Science.gov

Sample records for additional inclusion criteria

  1. Inclusion relations among separability criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Plastino, A. R.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the application of different separability criteria by recourse to an exhaustive Monte Carlo exploration involving the pertinent state space of pure and mixed states. The corresponding chain of implications of different criteria is in such a way numerically elucidated. We also quantify, for a bipartite system of arbitrary dimension, the proportion of states rgr that can be distilled according to a definite criterion. Our work can be regarded as a complement to the recent review paper by Terhal B (2002 Theor. Comput. Sci. 287 313). Some questions posed there receive an answer here.

  2. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Hilton-Jones, D; Brady, S

    2016-07-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) was first identified as a specific disorder about 40 years ago and is now recognized to be the most frequently presenting primary myopathy in middle age and beyond. Initial characterization was based on the observation of specific pathological features distinguishing it from polymyositis. It was soon appreciated that there were also distinguishing clinical features. The earliest diagnostic criteria were heavily biased towards pathological features, but over time revised criteria have given increasing importance to certain clinical features. Until the specific cause of IBM is determined, and the basic pathogenetic mechanisms are better understood, there can be no diagnostic gold-standard against which to compare the sensitivity and specificity of any proposed diagnostic criteria, but such criteria are essential to ensure that patients entering clinical, epidemiological, genetic, pathological or therapeutic studies represent a homogeneous population. It is likely that any currently accepted diagnostic criteria will, once a gold-standard is eventually established, be shown to have 'missed' patients with atypical features, but that has to be accepted to make certain that current studies are not contaminated by patients who do not have IBM. In other words, in everyday clinical practice there will be the occasional patient who an experienced myologist strongly suspects has IBM, but does not meet current criteria - the criteria lack sensitivity. But if the criteria are so broad as to include all such atypical cases, they would be likely to include patients who do not in fact have IBM - they would lack specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of existing criteria have been reviewed recently, in so far as it is possible to do so, and found to have high specificity but variable sensitivity. PMID:27027255

  3. Input on NIH Toolbox inclusion criteria

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Debb, Scott M.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox is intended to be responsive to the needs of investigators evaluating neurologic and behavioral function in diverse settings. Early phases of the project involved gathering information and input from potential end users. Methods: Information was collected through literature and instrument database reviews, requests for information, consensus meetings, and expert interviews and integrated into the NIH Toolbox development process in an iterative manner. Results: Criteria for instrument inclusion, subdomains to be assessed, and preferences regarding instrument cost and length were obtained. Existing measures suitable for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox and areas requiring new measure development were identified. Conclusion: The NIH Toolbox was developed with explicit input from potential end users regarding many of its key features. PMID:23479548

  4. The Inclusion of In-Plane Stresses in Delamination Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizzini, Anthony J.; Fenske, Matthew T.

    1998-01-01

    A study of delamination is performed including strength of materials and fracture mechanics approaches with emphasis placed on methods of delamination prediction. Evidence is presented which supports the inclusion of the in-plane stresses in addition to the inter-laminar stress terms in delamination criteria. The delamination can be modeled as a resin rich region in between ply sets. The entire six component stress state in this resin layer is calculated through a finite element analysis and inputted into a new Modified Von Mises Delamination Criterion. This criterion builds onto previous criteria by including all six stress components. The MVMDC shows improved correlation to experimental data.

  5. The Inclusion of In-Plane Stresses in Delamination Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenske, Matthew T.

    1999-01-01

    A study of delamination failure was conducted with emphasis on delamination criteria. Evidence is presented which supports the inclusion of the in-plane stresses in addition to the interlaminar stress terms in delamination criteria. The delamination is characterized as the failure of a resin rich region in between ply sets. The entire six component stress state in this resin layer is calculated through a finite element analysis, averaged over a dimension of 1.75 ply thicknesses, and used in a Modified von Mises Delamination Criterion. This criterion builds onto previous criteria by including all six stress components in the interply resin layer. The MVMDC shows good correlation to experimental data. The results show that the treatment of delamination as the failure of a finite interply resin layer is a valid method and that the MVMDC, considering the full stress state, accurately indicates delamination for different laminate families.

  6. Addition of Titanium Oxide Inclusions into Liquid Steel to Control Nonmetallic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri

    2012-04-01

    Titanium oxide inclusions in steel are well known to inhibit grain growth and act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite because of absorbing manganese from the surrounding steel resulting in a manganese depleted zone around the inclusion. In this article, the inclusions resulting from TiO2 additions to low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr steel were studied. Different types of TiO2 containing materials were added to liquid steel before or during casting to get small titanium-oxide-rich inclusions in steel. The main goals were to find out what happens to TiO2 in liquid steel after addition and during cooling and to study further what type of inclusions are formed in the steel as a result of the TiO2 addition. Based on the thermodynamic calculations and the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and SEM-electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, TiO2 is first reduced to Ti3O5 in liquid steel at high temperatures and then to Ti2O3 during cooling at around 1573 K (1300 °C). Both reactions liberate oxygen, which reacts with Ti, Mn, and Al forming complex Ti2O3-rich inclusions. The results also show that TiO2 additions result in more TiOx + MnO inclusions compared with experiments with Ti addition and that the absolute amount of manganese present in the inclusions is much higher in experiments with TiO2 addition than in experiments with Ti additions.

  7. 20 CFR 722.3 - General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's list. 722.3 Section 722.3 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... OF APPROVED STATE LAWS § 722.3 General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's...

  8. 20 CFR 722.3 - General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's list. 722.3 Section 722.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... APPROVED STATE LAWS § 722.3 General criteria; inclusion in and removal from the Secretary's list. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  10. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  11. 9 CFR 201.216 - Additional capital investments criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional capital investments... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.216 Additional capital investments criteria... or swine production contract grower make additional capital investments over the life of a...

  12. Criteria for deviation from predictions by the concentration addition model.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Jun-Ichi; Seki, Masanori; Kamo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Loewe's additivity (concentration addition) is a well-known model for predicting the toxic effects of chemical mixtures under the additivity assumption of toxicity. However, from the perspective of chemical risk assessment and/or management, it is important to identify chemicals whose toxicities are additive when present concurrently, that is, it should be established whether there are chemical mixtures to which the concentration addition predictive model can be applied. The objective of the present study was to develop criteria for judging test results that deviated from the predictions by the concentration addition chemical mixture model. These criteria were based on the confidence interval of the concentration addition model's prediction and on estimation of errors of the predicted concentration-effect curves by toxicity tests after exposure to single chemicals. A log-logit model with 2 parameters was assumed for the concentration-effect curve of each individual chemical. These parameters were determined by the maximum-likelihood method, and the criteria were defined using the variances and the covariance of the parameters. In addition, the criteria were applied to a toxicity test of a binary mixture of p-n-nonylphenol and p-n-octylphenol using the Japanese killifish, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Consequently, the concentration addition model using confidence interval was capable of predicting the test results at any level, and no reason for rejecting the concentration addition was found. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1806-1814. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26660330

  13. Which criteria demand additive stenting during catheter-directed thrombolysis?

    PubMed

    Bækgaard, N; Just, S; Foegh, P

    2014-05-19

    Many factors are necessary for obtaining satisfactory results after catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Selections of patients, composition of the thrombolytic fluid, anticoagulation per- and post-procedural, recognition and treatment of persistent obstructive lesions of the iliac veins are the most important contributors. Stenting has been known for 15 to 20 years. The first publication on CDT in 1991 was combined with ballooning the iliac vein, an additive procedure which has been abandoned as an isolated procedure. This chapter will discuss selection, indication, such as an iliac compression syndrome, and outcome of iliac stenting in combination with CDT. The reported frequency of stenting used after CDT is very inconsistent, therefore this will be discussed in details. It is concluded that selection for stenting is of the greatest importance, when CDT is used for iliofemoral DVT, but strict criteria for stenting are not available in the existing literature. The potential value of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is also discussed. PMID:24843096

  14. Abortion decisions as inclusion and exclusion criteria in research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion included in such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible. PMID:21685147

  15. MetaQC: objective quality control and inclusion/exclusion criteria for genomic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Sibille, Etienne; Kaminski, Naftali; Tseng, George C.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic meta-analysis to combine relevant and homogeneous studies has been widely applied, but the quality control (QC) and objective inclusion/exclusion criteria have been largely overlooked. Currently, the inclusion/exclusion criteria mostly depend on ad-hoc expert opinion or naïve threshold by sample size or platform. There are pressing needs to develop a systematic QC methodology as the decision of study inclusion greatly impacts the final meta-analysis outcome. In this article, we propose six quantitative quality control measures, covering internal homogeneity of coexpression structure among studies, external consistency of coexpression pattern with pathway database, and accuracy and consistency of differentially expressed gene detection or enriched pathway identification. Each quality control index is defined as the minus log transformed P values from formal hypothesis testing. Principal component analysis biplots and a standardized mean rank are applied to assist visualization and decision. We applied the proposed method to 4 large-scale examples, combining 7 brain cancer, 9 prostate cancer, 8 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 17 major depressive disorder studies, respectively. The identified problematic studies were further scrutinized for potential technical or biological causes of their lower quality to determine their exclusion from meta-analysis. The application and simulation results concluded a systematic quality assessment framework for genomic meta-analysis. PMID:22116060

  16. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... institution's current strength as measured by the number of international studies courses offered; (ii) The... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to... criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications? In addition to the criteria referred to...

