles. To date, the dermoscopic features of livedoid vasculopathy have not been clearly described in the literature. In this observational study, we sought to evaluate the dermoscopic patterns of livedoid vasculopathy and determine whether the dermoscopic features are associated with certain histopathological characteristics. We evaluated 9 patients with livedoid vasculopathy by dermoscopy. Skin biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic examination, and dermoscopic features were correlated with histopathological characteristics. In the majority of patients with livedoid vasculopathy, examination with dermoscopy revealed central crusted ulcers or ivory white areas associated with peripheral pigmentation in a reticular pattern. In addition, increased vascular structures including linear and glomerular vessels were found. On histopathological examination, the central ivory white areas correlated with dermal fibrosis, the reticular pigmentation corresponded to epidermal basal layer hyperpigmentation or melanin within melanophages in the dermal papillae, and the vascular structures correlated with dilatation and proliferation of capillaries in the upper dermis. In summary, the most common dermoscopic features of livedoid vasculopathy identified in this study were central crusted ulcers or ivory white scar-like areas associated with peripheral reticular pigmentation and increased vascular structures. The characterization of dermoscopic criteria for livedoid vasculopathy may improve the accuracy in the clinical diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. PMID:28296736

  18. Max-Margin-Based Discriminative Feature Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Wei, Fan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Lin

    2016-12-01

    In this brief, we propose a new max-margin-based discriminative feature learning method. In particular, we aim at learning a low-dimensional feature representation, so as to maximize the global margin of the data and make the samples from the same class as close as possible. In order to enhance the robustness to noise, we leverage a regularization term to make the transformation matrix sparse in rows. In addition, we further learn and leverage the correlations among multiple categories for assisting in learning discriminative features. The experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method against the related state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Python import replacement

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  20. Special Feature: Graphic Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special feature includes "There's More to Blur than Meets the Eye" (Davidhazy), about photographic imaging; "Photography Lab's Silver Lining" (Borchers), about recycling silver; "Budget-Priced Layout Programs for School Publishing with DPT [Desktop Publishing]" (Dose); and "Good Learning and Good PR--All in One…

  1. Assistive Technologies, Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wobschall, Rachel, Ed.; Lakin, Charlie, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This feature issue of a newsletter on community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities considers the role of assistive technologies. It describes efforts to utilize consumer direction, public policy, creativity, energy, and professional know-how in the pursuit of technology-based opportunities to enhance community inclusion,…

  2. Integrated Education. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Jennifer, Ed.; Vandercook, Terri, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This "feature issue" provides various perspectives on a number of integrated education topics, including successful integration practices and strategies, the changing roles of teachers, the appropriate role of research, the history and future of integrated education, and the realization of dreams of life in the mainstream for children with severe…

  3. Transition. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of a quarterly bulletin on community integration addresses the topic of transition services for preparing youth with disabilities for adult community living. It contains articles with the following titles and authors: "Transition: The Next Five Years" (David R. Johnson and others); "Transition Policy in the 1990s:…

  4. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  5. Solar Physics Automated Feature Detection: Progress and Scientific Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; SDO Feature Finding Team

    2011-12-01

    The SDO Feature Finding Team (FFT) has been implementing 16 feature finding modules for the last two and a half years. These modules have been designed to analyze the incoming stream of SDO data in near-real-time. Several modules are in regular operation now, most others are reaching that point. Our modules detect flares, filaments, dimming regions, sigmoids, emerging flux, bright points, jets, oscillations, active regions, coronal holes, and several other solar features. We are also developing a general trainable feature detection module, which can be applied to detect any phenomenon. Automated feature recognition has several advantages over the same by humans: first, and most importantly, much larger amounts of images can be analyzed by machines; second, the codes will apply consistent criteria for the detection of phenomena, much more so than humans. Of course the second point implies that the detection criteria must be carefully calibrated, otherwise the outcome will be consistent, but consistently wrong. Examples of the scientific potential unleashed our project are: i) Draw a butterfly diagram for Active Regions, ii) Find all filaments that coincide with sigmoids, and then correlate sigmoid handedness with filament chirality, iii) Correlate EUV jets with small scale flux emergence in coronal holes, iv) Draw polarity inversion line maps with regions of high shear and large magnetic field gradients overlayed, to pinpoint potential flaring regions. Then correlate with actual flare occurrence. All of these tasks will be accomplished with great ease; the power of this method is limited merely by the imagination of the researcher. In addition our modules provide space-weather alerts for flares, dimmings (proxies for eruptions), and flux emergence. In my presentation I will present an overview of the output from our feature detection codes, as well as first results of scientific analysis from the metadata.

  6. Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David

    1993-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data are investigated. Developments with regard to sensors for Earth observation are moving in the direction of providing much higher dimensional multispectral imagery than is now possible. In analyzing such high dimensional data, processing time becomes an important factor. With large increases in dimensionality and the number of classes, processing time will increase significantly. To address this problem, a multistage classification scheme is proposed which reduces the processing time substantially by eliminating unlikely classes from further consideration at each stage. Several truncation criteria are developed and the relationship between thresholds and the error caused by the truncation is investigated. Next an approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. It is shown that all the features needed for classification can be extracted from decision boundaries. A characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is introduced. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: it predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal means or equal covariances as some previous algorithms do. In addition, the decision boundary feature extraction algorithm can be used both for parametric and non-parametric classifiers. Finally, some problems encountered in analyzing high dimensional data are studied and possible solutions are proposed. First, the increased importance of the second order statistics in analyzing high dimensional data is recognized

  7. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  8. A closer look at prion strains: characterization and important implications.

    PubMed

    Solforosi, Laura; Milani, Michela; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that are responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and consist primarily of scrapie prion protein (PrP (Sc) ), a pathogenic isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP (C) ). The absence of nucleic acids as essential components of the infectious prions is the most striking feature associated to these diseases. Additionally, different prion strains have been isolated from animal diseases despite the lack of DNA or RNA molecules. Mounting evidence suggests that prion-strain-specific features segregate with different PrP (Sc) conformational and aggregation states. Strains are of practical relevance in prion diseases as they can drastically differ in many aspects, such as incubation period, PrP (Sc) biochemical profile (e.g., electrophoretic mobility and glycoform ratio) and distribution of brain lesions. Importantly, such different features are maintained after inoculation of a prion strain into genetically identical hosts and are relatively stable across serial passages. This review focuses on the characterization of prion strains and on the wide range of important implications that the study of prion strains involves.

  9. Object recognition approach based on feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runsheng

    2001-09-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion plays an important pole in object recognition and many other application fields. Fusion performance is tightly depended on the fusion level selected and the approach used. Feature level fusion is a potential and difficult fusion level though there might be mainly three fusion levels. Two schemes are developed for key issues of feature level fusion in this paper. In feature selecting, a normal method developed is to analyze the mutual relationship among the features that can be used, and to be applied to order features. In object recognition, a multi-level recognition scheme is developed, whose procedure can be controlled and updated by analyzing the decision result obtained in order to achieve a final reliable result. The new approach is applied to recognize work-piece objects with twelve classes in optical images and open-country objects with four classes based on infrared image sequence and MMW radar. Experimental results are satisfied.

  10. Landscape Features Shape Genetic Structure in Threatened Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that landscape features can strongly affect spatial patterns of gene flow and genetic variation. Understanding landscape effects on genetic variation is important in conservation for defining management units and understanding movement patterns. The landscape may have little effect on gene flow, however, in highly mobile species such as birds. We tested for genetic breaks associated with landscape features in the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), a threatened subspecies associated with old forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and extreme southwestern Canada. We found little evidence for distinct genetic breaks in northern spotted owls using a large microsatellite dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range genotyped at 10 loci). Nonetheless, dry low-elevation valleys and the Cascade and Olympic Mountains restrict gene flow, while the Oregon Coast Range facilitates it. The wide Columbia River is not a barrier to gene flow. In addition, inter-individual genetic distance and latitude were negatively related, likely reflecting northward colonization following Pleistocene glacial recession. Our study shows that landscape features may play an important role in shaping patterns of genetic variation in highly vagile taxa such as birds.

  11. Feature Selection in the Tensor Product Feature Space

    PubMed Central

    Smalter, Aaron; Huan, Jun; Lushington, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Classifying objects that are sampled jointly from two or more domains has many applications. The tensor product feature space is useful for modeling interactions between feature sets in different domains but feature selection in the tensor product feature space is challenging. Conventional feature selection methods ignore the structure of the feature space and may not provide the optimal results. In this paper we propose methods for selecting features in the original feature spaces of different domains. We obtained sparsity through two approaches, one using integer quadratic programming and another using L1-norm regularization. Experimental studies on biological data sets validate our approach. PMID:24632658

  12. Visual constraints for the perception of quantitative depth from temporal interocular unmatched features.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J

    2010-07-21

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available.

  13. A Study for the Feature Selection to Identify GIEMSA-Stained Human Chromosomes Based on Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    neural network (ANN) has been adopted for the human chromosome classification. It is important to select optimum features for training neural network...Many studies for computer-based chromosome analysis have shown that it is possible to classify chromosomes into 24 subgroups. In addition, artificial

  14. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  15. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000933.htm Major depression with psychotic features To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in ...

  16. North Polar Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows banded terrain of the north polar region of Mars. The bands are exposures of layered material, possibly composed of dust and ice. The dark, rounded to elliptical mounds in this image might be the locations of ancient sand dunes that were completely buried in the north polar layered material. In more recent times, these mounds have been exhumed from within the layered material. Alternatively, the dark features are not ancient, exhumed dunes, but perhaps the remnants of a dark layer of material that once covered the entire area shown in the image. These features are located near 79.9oN, 31.4oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  17. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  18. Ceraunius Tholus Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 December 2004 Today's Mars Picture of the Day features two images. The top picture is a mosaic of Viking orbiter images acquired in the late 1970s. The lower image is a high resolution picture from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). The Viking mosaic shows Ceraunius Tholus, a volcano in the Tharsis region that was first viewed in images obtained by Mariner 9 in 1972. Several channels run down the slope of the Ceraunius Tholus volcano. The deepest of those channels ends in an elliptical crater. The elliptical crater was formed by a very oblique meteor impact. Where the channel meets the floor of the elliptical crater, there is a small mound of material. Presumably, this material was deposited in the elliptical crater after running down through the channel on the volcano's northwest flank.

    Near the top/center of the mound in the elliptical crater is a small, circular depression. Some have speculated for years that this depression is related to volcanism, others thought that it may be an impact crater. The MGS MOC image (lower of the two images) shows that crater. It is not the source of lava flows or any other volcanic features. Most likely, it is an old impact crater. This feature is located near 25.2oN, 97.7oW. The MOC image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Isidis Planitia Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    26 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the most typical features of Isidis Planitia at full (1.5 meters -- 5 feet -- per pixel) resolution. The typical features are: (1) light-toned, ripple-like dunes and (2) mounds with summit pits. The dunes are formed by wind. The double-cone feature in the lower right quarter of the image is similar to many mounds and chains of mounds or cones found all across Isidis Planitia. These were seen at lower resolution in Viking orbiter images in the 1970s and were generally considered to be either small volcanoes or ice-cored mounds known as pingoes. With high resolution MOC images, it became apparent that many of these mounds may simply be the remnants of crater and pit chain floors, elevated above the surrounding plains as the layers of rock into which they formed were stripped away. Like much of Mars, there are more questions than answers. This image is located near 8.6oN, 268.2oW, and covers an area about 1.1 km (0.7 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  20. Emergy and Its Importance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy is an important quantity needed for public policy analysis that is based on a complex methodology. The intent of this Environmental Research Brief is to define emergy and its importance in a manner that is accessible to everyone with at least a high school education. Emer...

  1. The Importance of Internal Development

    ScienceCinema

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  2. Suspect identification by facial features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric; Whalen, Thomas; Sakalauskas, John; Baigent, Glen; Bisesar, Chandra; McCarthy, Andrew; Reid, Glenda; Wotton, Cynthia

    2004-06-10

    Often during criminal investigations, witnesses must examine photographs of known offenders, colloquially called 'mug shots'. As witnesses view increasing numbers of mug shots that are presented in an arbitrary order, they become more likely to identify the wrong suspect. An alternative is a subjective feature-based mug shot retrieval system in which witnesses first complete a questionnaire about the appearance of the suspect, and then examine photographs in order of decreasing resemblance to their description. In the first experiment, this approach is found to be more efficient and more accurate than searching an album. The next three experiments show that it makes little difference if the witness has seen the suspect in person or only seen a photograph. In the last two experiments, it is shown that the feature-based retrieval system is effective even when the witness has seen the suspect in realistic natural settings. The results show that the main conclusions drawn from previous studies, where witnesses searched for faces seen only in photographs, also apply when witnesses are searching for a face that they saw live in naturalistic settings. Additionally, it is shown that is it better to have two raters than one create the database, but that more than two raters yield rapidly diminishing returns for the extra cost.

  3. Integral fast reactor safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents.

  4. Features of MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L. J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R. A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H. G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.; Waters, L.; Wilcox, T.; Zukaitis, T.

    2014-06-01

    MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory's X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. These new features are summarized in this document. Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers.

  5. Local feature point extraction for quantum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Xu, Kai; Gao, Yinghui; Wilson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot issue in the last decade. However, the lack of the quantum feature extraction method leads to the limitation of quantum image understanding. In this paper, a quantum feature extraction framework is proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. Based on the design of quantum image addition and subtraction operations and some quantum image transformations, the feature points could be extracted by comparing and thresholding the gradients of the pixels. Different methods of computing the pixel gradient and different thresholds can be realized under this quantum framework. The feature points extracted from quantum image can be used to construct quantum graph. Our work bridges the gap between quantum image processing and graph analysis based on quantum mechanics.

  6. Community Perceptions of Specific Skin Features of Possible Melanoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baade, Peter D.; Balanda, Kevin P.; Stanton, Warren R.; Lowe, John B.; Del Mar, Chris B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Melanoma can be curable if detected early. One component of detecting melanoma is an awareness of the important features of the disease. It is currently not clear which features the community view as indicative of melanoma. Objective: To investigate which features of the skin members of an urban community believe may indicate skin…

  7. Epignathus with Fetiform Features

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil Y; Shrikrishna, U; Shetty, Jayaprakash; Sitaram, Aishwarya

    2011-01-01

    Epignathus is an extremely rare oropharyngeal teratoma that commonly arises from the palate, leading to a high mortality (80–100%) due to airway obstruction in the neonatal period. We present a case of epignathus immature teratoma with fetiform features, originating from basisphenoid in a 28-week preterm male baby, who succumbed to death immediately after birth. Since epignathus is a life-threatening condition at the time of delivery, a prenatal diagnosis is essential to coordinate the treatment and appropriate management by securing the airway, either by endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy followed by complete resection of the tumor. PMID:21701667

  8. Tectonic features on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C.; Barnes, J.

    2011-10-01

    This research is based on the exploration of tectonic patterns on Titan from a global perspective. Several moons in the outer solar system display known stress fields driven or modified by global forces which affect patterns of tectonism. Patterns such as these are seen in Europa's tidal forces, Enceladus' tiger strips, and Ganymede's global expansion. Given its proximity to Saturn, as well as its eccentric orbit, tectonic features and global stresses may be present on Titan as well. Titan displays visible tectonic structures, such as mountain chains along its equator (Radebaugh et al. 2007), as well as the unexplored Virgae.

  9. qFeature

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-14

    This package contains statistical routines for extracting features from multivariate time-series data which can then be used for subsequent multivariate statistical analysis to identify patterns and anomalous behavior. It calculates local linear or quadratic regression model fits to moving windows for each series and then summarizes the model coefficients across user-defined time intervals for each series. These methods are domain agnostic—but they have been successfully applied to a variety of domains, including commercial aviation and electric power grid data.