  17. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... institution's current strength as measured by the number of international studies courses offered; (ii) The... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to... criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications? In addition to the criteria referred to...

  18. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... institution's current strength as measured by the number of international studies courses offered; (ii) The... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to... criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications? In addition to the criteria referred to...

  19. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... institution's current strength as measured by the number of international studies courses offered; (ii) The... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to... criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications? In addition to the criteria referred to...

  20. Corundum inclusions in diamonds—discriminatory criteria and a corundum compositional dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Mark T.; Nixon, Peter H.; Harley, Simon L.

    2004-09-01

    Mineral inclusions of corundum are reported from diamonds from alluvial deposits of tributaries of the Rio Aripuanã, Juina, Brazil. We present the first recorded occurrence of sapphire as an inclusion in diamond and expand on the database of ruby and white corundum inclusions. Ruby inclusions are found to occur both as isolated and touching grains with aluminous pyroxene and associated with ferropericlase. Mineral chemistry and phase relations place the origin of such ruby-bearing diamonds within the lower mantle at ˜770 km. Mineral associations indaving other corundum inclusions were not observed; hence, their depth of origin is less certain. Compositions of corundum samples were characterised by electron and ion microprobe. Given the scarcity of literature data, corundum samples from a variety of other geological settings were also analysed. Samples comprised corundums associated with granitic emplacement, metasomatism, amphibolite-facies and granulite-facies rocks, gem and industrial synthetic origins and carmine-coloured corundums recovered from kimberlite drill cores. In addition to variable amounts of Cr, Fe, Ti, Mg and Si, measurable quantities of other transition elements and high field strength elements were also detected. Corundums from similar geological settings show very similar compositions and are easily distinguishable from other settings. Irrespective of locality, rubies from Norwegian, Tanzanian and Kenyan amphibolite-facies rocks are compositionally indistinguishable. Additionally, corundums from metasomatised zones associated with contact metamorphism from Arizona and Japan were very similar, particularly characterised by unusually high abundance of mobile Zr and Nb (tens of ppm). All Juina inclusions are particularly distinguishable from other corundums by high concentrations of Ni (18-171 ppm weight), typically at least an order of magnitude enriched over the same corundum varietal types from elsewhere. Furthermore, the sapphire inclusion

  1. 34 CFR 386.20 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selection criteria are used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the... provide for an integration of theory and practice relevant to the educational objectives of the...

  2. Definition and Yield of Inclusion Criteria for a Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Studies in Clinical Preventive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Ellen R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A framework and concepts for developing inclusion criteria for meta-analysis are presented and illustrated in a meta-analysis of primary studies in patient education for preventive health services. Of 5,451 citations located and abstracts screened, 64 studies eventually met acceptability criteria. (SLD)

  3. Addition of Dispersoid Titanium Oxide Inclusions in Steel and Their Influence on Grain Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Iung, Thierry

    2010-12-01

    In this article, the addition of dispersoid titanium oxide inclusions into liquid steel, the effect of additions on the inclusions found in the steel and on grain refinement, and acicular ferrite formation were studied. Different TiO2-containing materials and addition procedures into liquid steel were tested in experimental heats to obtain inclusions that promote grain refinement and acicular ferrite formation in C-Mn-Cr steel. Different additives with metallic Ti and TiO2 were added into the steel melt just before casting or into the mold during casting to create Ti-containing inclusions. The aluminum content in steel was lowered by an addition of iron oxide. The samples taken from steel melts and ingots were studied with a scanning electron microscope to find inclusions and to analyze them. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the Al content should be low (<50 ppm) to obtain Ti oxide dominating inclusions, whereas Al2O3 were formed at higher Al contents. When TiO2 was added late before casting, the oxide inclusions were Ti oxides and were mixed with Ti, Al, and Mn oxides. Small inclusions around 1 μm were detected in the samples with TiO x or TiN as the main component. It could be concluded that the additions resulted in a clearly higher number and in a smaller size of TiO x inclusions than just by adding metallic Ti. Selected samples were brought for subsequent hot rolling and heat-treatment experiments to find out the grain-refining effect and the eventual formation of acicular ferrite. Grain refinement was observed clearly, but the presence of acicular ferrite could not be confirmed definitely.

  4. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of...

  5. EBSD analysis of magnesium addition on inclusion formation in SS400 structural steel

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Sin-Jie; Su, Yen-Hao Frank; Lu, Muh-Jung; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the effect of magnesium addition on the inclusion formation in SS400 steel was investigated. The experimental specimens with and without Mg addition treatment were compared. The microstructure was observed using optical microscopy after etching with 3% nital. The morphology and chemical composition of the inclusions were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. The lattice structure and orientation of the inclusions were identified by electron backscattering diffraction. The average size of inclusions in SS400 was between 0.67 and 0.75 μm, and between 0.65 and 0.68 μm in SS400 + Mg. The 2 ppm Mg addition resulted in the oxide formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and in the inclusion formation change from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS to MgO·Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MnS. Moreover, a simple-phase MnS with an average grain size of 1 μm to 2 μm was observed in rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms. - Highlights: • The effect of magnesium addition was investigated for SS400 steel. • 2 ppm Mg addition changes the inclusion formation from Al2O3-MnS to MgO·Al2O3-MnS. • MnS observed in inclusions exhibits rod-like, globular, and polyhedron forms.

  6. 34 CFR 386.20 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... selection criteria are used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the... State-Federal rehabilitation service program. (1) The Secretary reviews each application for information... rehabilitation service program. (2) The Secretary looks for information that shows that the project can...

  7. 34 CFR 386.20 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selection criteria are used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the... State-Federal rehabilitation service program. (1) The Secretary reviews each application for information... rehabilitation service program. (2) The Secretary looks for information that shows that the project can...

  8. 34 CFR 386.20 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... selection criteria are used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the... State-Federal rehabilitation service program. (1) The Secretary reviews each application for information... rehabilitation service program. (2) The Secretary looks for information that shows that the project can...

  9. 34 CFR 386.20 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... selection criteria are used under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the... State-Federal rehabilitation service program. (1) The Secretary reviews each application for information... rehabilitation service program. (2) The Secretary looks for information that shows that the project can...

  10. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated document is on... addition to satisfying the criteria in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test or a test publisher must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test that is...

  11. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... program; (iii) There is evidence of educationally focused practicum or other field experiences in...

  12. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... program; (iii) There is evidence of educationally focused practicum or other field experiences in...

  13. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... program; (iii) There is evidence of educationally focused practicum or other field experiences in...

  14. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... program; (iii) There is evidence of educationally focused practicum or other field experiences in...

  15. 34 CFR 387.30 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under this program? In addition to the criteria in 34 CFR 385.31(c), the Secretary uses the following... program; (iii) There is evidence of educationally focused practicum or other field experiences in...

  16. 34 CFR 396.31 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... criteria in 34 CFR 396.30(c), the Secretary uses the following additional selection criterion to evaluate... interpreter training project and service providers; and (4) There are opportunities for individuals who are.... 771a(f))...

  17. 34 CFR 396.31 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criteria in 34 CFR 396.30(c), the Secretary uses the following additional selection criterion to evaluate... interpreter training project and service providers; and (4) There are opportunities for individuals who are.... 771a(f))...

  18. 34 CFR 396.31 - What additional selection criteria are used under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criteria in 34 CFR 396.30(c), the Secretary uses the following additional selection criterion to evaluate... interpreter training project and service providers; and (4) There are opportunities for individuals who are.... 771a(f))...