  10. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR (boiling water reactor), Mark I containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Luckas, W.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Davis, P.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark I containments (BWR Mark I's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Peach Bottom plant and from assessment of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark I to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark I, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Peach Bottom and other Mark I plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance.

  11. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  12. Extended visual appearance texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désage, Simon-Frédéric; Pitard, Gilles; Pillet, Maurice; Favrelière, Hugues; Maire, Jean-Luc; Frelin, Fabrice; Samper, Serge; Le Goïc, Gaëtan

    2015-03-01

    The research purpose is to improve surface characterization based on what is perceived by human eye and on the 2006 CIE report. This report defines four headings under which possible measures might be made: color, gloss, translucency and texture. It is therefore important to define parameters able to discriminate surfaces, in accordance with the perception of human eye. Our starting point in assessing a surface is the measurement of its reflectance (acquisition of ABRDF for visual rendering), i.e. evaluate a set of images from different angles of lighting rather than a single image. The research question is how calculate, from this enhanced information, some discriminating parameters. We propose to use an image processing approach of texture that reflects spatial variations of pixel for translating changes in color, material and relief. From a set of images from different angles of light, we compute associated Haralick features for constructing new (extended) features, called Bidimensional Haralick Functions (BHF), and exploit them for discriminating surfaces. We propose another framework in three parts such as color, material and relief.

  13. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  14. Optical security features by using information carrier digital screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Ferenc

    2002-04-01

    Jura is an Austrian-Hungarian company providing security printers with proprietary security printing design software, complete security printing pre=press systems (HW + SW), ultrahigh resolution image setters developed for security printing market, security features, developed by Jura for security printing in general, proprietary security features, destined for document personalization systems. In addition to supply such products Jura is providing its customers with full technical support, as integration, installation, training, hot-line remote and/or on-site support, service and maintenance worldwide. Research and development have always been in the focus of Jura's activity. Development and testing of new software, new security features are the most important parts of the work. Jura was the first on the world to release her Engraver Software enabling artist-engravers to create engraving-styled portraits digitally. This development, incompatibility with Jura's security design software package, enabled a full digital workflow for banknote origination. Jura made a lot of remarkable steps to develop security features also for Document Personalization. This development links the personal data with the photography of the document' holder by encoding personal data to the photography, invisibly for naked human eye, however, decodable by an appropriate decoding device. This feature exists also in machine-readable digital version. Experts of Jura started the research and development on digital screening 15 years ago for commercial printing and 10 years ago on special screens for security printing technologies. In very early stage of this development, when knowledge of creating each screen-dot individually in shape, form and position was acquired, the idea was born to use the screen dots as secondary data holder for encoded messages.

  15. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  16. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  17. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  18. Feature Engineering for Drug Name Recognition in Biomedical Texts: Feature Conjunction and Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengyu; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge. PMID:25861377

  19. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  20. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  1. Spectro-temporal modulation subspace-spanning filter bank features for robust automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Marc René; Meyer, Bernd T; Kollmeier, Birger

    2012-05-01

    In an attempt to increase the robustness of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, a feature extraction scheme is proposed that takes spectro-temporal modulation frequencies (MF) into account. This physiologically inspired approach uses a two-dimensional filter bank based on Gabor filters, which limits the redundant information between feature components, and also results in physically interpretable features. Robustness against extrinsic variation (different types of additive noise) and intrinsic variability (arising from changes in speaking rate, effort, and style) is quantified in a series of recognition experiments. The results are compared to reference ASR systems using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), MFCCs with cepstral mean subtraction (CMS) and RASTA-PLP features, respectively. Gabor features are shown to be more robust against extrinsic variation than the baseline systems without CMS, with relative improvements of 28% and 16% for two training conditions (using only clean training samples or a mixture of noisy and clean utterances, respectively). When used in a state-of-the-art system, improvements of 14% are observed when spectro-temporal features are concatenated with MFCCs, indicating the complementarity of those feature types. An analysis of the importance of specific MF shows that temporal MF up to 25 Hz and spectral MF up to 0.25 cycles/channel are beneficial for ASR.

  2. A new approach to modeling the influence of image features on fixation selection in scenes

    PubMed Central

    Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Which image characteristics predict where people fixate when memorizing natural images? To answer this question, we introduce a new analysis approach that combines a novel scene-patch analysis with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Our method allows for (1) directly describing the relationship between continuous feature value and fixation probability, and (2) assessing each feature's unique contribution to fixation selection. To demonstrate this method, we estimated the relative contribution of various image features to fixation selection: luminance and luminance contrast (low-level features); edge density (a mid-level feature); visual clutter and image segmentation to approximate local object density in the scene (higher-level features). An additional predictor captured the central bias of fixation. The GLMM results revealed that edge density, clutter, and the number of homogenous segments in a patch can independently predict whether image patches are fixated or not. Importantly, neither luminance nor contrast had an independent effect above and beyond what could be accounted for by the other predictors. Since the parcellation of the scene and the selection of features can be tailored to the specific research question, our approach allows for assessing the interplay of various factors relevant for fixation selection in scenes in a powerful and flexible manner. PMID:25752239

  3. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  4. An Organelle Correlation-Guided Feature Selection Approach for Classifying Multi-Label Subcellular Bio-images.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Mingxia; Xu, Ying-Ying; Shen, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2017-03-03

    Nowadays, with the advances in microscopic imaging, accurate classification of bioimage-based protein subcellular location pattern has attracted as much attention as ever. One of the basic challenging problems is how to select the useful feature components among thousands of potential features to describe the images. This is not an easy task especially considering there is a high ratio of multi-location proteins. Existing feature selection methods seldom take the correlation among different cellular compartments into consideration, and thus may miss some features that will be co-important for several subcellular locations. To deal with this problem, we make use of the important structural correlation among different cellular compartments and propose an organelle structural correlation regularized feature selection method CSF (Common-Sets of Features) in this paper. We formulate the multi-label classification problem by adopting a group-sparsity regularizer to select common subsets of relevant features from different cellular compartments. In addition, we also add a cell structural correlation regularized Laplacian term, which utilizes the prior biological structural information to capture the intrinsic dependency among different cellular compartments. The CSF provides a new feature selection strategy for multi-label bio-image subcellular pattern classifications, and the experimental results also show its superiority when comparing with several existing algorithms.

  5. [Spondyloarthropathy: MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Feydy, A; Gossec, L; Bazeli, R; Thévenin, F; Pluot, E; Rousseau, J; Lenczner, G; Campagna, R; Guerini, H; Chevrot, A; Dougados, M; Drapé, J-L

    2010-09-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis include MRI. MRI frequently allows early diagnosis of inflammatory lesions in patients with normal plain films. In addition, MRI is useful for the detection and quantification of inflammatory and structural lesions, and to assess disease activity.

  6. Crowding with conjunctions of simple features.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel; Wagemans, Johan

    2007-11-20

    Several recent studies have related crowding with the feature integration stage in visual processing. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this stage, it is important to use stimuli that have several features to integrate, and these features should be clearly defined and measurable. In this study, Gabor patches were used as target and distractor stimuli. The stimuli differed in three dimensions: spatial frequency, orientation, and color. A group of 3, 5, or 7 objects was presented briefly at 4 deg eccentricity of the visual field. The observers' task was to identify the object located in the center of the group. A strong effect of the number of distractors was observed, consistent with various spatial pooling models. The analysis of incorrect responses revealed that these were a mix of feature errors and mislocalizations of the target object. Feature errors were not purely random, but biased by the features of distractors. We propose a simple feature integration model that predicts most of the observed regularities.

  7. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Teasdale, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these safety features.

  8. Wood Recognition Using Image Texture Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang-jun; Zhang, Guang-qun; Qi, Heng-nian

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy. PMID:24146821

  9. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  10. [Feature extraction for breast cancer data based on geometric algebra theory and feature selection using differential evolution].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hong, Wenxue

    2014-12-01

    The feature extraction and feature selection are the important issues in pattern recognition. Based on the geometric algebra representation of vector, a new feature extraction method using blade coefficient of geometric algebra was proposed in this study. At the same time, an improved differential evolution (DE) feature selection method was proposed to solve the elevated high dimension issue. The simple linear discriminant analysis was used as the classifier. The result of the 10-fold cross-validation (10 CV) classification of public breast cancer biomedical dataset was more than 96% and proved superior to that of the original features and traditional feature extraction method.

  11. Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones.

  12. Naive Bayes-guided bat algorithm for feature selection.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ahmed Majid; Mustapha, Aida; Chen, Soong-Der

    2013-01-01

    When the amount of data and information is said to double in every 20 months or so, feature selection has become highly important and beneficial. Further improvements in feature selection will positively affect a wide array of applications in fields such as pattern recognition, machine learning, or signal processing. Bio-inspired method called Bat Algorithm hybridized with a Naive Bayes classifier has been presented in this work. The performance of the proposed feature selection algorithm was investigated using twelve benchmark datasets from different domains and was compared to three other well-known feature selection algorithms. Discussion focused on four perspectives: number of features, classification accuracy, stability, and feature generalization. The results showed that BANB significantly outperformed other algorithms in selecting lower number of features, hence removing irrelevant, redundant, or noisy features while maintaining the classification accuracy. BANB is also proven to be more stable than other methods and is capable of producing more general feature subsets.

  13. A Review of Feature Selection and Feature Extraction Methods Applied on Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Zena M.; Gillies, Duncan F.

    2015-01-01

    We summarise various ways of performing dimensionality reduction on high-dimensional microarray data. Many different feature selection and feature extraction methods exist and they are being widely used. All these methods aim to remove redundant and irrelevant features so that classification of new instances will be more accurate. A popular source of data is microarrays, a biological platform for gathering gene expressions. Analysing microarrays can be difficult due to the size of the data they provide. In addition the complicated relations among the different genes make analysis more difficult and removing excess features can improve the quality of the results. We present some of the most popular methods for selecting significant features and provide a comparison between them. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined in order to provide a clearer idea of when to use each one of them for saving computational time and resources. PMID:26170834

  14. Imported Mayaro virus infection in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hassing, Robert-Jan; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Blank, Sybrandus N; Thevarayan, Subashini; Tolou, Hugues; van Doornum, Gerard; van Genderen, Perry J

    2010-10-01

    A Dutch couple, presenting with persisting arthralgias, temporary fever and rash after a stay in Surinam were diagnosed with Mayaro virus infection. Mayaro virus is a relatively unknown South American Alphavirus responsible for dengue-like clinical features and persisting arthralgias. An important, but probably underappreciated cross-reactivity with other Alphaviruses like Chikungunya virus is present, which may become of clinical importance in the event the various Alphaviruses will have overlapping geographical distributions and in seroprevalence studies.

  15. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  16. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  17. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... she is not hungry in the morning. See Breakfast for Learning . Finally, round out each morning by saying goodbye to your young child. A simple hug and a wave as he or she heads out the front door or slides out of the car are extremely important. They will give your child a positive feeling ...

  18. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  19. Photoionization of Ca XV with high energy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2017-02-01

    Photoionization cross sections of (Ca XV + hν → Ca XVI + e), with high energy resonant photo-absorption phenomena, of a large number of bound states, 701 in total with n ≤ 10 and l ≤ 9, are reported. They are obtained using the R-matrix method with a close coupling (CC) wavefunction expansion of 29 states of n = 2,3 complexes of the core ion Ca XVI. Characteristic features found in photoionization of the ion are illustrated with examples. The cross section (σPI) of the ground 2s22p2(3P) state is found to be unaffected by the size of the wavefunction expansion except for weak sparse resonances in high energy region. However, effects on excited states are considerable as the core excitations to n = 3 states are manifested in huge resonant absorption in high energy photoionization. They show existence of prominent high peak resonant features and enhancement in the background that were not studied before for Ca XV. In addition photoionization of the excited states with a single valence electron is dominated by Seaton resonant structures formed by the photo-excitation-of-core in the high energy region. These features will impact other quantities, such as the opacity, electron-ion recombination in high temperature plasmas where the ion exists, and hence will play important role in determination of elemental abundances in the astronomical objects.

  20. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  1. 3. VIEW OF DUPLEX (FEATURE 7), FACING NORTH. OFFICE (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUPLEX (FEATURE 7), FACING NORTH. OFFICE (FEATURE 11) VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Duplex, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  2. 1. VIEW OF RESIDENCE (FEATURE 12), FACING SOUTHWEST. DUPLEX (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF RESIDENCE (FEATURE 12), FACING SOUTHWEST. DUPLEX (FEATURE 9) IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Residence, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  3. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  4. Latent feature representation with depth directional long-term recurrent learning for breast masses in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Kim, Seong Tae; Chang, Jung Min; Ro, Yong Man

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of masses in computer-aided detection systems for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an important step to reduce false positive (FP) rates. To effectively differentiate masses from FPs in DBT, discriminative mass feature representation is required. In this paper, we propose a new latent feature representation boosted by depth directional long-term recurrent learning for characterizing malignant masses. The proposed network is designed to encode mass characteristics in two parts. First, 2D spatial image characteristics of DBT slices are encoded as a slice feature representation by convolutional neural network (CNN). Then, depth directional characteristics of masses among the slice feature representations are encoded by the proposed depth directional long-term recurrent learning. In addition, to further improve the class discriminability of latent feature representation, we have devised three objective functions aiming to (a) minimize classification error, (b) minimize intra-class variation within the same class, and (c) preserve feature representation consistency in a central slice. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed latent feature representation achieves a higher level of classification performance in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve values compared to performance with feature representation learned by conventional CNN and hand-crafted features.

  5. Selecting Salient Features in High Feature to Exemplar Ratio Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    We present an approach for identifying salient input features in high feature to exemplar ratio conditions. Basically we modify the SNR saliency...screening algorithm to improve the solution of the optimal salient feature subset problem. We propose that applying the SNR method to randomly selected...subsets (SRSS) has a superior potential to identify the salient features than the traditional SNR algorithm has. Two experimental studies are provided

  6. Currency features for visually impaired people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Sandra L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Shannon, Robert R.; Baer, Norbert S.

    1996-03-01

    The estimated 3.7 million Americans with low vision experience a uniquely difficult task in identifying the denominations of U.S. banknotes because the notes are remarkably uniform in size, color, and general design. The National Research Council's Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired assessed features that could be used by people who are visually disabled to distinguish currency from other documents and to denominate and authenticate banknotes using available technology. Variation of length and height, introduction of large numerals on a uniform, high-contrast background, use of different colors for each of the six denominations printed, and the introduction of overt denomination codes that could lead to development of effective, low-cost devices for examining banknotes were all deemed features available now. Issues affecting performance, including the science of visual and tactile perception, were addressed for these features, as well as for those features requiring additional research and development. In this group the committee included durable tactile features such as those printed with transparent ink, and the production of currency with holes to indicate denomination. Among long-range approaches considered were the development of technologically advanced devices and smart money.

  7. ROCS-derived features for virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearnes, Steven; Pande, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    Rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) is a standard tool for the calculation of 3D shape and chemical ("color") similarity. ROCS uses unweighted sums to combine many aspects of similarity, yielding parameter-free models for virtual screening. In this report, we decompose the ROCS color force field into color components and color atom overlaps, novel color similarity features that can be weighted in a system-specific manner by machine learning algorithms. In cross-validation experiments, these additional features significantly improve virtual screening performance relative to standard ROCS.

  8. [Myiases of economic importance].

    PubMed

    Touré, S M

    1994-12-01

    A simplified list of the principal Diptera capable of causing myiasis is followed by a brief presentation of the biology, lesions inflicted, and methods of treatment and control of the myiases of economic importance. Cochliomyiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax is of greatest interest, in view of the damage and losses caused by this disease. A brief account of the outbreak of infestation in Libya illustrates the danger of this parasite. Other important traumatic myiases are described: that due to Chrysomya bezziana, which causes an African myiasis similar to cochliomyiasis, and those due to Lucilia cuprina and related species. Hypodermyiasis (warble fly infestation) and oestrosis (nasal bot fly infestation in sheep) still cause major economic losses in domestic animals, justifying their inclusion in control campaigns. The same applies to stomach bot flies of the family Gasterophilidae. The account of each myiasis includes notes on parasiticides which have been found to be effective. Given the rapidity with which a parasite can now be transported from one continent to another, it is important for Veterinary Services to be well-informed and vigilant.

  9. Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation. PMID:19805409

  10. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  11. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  12. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  13. Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and…

  14. Image feature localization by multiple hypothesis testing of Gabor features.

    PubMed

    Ilonen, Jarmo; Kamarainen, Joni-Kristian; Paalanen, Pekka; Hamouz, Miroslav; Kittler, Josef; Kälviäinen, Heikki

    2008-03-01

    Several novel and particularly successful object and object category detection and recognition methods based on image features, local descriptions of object appearance, have recently been proposed. The methods are based on a localization of image features and a spatial constellation search over the localized features. The accuracy and reliability of the methods depend on the success of both tasks: image feature localization and spatial constellation model search. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm for image feature localization. The method is based on complex-valued multi resolution Gabor features and their ranking using multiple hypothesis testing. The algorithm provides very accurate local image features over arbitrary scale and rotation. We discuss in detail issues such as selection of filter parameters, confidence measure, and the magnitude versus complex representation, and show on a large test sample how these influence the performance. The versatility and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on two profoundly different challenging problems (faces and license plates).

  15. Imported malaria in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Hira, P R; Behbehani, K; Al-Kandari, S

    1985-01-01

    The number of imported malaria cases in Kuwait rose from 87 in 1980 to 504 in 1983, an increase of 579%. The continued resurgence of malaria in endemic zones, improved diagnostic techniques and a heightened awareness of imported malaria have contributed to the increase in the number of microscopically proved cases. Thick blood films fixed in acetone and stained in Giemsa proved a rapid method of diagnosis; species identification on the basis of a thin film on the same slide was performed with ease. Malaria was acquired in 38 countries. Most patients were young male adults. Most of the cases were due to Plasmodium vivax originating from India, although an increasing number of P. falciparum cases are also now being diagnosed from there. P. falciparum infections were evenly distributed throughout the year and most cases presented within 14 days of their arrival in the country. The highest number of P. vivax cases were diagnosed between May and October, when heat stress might have been a factor in precipitating a clinical attack of an infection previously acquired in the endemic zone. Attention is drawn to the importance of delayed attacks of P. vivax and, in semi-immunes, of P. falciparum. The time interval involved in establishing a history of "recent" travel in clinically suspected cases of malaria needs to be more clearly defined in each geographical area. Cases of induced malaria due to transfusion, accidental and congenital infections were identified. The fatality rate due to P. falciparum infections was low. In terms of the risk of renewed transmission, Kuwait may be considered a vulnerable area.

  16. Mitosis detection in breast cancer pathology images by combining handcrafted and convolutional neural network features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is the mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e., undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently, mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields (HPFs) on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical, or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Although handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely supervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal in attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. We present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color, and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing the

  17. Cascaded ensemble of convolutional neural networks and handcrafted features for mitosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibo; Cruz-Roa, Angel; Basavanhally, Ajay; Gilmore, Hannah; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Mike; Tomaszewski, John; Gonzalez, Fabio; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) grading plays an important role in predicting disease aggressiveness and patient outcome. A key component of BCa grade is mitotic count, which involves quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e. undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at multiple high power fields on a glass slide under a microscope, an extremely laborious and time consuming process. The development of computerized systems for automated detection of mitotic nuclei, while highly desirable, is confounded by the highly variable shape and appearance of mitoses. Existing methods use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). While handcrafted features are inspired by the domain and the particular application, the data-driven CNN models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. On the other hand, CNN is computationally more complex and needs a large number of labeled training instances. Since handcrafted features attempt to model domain pertinent attributes and CNN approaches are largely unsupervised feature generation methods, there is an appeal to attempting to combine these two distinct classes of feature generation strategies to create an integrated set of attributes that can potentially outperform either class of feature extraction strategies individually. In this paper, we present a cascaded approach for mitosis detection that intelligently combines a CNN model and handcrafted features (morphology, color and texture features). By employing a light CNN model, the proposed approach is far less demanding computationally, and the cascaded strategy of combining handcrafted features and CNN-derived features enables the possibility of maximizing performance by

  18. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  19. The new Mobile Command Center at KSC is important addition to emergency preparedness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This camper-equipped truck known as '''Old Blue''' served as mobile field command center for the Emergency Preparedness team at KSC. It has been replaced with a larger vehicle that includes a conference room, computer work stations, mobile telephones and a fax machine, plus its own onboard generator. Besides being ready to respond in case of emergencies during launches, the vehicle must be ready to help address fires, security threats, chemical spills, terrorist attaches, weather damage or other critical situations that might face KSC or Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  20. Body Movements: An Important Additional Factor in Discriminating Pain From Stress in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe developmentally appropriate, specific body movements and other biobehavioral responses of preterm infants to a group of routine care giving tasks (Clustered Care), and to compare responses to acute pain with those of Clustered Care. Methods In a randomized design, 54 preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks gestational age during 3 phases of blood collection (Baseline, Lance/squeeze, Recovery) and of diaper changing, measuring abdominal girth and axillary temperature, and mouth care (Baseline, Clustered Care, Recovery) in a neonatal intensive care unit. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program and 1 facial action from the Neonatal Facial Coding System, Brow Bulge, were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were also acquired continuously. Results Brow Bulge, heart rate, and a subset of 9 Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program movements increased and oxygen saturation decreased significantly to Lance/squeeze compared to Baseline. Similar facial and physiological changes occurred during Clustered Care, but with less intensity. However, infants showed greater frequencies and variety of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program stress cues during Clustered Care than during Lance/squeeze. Stress cues persisted after Clustered Care, whereas the infants returned to Baseline following Lance/squeeze. Discussion Changes in facial activity and heart rate remain the most sensitive markers of pain in preterm infants. Tactile procedures, such as diaper changing, produce lower intensity facial and physiological responses than pain procedures, but greater body reactions. Also, the effects from tactile procedures appear to last longer. Adding observations of a small number of specific body movements to the assessment of pain and stress provides complementary information particularly for those infants who may show dampened facial reactivity as a result of repeated pain exposure. PMID:16215334

  1. Clinical features of actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefond, Simon; Catroux, Mélanie; Melenotte, Cléa; Karkowski, Ludovic; Rolland, Ludivine; Trouillier, Sébastien; Raffray, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Actinomycosis is a rare heterogeneous anaerobic infection with misleading clinical presentations that delay diagnosis. A significant number of misdiagnosed cases have been reported in specific localizations, but studies including various forms of actinomycosis have rarely been published. We performed a multicenter retrospective chart review of laboratory-confirmed actinomycosis cases from January 2000 until January 2014. We described clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis, and management of actinomycosis of clinical significance. Twenty-eight patients were included from 6 hospitals in France. Disease was diagnosed predominately in the abdomen/pelvis (n = 9), orocervicofacial (n = 5), cardiothoracic (n = 5), skeletal (n = 3), hematogenous (n = 3), soft tissue (n = 2), and intracranially (n = 1). Four patients (14%) were immunocompromised. In most cases (92 %), the diagnosis of actinomycosis was not suspected on admission, as clinical features were not specific. Diagnosis was obtained from either microbiology (50%, n = 14) or histopathology (42%, n = 12), or from both methods (7%, n = 2). Surgical biopsy was needed for definite diagnosis in 71% of cases (n = 20). Coinfection was found in 13 patients (46%), among which 3 patients were diagnosed from histologic criteria only. Two-thirds of patients were treated with amoxicillin. Median duration of antibiotics was 120 days (interquartile range 60–180), whereas the median follow-up time was 12 months (interquartile range 5.25–18). Two patients died. This study highlights the distinct and miscellaneous patterns of actinomycosis to prompt accurate diagnosis and earlier treatments, thus improving the outcome. Surgical biopsy should be performed when possible while raising histologist's and microbiologist's awareness of possible actinomycosis to enhance the chance of diagnosis and use specific molecular methods. PMID:27311002

  2. Dipeptide-Derived Multifunctional Quaternary Phosphonium Salt Catalyzed Asymmetric Cyclizations via a Tandem Michael Addition/SN 2 Sequence.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dongdong; Zhang, Jiaxing; Wang, Hongyu; Zhao, Gang

    2015-07-06

    A novel family of dipeptide-based multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salts has been developed as chiral phase-transfer catalysts, which feature ready accessibility and structure modularity, allowing easy fine-tunings of activity. They demonstrated high efficiency in catalyzing the tandem asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular SN 2 reaction between 6 or 7-substituted conjugate enones and malonates, providing synthetically important five or six-membered carbocycles and heterocycles in good yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities.

  3. Feature reduction and multi-classification of different assistive devices according to the gait pattern.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria; Santos, Cristina; Costa, Lino; Frizera, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure used in patients with Osteoarthritis to improve their state. An understanding about how gait patterns differ from patient to patient and are influenced by the assistive device (AD) that is prescribed is still missing. This article focuses on such purpose. Standard walker, crutches and rollator were tested. Symmetric indexes of spatiotemporal and postural control features were calculated. In order to select the important features which can discriminate the differences among the ADs, different techniques for feature selection are investigated. Classification is handled by Multi-class Support Vector Machine. Results showed that rollator provides a more symmetrical gait and crutches demonstrated to be the worst. Relatively to postural control parameters, standard walker is the most stable and crutches are the worst AD. This means that, depending on the patient's problem and the recovery goal, different ADs should be used. After selecting a set of 16 important features, through correlation, it was demonstrated that they provide important quantitative information about the functional capacity, which is not represented by velocity, cadence and clinical scales. Also, they were capable of distinguishing the gait patterns influenced by each AD, showing that each patient has different needs during recovery. Implications of Rehabilitation An understanding about how gait patterns of post-surgical patients differ from person to person and how they are influenced by the type of device that is prescribed during their recovery might help in physical therapy. Research specifically addressing these issues is still missing. Inter-limb asymmetry and postural control features can be evaluated in an outpatient setting, supplying important additional information about individual gait pattern, which is not represented by gait velocity, cadence and scales usually used. The features calculated in this study are able to provide

  4. Features of the Ti-40Nb alloy prototype formation by 3D additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Khimich, M. A.; Eroshenko, A. Yu.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Glukhov, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure of Ti-40Nb alloy prototype obtained by selective laser melting (SLM) on "VARISKAF 100MV" installation was considered by the methods of optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the most of the specimens' surface is uniform flowed surface with typical banded structure formed by laying-on molten pools. The process of the individual layer formation was followed by drop formation. This leads to the porosity formation on the specimen's surface. The structure of entire specimen is not homogeneous throughout the transverse section. The porosity of three kinds is observed. They are cavities of not full contact and melting of the layers, drawholes, gas pores. The porosity optimization requires more careful SLM modes selection. The alloy has a grain structure with anisotropy from small (2-8 µm) to medium (8-20 µm) grain size. The anisotropy of the specimen is formed in each layer and is retained during building of the specimen. The grains of microstructure are formed by the main β-phase with precipitations of nonequilibrium α″-martensite on the boundaries and within the grains.

  5. Testing the Addition of Topographic Features for Field Scale Infiltration Excess Water Quality Modeling in SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collick, A.; Easton, Z. M.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Sommerlot, A.; White, M. J.; Harmel, D.; Fuka, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed planners and managers need reliable tools that can capture the spatial and temporal complexity of agricultural landscapes, and water quality models are increasingly relied upon to represent P loss from agricultural watersheds. While a significant amount of modeling work has attempted to incorporate factors controlling P loss (e.g. representing solubility, manure types, timing and application type), these models still typically require significant calibration and are thus difficult to apply meaningfully in areas without copious data with which to calibrate. This is partially because these models were never really intended as field scale tools, while we are trying to use them to define different hydrologic pathways, area weighted potential energy (slopes and saturated conductivities), and the resulting lag time of P in different transport states. The movement of water within the landscape as surface (or near-surface) storm runoff and interflow is driven by gravity, topography, contributing area and soil and landuse characteristics, which play roles in concentrating water flows. Soil surveys have played a key role in the development of pedology and spatially derived pedon soil maps have become valuable datasets for natural resource management. Unfortunately, the soil surveys, commonly available at ~1:20,000 scale, are not designed to provide the high-resolution models of the soil continuum required in field scale environmental modeling applications and site specific crop and water quality management. The goal of this project is to test a methodology designed initially for representing saturation excess hydrology in the SWAT model to incorporate topographic attributes, and resulting spatially explicit soil morphology, that are missing from standard SWAT model initializations.

  6. Feature integration in natural language concepts.

    PubMed

    Hampton, James A; Storms, Gert; Simmons, Claire L; Heussen, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments measured the joint influence of three key sets of semantic features on the frequency with which artifacts (Experiment 1) or plants and creatures (Experiment 2) were categorized in familiar categories. For artifacts, current function outweighed both originally intended function and current appearance. For biological kinds, appearance and behavior, an inner biological function, and appearance and behavior of offspring all had similarly strong effects on categorization. The data were analyzed to determine whether an independent cue model or an interactive model best accounted for how the effects of the three feature sets combined. Feature integration was found to be additive for artifacts but interactive for biological kinds. In keeping with this, membership in contrasting artifact categories tended to be superadditive, indicating overlapping categories, whereas for biological kinds, it was subadditive, indicating conceptual gaps between categories. It is argued that the results underline a key domain difference between artifact and biological concepts.

  7. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  8. Remainder Subset Awareness for Feature Subset Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat-Masramon, Gabriel; Belanche-Muñoz, Lluís A.

    Feature subset selection has become more and more a common topic of research. This popularity is partly due to the growth in the number of features and application domains. It is of the greatest importance to take themost of every evaluation of the inducer, which is normally the more costly part. In this paper, a technique is proposed that takes into account the inducer evaluation both in the current subset and in the remainder subset (its complementary set) and is applicable to any sequential subset selection algorithm at a reasonable overhead in cost. Its feasibility is demonstrated on a series of benchmark data sets.

  9. Learning Hierarchical Feature Extractors for Image Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    3.3 Macrofeatures In convolutional neural networks (e.g., (Lee et al., 2009; Ranzato et al., 2007b)), spa- tial neighborhoods of low-level features are...function which can also be seen as a small convolutional neural network : z̃ = gk × tanh(x ∗W k) (k = 1..K). This function has been shown to produce good...import into the popular spatial pyramid framework the joint encoding of nearby features commonly practiced in neural networks , and obtain significantly

  10. Dramatic Improvements to Feature Based Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyansky, V. N.; Morris, R. D.; Kuehnel, F. O.; Maluf, D. A.; Cheeseman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The camera registration extracted from feature based stereo is usually considered sufficient to accurately localize the 3D points. However, for natural scenes the feature localization is not as precise as in man-made environments. This results in small camera registration errors. We show that even very small registration errors result in large errors in dense surface reconstruction. We describe a method for registering entire images to the inaccurate surface model. This gives small, but crucially important improvements to the camera parameters. The new registration gives dramatically better dense surface reconstruction.

  11. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  12. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  13. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-21

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)-minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements.

  14. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)—minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements.