  19. Sensitivity of tissue properties derived from MRgFUS temperature data to input errors and data inclusion criteria: ex vivo study in porcine muscle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y C; Parker, D L; Dillon, C R

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of two magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal property estimation methods to errors in required inputs and different data inclusion criteria. Using ex vivo pork muscle MRgFUS data, sensitivities to required inputs are determined by introducing errors to ultrasound beam locations (r error  =  -2 to 2 mm) and time vectors (t error  =  -2.2 to 2.2 s). In addition, the sensitivity to user-defined data inclusion criteria is evaluated by choosing different spatial (r fit  =  1-10 mm) and temporal (t fit  =  8.8-61.6 s) regions for fitting. Beam location errors resulted in up to 50% change in property estimates with local minima occurring at r error  =  0 and estimate errors less than 10% when r error  <  0.5 mm. Errors in the time vector led to property estimate errors up to 40% and without local minimum, indicating the need to trigger ultrasound sonications with the MR image acquisition. Regarding the selection of data inclusion criteria, property estimates reached stable values (less than 5% change) when r fit  >  2.5  ×  FWHM, and were most accurate with the least variability for longer t fit. Guidelines provided by this study highlight the importance of identifying required inputs and choosing appropriate data inclusion criteria for robust and accurate thermal property estimation. Applying these guidelines will prevent the introduction of biases and avoidable errors when utilizing these property estimation techniques for MRgFUS thermal modeling applications. PMID:27385508

  20. Sensitivity of tissue properties derived from MRgFUS temperature data to input errors and data inclusion criteria: ex vivo study in porcine muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. C.; Parker, D. L.; Dillon, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of two magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal property estimation methods to errors in required inputs and different data inclusion criteria. Using ex vivo pork muscle MRgFUS data, sensitivities to required inputs are determined by introducing errors to ultrasound beam locations (r error  =  ‑2 to 2 mm) and time vectors (t error  =  ‑2.2 to 2.2 s). In addition, the sensitivity to user-defined data inclusion criteria is evaluated by choosing different spatial (r fit  =  1–10 mm) and temporal (t fit  =  8.8–61.6 s) regions for fitting. Beam location errors resulted in up to 50% change in property estimates with local minima occurring at r error  =  0 and estimate errors less than 10% when r error  <  0.5 mm. Errors in the time vector led to property estimate errors up to 40% and without local minimum, indicating the need to trigger ultrasound sonications with the MR image acquisition. Regarding the selection of data inclusion criteria, property estimates reached stable values (less than 5% change) when r fit  >  2.5  ×  FWHM, and were most accurate with the least variability for longer t fit. Guidelines provided by this study highlight the importance of identifying required inputs and choosing appropriate data inclusion criteria for robust and accurate thermal property estimation. Applying these guidelines will prevent the introduction of biases and avoidable errors when utilizing these property estimation techniques for MRgFUS thermal modeling applications.

  1. Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme journal issue focuses on current activities of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services which stress inclusion of students with disabilities in the mainstream. It begins with a message from the Assistant Secretary, Robert R. Davila which examines the full meaning of an "inclusive" education. Next, Barbara Buswell and…

  2. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository Operations Area § 60.132 Additional design criteria for surface facilities...

  3. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications? 658.32 Section 658.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE...

  4. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  5. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  6. Reporting standards for literature searches and report inclusion criteria: making research syntheses more transparent and easy to replicate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Kayla M; Koenka, Alison C; Sanchez, Carmen E; Moshontz, Hannah; Cooper, Harris

    2015-03-01

    A complete description of the literature search, including the criteria used for the inclusion of reports after they have been located, used in a research synthesis or meta-analysis is critical if subsequent researchers are to accurately evaluate and reproduce a synthesis' methods and results. Based on previous guidelines and new suggestions, we present a set of focused and detailed standards for reporting the methods used in a literature search. The guidelines cover five search strategies: reference database searches, journal and bibliography searches, searches of the reference lists of reports, citation searches, and direct contact searches. First, we bring together all the unique recommendations made in existing guidelines for research synthesis. Second, we identify gaps in reporting standards for search strategies. Third, we address these gaps by providing new reporting recommendations. Our hope is to facilitate successful evaluation and replication of research synthesis results. PMID:26035472

  7. 34 CFR 660.33 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application to develop...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use for an application to develop specialized instructional materials? 660.33 Section 660.33 Education...? § 660.33 What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application to develop... evaluates an application to develop specialized instructional materials on the basis of the criteria in...

  8. Do Admission Criteria for Teacher Education Institutions Matter? A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Student Teachers from Serbia and Slovenia about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between admissions criteria, the preparation provided by teacher education programmes and student teachers' (STs) beliefs about inclusive education (IE) are rarely made explicit. The paucity of data regarding this relationship leads us to question whether teacher candidates' prior beliefs matter relative to admissions…

  9. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  10. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  11. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  12. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  13. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  14. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.56 Section 600.56... (FFEL) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is... veterinary school to be eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program if, in addition...

  15. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.56 Section 600.56... (FFEL) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is... veterinary school to be eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program if, in addition...

  16. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.56 Section 600.56... (FFEL) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is... veterinary school to be eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program if, in addition...

  17. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.56 Section 600.56... (FFEL) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is... veterinary school to be eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program if, in addition...

  18. Toward a reconsideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria in cleft lip and palate: implications for psychological research.

    PubMed

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Rumsey, Nichola

    2014-09-01

    Background : This article investigates the prevalence of conditions that affect cognitive and/or psychosocial functioning in 10-year-old children born with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) and explores how the presence of such additional difficulties may affect the reporting of outcomes in psychological research. Design : Cross-sectional data derived from routine psychological assessments. Setting : Centralized treatment, Norway. Participants : Data on cleft type and additional conditions were collected for 754 children with CL/P from 11 consecutive birth cohorts. Data on psychological adjustment were collected for three consecutive birth cohorts (n = 169). Main Outcome Measures : The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), completed by children and parents. Results : A total of 240 children (32%) in the sample had an additional condition, such as developmental delay, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or a specific language impairment or dyslexia. Analysis of SDQ scores using conventional exclusion criteria (approach 1) was compared with a second method (approach 2), which included all children and categorized them according to the presence or absence of additional conditions. Significant variation in profiles of psychosocial adjustment was found depending on the approach to exclusion. Conclusions : The presence of additional conditions in a sample may affect results and subsequently the conclusions drawn in relation to the psychosocial adjustment of children born with CL/P. The present study emphasizes the importance of careful assessments and reporting of all associated conditions, in order to improve the understanding of the impact of a cleft and the consequences of associated conditions in this population. PMID:23782417

  19. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  20. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  1. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  2. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register pursuant to the Director's authority under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The incorporated... in § 668.146, to be approved by the Secretary, a test must meet the following criteria, if applicable: (1) In the case of a test developed for a non-native speaker of English who is enrolled in a...

  3. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  4. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the FFEL programs. 600.56 Section 600.56 Education...) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the FFEL programs. (a) The Secretary considers a foreign veterinary school to...

  5. 34 CFR 660.33 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application to develop...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application to develop specialized instructional materials? 660.33 Section 660.33...

  6. 34 CFR 600.57 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nursing school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.57 Section 600.57... (FFEL) Programs § 600.57 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is... nursing school that was participating in any title IV, HEA program on August 13, 2008, and effective...

  7. 34 CFR 600.57 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nursing school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.57 Section 600.57... (FFEL) Programs § 600.57 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is... nursing school that was participating in any title IV, HEA program on August 13, 2008, and effective...

  8. 34 CFR 600.57 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nursing school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.57 Section 600.57... (FFEL) Programs § 600.57 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is... nursing school that was participating in any title IV, HEA program on August 13, 2008, and effective...

  9. 34 CFR 600.57 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is eligible to apply to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nursing school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.57 Section 600.57... (FFEL) Programs § 600.57 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign nursing school is... nursing school that was participating in any title IV, HEA program on August 13, 2008, and effective...

  10. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign... Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INSTITUTIONAL ELIGIBILITY UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965,...

  11. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign....55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INSTITUTIONAL ELIGIBILITY UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT...

  12. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign....55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INSTITUTIONAL ELIGIBILITY UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT...

  13. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to apply to participate in the Direct Loan Program. 600.55 Section 600.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  15. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  16. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  17. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  18. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  19. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  20. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  1. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  2. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  3. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  4. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  5. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  6. 34 CFR 611.22 - What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.22 Section 611.22 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.22 What additional selection criteria are used for a pre-application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? In...

  7. 34 CFR 611.24 - What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application that proposes teacher recruitment activities? 611.24 Section 611.24 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Partnership Grants Program § 611.24 What additional selection criteria are used for a full application that proposes teacher recruitment activities?...

  8. 34 CFR 611.12 - What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application proposing teacher recruitment activities? 611.12 Section 611.12 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM State Grants Program § 611.12 What additional selection criteria are used for an application proposing teacher recruitment activities? In reviewing...

  9. The critical role of the research question, inclusion criteria, and transparency in meta-analyses of integrity test research: a reply to Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012).