  15. Low-power coprocessor for Haar-like feature extraction with pixel-based pipelined architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Aiwen; An, Fengwei; Fujita, Yuki; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Lei; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Intelligent analysis of image and video data requires image-feature extraction as an important processing capability for machine-vision realization. A coprocessor with pixel-based pipeline (CFEPP) architecture is developed for real-time Haar-like cell-based feature extraction. Synchronization with the image sensor’s pixel frequency and immediate usage of each input pixel for the feature-construction process avoids the dependence on memory-intensive conventional strategies like integral-image construction or frame buffers. One 180 nm CMOS prototype can extract the 1680-dimensional Haar-like feature vectors, applied in the speeded up robust features (SURF) scheme, using an on-chip memory of only 96 kb (kilobit). Additionally, a low power dissipation of only 43.45 mW at 1.8 V supply voltage is achieved during VGA video procession at 120 MHz frequency with more than 325 fps. The Haar-like feature-extraction coprocessor is further evaluated by the practical application of vehicle recognition, achieving the expected high accuracy which is comparable to previous work.

  16. Semantic point cloud interpretation based on optimal neighborhoods, relevant features and efficient classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Martin; Jutzi, Boris; Hinz, Stefan; Mallet, Clément

    2015-07-01

    3D scene analysis in terms of automatically assigning 3D points a respective semantic label has become a topic of great importance in photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. In this paper, we address the issue of how to increase the distinctiveness of geometric features and select the most relevant ones among these for 3D scene analysis. We present a new, fully automated and versatile framework composed of four components: (i) neighborhood selection, (ii) feature extraction, (iii) feature selection and (iv) classification. For each component, we consider a variety of approaches which allow applicability in terms of simplicity, efficiency and reproducibility, so that end-users can easily apply the different components and do not require expert knowledge in the respective domains. In a detailed evaluation involving 7 neighborhood definitions, 21 geometric features, 7 approaches for feature selection, 10 classifiers and 2 benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that the selection of optimal neighborhoods for individual 3D points significantly improves the results of 3D scene analysis. Additionally, we show that the selection of adequate feature subsets may even further increase the quality of the derived results while significantly reducing both processing time and memory consumption.

  17. Object-Based Analysis of LIDAR Geometric Features for Vegetation Detection in Shaded Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Lin, ChinSu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chun-Lin

    2016-06-01

    The extraction of land cover information from remote sensing data is a complex process. Spectral information has been widely utilized in classifying remote sensing images. However, shadows limit the use of multispectral images because they result in loss of spectral radiometric information. In addition, true reflectance may be underestimated in shaded areas. In land cover classification, shaded areas are often left unclassified or simply assigned as a shadow class. Vegetation indices from remote sensing measurement are radiation-based measurements computed through spectral combination. They indicate vegetation properties and play an important role in remote sensing of forests. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is an active remote sensing technique that produces a true orthophoto at a single wavelength. This study investigated three types of geometric lidar features where NDVI values fail to represent meaningful forest information. The three features include echo width, normalized eigenvalue, and standard deviation of the unit weight observation of the plane adjustment, and they can be derived from waveform data and discrete point clouds. Various feature combinations were carried out to evaluate the compensation of the three lidar features to vegetation detection in shaded areas. Echo width was found to outperform the other two features. Furthermore, surface characteristics estimated by echo width were similar to that by normalized eigenvalues. Compared to the combination of only NDVI and mean height difference, those including one of the three features had a positive effect on the detection of vegetation class.

  18. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  19. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  20. Analysis of Glass-Filled Nylon in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John; LaBarre, Erin; Forrest, Ryan; Crane, Emily

    2016-03-01

    At the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), glass bead-filled polyamide (a.k.a. nylon) (GFN) is being used frequently for functional parts and systems, built using a laser-based powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) system. Since these parts have performance requirements, it is important to understand the mechanical properties of the additively-made GFN as a function of build orientation and build parameters. In addition, the performance of the AM system used to manufacture these parts must be evaluated in order to understand its capabilities, especially in order to determine the dimensional precision and repeatability of features built with this system. This paper summarizes recent APL efforts to characterize the GFN powder, the mechanical properties of parts made with GFN, and the performance of the laser PBF machine while running GFN using an AM test artifact.

  1. [Importance of helicopter rescue].

    PubMed

    Hofer, G; Voelckel, W G

    2014-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) have become a main part of prehospital emergency medical services over the last 40 years. Recently, an ongoing discussion about financial shortage and personal shortcomings question the role of cost-intensive air rescue. Thus, the value of HEMS must be examined and discussed appropriately. Since the number of physician-staffed ground ambulances may decrease due to the limited availability of qualified physicians, HEMS may fill the gap. In addition patient transfer to specialized hospitals will require an increasing number of air transports in order to minimize prehospital time. The higher risk ratio for HEMS missions when compared with ground rescue requires a rigorous quality management system. When it comes to missions in remote and exposed areas, the scope of medical treatment must be adjusted to the individual situation. Medical competence is key in order to balance guideline compliant or maximal care versus optimal care characterized as a mission-specific, individualized emergency care concept. Although, medical decision making and treatment is typically based on the best scientific evidence, personal skills, competence, and the mission scenario will determine the scope of interventions suitable to improve outcome. Thus, the profile of requirements for the HEMS medical crew is high.

  2. Feature Point Descriptors: Infrared and Visible Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ricaurte, Pablo; Chilán, Carmen; Aguilera-Carrasco, Cristhian A.; Vintimilla, Boris X.; Sappa, Angel D.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript evaluates the behavior of classical feature point descriptors when they are used in images from long-wave infrared spectral band and compare them with the results obtained in the visible spectrum. Robustness to changes in rotation, scaling, blur, and additive noise are analyzed using a state of the art framework. Experimental results using a cross-spectral outdoor image data set are presented and conclusions from these experiments are given. PMID:24566634

  3. Robust Multi-Task Feature Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Pinghua; Ye, Jieping; Zhang, Changshui

    2013-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the performance of multiple related tasks by exploiting the intrinsic relationships among them. Recently, multi-task feature learning algorithms have received increasing attention and they have been successfully applied to many applications involving high-dimensional data. However, they assume that all tasks share a common set of features, which is too restrictive and may not hold in real-world applications, since outlier tasks often exist. In this paper, we propose a Robust MultiTask Feature Learning algorithm (rMTFL) which simultaneously captures a common set of features among relevant tasks and identifies outlier tasks. Specifically, we decompose the weight (model) matrix for all tasks into two components. We impose the well-known group Lasso penalty on row groups of the first component for capturing the shared features among relevant tasks. To simultaneously identify the outlier tasks, we impose the same group Lasso penalty but on column groups of the second component. We propose to employ the accelerated gradient descent to efficiently solve the optimization problem in rMTFL, and show that the proposed algorithm is scalable to large-size problems. In addition, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the proposed rMTFL formulation. Specifically, we present a theoretical bound to measure how well our proposed rMTFL approximates the true evaluation, and provide bounds to measure the error between the estimated weights of rMTFL and the underlying true weights. Moreover, by assuming that the underlying true weights are above the noise level, we present a sound theoretical result to show how to obtain the underlying true shared features and outlier tasks (sparsity patterns). Empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that our proposed rMTFL is capable of simultaneously capturing shared features among tasks and identifying outlier tasks. PMID:24078896

  4. Interactive music composition driven by feature evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaliakatsos-Papakostas, Maximos A; Floros, Andreas; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary music composition is a prominent technique for automatic music generation. The immense adaptation potential of evolutionary algorithms has allowed the realisation of systems that automatically produce music through feature and interactive-based composition approaches. Feature-based composition employs qualitatively descriptive music features as fitness landmarks. Interactive composition systems on the other hand, derive fitness directly from human ratings and/or selection. The paper at hand introduces a methodological framework that combines the merits of both evolutionary composition methodologies. To this end, a system is presented that is organised in two levels: the higher level of interaction and the lower level of composition. The higher level incorporates the particle swarm optimisation algorithm, along with a proposed variant and evolves musical features according to user ratings. The lower level realizes feature-based music composition with a genetic algorithm, according to the top level features. The aim of this work is not to validate the efficiency of the currently utilised setup in each level, but to examine the convergence behaviour of such a two-level technique in an objective manner. Therefore, an additional novelty in this work concerns the utilisation of artificial raters that guide the system through the space of musical features, allowing the exploration of its convergence characteristics: does the system converge to optimal melodies, is this convergence fast enough for potential human listeners and is the trajectory to convergence "interesting' and "creative" enough? The experimental results reveal that the proposed methodological framework represents a fruitful and robust, novel approach to interactive music composition.

  5. AVNG authentication features

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; White, Greg; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement (called authentication). An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information. To achieve both goals, the IB allows only very limited, previously agreed-on information to be displayed to the monitoring party. In addition to this limited information from the potentially classified measurement, other measurements are performed and procedures are put in place for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. In this presentation, we will discuss the techniques used in the AVNG attribute measuring system to facilitate authentication of the verification measurements by the monitors. These techniques include measuring unclassified items while allowing more information to be displayed; having the monitor understand the system function, design, and implementation; and randomly selecting the order of measurements.

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  7. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  8. Automated Extraction of Secondary Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne M.; Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become standard practice in the design and development of the major components used for air and space propulsion. To aid in the post-processing and analysis phase of CFD many researchers now use automated feature extraction utilities. These tools can be used to detect the existence of such features as shocks, vortex cores and separation and re-attachment lines. The existence of secondary flow is another feature of significant importance to CFD engineers. Although the concept of secondary flow is relatively understood there is no commonly accepted mathematical definition for secondary flow. This paper will present a definition for secondary flow and one approach for automatically detecting and visualizing secondary flow.

  9. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  10. Role of feature curvature in contact guidance

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Anurag; Moore, Simon W.; Sheetz, Michael P.; Hone, James

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of feature curvature in cellular topography sensing. To separate the effects of feature size and curvature, we have developed a method to fabricate grooved substrates whose radius of curvature (r) is varied from under 10 nm to 400 nm, while all other dimensions are kept constant. With increasing r up to 200 nm, mouse embryonic fibroblasts increased their spread area, but reduced their polarization (aspect ratio). Interestingly, on features with an r of 200 and 400 nm - where there was very little effect on spreading area and polarization - we find that internal structures such as stress fibers are nevertheless still strongly aligned to the topography. These findings are of importance to studies of both tissue engineering and curvature sensing proteins. PMID:22426288

  11. Feature isolation and quantification of evolving datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Identifying and isolating features is an important part of visualization and a crucial step for the analysis and understanding of large time-dependent data sets (either from observation or simulation). In this proposal, we address these concerns, namely the investigation and implementation of basic 2D and 3D feature based methods to enhance current visualization techniques and provide the building blocks for automatic feature recognition, tracking, and correlation. These methods incorporate ideas from scientific visualization, computer vision, image processing, and mathematical morphology. Our focus is in the area of fluid dynamics, and we show the applicability of these methods to the quantification and tracking of three-dimensional vortex and turbulence bursts.

  12. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dershowitz, William S.; Curran, Brendan; Einstein, Herbert; LaPointe, Paul; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate

    2002-07-26

    The report presents summaries of technology development for discrete feature modeling in support of the improved oil recovery (IOR) for heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, the report describes the demonstration of these technologies at project study sites.

  13. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  14. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  15. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  16. New PAMTRAK features

    SciTech Connect

    Dahly, B.; Anspach, J.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia is developing a Personnel and Material Tracking System (PAMTRAK) which uses a variety of techniques to monitor material inside a vault in real-time. It can detect material movement using video cameras inside the vault or motion sensors attached to the material. It also contains two prototype attribute monitoring systems that continuously measure material weight, temperature or movement. A site can use any of these alone or together to extend physical inventory intervals. PAMTRAK can reduce the cost of storing material by reducing inventory frequency and radiation exposure to workers. Analysis at Savannah River in 1992 estimated that installing PAMTRAK in the 7 active and future vaults at that site would save $1,073,000 per year by reducing inventory frequency from monthly to yearly. Performing similar calculations now, assuming lower radiation exposure limits of 700m Rem per year, new inventory reduction guidelines allowing a baseline interval of 6 months, and an achieved inventory interval of 3 years, results in an estimated average savings of $400,000 per year. PAMTRAK, since it is real-time, can detect theft or diversion soon enough to give the guard force a chance of recovering the material and apprehending the perpetrator. In performing an inventory a site typically checks only a fraction of the material using random, statistical sampling, while PAMTRAK monitors all material in the vault. In addition to static environments such as vaults, PAMTRAK can be used to protect material in active work areas. Several of the sensor types can ignore activity around material but still report alarms if the material is moved or handled. PAMTRAK includes a personnel tracking capability that allows a site to monitor and restrict personnel movements. It can exclude workers from designated areas unless they have explicit permission to be there. It can also enforce the 2-person rule by requiring a worker to be accompanied by at least one other qualified worker.

  17. Enhanced modeling features within TREETOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Kumar, Manoj N.

    1989-01-01

    The original motivation for TREETOPS was to build a generic multi-body simulation and remove the burden of writing multi-body equations from the engineers. The motivation of the enhancement was twofold: (1) to extend the menu of built-in features (sensors, actuators, constraints, etc.) that did not require user code; and (2) to extend the control system design capabilities by linking with other government funded software (NASTRAN and MATLAB). These enhancements also serve to bridge the gap between structures and control groups. It is common on large space programs for the structures groups to build hi-fidelity models of the structure using NASTRAN and for the controls group to build lower order models because they lack the tools to incorporate the former into their analysis. Now the controls engineers can accept the hi-fidelity NASTRAN models into TREETOPS, add sensors and actuators, perform model reduction and couple the result directly into MATLAB to perform their design. The controller can then be imported directly into TREETOPS for non-linear, time-history simulation.

  18. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  19. Feature-Selective Attentional Modulations in Human Frontoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sutterer, David W.; Serences, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Control over visual selection has long been framed in terms of a dichotomy between “source” and “site,” where top-down feedback signals originating in frontoparietal cortical areas modulate or bias sensory processing in posterior visual areas. This distinction is motivated in part by observations that frontoparietal cortical areas encode task-level variables (e.g., what stimulus is currently relevant or what motor outputs are appropriate), while posterior sensory areas encode continuous or analog feature representations. Here, we present evidence that challenges this distinction. We used fMRI, a roving searchlight analysis, and an inverted encoding model to examine representations of an elementary feature property (orientation) across the entire human cortical sheet while participants attended either the orientation or luminance of a peripheral grating. Orientation-selective representations were present in a multitude of visual, parietal, and prefrontal cortical areas, including portions of the medial occipital cortex, the lateral parietal cortex, and the superior precentral sulcus (thought to contain the human homolog of the macaque frontal eye fields). Additionally, representations in many—but not all—of these regions were stronger when participants were instructed to attend orientation relative to luminance. Collectively, these findings challenge models that posit a strict segregation between sources and sites of attentional control on the basis of representational properties by demonstrating that simple feature values are encoded by cortical regions throughout the visual processing hierarchy, and that representations in many of these areas are modulated by attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Influential models of visual attention posit a distinction between top-down control and bottom-up sensory processing networks. These models are motivated in part by demonstrations showing that frontoparietal cortical areas associated with top-down control

  20. Identification of hazelnut fields using spectral and Gabor textural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Selçuk; Taşdemir, Kadim

    2011-09-01

    Land cover identification and monitoring agricultural resources using remote sensing imagery are of great significance for agricultural management and subsidies. Particularly, permanent crops are important in terms of economy (mainly rural development) and environmental protection. Permanent crops (including nut orchards) are extracted with very high resolution remote sensing imagery using visual interpretation or automated systems based on mainly textural features which reflect the regular plantation pattern of their orchards, since the spectral values of the nut orchards are usually close to the spectral values of other woody vegetation due to various reasons such as spectral mixing, slope, and shade. However, when the nut orchards are planted irregularly and densely at fields with high slope, textural delineation of these orchards from other woody vegetation becomes less relevant, posing a challenge for accurate automatic detection of these orchards. This study aims to overcome this challenge using a classification system based on multi-scale textural features together with spectral values. For this purpose, Black Sea region of Turkey, the region with the biggest hazelnut production in the world and the region which suffers most from this issue, is selected and two Quickbird archive images (June 2005 and September 2008) of the region are acquired. To differentiate hazel orchards from other woodlands, in addition to the pansharpened multispectral (4-band) bands of 2005 and 2008 imagery, multi-scale Gabor features are calculated from the panchromatic band of 2008 imagery at four scales and six orientations. One supervised classification method (maximum likelihood classifier, MLC) and one unsupervised method (self-organizing map, SOM) are used for classification based on spectral values, Gabor features and their combination. Both MLC and SOM achieve the highest performance (overall classification accuracies of 95% and 92%, and Kappa values of 0.93 and 0

  1. Metacatalog of Planetary Surface Features for Multicriteria Evaluation of Surface Evolution: the Integrated Planetary Feature Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    We have created a metacatalog, or catalog or catalogs, of surface features of Mars that also includes the actual data in the catalogs listed. The goal is to make mesoscale surface feature databases available in one place, in a GIS-ready format. The databases can be directly imported to ArcGIS or other GIS platforms, like Google Mars. Some of the catalogs in our database are also ingested into the JMARS platform.All catalogs have been previously published in a peer-reviewed journal, but they may contain updates of the published catalogs. Many of the catalogs are "integrated", i.e. they merge databases or information from various papers on the same topic, including references to each individual features listed.Where available, we have included shapefiles with polygon or linear features, however, most of the catalogs only contain point data of their center points and morphological data.One of the unexpected results of the planetary feature metacatalog is that some features have been described by several papers, using different, i.e., conflicting designations. This shows the need for the development of an identification system suitable for mesoscale (100s m to km sized) features that tracks papers and thus prevents multiple naming of the same feature.The feature database can be used for multicriteria analysis of a terrain, thus enables easy distribution pattern analysis and the correlation of the distribution of different landforms and features on Mars. Such catalog makes a scientific evaluation of potential landing sites easier and more effective during the selection process and also supports automated landing site selections.The catalog is accessible at https://planetarydatabase.wordpress.com/.