    PubMed

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Roth, Philip L; Raymark, Patrick H; Odle-Dusseau, Heather N

    2012-05-01

    We clear up a number of misconceptions from the critiques of our meta-analysis (Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, & Odle-Dusseau, 2012). We reiterate that our research question focused on the criterion-related validity of integrity tests for predicting individual work behavior and that our inclusion criteria flowed from this question. We also reviewed the primary studies we could access from Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt's (1993) meta-analysis of integrity tests and found that only about 30% of the studies met our inclusion criteria. Further, analyses of some of the types of studies we had to exclude revealed potentially inflated validity estimates (e.g., corrected validities as high as .80 for polygraph studies). We also discuss our experience trying to obtain primary studies and other information from authors of Harris et al. (2012) and Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (2012). In addition, we address concerns raised about certain decisions we made and values we used, and we demonstrate how such concerns would have little or no effect on our results or conclusions. Finally, we discuss some other misconceptions about our meta-analysis, as well as some divergent views about the integrity test literature in general. Overall, we stand by our research question, methods, and results, which suggest that the validity of integrity tests for criteria such as job performance and counterproductive work behavior is weaker than the authors of the critiques appear to believe. PMID:22582729

  10. Additive for inclusion in a heavy oil reservoir undergoing steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hyne, J. B.; Clark, P. D.

    1985-03-26

    The viscosity of heavy oil may be incrementally reduced over what can be achieved by steam alone, by introducing an aqueous metal salt solution into a reservoir undergoing steam injection. The metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Al. In a preferred feature CO is also introduced as a second additive, with a further oil viscosity reduction being observed with certain of the metal ions.

  11. Improved Growth Factor Directed Vascularization into Fibrin Constructs Through Inclusion of Additional Extracellular Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JD; Melhem, ME; Magge, KT; Waggoner, AS; Campbell, PG

    2009-01-01

    Using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and a novel histological technique we investigated the ability of blood vessels to directly invade fibrin-based scaffolds. In our initial experiments utilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) we found no direct invasion. Instead, the fibrin was completely degraded and replaced with highly vascularized new tissue. Addition of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to the fibrin construct also did not result in construct vascularization. Because natural and regenerating tissues exhibit complex extracellular matrices (ECMs), we hypothesized that a more complex scaffold may improve blood vessel invasion. Addition of fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and collagen type I within 20 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in no significant improvement. However, the same additive concentrations within 10 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in dramatic improvements, specifically with hyaluronic acid. Overall, we believe these results indicate the importance of structural and functional cues of not only in the initial scaffold but also as the construct is degraded and remodeled. Furthermore, the CAM assay may represent a useful model for understanding ECM interactions as well as for screening and designing tissue engineered scaffolds. PMID:17223139

  12. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  13. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  14. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  15. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  16. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  17. Addition of MgO Nanoparticles to Carbon Structural Steel and the Effect on Inclusion Characteristics and Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiangzhou; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liao, Hang; Gao, Wei; Wu, Tuo

    2016-04-01

    An innovative approach for pre-dispersing MgO nanoparticles with AlSi alloy nanoparticles was established, and the nanoparticles were dispersed well in carbon structural steel. After adding different mass fractions of MgO nanoparticles in steel, the majority of inclusions contained MgO·Al2O3 spinel and MgO-Al2O3-bearing hybrid inclusion, and these inclusions promoted acicular ferrite (AF) formation. With increasing amount of added nanoparticles, the average inclusion size increased from 0.90 to 1.50 μm and the inclusion size was considerably refined, but the ability of inclusions to induce AF was greatly declined. It was revealed that the inclusion size was the decisive factor influencing the inducing ability of inclusions for AF, which also got a solid support from the nucleation thermomechanical and dynamic analyses. When the mass fraction of MgO nanoparticles reached 0.05 pct, the proportion of AF in microstructure is relatively larger and the degree of interlocking of the AF within the microstructure was optimized. The ferrite grains also got refined and the average grain size decreased by more than 94 pct compared with that of the original steel.

  18. The inclusion of child pornography in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for pedophilia: conceptual and practical problems.

    PubMed

    First, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The proposal to add use of child pornography to Criterion B of pedophilia is in direct conflict with the newly proposed distinction between paraphilia and paraphilic disorder, muddying rather than clarifying the diagnostic definition of pedophilia. The proposal to distinguish paraphilic disorder from paraphilia derives from the fact that the diagnostic criteria for the paraphilias have two components: Criterion A, defining the presence of a paraphilic erotic interest, and Criterion B, requiring clinically significant distress, impairment, or acting out the paraphilia with a nonconsenting person. Meeting Criteria A and B is necessary for a diagnosis of paraphilic disorder; meeting only Criterion A indicates a paraphilia. Use of pornography is better placed within Criterion A, perhaps as an example of a behavioral manifestation of pedophilia. If the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group's true intent was to add a third prong to Criterion B, then the criterion must be modified to restrict it to the use of illegal forms of pornography (i.e., visual depictions of real children), excluding written or aural forms or virtual images. PMID:21653274

  19. Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): the inclusion of equity criteria not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This Guidance for Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health), initiated by the World Health Organization, offers a comprehensive map of equity criteria that are relevant to health care priority setting and should be considered in addition to cost-effectiveness analysis. The guidance, in the form of a checklist, is especially targeted at decision makers who set priorities at national and sub-national levels, and those who interpret findings from cost-effectiveness analysis. It is also targeted at researchers conducting cost-effectiveness analysis to improve reporting of their results in the light of these other criteria. The guidance was develop through a series of expert consultation meetings and involved three steps: i) methods and normative concepts were identified through a systematic review; ii) the review findings were critically assessed in the expert consultation meetings which resulted in a draft checklist of normative criteria; iii) the checklist was validated though an extensive hearing process with input from a range of relevant stakeholders. The GPS-Health incorporates criteria related to the disease an intervention targets (severity of disease, capacity to benefit, and past health loss); characteristics of social groups an intervention targets (socioeconomic status, area of living, gender; race, ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation); and non-health consequences of an intervention (financial protection, economic productivity, and care for others). PMID:25246855

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Developing the Understanding and Practice of Inclusion in Higher Education for International Students with Disabilities/Additional Needs: A Whole Schooling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Briony; Abgenyega, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present research on inclusion in higher education using a whole schooling philosophy. We seek insight into the perspectives of international students with disabilities/additional needs, three of whom from this particular research group are from non-English speaking backgrounds and attending the same university in Melbourne,…

  2. Higher borides and oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inclusions as possible pinning centers in nanostructural magnesium diboride and the influence of additives on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Gawalek, Wolfgang; Savchuk, Yaroslav; Tkach, Vasiliy; Danilenko, Nikolay; Wendt, Michael; Dellith, Jan; Weber, Harold; Eisterer, Michael; Moshchil, Viktor; Sergienko, Nina; Kozyrev, Artem; Nagorny, Peter; Shapovalov, Andrey; Melnikov, Vladimir; Dub, Sergey; Litzkendorf, Doris; Habisreuther, Tobias; Schmidt, Christa; Mamalis, Athanasios; Sokolovsky, Vladimir; Sverdun, Vladimir; Karau, Fridrich; Starostina, Alexandra

    2010-10-01

    The study of high pressure (2 GPa) synthesized MgB 2-based materials allows us to conclude that higher borides (with near MgB 12 stoichiometry) and oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inclusions can be pinning centers in nanostructural magnesium diboride matrix (with average grain sizes of 15-37 nm). It has been established that additions of Ti or SiC as well as manufacturing temperature can affect the size, amount and distribution of these inclusions in the material structure and thus, influence critical current density. The superconducting behavior of materials with near MgB 12 stoichiometry of matrix is discussed.

  3. Detailed clinicopathological characterization of progressive alopecia areata patients treated with i.v. corticosteroid pulse therapy toward optimization of inclusion criteria.

    PubMed

    Sato, Misato; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-11-01

    The management of progressive alopecia areata (AA) is often challenging. Recently, i.v. corticosteroid pulse therapy has been reported to be effective for acute and severe AA, however, inclusion criteria have not been sufficiently precise, leaving a chance that its efficacy could be further improved by optimizing therapeutic indications. In our attempts to delineate the factors that correlate with favorable outcomes, we minutely evaluated the clinicopathological findings and the prognoses of single-round steroid pulse-treated progressive AA cases with full sets of image and pathology records during the course. Almost complete hair regrowth has been achieved and maintained up to 2 years in five out of seven AA patients with varying degrees of clinical severity. Interestingly, the worst clinical presentation observed during the course correlated with the size of the area where hairs with dystrophic roots were pulled rather than the extent of visible hair loss on the first visit. Dermoscopy detected disease spread but contributed little in assessing prognoses. Dense perifollicular cell infiltration was detected in all cases treated within 4 weeks of onset and those treated later but with excellent response. Importantly, the cases with poor or incomplete hair regrowth were treated 6-8 weeks of onset and showed moderate inflammatory change with high telogen conversion rate. These findings mandate global dermoscopy and hair pull test for judging the treatment indication and suggest that early administration of high-dose corticosteroid, ideally within 4 weeks of onset, enable efficient suppression of active inflammation and maximize the effectiveness of the remedy. PMID:25292350

  4. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  5. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  6. 34 CFR 660.32 - What additional selection criteria does the Secretary use for an application for a research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... project are likely to be used by other research projects or programs with similar objectives. (c... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... evaluates an application for a research project, study, or survey on the basis of the criteria in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  12. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher's exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  13. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher’s exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  14. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  15. Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hedström, Peter; Jönsson, Pär Göran; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiO x phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

  16. Additional criteria and procedures for classifying over-the-counter drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing additional criteria and procedures by which over-the- counter (OTC) conditions may become eligible for consideration in the OTC drug monograph system. The criteria and procedures address how OTC drugs initially marketed in the United States after the OTC drug review began in 1972, and OTC drugs without any U.S. marketing experience, can meet the statutory definition of marketing to a "material extent" and "for a material time" and become eligible. If found eligible, the condition would be evaluated for general recognition of safety and effectiveness in accordance with FDA's OTC drug monograph regulations. FDA is also changing the current OTC drug monograph procedures to streamline the process and provide additional information in the review. PMID:11820251

  17. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  18. Enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography with substituted β-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive and evaluation of inclusion complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    The enantioseparation of ten mandelic acid derivatives was performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) or sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additives, in which inclusion complex formations between cyclodextrins and enantiomers were evaluated. The effects of various factors such as the composition of mobile phase, concentration of cyclodextrins and column temperature on retention and enantioselectivity were studied. The peak resolutions and retention time of the enantiomers were strongly affected by the pH, the organic modifier and the type of β-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase, while the concentration of buffer solution and temperature had a relatively low effect on resolutions. Enantioseparations were successfully achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L-1 of HP-β-CD or SBE-β-CD. Semi-preparative enantioseparation of about 10 mg of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid and α-cyclopentylmandelic acid were established individually. Cyclodextrin-enantiomer complex stoichiometries as well as binding constants were investigated. Results showed that stoichiomertries for all the inclusion complex of cyclodextrin-enantiomers were 1:1. PMID:24893270

  19. The Inclusive Classroom: How Inclusive Is Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Claudette M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the position that inclusion is limited; inclusion does not go far enough. The inclusive classroom has been assessed to be of benefit both to the teacher and student. There are, however, limits set on inclusion. In most classrooms only children with learning disability are included omitting those with severe disabilities,…

  20. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, D. I.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  1. Gut Health of Pigs: Challenge Models and Response Criteria with a Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Selected Feed Additives - A Review.

    PubMed

    Adewole, D I; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-07-01

    The gut is the largest organ that helps with the immune function. Gut health, especially in young pigs has a significant benefit to health and performance. In an attempt to maintain and enhance intestinal health in pigs and improve productivity in the absence of in-feed antibiotics, researchers have evaluated a wide range of feed additives. Some of these additives such as zinc oxide, copper sulphate, egg yolk antibodies, mannan-oligosaccharides and spray dried porcine plasma and their effectiveness are discussed in this review. One approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these additives in vivo is to use an appropriate disease challenge model. Over the years, researchers have used a number of challenge models which include the use of specific strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, bacteria lipopolysaccharide challenge, oral challenge with Salmonella enteric serotype Typhimurium, sanitation challenge, and Lawsonia intercellularis challenge. These challenge models together with the criteria used to evaluate the responses of the animals to them are also discussed in this review. PMID:26954144

  2. Fluid inclusion petrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Hein, Ulrich F.

    2001-01-01

    A procedure of fluid inclusion studies is proposed with emphasis on the criteria of selecting fluid inclusions for detailed (microthermometry and spectroscopic) analysis. An overview of descriptive and genetic classifications of fluid inclusions in single crystals and in massive rocks is given with the intention of further differentiating the commonly used terms 'primary' and 'secondary' fluid inclusions. Some principles of fluid inclusion modification are explained. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz with the optical high-power CL-microscope and the electron microprobe provided with a CL detector are an important help in 'fluid petrography'. CL textures are subdivided in primary, growth textures and a wide variety of secondary microtextures, which are in part induced by fluid inclusions. The latter is grouped in textures indicative of local lower crystal order (increasing defect structures) and microtextures indicative of local quartz healing (reduction of the defect structures). Microtextures showing the genetic relationship between fluid inclusions and the host mineral provide information about the possible post-entrapment changes of fluid inclusions and therewith testify their geological relevance.

  3. Review of ASME code criteria for control of primary loads on nuclear piping system branch connections and recommendations for additional development work

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report collects and uses available data to reexamine the criteria for controlling primary loads in nuclear piping branch connections as expressed in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In particular, the primary load stress indices given in NB-3650 and NB-3683 are reexamined. The report concludes that the present usage of the stress indices in the criteria equations should be continued. However, the complex treatment of combined branch and run moments is not supported by available information. Therefore, it is recommended that this combined loading evaluation procedure be replaced for primary loads by the separate leg evaluation procedure specified in NC/ND-3653.3(c) and NC/ND-3653.3(d). No recommendation is made for fatigue or secondary load evaluations for Class 1 piping. Further work should be done on the development of better criteria for treatment of combined branch and run moment effects.

  4. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects. PMID:26453474

  5. Inclusive health.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, Malcolm; Khasnabis, Chapal; Mannan, Hasheem

    2012-01-01

    We propose the concept of Inclusive Health to encapsulate the Health for All ethos; to build on the rights-based approach to health; to promote the idea of inclusion as a verb, where a more proactive approach to addressing distinctive and different barriers to inclusion is needed; and to recognise that new initiatives in human resources for health can offer exciting and innovative ways of healthcare delivery. While Inclusive Education has become a widely recognised and accepted concept, Health for All is still contested, and new thinking is required to develop its agenda in line with contemporary developments. Inclusive Health refers both to who gets health care and to who provides it; and its ethos resonates strongly with Jefferson's assertion that 'there is nothing more unequal, than the equal treatment of unequal people'. We situate the timeliness of the Inclusive Health concept with reference to recent developments in the recognition of the rights of people with disability, in the new guidelines for community-based rehabilitation and in the World Report on Disability. These developments offer a more inclusive approach to health and, more broadly, its inter-connected aspects of wellbeing. A concept which more proactively integrates United Nations conventions that recognise the importance of difference - disability, ethnicity, gender, children - could be of benefit for global healthcare policy and practice. PMID:21895893

  6. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  7. Inclusive teaching.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2008-07-01

    Inclusive teaching involves being responsive to the diversity represented in the classroom and assisting learners to focus on their culture, attitudes, and beliefs while learning to communicate and collaborate with each other and their patients. PMID:18649804

  8. Additive Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Chemicals in Human Cell-Based Assays Can Be Influenced by Inclusion of Chemicals with Differing Effect Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard Mark; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that the in vitro effects of mixtures of estrogenic chemicals can be well predicted from the estrogenicity of their components by the concentration addition (CA) concept. However, some studies have observed small deviations from CA. Factors affecting the presence or observation of deviations could include: the type of chemical tested; number of mixture components; mixture design; and assay choice. We designed mixture experiments that address these factors, using mixtures with high numbers of components, chemicals from diverse chemical groups, assays with different in vitro endpoints and different mixture designs and ratios. Firstly, the effects of mixtures composed of up to 17 estrogenic chemicals were examined using estrogenicity assays with reporter-gene (ERLUX) and cell proliferation (ESCREEN) endpoints. Two mixture designs were used: 1) a ‘balanced’ design with components present in proportion to a common effect concentration (e.g. an EC10) and 2) a ‘non-balanced’ design with components in proportion to potential human tissue concentrations. Secondly, the individual and simultaneous ability of 16 potential modulator chemicals (each with minimal estrogenicity) to influence the assay outcome produced by a reference mixture of estrogenic chemicals was examined. Test chemicals included plasticizers, phthalates, metals, PCBs, phytoestrogens, PAHs, heterocyclic amines, antioxidants, UV filters, musks, PBDEs and parabens. In all the scenarios tested, the CA concept provided a good prediction of mixture effects. Modulation studies revealed that chemicals possessing minimal estrogenicity themselves could reduce (negatively modulate) the effect of a mixture of estrogenic chemicals. Whether the type of modulation we observed occurs in practice most likely depends on the chemical concentrations involved, and better information is required on likely human tissue concentrations of estrogens and of potential modulators

  9. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  10. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  11. Preschool Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.; Haney, Michele