  2. Wavelet Features Based Fingerprint Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagadi, Shweta U.; Thalange, Asha V.; Jain, Giridhar P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work; we present a automatic fingerprint identification system based on Level 3 features. Systems based only on minutiae features do not perform well for poor quality images. In practice, we often encounter extremely dry, wet fingerprint images with cuts, warts, etc. Due to such fingerprints, minutiae based systems show poor performance for real time authentication applications. To alleviate the problem of poor quality fingerprints, and to improve overall performance of the system, this paper proposes fingerprint verification based on wavelet statistical features & co-occurrence matrix features. The features include mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy, contrast, local homogeneity, cluster shade, cluster prominence, Information measure of correlation. In this method, matching can be done between the input image and the stored template without exhaustive search using the extracted feature. The wavelet transform based approach is better than the existing minutiae based method and it takes less response time and hence suitable for on-line verification, with high accuracy.

  3. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  4. Imaging features of spinal tanycytic ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Michal; Jayajothi, Anandapadmanabhan; Brandner, Sebastian; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Lee, Cheong Hung; Davagnanam, Indran

    2016-02-01

    Tanycytic ependymoma is an unusual morphological variant of WHO grade II ependymoma, typically arising from the cervical or thoracic spinal cord. Although the literature deals extensively with pathological features of this tumour entity, imaging features have not been well characterised. The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spinal tanycytic ependymomas reported in the literature to date, exemplified by a case of a patient with tanycytic ependymoma of the conus medullaris presenting to our hospital. A Medline search of the English literature for all previously published cases of spinal tanycytic ependymoma was carried out and the reported MRI features reviewed. The tumours were found to be typically well-demarcated masses, predominantly showing isointensity on T1-weighted signal, and T2-weighted hyperintensity, with variable patterns of contrast enhancement. A cystic component was seen in half of the cases, and in a minority a mural nodule was present within the cyst wall. Associated syrinx formation was observed in one-third of the cases and haemorrhage was rare, which may be helpful pointers in differentiating the lesion from other ependymoma subtypes. In conclusion, MRI characteristics of spinal tanycytic ependymoma are variable and non-specific, and radiological diagnosis thus remains challenging, although certain predominant features are identified in this report. Knowledge of these is important in the diagnostic differentiation from other intramedullary and extramedullary spinal tumours in order to guide appropriate surgical management.

  5. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  6. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  7. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numericalmore » modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.« less

  8. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  9. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  10. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; Debroy, T.

    2015-11-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  11. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 1. VIEW OF DUPLEX (FEATURE 7). CORNER OF DUPLEX (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DUPLEX (FEATURE 7). CORNER OF DUPLEX (FEATURE 6) IS VISIBLE AT LEFT. MILL SITE IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. FACING EAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Duplex, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  13. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.

  15. Mitochondrial disorders: clinical and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Simon, D K; Johns, D R

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cells in humans depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate energy, accounting for the remarkable diversity of clinical disorders associated with mitochondrial DNA mutations. However, certain tissues are particularly susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in recognizable clinical syndromes. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been linked to seizures, strokes, optic atrophy, neuropathy, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and other clinical features. Mitochondrial DNA mutations also may play an important role in aging, as well as in common age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to recognize the clinical syndromes suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder, and to understand the unique features of mitochondrial genetics that complicate diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. Imported Lassa Fever - Reexamining the Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-18

    result of aerosol trans- mission to patients and family members on an open ward from a patient with pneumonia and th, protean manifestations of Lassa ...tems, equipment, and procedures to protect against aerosol transmission of the disease. Aerosols contain- ing the virus proved infectious in animals...have dealt with cases of both en- demic and imported Lassa fever have shed light on the TWENTY years ago the arenavirus Lassa fever virus features of

  19. The identity of the discriminator base has an impact on CCA addition

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Sandra; Bonin, Sonja; Götze, Oskar; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CCA-adding enzymes synthesize and maintain the C-C-A sequence at the tRNA 3′-end, generating the attachment site for amino acids. While tRNAs are the most prominent substrates for this polymerase, CCA additions on non-tRNA transcripts are described as well. To identify general features for substrate requirement, a pool of randomized transcripts was incubated with the human CCA-adding enzyme. Most of the RNAs accepted for CCA addition carry an acceptor stem-like terminal structure, consistent with tRNA as the main substrate group for this enzyme. While these RNAs show no sequence conservation, the position upstream of the CCA end was in most cases represented by an adenosine residue. In tRNA, this position is described as discriminator base, an important identity element for correct aminoacylation. Mutational analysis of the impact of the discriminator identity on CCA addition revealed that purine bases (with a preference for adenosine) are strongly favoured over pyrimidines. Furthermore, depending on the tRNA context, a cytosine discriminator can cause a dramatic number of misincorporations during CCA addition. The data correlate with a high frequency of adenosine residues at the discriminator position observed in vivo. Originally identified as a prominent identity element for aminoacylation, this position represents a likewise important element for efficient and accurate CCA addition. PMID:25958396

  20. The identity of the discriminator base has an impact on CCA addition.

    PubMed

    Wende, Sandra; Bonin, Sonja; Götze, Oskar; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2015-06-23

    CCA-adding enzymes synthesize and maintain the C-C-A sequence at the tRNA 3'-end, generating the attachment site for amino acids. While tRNAs are the most prominent substrates for this polymerase, CCA additions on non-tRNA transcripts are described as well. To identify general features for substrate requirement, a pool of randomized transcripts was incubated with the human CCA-adding enzyme. Most of the RNAs accepted for CCA addition carry an acceptor stem-like terminal structure, consistent with tRNA as the main substrate group for this enzyme. While these RNAs show no sequence conservation, the position upstream of the CCA end was in most cases represented by an adenosine residue. In tRNA, this position is described as discriminator base, an important identity element for correct aminoacylation. Mutational analysis of the impact of the discriminator identity on CCA addition revealed that purine bases (with a preference for adenosine) are strongly favoured over pyrimidines. Furthermore, depending on the tRNA context, a cytosine discriminator can cause a dramatic number of misincorporations during CCA addition. The data correlate with a high frequency of adenosine residues at the discriminator position observed in vivo. Originally identified as a prominent identity element for aminoacylation, this position represents a likewise important element for efficient and accurate CCA addition.

  1. Novel assist feature design to improve depth of focus in low k1 EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoyoung

    2009-12-01

    With the expected continual progress of micro-electronics scaling, low k1 techniques may be required even with EUV lithography. One of important techniques of low k1, the off axis illumination (OAI) in combination with sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) on reticles, has been used extensively in optical lithography. Use of assist features combined with off axis illumination typically requires extremely small pattern sizes. The assist pattern enables printing dense and isolated lines simultaneous. In a low k1 region of around 0.4, assist features will increase depth of focus (DOF) of isolated and semi-isolated lines even in EUV. Since EUVL process operates at a relatively higher k1 value than that for the optical lithography, the assist feature size needed is relatively smaller. In addition, with the mask shadowing effect of EUVL, all horizontal lines should be biased thinner by a couple of nanometers, and horizontal assist features will need to do the same. Fabricating such narrow features on masks is challenging, and could potentially limit the application of SRAF in EUVL in the low k1 regime. A novel approach is proposed to create assist features with similar width as the main critical dimension features. The proposed technique creates assist patterns using thinner absorber which would have higher reflectance than normal absorber. Thinner absorber assist pattern can perform similarly with narrower assist pattern and easier to fabricate. With off axis illumination in EUVL and assist patterns, process margin of semi-isolated and isolated lines can be increased for k1 lower than 0.4.

  2. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  3. Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; McLeod, J E; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2008-02-01

    Landscape features have been shown to strongly influence dispersal and, consequently, the genetic population structure of organisms. Studies quantifying the effect of landscape features on gene flow of large mammals with high dispersal capabilities are rare and have mainly been focused at large geographical scales. In this study, we assessed the influence of several natural and human-made landscape features on red deer gene flow in the Scottish Highlands by analysing 695 individuals for 21 microsatellite markers. Despite the relatively small scale of the study area (115 x 87 km), significant population structure was found using F-statistics (F(ST) = 0.019) and the program structure, with major differentiation found between populations sampled on either side of the main geographical barrier (the Great Glen). To assess the effect of landscape features on red deer population structure, the ArcMap GIS was used to create cost-distance matrices for moving between populations, using a range of cost values for each of the landscape features under consideration. Landscape features were shown to significantly affect red deer gene flow as they explained a greater proportion of the genetic variation than the geographical distance between populations. Sea lochs were found to be the most important red deer gene flow barriers in our study area, followed by mountain slopes, roads and forests. Inland lochs and rivers were identified as landscape features that might facilitate gene flow of red deer. Additionally, we explored the effect of choosing arbitrary cell cost values to construct least cost-distance matrices and described a method for improving the selection of cell cost values for a particular landscape feature.

  4. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  5. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  6. Cellulitis: definition, etiology, and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Craig G

    2011-12-01

    Cellulitis is a common condition seen by physicians. Over the past decade, skin and soft tissue infections from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common. In this article, the definition, etiology, and clinical features of cellulitis are reviewed, and the importance of differentiating cellulitis from necrotizing soft tissue infections is emphasized. Empiric antimicrobial recommendations are suggested, including the most recent recommendations from the Infectious Disease Society of America.

  7. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  8. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  9. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  10. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  11. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  12. Dicentric Chromosome 14;18 Plus Two Additional CNVs in a Girl with Microform Holoprosencephaly and Turner Stigmata.

    PubMed

    Sireteanu, A; Voloşciuc, M; Grămescu, M; Gorduza, Ev; Vulpoi, C; Frunză, I; Rusu, C

    2013-12-01

    We report a 20-year-old female with features evocative of Turner syndrome (short stature, broad trunk, mild webbed neck), dysmorphic face, minor features of holo-prosencephaly (HPE), small hands and feet, excessive hair growth on anterior trunk and intellectual disability. Cytogenetic analysis identified a pseudodicentric 14;18 chromosome. Genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array showed a terminal deletion of approximately 10.24 Mb, from 18p11.32 to 18p11.22, flanked by a duplication of approximately 1.15 Mb, from 18p11.22 to 18p11.21. In addition, the SNP array revealed a duplication of 516 kb in 16p11.2. We correlated the patient's clinical findings with the features mentioned in the literature for these copy number variations. This case study shows the importance of microarray analysis in the detection of cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in patients with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies.

  13. Seeding and harvest: a framework for unsupervised feature selection problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Cai, Yuanli; Shi, Juan

    2012-12-27

    Feature selection, also known as attribute selection, is the technique of selecting a subset of relevant features for building robust object models. It is becoming more and more important for large-scale sensors applications with AI capabilities. The core idea of this paper is derived from a straightforward and intuitive principle saying that, if a feature subset (pattern) has more representativeness, it should be more self-organized, and as a result it should be more insensitive to artificially seeded noise points. In the light of this heuristic finding, we established the whole set of theoretical principles, based on which we proposed a two-stage framework to evaluate the relative importance of feature subsets, called seeding and harvest (S&H for short). At the first stage, we inject a number of artificial noise points into the original dataset; then at the second stage, we resort to an outlier detector to identify them under various feature patterns. The more precisely the seeded points can be extracted under a particular feature pattern, the more valuable and important the corresponding feature pattern should be. Besides, we compared our method with several state-of-the-art feature selection methods on a number of real-life datasets. The experiment results significantly confirm that our method can accomplish feature reduction tasks with high accuracy as well as low computing complexity.

  14. Seeding and Harvest: A Framework for Unsupervised Feature Selection Problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Cai, Yuanli; Shi, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Feature selection, also known as attribute selection, is the technique of selecting a subset of relevant features for building robust object models. It is becoming more and more important for large-scale sensors applications with AI capabilities. The core idea of this paper is derived from a straightforward and intuitive principle saying that, if a feature subset (pattern) has more representativeness, it should be more self-organized, and as a result it should be more insensitive to artificially seeded noise points. In the light of this heuristic finding, we established the whole set of theoretical principles, based on which we proposed a two-stage framework to evaluate the relative importance of feature subsets, called seeding and harvest (S&H for short). At the first stage, we inject a number of artificial noise points into the original dataset; then at the second stage, we resort to an outlier detector to identify them under various feature patterns. The more precisely the seeded points can be extracted under a particular feature pattern, the more valuable and important the corresponding feature pattern should be. Besides, we compared our method with several state-of-the-art feature selection methods on a number of real-life datasets. The experiment results significantly confirm that our method can accomplish feature reduction tasks with high accuracy as well as low computing complexity. PMID:23271599

  15. Les Traits acoustiques (Acoustic Features)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Mario

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the theory of distinctive features advanced by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant and Morris Halle in "Preliminaries to Speech Analysis." The notion of binarism, the criterion of distinctiveness and the definition of features are discussed. Questions leading to further research are raised. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  16. Feature Films in Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spehr, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Trained film librarians, given a well planned and carefully developed program can answer the needs of the new film students. Includes lists of motion picture distributors, cinema periodicals, significant feature films, and classic American feature-length films. (Author/JB)

  17. Prosodic Features of Hawaiian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Ralph; Pierson, Laura Shun

    1967-01-01

    This paper describes a "neglected" aspect of Hawaiian ("Pidgin") English--the suprasegmental or prosodic features. Illustrated by contrastive samples of Hawaiian American English (HAE) and General American English (GAE), the salient prosodic features are presented as follows--(1) syllable-timed rhythm, modified by emphatic…

  18. Pachyonychia congenita with unusual features.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Kaarthigeyan, K; Ramnath, B

    2009-10-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by gross thickening of all finger and toenails. We report an infant who had clinical features consistent with pachyonychia congenita type II, with unusual features of microcephaly, seizures, electroencephalogram abnormalities, failure to thrive, and heterochromia iridis.

  19. A Search Engine Features Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorndran, Gerald

    Until recently, the World Wide Web (WWW) public access search engines have not included many of the advanced commands, options, and features commonly available with the for-profit online database user interfaces, such as DIALOG. This study evaluates the features and characteristics common to both types of search interfaces, examines the Web search…

  20. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  1. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  2. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  3. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  4. Remarks on forensically interesting Microsoft XBox 360 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Microsoft Xbox 360 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analysed more precisely. One of the main aspects of the study is to analyse the used file system which was examined for forensic features. Possible difficulties that might be of importance to the forensic investigator are discussed.

  5. It's Taking Shape: Shared Object Features Influence Novel Noun Generalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Jessica S.; Twomey, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Children's early noun vocabularies are dominated by names for shape-based categories. However, along with shape, material and colour are also important features of many early categories. In the current study, we investigate how the number of shared features among objects influences children's novel noun generalizations, explanations for these…

  6. Faithful contrastive features in learning.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-09-10

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct morphemes contrast on the surface in a particular environment, at least 1 of the underlying features on which the 2 differ must be realized faithfully on the surface. A learning procedure exploiting the faithful contrastive feature property, contrast analysis, can set the underlying values of some features, even where featural minimal pairs do not exist, but is nevertheless fundamentally limited in what it can set. This work suggests that observation of surface contrasts between pairs of words can contribute to the learning of underlying forms, while still supporting the view that interaction with the phonological mapping will be necessary to fully determine underlying forms.

  7. Nonlinear features for product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Casasent, David P.

    1999-03-01

    Classification of real-time X-ray images of randomly oriented touching pistachio nuts is discussed. The ultimate objective is the development of a system for automated non-invasive detection of defective product items on a conveyor belt. We discuss the extraction of new features that allow better discrimination between damaged and clean items (pistachio nuts). This feature extraction and classification stage is the new aspect of this paper; our new maximum representation and discriminating feature (MRDF) extraction method computes nonlinear features that are used as inputs to a new modified k nearest neighbor classifier. In this work, the MRDF is applied to standard features (rather than iconic data). The MRDF is robust to various probability distributions of the input class and is shown to provide good classification and new ROC (receiver operating characteristic) data.

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  9. A comparison of feature selection methods for multitemporal tree species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipkins, Kyle; Förster, Michael; Clasen, Anne; Schmidt, Tobias; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    The problem of feature selection is a significant one in classification problems, where the addition of too many features to the classification fails to lead to significant increases in classification accuracy. This problem is especially significant within the context of multitemporal remote sensing classifications, where the costs and efforts associated with the acquisition of additional imagery can be extensive. It would thus be beneficial to identify the most important seasons for acquiring imagery for specific land cover types. This study uses a phenologically-adjusted 21 date RapidEye time-series in order to evaluate two methods of feature selection. The two methods compared in this study are a genetic algorithm (GA) and a semi-exhaustive method (EXH), both of which compare permutations of sequential date and band combinations. These methods are employed using a seven class support vector machine classification on a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-transformed dataset. Overall accuracy (OAA) is used as the performance metric, and OAA significance is assessed using the McNemar test. The results from the feature selection methods are compared on the basis of phenological seasons selected across all iterations and the ideal number of combinations, based on the ratio of better performing classifications to all other classifications. The results suggest that the GA has a moderate but insignificant correlation when compared with the EXH for identifying ideal phenological seasons (overall Spearman's ρ= 0.60, p = 0.13), but is comparable when considering the number of seasons and image combinations.

  10. Pyrophosphorolysis of CCA addition: implication for fidelity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takao; Liu, Cuiping; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kim, Sangbumn; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-11-18

    In nucleic acid polymerization reaction, pyrophosphorolysis is the reversal of nucleotide addition, in which the terminal nucleotide is excised in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The CCA enzymes are unusual RNA polymerases, which catalyze CCA addition to positions 74-76 at the tRNA 3' end without using a nucleic acid template. To better understand the reaction mechanism of CCA addition, we tested pyrophosphorolysis of CCA enzymes, which are divided into two structurally distinct classes. Here, we show that only class II CCA enzymes catalyze pyrophosphorolysis and that the reaction can initiate from all three CCA positions and proceed processively until the removal of nucleotide C74. Pyrophosphorolysis of class II enzymes establishes a fundamental difference from class I enzymes, and it is achieved only with the tRNA structure and with specific divalent metal ions. Importantly, pyrophosphorolysis enables class II enzymes to efficiently remove an incorrect A75 nucleotide from the 3' end, at a rate much faster than the rate of A75 incorporation, suggesting the ability to perform a previously unexpected quality control mechanism for CCA synthesis. Measurement of kinetic parameters of the class II Escherichia coli CCA enzyme reveals that the enzyme catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis slowly relative to the forward nucleotide addition and that it exhibits weak binding affinity to PPi relative to NTP, suggesting a mechanism in which PPi is rapidly released after each nucleotide addition as a driving force to promote the forward synthesis of CCA.

  11. Feature selection in validating mass spectrometry database search results.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianwen; Dong, Yinghua; Williams, Todd D; Lushington, Gerald H

    2008-02-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with protein database searching has been widely used in protein identification. A validation procedure is generally required to reduce the number of false positives. Advanced tools using statistical and machine learning approaches may provide faster and more accurate validation than manual inspection and empirical filtering criteria. In this study, we use two feature selection algorithms based on random forest and support vector machine to identify peptide properties that can be used to improve validation models. We demonstrate that an improved model based on an optimized set of features reduces the number of false positives by 58% relative to the model which used only search engine scores, at the same sensitivity score of 0.8. In addition, we develop classification models based on the physicochemical properties and protein sequence environment of these peptides without using search engine scores. The performance of the best model based on the support vector machine algorithm is at 0.8 AUC, 0.78 accuracy, and 0.7 specificity, suggesting a reasonably accurate classification. The identified properties important to fragmentation and ionization can be either used in independent validation tools or incorporated into peptide sequencing and database search algorithms to improve existing software programs.

  12. Identification of separate flow features in the shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulleners, Karen; Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Analyzing unsteady flow fields primarily involves the identification of dynamically significant regions of vorticity in the flow. Detection of all the flow features is essential for an accurate description of the physics of the flow, which eventually helps in improving flow modeling and predictions. Eulerian criteria such as λ2 and Γ2 successfully identify large scale structures based on local velocity gradients and topology but do not detect the coherent vortices with the concentrated vorticity in a shear layer. The identification of these smaller structures within the shear layer is important when predicting the overall circulatory contribution to the aerodynamic forces produced, in applications such as flapping wing design. In order to detect the smaller flow features along with the prominent large scale vortices, an alternative method of vortex identification is proposed in which the flow structures are detected based on the vorticity contours. This method is applied to numerical and experimental data of a pitching panel to highlight its robustness. In addition, the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is calculated to show that the boundaries of the material lines and identified vorticity contours coincide.

  13. Automatic lip reading by using multimodal visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Shohei; Ohya, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Since long time ago, speech recognition has been researched, though it does not work well in noisy places such as in the car or in the train. In addition, people with hearing-impaired or difficulties in hearing cannot receive benefits from speech recognition. To recognize the speech automatically, visual information is also important. People understand speeches from not only audio information, but also visual information such as temporal changes in the lip shape. A vision based speech recognition method could work well in noisy places, and could be useful also for people with hearing disabilities. In this paper, we propose an automatic lip-reading method for recognizing the speech by using multimodal visual information without using any audio information such as speech recognition. First, the ASM (Active Shape Model) is used to track and detect the face and lip in a video sequence. Second, the shape, optical flow and spatial frequencies of the lip features are extracted from the lip detected by ASM. Next, the extracted multimodal features are ordered chronologically so that Support Vector Machine is performed in order to learn and classify the spoken words. Experiments for classifying several words show promising results of this proposed method.

  14. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  15. The role of feature-number and feature-type in processing Hindi verb agreement violations.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Andrew; Dillon, Brian; Malhotra, Shiti; Phillips, Colin

    2007-08-20

    This article presents studies of Hindi that investigate whether responses to syntactic agreement violations vary as a function of the type and number of incorrect agreement features, using both electrophysiological (ERP) and behavioral measures. Hindi is well suited to investigation of this issue, since verbs in Hindi mark agreement with the person, number, and gender features of the nominative subject noun phrase. In an ERP study evoked responses were recorded for visually presented verbs appearing at the end of a sentence-initial adverbial clause, comparing responses in a grammatically correct condition with four grammatically incorrect conditions that mismatched the correct agreement on different dimensions (Gender, Number, Gender/Number, Person/Gender). A P600 response was elicited in all grammatically incorrect conditions. No amplitude differences were found among the Gender, Number, and combined Gender/Number violations. This suggests that the feature distance between observed and expected word forms at the morphosyntactic level does not impact ERP responses, contrasting with findings on semantic and auditory processing, and suggests that the P600 response to agreement violations is not additive based on the number of mismatching features and does not reflect top-down, predictive mechanisms. A significantly larger P600 response was elicited by the combined Person/Gender violation, and two different violations involving the Person feature were judged as more severe and recognized more quickly in the behavioral studies. This effect is attributed to the greater salience of the Person feature at multiple levels of representation.

  16. The Importance of Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Are You Sleep-Deprived? The Importance of Sleep Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Many people view sleep as merely a "down time," when their brains ...

  17. Anticounterfeiting features of artistic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Rudaz, Nicolas; Amidror, Isaac; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    1996-12-01

    In a recent publication (Ostromoukhov95), a new image reproduction technique, artistic screening, was presented. It incorporates freely created artistic screen elements for generating halftones. Fixed predefined dot contours associated with given intensity levels determine the screen dot shape's growing behavior. Screen dot contours associated with each intensity level are obtained by interpolation between the fixed predefined dot contours. A user-defined mapping transforms screen elements from screen element definition space to screen element rendition space. This mapping can be tuned to produce various effects such as dilatations, contractions and non-linear deformations of the screen element grid. Although artistic screening has been designed mainly for performing the creation of graphic designs of high artistic quality, it also incorporates several important anti-counterfeiting features. For example, bank notes or other valuable printed matters produced with artistic screening may incorporate both full size and microscopic letters of varying shape into the image halftoning process. Furthermore, artistic screening can be used for generating screen dots at varying frequencies and orientations, which are well known for inducing strong moire effects when scanned by a digital color copier or a desktop scanner. However, it is less known that frequency-modulated screen dots have at each screen element size a different reproduction behavior (dot gain). When trying to reproduce an original by analog means, such as a photocopier, the variations in dot gain induce strong intensity variations at the same original intensity levels. In this paper, we present a method for compensating such variations for the target printer, on which the original security document is to be printed. Potential counterfeiters who would like to reproduce the original with a photocopying device may only be able to adjust the dot gain for the whole image and will therefore be unable to eliminate the

  18. Distance, shape and more: recognition of object features during active electrolocation in a weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    von der Emde, Gerhard; Fetz, Steffen

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of light, the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii detects and distinguishes objects in the environment through active electrolocation. In order to test which features of an object the fish use under these conditions to discriminate between differently shaped objects, we trained eight individuals in a food-rewarded, two-alternative, forced-choice procedure. All fish learned to discriminate between two objects of different shapes and volumes. When new object combinations were offered in non-rewarded test trials, fish preferred those objects that resembled the one they had been trained to (S+) and avoided objects resembling the one that had not been rewarded (S-). For a decision, fish paid attention to the relative differences between the two objects they had to discriminate. For discrimination, fish used several object features, the most important ones being volume, material and shape. The importance of shape was demonstrated by reducing the objects to their 3-dimensional contours, which sufficed for the fish to distinguish differently shaped objects. Our results also showed that fish attended strongly to the feature ;volume', because all individuals tended to avoid the larger one of two objects. When confronted with metal versus plastic objects, all fish avoided metal and preferred plastic objects, irrespective of training. In addition to volume, material and shape, fish attended to additional parameters, such as corners or rounded edges. When confronted with two unknown objects, fish weighed up the positive and negative properties of these novel objects and based their decision on the outcome of this comparison. Our results suggest that fish are able to link and assemble local features of an electrolocation pattern to construct a representation of an object, suggesting that some form of a feature extraction mechanism enables them to solve a complex object recognition task.

  19. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  20. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  1. Enhancement of ELDA Tracker Based on CNN Features and Adaptive Model Update

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Changxin; Shi, Huizhang; Yu, Jin-Gang; Sang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Appearance representation and the observation model are the most important components in designing a robust visual tracking algorithm for video-based sensors. Additionally, the exemplar-based linear discriminant analysis (ELDA) model has shown good performance in object tracking. Based on that, we improve the ELDA tracking algorithm by deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and adaptive model update. Deep CNN features have been successfully used in various computer vision tasks. Extracting CNN features on all of the candidate windows is time consuming. To address this problem, a two-step CNN feature extraction method is proposed by separately computing convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Due to the strong discriminative ability of CNN features and the exemplar-based model, we update both object and background models to improve their adaptivity and to deal with the tradeoff between discriminative ability and adaptivity. An object updating method is proposed to select the “good” models (detectors), which are quite discriminative and uncorrelated to other selected models. Meanwhile, we build the background model as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to adapt to complex scenes, which is initialized offline and updated online. The proposed tracker is evaluated on a benchmark dataset of 50 video sequences with various challenges. It achieves the best overall performance among the compared state-of-the-art trackers, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm. PMID:27092505

  2. Feature Selection and Classifier Parameters Estimation for EEG Signals Peak Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Asrul; Mohd Tumari, Mohd Zaidi; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. PMID:25243236

  3. Enhanced synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition method based on novel features.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Gong; Yin, Jiejun; Ji, Xiuxia

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a set of uncommonly rich feature representations for automatic target recognition (ATR) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The proposed novel feature representations capture both the spatial and spectral properties of a target in a unified framework, while simultaneously offering discrimination and robustness to aspect variations. Specifically, the proposed features are mainly derived from the ideas of the monogenic signal and polar mapping. The applicability of the monogenic signal within the field of SAR target recognition is demonstrated by its capability of capturing both the broad spectral information and spatial localization with compact support. Further, to reduce the influence of inevitable variations due to aspect changes in SAR images, the monogenic components are transformed from Cartesian to polar coordinates through polar mapping. Additionally, a new target-shadow feature is also presented to compensate for the important discriminative information about target geometry, which exists in the shadow area. Finally, the proposed features are jointly considered into a unified multiple kernel learning framework for target recognition. Experiments on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) public dataset demonstrate the strength and applicability of the proposed representations to SAR ATR. Moreover, it is also shown that overall high recognition accuracy can be obtained by the established unified framework.

  4. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  5. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  7. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  9. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  10. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-04-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments.

  11. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  12. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  13. Trajectory analysis via a geometric feature space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark D.; Wilson, Andrew T.

    2015-10-05

    This study aimed to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for and classify both common and uncommon behaviors among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing comparison functions such as the Fréchet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as the total distance traveled and the distance between start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans who are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to identify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories and identify outliers.