    This resource guide provides field-tested, research-based strategies for including young children with disabilities in early childhood programs. It is designed to help preservice and in-service educators, Head Start personnel, and child care providers with information to promote inclusion in children's earliest social and educational experiences.…

  12. Evaluation Criteria for Solid Waste Processing Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, J. A.; Alazraki, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary list of criteria is proposed for evaluation of solid waste processing technologies for research and technology development (R&TD) in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. Completion of the proposed list by current and prospective ALS technology developers, with regard to specific missions of interest, may enable identification of appropriate technologies (or lack thereof) and guide future development efforts for the ALS Program solid waste processing area. An attempt is made to include criteria that capture information about the technology of interest as well as its system-wide impacts. Some of the criteria in the list are mission-independent, while the majority are mission-specific. In order for technology developers to respond to mission-specific criteria, critical information must be available on the quantity, composition and state of the waste stream, the wast processing requirements, as well as top-level mission scenario information (e.g. safety, resource recovery, planetary protection issues, and ESM equivalencies). The technology readiness level (TRL) determines the degree to which a technology developer is able to accurately report on the list of criteria. Thus, a criteria-specific minimum TRL for mandatory reporting has been identified for each criterion in the list. Although this list has been developed to define criteria that are needed to direct funding of solid waste processing technologies, this list processes significant overlap in criteria required for technology selection for inclusion in specific tests or missions. Additionally, this approach to technology evaluation may be adapted to other ALS subsystems.

  13. Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to examine teachers' craft knowledge of their practice of "inclusion" in terms of what they do, why and how. The research approach offers an important alternative to studies of students with "additional needs" and the search to articulate the specialist knowledge and skill required to teach them. Through…

  14. Criteria for recognition of localization and timing of multiple events of hydrothermal alteration in sandstones illustrated by petrographic, fluid inclusion, and isotopic analysis of the Tera Group, Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Acebrón, Laura; Goldstein, R. H.; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2011-11-01

    Stratigraphic relations, detailed petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions, and fine-scale isotopic analysis of diagenetic phases indicate a complex thermal history in Tithonian fluvial sandstones and lacustrine limestones of the Tera Group (North Spain). Two different thermal events have been recognized and characterized, which are likely associated with hydrothermal events that affected the Cameros Basin during the mid-Cretaceous and the Eocene. Multiple stages of quartz cementation were identified using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence on sandstones and fracture fills. Primary fluid inclusions reveal homogenization temperatures (Th) from 195 to 350°C in the quartz cements of extensional fracture fillings. The high variability of Th data in each particular fluid inclusion assemblage is related to natural reequilibration of the fluid inclusions, probably due to Cretaceous hydrothermal metamorphism. Some secondary fluid inclusion assemblages show very consistent data (Th = 281-305°C) and are considered not to have reequilibrated. They are likely related to an Eocene hydrothermal event or to a retrograde stage of the Cretaceous hydrothermalism. This approach shows how multiple thermal events can be discriminated. A very steep thermal gradient of 97-214°C/km can be deduced from δ18O values of ferroan calcites (δ18O -14.2/-11.8‰ V-PDB) that postdate quartz cements in fracture fillings. Furthermore, illite crystallinity data (anchizone-epizone boundary) are out of equilibrium with high fluid inclusion Th. These observations are consistent with heat-flux related to short-lived events of hydrothermal alteration focused by permeability contrasts, rather than to regional heat-flux associated with dynamo-thermal metamorphism. These results illustrate how thermal data from fracture systems can yield thermal histories markedly different from host-rock values, a finding indicative of hydrothermal fluid flow.

  15. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Asymmetric inclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  17. DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale.

    PubMed

    Hasin, Deborah S; O'Brien, Charles P; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-08-01

    Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions.This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available. PMID:23903334

  18. DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M.; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions. This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available. PMID:23903334

  19. Ubiquitinated, p62 immunopositive cerebellar cortical neuronal inclusions are evident across the spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies but are only rarely additionally immunopositive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew; Maekawa, Satomi; Bodi, Istvan; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa

    2011-06-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTLD-MND/ALS) and MND/ALS are thought to represent a clinicopathological spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies. The cerebellum has been little studied in these conditions, probably because of the lack of cerebellar signs in most cases. We examined p62 immunohistochemistry on cerebellar sections from 43 TDP-43 proteinopathies (including cases of FTLD-TDP, FTLD-MND/ALS and MND/ALS) together with 72 cases of other neurodegenerative diseases, seven controls and three other disease conditions. In 11 of the TDP-43 proteinopathies (26%) there were numerous p62-positive cerebellar inclusions, predominantly within the granular layer, but also the molecular and Purkinje cell layer. Furthermore, only one of the remaining 82 cases (a familial tauopathy) showed similar p62 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin was positive in the granular layer inclusions. The immunohistochemistry for phosphorylation-independent TDP-43, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein, fusion sarcoma protein (FUS), and neurofilament was negative. In only one case (a case of FTLD-TDP) were the inclusions positive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP43 (p-TDP-43). Those TDP-43 proteinopathy cases that showed the cerebellar inclusions also tended to display other common features, such as a notable excess of p62 pathology when compared to TDP-43 pathology, especially within the pyramidal neurones of the hippocampus but also in some cases within the neocortex. The results suggest that p62-positive inclusions within the cerebellum are seen in a proportion of cases across the range of the TDP-43 proteinopathy spectrum and they appear to be relatively specific for this group of diseases. The question as to whether these cerebellar-positive cases represent a distinct subgroup remains to be answered. Furthermore, the relationship of the p62

  20. Limits to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  1. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  2. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  3. Inclusion Body Myositis

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one of a group of muscle diseases ... muscle weakness. The onset of muscle weakness in IBM is generally gradual (over months or years) and ...

  4. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  5. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brandalyn; Ashley, Mandi; Salter, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  6. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  7. Supporting Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Gianna

    2006-01-01

    Written to support all teaching and learning staff in developing good inclusive practice, this book provides knowledge and understanding about a range of inclusion issues, such as what an inclusive school might look like and practical guidance on supporting the development of such a school. It also explores issues surrounding: (1) Ethnicity; (2)…

  8. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  9. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  10. Revisiting the Wilson-Jungner criteria: How can supplemental criteria guide public health in the era of genetic screening?

    PubMed

    Petros, Michael

    2011-10-01

    PURPOSE:: Advances in technology have made newborn screening for more than 50 inborn errors of metabolism possible using a dried blood sample. A framework is proposed that public health practitioners may use when considering candidate disorders for newborn screening panels. METHODS:: The framework expands on the 10 Wilson-Jungner criteria with the addition of 11 criteria specific to newborn screening. A calculation, the "pNBS Decision Score," is used to quantify results and rank candidate disorders. RESULTS:: The pNBS Decision Scores that were calculated for phenylketonuria (OMIM# 261600), cystic fibrosis (OMIM# 219700), Pompe disease (OMIM# 232300), and severe combined immunodeficiency (OMIM# 102700) support their inclusion as newborn screening disorders. The pNBS Decision Score suggests that Krabbe disease (OMIM# 245200) is not a candidate disorder for inclusion at this time. CONCLUSION:: The proposed framework adds to the ability of policy makers to quantify an essential portion of the process for adding disorders to newborn screening panels. Other factors such as ethical, legal, and social issues, clinical utility, and advocacy are also part of the policy process. The framework is not intended to replace existing nomination processes but rather to enhance those processes by encouraging iterative review of newborn screening-specific criteria. The use of the framework will provide consistency across a portion of the decision process. The public health community should take the opportunity to revisit the screening determinants of the Wilson-Jungner criteria from a 21st century perspective. The results suggest that this framework provides the public health practitioner with a consistent process for making an evidence-based decision. PMID:21983595

  11. Promoting Inclusion? "Inclusive" and Effective Head Teachers' Descriptions of Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6-16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and…

  12. [Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Shimohata, Takayoshi; Aiba, Ikuko; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2015-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a distinct neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Patients with CBD often present with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) showing impairment of the motor system, cognition, or both. Several studies demonstrate that they may also present with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS), aphasia, Alzheimer disease-like dementia, or behavioral changes, suggesting that CBS is merely one of the presenting phenotypes of CBD. Accurate diagnosis is important for future clinical trials using drugs aimed at modifying the underlying tau pathology. Although previous CBD diagnostic criteria reflected only CBS, Armstrong et al. proposed new diagnostic criteria for CBD in 2013 (Armstrong's criteria). The new criteria include 4 CBD phenotypes, including CBS, frontal behavioral-spatial syndrome (FBS), nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia (naPPA), and PSPS. These phenotypes were combined to create 2 sets of criteria: specific clinical research criteria for probable CBD (cr-CBD) and broader criteria for possible CBD that are more inclusive but have a higher probability of detecting other tau-based pathologies (p-CBD). However, two recent studies revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria were insufficient. Further refinement of the criteria is needed via biomarker research with prospective study designs. (Received August 19, 2014; Accepted December 26, 2014: Published April 1, 2015). PMID:25846600