  14. Comparative tectonic features on Ceres and other planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; von der Gathen, I.; Jaumann, R.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Schulzeck, F.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Naß, A.; Preusker, F.; Schenk, P.; Schroeder, S.; Stephan, K.; Wagner, R. J.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Dawn Framing Camera images of Ceres' surface indicate that tectonic processes have played an important role in the surface formation history and alterations. We study structures expected to be the result of tectonic deformation and crustal stresses, which may enable us to reconstruct the formation process of the surface and the topographic signature. Tectonic features on Ceres such as troughs, ridges, scarps, fractures, depressions and domes are analogous to those on other planetary bodies like Enceladus, Ganymede, Europa and Mercury. Comparing these surface features will provide additional information about possible scenarios of crustal formation on Ceres. First investigations show that craters, like Urvara (46°S and 249°E), display sets of trenches radiating from the craters interior. They were likely formed by extensional tectonics linked to the impact. Similar features were also found on Mercury's surface. It is expected that other tectonic deformations on Ceres also influence the appearance of craters and crater walls. Comparatively small scale fissures on Ceres' surface, frequently arranged subparallel, seem to appear in terrain that looks smooth in the images. Fractures, cracks and scarps on Ceres can be found on Enceladus, Europa and Mercury in similar patterns. The "tiger stripes" on Enceladus are possible large scale analogous. Ridges on Europa, Enceladus and Ganymede are lineaments that dominate their entire surface. Those on Ceres' however, are more irregularly shaped and less distinct. On Ceres surface troughs seem to be relatively rare. However, they show similarities to troughs on Enceladus and Mercury, and could also be related to those on Europa and Ganymede. Domes are distributed over Ceres' entire surface and have a relatively regular shape. Analogous exist on Europa (relatively irregular or with halos) and Ganymede in the crater interiors.

  15. Estimating standard errors in feature network models.

    PubMed

    Frank, Laurence E; Heiser, Willem J

    2007-05-01

    Feature network models are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space while using the same formalism that is the basis of least squares methods employed in multidimensional scaling. Existing methods to derive a network model from empirical data only give the best-fitting network and yield no standard errors for the parameter estimates. The additivity properties of networks make it possible to consider the model as a univariate (multiple) linear regression problem with positivity restrictions on the parameters. In the present study, both theoretical and empirical standard errors are obtained for the constrained regression parameters of a network model with known features. The performance of both types of standard error is evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  16. Episodic Ataxias: Clinical and Genetic Features

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) is a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent spells of truncal ataxia and incoordination lasting minutes to hours. Most have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. To date, 8 subtypes have been defined according to clinical and genetic characteristics, and five genes are known to be linked to EAs. Both EA1 and EA2, which are caused by mutations in KCNA1 and CACNA1A, account for the majority of EA, but many patients with no identified mutations still exhibit EA-like clinical features. Furthermore, genetically confirmed EAs have mostly been identified in Caucasian families. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the clinical and genetic characteristics of EAs. Additionally, we summarize the phenotypic features of the genetically confirmed EA2 families in Korea. PMID:27667184

  17. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  18. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  20. Linear feature selection with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Several ways in which feature selection techniques were used in LACIE are discussed. In all cases, the methods require some a priori information and assumptions; in most, the classification procedure (Bayes optimal) was chosen in advance. The transformations used for dimensionality reduction are linear, that is, the variables in feature space are always linear combinations of the original measurements. Several numerically tractable criteria developed for LACIE, which provide information about the probability of misclassification, are discussed. Recent results on linear feature selection techniques are included. Their use in LACIE is discussed. Related open questions are mentioned.

  1. The Importance of "What": Infants Use Featural Information to Index Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Wu, Rachel; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic spatial indexing is the ability to encode, remember, and track the location of complex events. For example, in a previous study, 6-month-old infants were familiarized to a toy making a particular sound in a particular location, and later they fixated that empty location when they heard the sound presented alone ("Journal of Experimental…

  2. Neuropathic ocular pain: an important yet underevaluated feature of dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Galor, A; Levitt, R C; Felix, E R; Martin, E R; Sarantopoulos, C D

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye has gained recognition as a public health problem given its prevalence, morbidity, and cost implications. Dry eye can have a variety of symptoms including blurred vision, irritation, and ocular pain. Within dry eye-associated ocular pain, some patients report transient pain whereas others complain of chronic pain. In this review, we will summarize the evidence that chronicity is more likely to occur in patients with dysfunction in their ocular sensory apparatus (ie, neuropathic ocular pain). Clinical evidence of dysfunction includes the presence of spontaneous dysesthesias, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and corneal nerve morphologic and functional abnormalities. Both peripheral and central sensitizations likely play a role in generating the noted clinical characteristics. We will further discuss how evaluating for neuropathic ocular pain may affect the treatment of dry eye-associated chronic pain. PMID:25376119

  3. Beacon Hill end moraine, Boston: new explanation of an important urban feature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, Clifford A.; Coates, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    The usefulness of geology to engineers is in direct proportion to how well it helps us predict the subsurface; these predictions, in turn, depend on our knowledge of the geomorphic processes that molded the terrain. The uncertainties of interpretation are particularly great in glaciated terrain because our understanding of both glacial processes and history is so incomplete, a fact well illustrated in Beacon Hill. Recent construction activities in the eastern part of the hill, until now classified as a drumlin, have shown that it is better interpreted as an end moraine formed by a Wisconsonian glacial readvance. Instead of the firm till that was anticipated as foundation material, excavations exposed a complex of sand, gravel, and clay, with only minor zones of till. The structure of these deposits strongly suggests that originally they were plates of the glacial bed that froze to the glacier and were transported englacially. Thrust faulting and other deformations are glacial structures formed within the ice in the glacier's terminal zone. In spite of the complex englacial history, these deposits lost little of their original appearance and intergranular relationships. Upon deglaciation, the frozen moraine thawed, and slumping formed complex secondary structures on the ridge's lower flanks.

  4. Larvae of five horticulturally important species of Chrysopodes (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): shared generic features, descriptions and keys

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia S.; Tauber, Catherine A.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An expanded list of generic level larval characteristics is presented for Chrysopodes; it includes a reinterpretation of the mesothoracic and metathoracic structure and setation. Keys, descriptions and images of Semaphoront A (first instar) and Semaphoront B (second and third instars) are offered for identifying five species of Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes) that are commonly reported from horticultural habitats in the Neotropical region. PMID:23653514

  5. The importance of study design for detecting differentially abundant features in high-throughput experiments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huaien; Li, Juntao; Chia, Burton Kuan Hui; Robson, Paul; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2014-12-03

    High-throughput assays, such as RNA-seq, to detect differential abundance are widely used. Variable performance across statistical tests, normalizations, and conditions leads to resource wastage and reduced sensitivity. EDDA represents a first, general design tool for RNA-seq, Nanostring, and metagenomic analysis, that rationally selects tests, predicts performance, and plans experiments to minimize resource wastage. Case studies highlight EDDA's ability to model single-cell RNA-seq, suggesting ways to reduce sequencing costs up to five-fold and improving metagenomic biomarker detection through improved test selection. EDDA's novel mode-based normalization for detecting differential abundance improves robustness by 10% to 20% and precision by up to 140%.

  6. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  7. An Important Ocean Feature Overlooked in Current El Nino-Southern Oscillation Theories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    t " an ’’’’’’’Me of r; - n . ",hreh 111 ’u’" a,,!p’W:"" (I", OMI, dC<:I"""" g ...almo· sphcric C(> n ,·e ..gcn~~ .11\\d ~o""",,li,," (Tn,weclion /1-) a,c gencrally ." soci .1Ied wilh Ihe 11""’" waler (Gill. 19~0). III Ihc~a’l (0’ Wt., t ...34 il u,uMly i’ i" Ih" 1t0IHes. With rollsi<l..."i"" uf lhi’ fe,.eu",. b(Hh 1>0ŕ"’" a,,ə n " g

  8. On image matrix based feature extraction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xiao; Feng, Jufu

    2006-02-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two important feature extraction methods and have been widely applied in a variety of areas. A limitation of PCA and LDA is that when dealing with image data, the image matrices must be first transformed into vectors, which are usually of very high dimensionality. This causes expensive computational cost and sometimes the singularity problem. Recently two methods called two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) and two-dimensional LDA (2DLDA) were proposed to overcome this disadvantage by working directly on 2-D image matrices without a vectorization procedure. The 2DPCA and 2DLDA significantly reduce the computational effort and the possibility of singularity in feature extraction. In this paper, we show that these matrices based 2-D algorithms are equivalent to special cases of image block based feature extraction, i.e., partition each image into several blocks and perform standard PCA or LDA on the aggregate of all image blocks. These results thus provide a better understanding of the 2-D feature extraction approaches.

  9. Monocular precrash vehicle detection: features and classifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zehang; Bebis, George; Miller, Ronald

    2006-07-01

    Robust and reliable vehicle detection from images acquired by a moving vehicle (i.e., on-road vehicle detection) is an important problem with applications to driver assistance systems and autonomous, self-guided vehicles. The focus of this work is on the issues of feature extraction and classification for rear-view vehicle detection. Specifically, by treating the problem of vehicle detection as a two-class classification problem, we have investigated several different feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis, wavelets, and Gabor filters. To evaluate the extracted features, we have experimented with two popular classifiers, neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). Based on our evaluation results, we have developed an on-board real-time monocular vehicle detection system that is capable of acquiring grey-scale images, using Ford's proprietary low-light camera, achieving an average detection rate of 10 Hz. Our vehicle detection algorithm consists of two main steps: a multiscale driven hypothesis generation step and an appearance-based hypothesis verification step. During the hypothesis generation step, image locations where vehicles might be present are extracted. This step uses multiscale techniques not only to speed up detection, but also to improve system robustness. The appearance-based hypothesis verification step verifies the hypotheses using Gabor features and SVMs. The system has been tested in Ford's concept vehicle under different traffic conditions (e.g., structured highway, complex urban streets, and varying weather conditions), illustrating good performance.

  10. Spectral EEG features for evaluating cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Zarjam, Pega; Epps, Julien; Chen, Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate spectral features derived from EEG signals for measuring cognitive load. Measurements of this kind have important commercial and clinical applications for optimizing the performance of users working under high mental load conditions, or as cognitive tests. Based on EEG recordings for a reading task in which three different levels of cognitive load were induced, it is shown that a set of spectral features--the spectral entropy, weighted mean frequency and its bandwidth, and spectral edge frequency--are all able to discriminate the three load levels effectively. An interesting result is that spectral entropy, which reflects the distribution of spectral energy rather than its magnitude, provides very good discrimination between cognitive load levels. We also report those EEG channels for which statistical significance between load levels was achieved. The effect of frequency bands on the spectral features is also investigated here. The results indicate that the choice of optimal frequency band can be dependent on the spectral feature extracted.

  11. MEVTV Workshop on Tectonic Features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Thomas R. (Editor); Golombek, Matthew P. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The state of knowledge of tectonic features on Mars was determined and kinematic and mechanical models were assessed for their origin. Three sessions were held: wrinkle ridges and compressional structure; strike-slip faults; and extensional structures. Each session began with an overview of the features under discussion. In the case of wrinkle ridges and extensional structures, the overview was followed by keynote addresses by specialists working on similar structures on the Earth. The first session of the workshop focused on the controversy over the relative importance of folding, faulting, and intrusive volcanism in the origin of wrinkle ridges. The session ended with discussions of the origin of compressional flank structures associated with Martian volcanoes and the relationship between the volcanic complexes and the inferred regional stress field. The second day of the workshop began with the presentation and discussion of evidence for strike-slip faults on Mars at various scales. In the last session, the discussion of extensional structures ranged from the origin of grabens, tension cracks, and pit-crater chains to the origin of Valles Marineris canyons. Shear and tensile modes of brittle failure in the formation of extensional features and the role of these failure modes in the formation of pit-crater chains and the canyons of Valles Marineris were debated. The relationship of extensional features to other surface processes, such as carbonate dissolution (karst) were also discussed.

  12. Retinal image quality assessment using generic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasih, Mahnaz; Langlois, J. M. Pierre; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2014-03-01

    Retinal image quality assessment is an important step in automated eye disease diagnosis. Diagnosis accuracy is highly dependent on the quality of retinal images, because poor image quality might prevent the observation of significant eye features and disease manifestations. A robust algorithm is therefore required in order to evaluate the quality of images in a large database. We developed an algorithm for retinal image quality assessment based on generic features that is independent from segmentation methods. It exploits the local sharpness and texture features by applying the cumulative probability of blur detection metric and run-length encoding algorithm, respectively. The quality features are combined to evaluate the image's suitability for diagnosis purposes. Based on the recommendations of medical experts and our experience, we compared a global and a local approach. A support vector machine with radial basis functions was used as a nonlinear classifier in order to classify images to gradable and ungradable groups. We applied our methodology to 65 images of size 2592×1944 pixels that had been graded by a medical expert. The expert evaluated 38 images as gradable and 27 as ungradable. The results indicate very good agreement between the proposed algorithm's predictions and the medical expert's judgment: the sensitivity and specificity for the local approach are respectively 92% and 94%. The algorithm demonstrates sufficient robustness to identify relevant images for automated diagnosis.

  13. Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Shi Changxu, former vice-president of NSFC wins Top Prize of National Science and Technology Award of China Both China and the world materials community have greatly benefitted from his service, by RPH Chang Shi Changxu—a great teacher and mentor for materials scientists, by Gaoqing Max Lu A bright example for all of us—Professor Shi Changxu, by Wei Gao Professor Shi Changxu—The Giant Materials Scientist of China, by Wuzong Zhou Congratulations to Academician Changxu Shi on the Occasion of His Winning the 2010 Chinese Science & Technology Grand Prize, by Ju Li, Kai Chen, Zhiwei Shan, Guanjun Qiao, Jun Sun and Evan Ma Materials—the foundation for technology revolutions, by Zhong Lin Wang

  14. Characterizing mammographic images by using generic texture features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Although mammographic density is an established risk factor for breast cancer, its use is limited in clinical practice because of a lack of automated and standardized measurement methods. The aims of this study were to evaluate a variety of automated texture features in mammograms as risk factors for breast cancer and to compare them with the percentage mammographic density (PMD) by using a case-control study design. Methods A case-control study including 864 cases and 418 controls was analyzed automatically. Four hundred seventy features were explored as possible risk factors for breast cancer. These included statistical features, moment-based features, spectral-energy features, and form-based features. An elaborate variable selection process using logistic regression analyses was performed to identify those features that were associated with case-control status. In addition, PMD was assessed and included in the regression model. Results Of the 470 image-analysis features explored, 46 remained in the final logistic regression model. An area under the curve of 0.79, with an odds ratio per standard deviation change of 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.65), was obtained with validation data. Adding the PMD did not improve the final model. Conclusions Using texture features to predict the risk of breast cancer appears feasible. PMD did not show any additional value in this study. With regard to the features assessed, most of the analysis tools appeared to reflect mammographic density, although some features did not correlate with PMD. It remains to be investigated in larger case-control studies whether these features can contribute to increased prediction accuracy. PMID:22490545

  15. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  16. Prognosis classification in glioblastoma multiforme using multimodal MRI derived heterogeneity textural features: impact of pre-processing choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhaya, Taman; Morvan, Yannick; Stindel, Eric; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Hatt, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneity image-derived features of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors from multimodal MRI sequences may provide higher prognostic value than standard parameters used in routine clinical practice. We previously developed a framework for automatic extraction and combination of image-derived features (also called "Radiomics") through support vector machines (SVM) for predictive model building. The results we obtained in a cohort of 40 GBM suggested these features could be used to identify patients with poorer outcome. However, extraction of these features is a delicate multi-step process and their values may therefore depend on the pre-processing of images. The original developed workflow included skull removal, bias homogeneity correction, and multimodal tumor segmentation, followed by textural features computation, and lastly ranking, selection and combination through a SVM-based classifier. The goal of the present work was to specifically investigate the potential benefit and respective impact of the addition of several MRI pre-processing steps (spatial resampling for isotropic voxels, intensities quantization and normalization) before textural features computation, on the resulting accuracy of the classifier. Eighteen patients datasets were also added for the present work (58 patients in total). A classification accuracy of 83% (sensitivity 79%, specificity 85%) was obtained using the original framework. The addition of the new pre-processing steps increased it to 93% (sensitivity 93%, specificity 93%) in identifying patients with poorer survival (below the median of 12 months). Among the three considered pre-processing steps, spatial resampling was found to have the most important impact. This shows the crucial importance of investigating appropriate image pre-processing steps to be used for methodologies based on textural features extraction in medical imaging.