  13. Penile epidermal inclusion cyst.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pradeep; Mansoor, M N; Jalali, Sanjay; Sharma, Abhishek

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst of penis in a five-year-old boy, who had presented to the outpatient department of our hospital. Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign lesions that can develop in any part of the body. However, the finding of an epidermal inclusion cyst in the penis is rare. The child was operated and discharged uneventfully. The objective of reporting this case is to highlight the rare possibility of an inclusion cyst arising from penis as a late complication of circumcision. PMID:20589475

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jenzi C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that in addition to positive attitudes toward inclusion, high-level beliefs about knowledge and learning (i.e., epistemological beliefs) are essential for all teachers of students with disabilities in inclusive settings. This study examined the attitudes toward inclusion and epistemological belief status of 71…

  15. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. PMID:24530825

  16. Insights into Inclusive Education through a Small Finnish Case Study of an Inclusive School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Jane Mary; Tsokova, Diana; Takkunen, Ulla-Maija

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to present data and discussion arising from a case study of a school in Finland renowned for its practice in the inclusion of learners with additional support requirements due to cognitive and physical disabilities. It aims to establish how the school staff understand their practice with inclusion through day-to-day professional…

  17. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  18. Towards Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Uses classroom vignettes to examine reasons why schools in the United Kingdom are not yet generally successful in including students with disabilities and suggests simple ways that ordinary teachers can implement inclusive practices. These include the importance of teamwork, a school climate which encourages inclusive practices, and teacher…

  19. Conclusions on Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, John

    2004-01-01

    An inclusion classroom is defined as one that is tasked with mainstreaming special education students into a population of general education students. In this brief article, the author, a high school mathematics teacher, shares his personal experiences in teaching in an inclusion classroom. A primary focus is his relationship with the special…

  20. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  1. Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate current teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, and to (b) explore possible difference in the general and special education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the integrated education classroom. A total of 10 participants from a large mid-western state university…

  2. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  3. What Counts as Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  4. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  5. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  6. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  7. The use of the reverse shock index to identify high-risk trauma patients in addition to the criteria for trauma team activation: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The presentation of decrease blood pressure with tachycardia is usually an indicator of significant blood loss. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the haemodynamic status of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI<1) may indicate haemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess whether RSI<1 can help to identify high-risk patients with potential shock and poor outcome, even though these patients do not yet meet the criteria for multidisciplinary trauma team activation (TTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 106 patients obtained from the trauma registry system of a level I trauma centre for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Patients for whom a trauma team was not activated (regular patients) and who had RSI<1 were compared with regular patients with RSI≥1. The ORs of the associated conditions and injuries were calculated with 95% CIs. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality. Results Among regular patients with RSI<1, significantly more patients had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.62; p<0.001) and the mortality rate was also higher (2.1% vs 0.5%; OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.10 to 7.08; p<0.001) than in regular patients with RSI≥1. The intensive care unit length of stay was longer in regular patients with RSI<1 than in regular patients with RSI≥1. Conclusions Among patients who did not reach the criteria for TTA, RSI<1 indicates a potentially worse outcome and a requirement for more attention and aggressive care in the emergency department. PMID:27329440

  8. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dematomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). For discussion of later three disorders, the reader is referred to the IIM review in this issue. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50. It typically presents with chronic insidious proximal leg and/or distal arm asymmetric muscle weakness leading to recurrent falls and loss of dexterity. Creatine kinase (CK) is up to 15 times elevated in IBM and needle electromyograhy (EMG) mostly shows a chronic irritative myopathy. Muscle histopathology demonstrates endomysial inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading non-necrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite inflammatory muscle pathology suggesting similarity with PM, it likely that IBM is has a prominent degenerative component as supported by refractoriness to immunosuppressive therapy. We review the evolution of our knowledge in IBM with emphasis on recent developments in the field and discuss ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25037082

  9. Diagnostic criteria of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R; Longhi, Maria Serena; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune-mediated liver disorder characterised by female preponderance, elevated transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, seropositivity for autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Presentation is highly variable, therefore AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any increase in liver enzyme levels. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of AIH have been established by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG). There are two main types of AIH: type 1, positive for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMAs) and type 2, defined by the presence of anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM-1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (LC-1) autoantibodies. The central role of autoantibodies in the diagnosis of AIH has led the IAIHG to produce a consensus statement detailing appropriate and effective methods for their detection. Autoantibodies should be tested by indirect immunofluorescence at an initial dilution of 1/40 in adults and 1/10 in children on a freshly prepared rodent substrate that includes kidney, liver and stomach sections to allow for the simultaneous detection of all reactivities relevant to AIH. Anti-LKM-1 is often confused with anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) if rodent kidney is used as the sole immunofluorescence substrate. The identification of the molecular targets of anti-LKM-1 and AMA has led to the establishment of immuno-assays based on the use of the recombinant or purified autoantigens. Perinuclear anti-nuclear neutrophil antibody (p-ANNA) is an additional marker of AIH-1; anti soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies are specific for autoimmune liver disease, can be present in AIH-1 and AIH-2 and are associated with a more severe clinical course. Anti-SLA are detectable by ELISA or radio-immuno-assays, but not by immunofluorescence. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted promptly to

  10. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  11. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  12. Numerical Simulations of Inclusion Behavior in Gas-Stirred Ladles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2013-06-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model has been proposed to investigate the bubbly plume flow and inclusion behavior including growth, size distribution, and removal in gas-stirred ladles, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms were presented. For the bubbly plume flow, a modified k- ɛ model with extra source terms to account for the bubble-induced turbulence was adopted to model the turbulence, and the bubble turbulent dispersion force was taken into account to predict gas volume fraction distribution in the turbulent gas-stirred system. For inclusion behavior, the phenomena of inclusions turbulent random motion, bubbles wake, and slag eye forming on the molten steel surface were considered. In addition, the multiple mechanisms both that promote inclusion growth due to inclusion-inclusion collision caused by turbulent random motion, shear rate in turbulent eddy, and difference inclusion Stokes velocities, and the mechanisms that promote inclusion removal due to bubble-inclusion turbulence random collision, bubble-inclusion turbulent shear collision, bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision, inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface, bubble wake capture, and wall adhesion were investigated. The importance of different mechanisms and total inclusion removal ratio under different conditions, and the distribution of inclusion number densities in ladle, were discussed and clarified. The results show that at a low gas flow rate, the inclusion growth is mainly attributed to both turbulent shear collision and Stokes collision, which is notably affected by the Stokes collision efficiency, and the inclusion removal is mainly attributed to the bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision and inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface. At a higher gas flow rate, the inclusions appear as turbulence random motion in bubbly plume zone, and both the inclusion-inclusion and inclusion-bubble turbulent random collisions become

  13. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  14. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  15. Incontinentia pigmenti diagnostic criteria update.

    PubMed

    Minić, S; Trpinac, D; Obradović, M

    2014-06-01

    In 1993 diagnostic criteria for incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a genodermatosis in which skin changes are usually combined with anomalies of other organs, were established. Approximately a decade ago, IKBKG gene mutation was discovered as a cause for IP. This finding has not been included in IP diagnosis so far. In addition, literature data pointed out a few other clinical findings as possible IP diagnostic criteria. Literature facts concerning IP diagnosis were analyzed. Different organ anomalies, their frequency and severity, were analyzed in the context of applicability as IP diagnostic criteria. Taking into account analyzed data from the literature, the proposal of updated IP diagnostic criteria was presented. We propose as major criteria one of the stages of IP skin lesions. As updated IP minor criteria in our proposal we included: dental, ocular; central nervous system (CNS), hair, nail, palate, breast and nipple anomalies; multiple male miscarriages, and IP pathohistological findings. In the diagnosis of IP, the presence of IKBKG mutation typical for IP, and existence of family relatives with diagnosed IP are taken into account. PMID:23802866

  16. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audétat A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  17. Minority Inclusion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the United States has a long, sad history of discrimination against minority rights. Discusses the origins and history of minority inclusion or affirmative action programs. Includes a special report on the "English Only" movement. (CFR)

  18. Nutrient Criteria Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

  19. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing in inclusive educational settings: a literature review on interactions with peers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-Han; Potměšil, Miloň; Peters, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    This review is conducted to describe how children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) interact with hearing peers in inclusive settings, illustrate the difficulties and challenges faced by them in interacting with peers, and identify effective interventions that promote their social interaction in inclusive education. A systematic search of databases and journals identified 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two broad themes emerged from an analysis of the literatures, which included processes and outcomes of interactions with peers and intervention programs. The research indicates that children who are D/HH face great difficulties in communicating, initiating/entering, and maintaining interactions with hearing peers in inclusive settings. The co-enrollment and social skills training programs are considered to be effective interventions for their social interaction. Communication abilities and social skills of children who are D/HH, responses of children with normal hearing, and the effect of environment are highlighted as crucial aspects of social interactions. In addition, future research is needed to study the interaction between children who are D/HH and hearing peers in natural settings, at different stages of school life, as well as improving social interaction and establishing an inclusive classroom climate for children who are D/HH. PMID:25052819

  20. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  1. Novel inclusion in laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaoshan; Wang Siting; Jin Zhongru; Shen Yafang; Chen Jiaguang

    1986-12-01

    In growing alexandrite crystals, a novel inclusion has been found. The inclusions are quantitatively analyzed by an electronic probe and the mechanism for forming inclusions is suggested. In our Bridgman MgF/sub 2/ crystals, the inclusions in <001> direction have also been observed.