  17. Walking Shoes: Features and Fit

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Walking shoes have some features other shoes don't. Here's what to look for and ... 04, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/walking/art-20043897 . Mayo Clinic ...

  18. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  19. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  20. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  1. Feature Extraction Without Edge Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    feature? A.I. Memo 1356, MIT Artificial Intellegence Lab, April 1992. [65] W. A. Richards, B. Dawson, and D. Whittington. Encoding contour shape by...AD-A279 842 . " Technical Report 1434 --Feature Extraction Without Edge Detection Ronald D. Chane MIT Artificial .Intelligencc Laboratory ",, 𔃾•d...Chaney 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial

  2. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    PubMed

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  3. Electroforming of metallic bipolar plates with micro-featured flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Chen, Yu-Pang; Huang, Ching-Han

    In addition to mechanical properties, uniform fuel dispersion, efficient removal of water and high electric conductivity are also important functions of a bipolar plate. The capillary effect of micro-featured flow field may attract water from the carbonic diffusion layer and promote more evenly dispersion of fuels into the diffusion layer. Thus, it may improve the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this research, the Lithography Galvanik Abformung (LIGA) manufacturing processes with electroforming technology are investigated for the production of micro-featured flow field of the metallic bipolar plates. The micro-features are designed in conjunction with the existing flow channel to form an integrated flow field system. Instead of silicon wafer, a 4 in. wafer size SS304 stainless steel plate is used as the substrate. The LIGA processes of photo masking, spin coating, exposure and development are employed to create electric conducting die with flow field pattern. Electroforming of this metallic plate coated with flow field patterned photo resist will result in the main flow channel on the SS304 plate. The same processes were conducted for the second iteration to form micro-features. Thus, metallic bipolar plates with micro-features are produced using the electroforming technology. A single cell with total cell area of 16 cm 2 and reaction area of 4 cm 2 was produced. It has micro-features of 100 and 200 μm width and of 50 μm depth. The dimensions of the main flow channel were 300 μm in width and 200 μm in depth. Single cell tests were conducted to evaluate its performance. The cell performance of the single cell with SS304 metallic bipolar plates exceeds similar size single cell with silicon or glass fiber substrates. The electroforming is a promising technology for metallic bipolar plates with micro-features and micro-fuel cell.

  4. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  5. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  6. Is magnetic topology important for heating the solar atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Parnell, Clare E; Stevenson, Julie E H; Threlfall, James; Edwards, Sarah J

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide enough area, to explain the energy losses throughout the solar atmosphere? Here, we consider this question for the three different solar regions: active regions, open-field regions and the quiet Sun. We find that the heating of active regions and open-field regions is highly unlikely to be due to reconnection or wave dissipation at topological features, but it is possible that these may play a role in the heating of the quiet Sun. In active regions, the absence of a complex topology may play an important role in allowing large energies to build up and then, subsequently, be explosively released in the form of a solar flare. Additionally, knowledge of the intricate boundaries of open-field regions (which the magnetic skeleton provides) could be very important in determining the main acceleration mechanism(s) of the solar wind.

  7. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  8. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  9. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  10. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  11. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED.

  12. Distributed feature extraction for event identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Ko, Teresa H.

    2004-05-01

    An important component of ubiquitous computing is the ability to quickly sense the dynamic environment to learn context awareness in real-time. To pervasively capture detailed information of movements, we present a decentralized algorithm for feature extraction within a wireless sensor network. By approaching this problem in a distributed manner, we are able to work within the real constraint of wireless battery power and its effects on processing and network communications. We describe a hardware platform developed for low-power ubiquitous wireless sensing and a distributed feature extraction methodology which is capable of providing more information to the user of events while reducing power consumption. We demonstrate how the collaboration between sensor nodes can provide a means of organizing large networks into information-based clusters.

  13. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOEpatents

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  14. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  15. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  16. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  17. The Importance of High School Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important educational objectives of high school is to teach critical-thinking skills, and no class does this better than strategic debate. Professor Mike Allen, lead author in a definitive study on debate and critical thinking, lauded debate's promotion of critical-thinking skills. Additionally, researcher Joe Bellon discusses the…

  18. Reducing Communication in Algebraic Multigrid Using Additive Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Yang, Ulrike Meier

    2014-02-12

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) has proven to be an effective scalable solver on many high performance computers. However, its increasing communication complexity on coarser levels has shown to seriously impact its performance on computers with high communication cost. Moreover, additive AMG variants provide not only increased parallelism as well as decreased numbers of messages per cycle but also generally exhibit slower convergence. Here we present various new additive variants with convergence rates that are significantly improved compared to the classical additive algebraic multigrid method and investigate their potential for decreased communication, and improved communication-computation overlap, features that are essential for good performance on future exascale architectures.

  19. Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.

  20. Acoustic features of objects matched by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Delong, Caroline M; Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Harley, Heidi E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2006-03-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate how dolphins use acoustic features in returning echolocation signals to discriminate among objects. An echolocating dolphin performed a match-to-sample task with objects that varied in size, shape, material, and texture. After the task was completed, the features of the object echoes were measured (e.g., target strength, peak frequency). The dolphin's error patterns were examined in conjunction with the between-object variation in acoustic features to identify the acoustic features that the dolphin used to discriminate among the objects. The present study explored two hypotheses regarding the way dolphins use acoustic information in echoes: (1) use of a single feature, or (2) use of a linear combination of multiple features. The results suggested that dolphins do not use a single feature across all object sets or a linear combination of six echo features. Five features appeared to be important to the dolphin on four or more sets: the echo spectrum shape, the pattern of changes in target strength and number of highlights as a function of object orientation, and peak and center frequency. These data suggest that dolphins use multiple features and integrate information across echoes from a range of object orientations.

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  3. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  4. Importance of macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Kasum, M; Pavičić-Baldani, D; Stanić, P; Orešković, S; Sarić, J-M; Blajić, J; Juras, J

    2014-12-01

    occur in patients with conventional symptoms of hyperprolactinemia who cannot be differentiated from patients with true hyperprolactinemia. These symptoms are mainly attributed to excess levels of monomeric prolactin, and this is of concern. The diagnosis of macroprolactinemia is misleading and inappropriate. A multitude of physiological, pharmacological and pathological causes, including stress, prolactinomas, hypothyroidism, renal and hepatic failure, intercostal nerve stimulation and polycystic ovary disease, can contribute to increased levels of monomeric prolactin. It is important for patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels to undergo routine evaluation to identify the exact pathological state and introduce adequate treatment, regardless of the presence of macroprolactin. In addition, macroprolactinemia occasionally occurs due to macroprolactin associated with pituitary adenomas, with biological activity of macroprolactin comparable with that of monomeric prolactin. In cases when excess macroprolactin occurs with clinical manifestations of hyperprolactinemia, macroprolactinemia should be regarded as a pathological biochemical variant of hyperprolactinemia. An individualized approach to the management of such patients with macroprolactinemia may be necessary, and pituitary imaging, dopamine treatment and prolonged follow-up should be applied.

  5. Protein import, replication, and inheritance of a vestigial mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Regoes, Attila; Zourmpanou, Danai; León-Avila, Gloria; van der Giezen, Mark; Tovar, Jorge; Hehl, Adrian B

    2005-08-26

    Mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes) that exist in a range of "amitochondrial" eukaryotic organisms represent ideal models for the study of mitochondrial evolution and for the establishment of the minimal set of proteins required for the biogenesis of an endosymbiosis-derived organelle. Giardia intestinalis, often described as the earliest branching eukaryote, contains double membrane-bounded structures involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, an essential function of mitochondria. Here we present evidence that Giardia mitosomes also harbor Cpn60, mtHsp70, and ferredoxin and that despite their advanced state of reductive evolution they have retained vestiges of presequence-dependent and -independent protein import pathways akin to those that operate in mammalian mitochondria. Although import of IscU and ferredoxin is still reliant on their amino-terminal presequences, targeting of Giardia Cpn60, IscS, or mtHsp70 into mitosomes no longer requires cleavable presequences, a derived feature from their mitochondrial homologues. In addition, we found that division and segregation of a single centrally positioned mitosome tightly associated with the microtubular cytoskeleton is coordinated with the cell cycle, whereas peripherally located mitosomes are inherited into daughter cells stochastically.

  6. Classifier dependent feature preprocessing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Benjamin M., II; Peterson, Gilbert L.

    2008-04-01

    In mobile applications, computational complexity is an issue that limits sophisticated algorithms from being implemented on these devices. This paper provides an initial solution to applying pattern recognition systems on mobile devices by combining existing preprocessing algorithms for recognition. In pattern recognition systems, it is essential to properly apply feature preprocessing tools prior to training classification models in an attempt to reduce computational complexity and improve the overall classification accuracy. The feature preprocessing tools extended for the mobile environment are feature ranking, feature extraction, data preparation and outlier removal. Most desktop systems today are capable of processing a majority of the available classification algorithms without concern of processing while the same is not true on mobile platforms. As an application of pattern recognition for mobile devices, the recognition system targets the problem of steganalysis, determining if an image contains hidden information. The measure of performance shows that feature preprocessing increases the overall steganalysis classification accuracy by an average of 22%. The methods in this paper are tested on a workstation and a Nokia 6620 (Symbian operating system) camera phone with similar results.

  7. 75 FR 44282 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital... importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras,...

  8. Retinal vasculature classification using novel multifractal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Ward, W. O. C.; Duan, Jinming; Auer, D. P.; Gowland, Penny; Bai, L.

    2015-11-01

    Retinal blood vessels have been implicated in a large number of diseases including diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular diseases, which cause damages to retinal blood vessels. The availability of retinal vessel imaging provides an excellent opportunity for monitoring and diagnosis of retinal diseases, and automatic analysis of retinal vessels will help with the processes. However, state of the art vascular analysis methods such as counting the number of branches or measuring the curvature and diameter of individual vessels are unsuitable for the microvasculature. There has been published research using fractal analysis to calculate fractal dimensions of retinal blood vessels, but so far there has been no systematic research extracting discriminant features from retinal vessels for classifications. This paper introduces new methods for feature extraction from multifractal spectra of retinal vessels for classification. Two publicly available retinal vascular image databases are used for the experiments, and the proposed methods have produced accuracies of 85.5% and 77% for classification of healthy and diabetic retinal vasculatures. Experiments show that classification with multiple fractal features produces better rates compared with methods using a single fractal dimension value. In addition to this, experiments also show that classification accuracy can be affected by the accuracy of vessel segmentation algorithms.

  9. Statistical feature selection for enhanced detection of brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Colen, Rivka R.

    2014-09-01

    Feature-based methods are widely used in the brain tumor recognition system. Robust of early cancer detection is one of the most powerful image processing tools. Specifically, statistical features, such as geometric mean, harmonic mean, mean excluding outliers, median, percentiles, skewness and kurtosis, have been extracted from brain tumor glioma to aid in discriminating two levels namely, Level I and Level II using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the diagnosis of brain tumor. Statistical feature describes the major characteristics of each level from glioma which is an important step to evaluate heterogeneity of cancer area pixels. In this paper, we address the task of feature selection to identify the relevant subset of features in the statistical domain, while discarding those that are either redundant or confusing, thereby improving the performance of feature-based scheme to distinguish between Level I and Level II. We apply a Decision Structure algorithm to find the optimal combination of nonhomogeneity based statistical features for the problem at hand. We employ a Naïve Bayes classifier to evaluate the performance of the optimal statistical feature based scheme in terms of its glioma Level I and Level II discrimination capability and use real-data collected from 17 patients have a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Dataset provided from 3 Tesla MR imaging system by MD Anderson Cancer Center. For the specific data analyzed, it is shown that the identified dominant features yield higher classification accuracy, with lower number of false alarms and missed detections, compared to the full statistical based feature set. This work has been proposed and analyzed specific GBM types which Level I and Level II and the dominant features were considered as feature aid to prognostic indicators. These features were selected automatically to be better able to determine prognosis from classical imaging studies.

  10. Rigorous assessment and integration of the sequence and structure based features to predict hot spots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systematic mutagenesis studies have shown that only a few interface residues termed hot spots contribute significantly to the binding free energy of protein-protein interactions. Therefore, hot spots prediction becomes increasingly important for well understanding the essence of proteins interactions and helping narrow down the search space for drug design. Currently many computational methods have been developed by proposing different features. However comparative assessment of these features and furthermore effective and accurate methods are still in pressing need. Results In this study, we first comprehensively collect the features to discriminate hot spots and non-hot spots and analyze their distributions. We find that hot spots have lower relASA and larger relative change in ASA, suggesting hot spots tend to be protected from bulk solvent. In addition, hot spots have more contacts including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and atomic contacts, which favor complexes formation. Interestingly, we find that conservation score and sequence entropy are not significantly different between hot spots and non-hot spots in Ab+ dataset (all complexes). While in Ab- dataset (antigen-antibody complexes are excluded), there are significant differences in two features between hot pots and non-hot spots. Secondly, we explore the predictive ability for each feature and the combinations of features by support vector machines (SVMs). The results indicate that sequence-based feature outperforms other combinations of features with reasonable accuracy, with a precision of 0.69, a recall of 0.68, an F1 score of 0.68, and an AUC of 0.68 on independent test set. Compared with other machine learning methods and two energy-based approaches, our approach achieves the best performance. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to predict hot spots of two protein complexes. Conclusion Experimental results show that support vector machine classifiers are quite

  11. Features in Continuous Parallel Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dirk J; Theisel, Holger

    2011-12-01

    Continuous Parallel Coordinates (CPC) are a contemporary visualization technique in order to combine several scalar fields, given over a common domain. They facilitate a continuous view for parallel coordinates by considering a smooth scalar field instead of a finite number of straight lines. We show that there are feature curves in CPC which appear to be the dominant structures of a CPC. We present methods to extract and classify them and demonstrate their usefulness to enhance the visualization of CPCs. In particular, we show that these feature curves are related to discontinuities in Continuous Scatterplots (CSP). We show this by exploiting a curve-curve duality between parallel and Cartesian coordinates, which is a generalization of the well-known point-line duality. Furthermore, we illustrate the theoretical considerations. Concluding, we discuss relations and aspects of the CPC's/CSP's features concerning the data analysis.

  12. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  13. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  14. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  15. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  16. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  17. Primordial features and Planck polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we search for possible features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. WWI offers the inflaton potential parametrizations that generate a wide variety of features in the primordial power spectra incorporating most of the localized and non-local inflationary features that are obtained upon reconstruction from temperature and polarization angular power spectrum. At the same time, in a single framework it allows us to have a background parameter estimation with a nearly free-form primordial spectrum. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides more than 13 improvement in χ2 fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow roll inflaton potential. We find that the differences between the temperature and polarization data in constraining background cosmological parameters such as baryon density, cold dark matter density are reduced to a good extent if we use primordial power spectra from WWI. We also discuss the extent of bispectra obtained from the best potentials in arbitrary triangular configurations using the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO).

  18. Features of the compact photon storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironari; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Koichi; Mima, Kunioki

    1993-07-01

    The compact photon storage ring (PhSR) is a hybrid machine that features both linac driven FEL and storage ring driven FEL. The lasing condition is determined by the exactly circular electron storage ring, but a continuous electron injection is possible without disturbing the lasing. An effect of coherent synchrotron radiation takes an important role in the lasing. It is found that the compact PhSR is promising in lasing up to a wavelength of less than 10 μm with 10 A accumulated current.

  19. 21 CFR 807.41 - Identification of importers and persons who import or offer for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... who imports or offers for import the establishment's devices into the United States. The term “person... parties used by the foreign establishment to facilitate the import of its device into the United States... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification of importers and persons who...

  20. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.