  2. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  3. Criteria for assessing high-priority drug-drug interactions for clinical decision support in electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High override rates for drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts in electronic health records (EHRs) result in the potentially dangerous consequence of providers ignoring clinically significant alerts. Lack of uniformity of criteria for determining the severity or validity of these interactions often results in discrepancies in how these are evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify a set of criteria for assessing DDIs that should be used for the generation of clinical decision support (CDS) alerts in EHRs. Methods We conducted a 20-year systematic literature review of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify characteristics of high-priority DDIs. These criteria were validated by an expert panel consisting of medication knowledge base vendors, EHR vendors, in-house knowledge base developers from academic medical centers, and both federal and private agencies involved in the regulation of medication use. Results Forty-four articles met the inclusion criteria for assessing characteristics of high-priority DDIs. The panel considered five criteria to be most important when assessing an interaction- Severity, Probability, Clinical Implications of the interaction, Patient characteristics, and the Evidence supporting the interaction. In addition, the panel identified barriers and considerations for being able to utilize these criteria in medication knowledge bases used by EHRs. Conclusions A multi-dimensional approach is needed to understanding the importance of an interaction for inclusion in medication knowledge bases for the purpose of CDS alerting. The criteria identified in this study can serve as a first step towards a uniform approach in assessing which interactions are critical and warrant interruption of a provider’s workflow. PMID:23763856

  4. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

  5. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Postuma, Ronald B; Berg, Daniela; Stern, Matthew; Poewe, Werner; Olanow, C Warren; Oertel, Wolfgang; Obeso, José; Marek, Kenneth; Litvan, Irene; Lang, Anthony E; Halliday, Glenda; Goetz, Christopher G; Gasser, Thomas; Dubois, Bruno; Chan, Piu; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Adler, Charles H; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-10-01

    This document presents the Movement Disorder Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD). The Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research but also may be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark for these criteria is expert clinical diagnosis; the criteria aim to systematize the diagnostic process, to make it reproducible across centers and applicable by clinicians with less expertise in PD diagnosis. Although motor abnormalities remain central, increasing recognition has been given to nonmotor manifestations; these are incorporated into both the current criteria and particularly into separate criteria for prodromal PD. Similar to previous criteria, the Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria retain motor parkinsonism as the core feature of the disease, defined as bradykinesia plus rest tremor or rigidity. Explicit instructions for defining these cardinal features are included. After documentation of parkinsonism, determination of PD as the cause of parkinsonism relies on three categories of diagnostic features: absolute exclusion criteria (which rule out PD), red flags (which must be counterbalanced by additional supportive criteria to allow diagnosis of PD), and supportive criteria (positive features that increase confidence of the PD diagnosis). Two levels of certainty are delineated: clinically established PD (maximizing specificity at the expense of reduced sensitivity) and probable PD (which balances sensitivity and specificity). The Movement Disorder Society criteria retain elements proven valuable in previous criteria and omit aspects that are no longer justified, thereby encapsulating diagnosis according to current knowledge. As understanding of PD expands, the Movement Disorder Society criteria will need continuous revision to accommodate these advances. PMID:26474316

  6. Inclusion Practice Priorities Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jo; And Others

    This instrument was developed to assist individuals or teams to review best practice indicators regarding the development of inclusive school communities and to establish priority targets for improvement. The instrument covers three areas: (1) school community issues, (2) team issues, and (3) classroom issues. For each area, there is a review…

  7. In Search of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John; O'Connor, Una

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a context within which other contributions to this issue might be read. It examines the position of special educational needs (SEN) within the evolving continuum of education in Northern Ireland, specifically within the context of educational inclusion. It describes recent changes in educational policy and legislation which…

  8. Inclusion Art Contest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Melisa Dauzat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ease a school system into the transitions that occur when Inclusion is incorporated. An entire Middle School was used to collect data from. The grades in that school were 6th, 7th and 8th grade. The initial intent was to foment a community feeling among the students. The results were completely unexpected as they…

  9. Inclusion on the Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  10. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the matrix's intrinsic physical properties.

  11. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  12. Teaching Inclusion through Alphapoems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Susan "BOON"

    2000-01-01

    Describes what inclusion is and how people in the helping professions may unintentionally promote exclusion. Describes the author's use of alphapoems in a course to develop college students' affective learning and advocacy toward people with disabilities. Offers examples of students' work and concludes that alphapoems served to further pedagogical…

  13. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  14. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  15. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  16. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  17. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  18. CDTI target selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

  19. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  20. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  1. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  2. The Role of Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antia, Shirin D.; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative 3-year case study followed three deaf interpreters in an inclusive school. Results of interviews indicated that, in addition to sign interpreting, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress.…

  3. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  4. Developing Inclusive Teachers from an Inclusive Curricular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opertti, Renato; Brady, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    This article defines inclusive education in light of the Education for All agenda. It then describes key considerations for developing inclusive teachers from the perspective of an inclusive curriculum which seeks to address the needs of all learners. It concludes by outlining several key policy discussion areas which must be addressed if…

  5. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Get Involved Donate Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook twitter google plus ... Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) News Gene Therapy Success in IBM- A Quest ...

  8. What's the 411? High School Leaders' Perceptions of Inclusion Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Arnella L.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, descriptive study explored and described urban and suburban school leaders' perceptions of the definition of "inclusion" and perceptions of their level of involvement in the implementation of inclusion. Additionally, the study determined if there was a significant difference in the urban and suburban school leaders'…

  9. Solid inclusion thermobarometry under fire: Heating experiments on encapsulated quartz inclusions in garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.; Darling, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    inclusions were heated in 50 ° C increments. The standards were used to correct for thermal perturbations to the Δν464 Raman band for quartz upon heating, allowing for determination of Pincl (Δν464,measured = Δν464,heating + Δν464,pressure). Measurements were taken upon cooling to test for irreversible plastic deformation (which was not observed). All samples exhibited a decrease in Δν464 upon heating. The dilated inclusions from Port Leyden experienced the largest increase in Pincl (>2 kbar from 25 ° C to 500 ° C). The inclusion from Scotland developed moderate Pincl increase when heated to 500 ° C (˜1.4 kbar), whereas the Sifnos inclusion experienced little to no change in Pincl upon heating. These results reflect the anomalous increase in thermal expansivity of quartz near the lambda transition. For the low-P samples, the increased thermal expansivity during heating results in an increase in pressure as the inclusion expands more than the void space. For the Sifnos sample, the void space and inclusion expand by nearly the same amount, resulting in no additional pressurization. While the Pincl ‑ T trends match predictions, the magnitude of Pincl increase is notably less than that predicted by numerical modeling. These results suggest that improvements in P ‑ V ‑ T EOS or more sophisticated elastic models are required to optimize quartz inclusion barometry for formation pressure constraints.

  10. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  11. Brief, Amazing Moments of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialka, Janice

    2005-01-01

    "Real inclusion" of kinds with special needs occurs everywhere, inside the classroom as well as outside. This is a fairly basic principle, however, it is not always easy to achieve. In this article, the author describes how her family have had to "fight" for inclusive education and shares some amazing moments of inclusion with her son Micah.

  12. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful. PMID:24761264

  13. Conditions, Criteria, Indicators and Levels of Forming Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. However, the success of communicative competence within a multicultural environment requires that a system of criteria, indicators and levels of forming communicative competence have to be considered. Aim of the…

  14. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  15. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  16. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, J D; Hanagasi, H A; Daniel, S E; Tidswell, P; Davies, S W; Lees, A J

    2000-09-01

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age <20 yrs) is uncommon and few cases with neuropathologic confirmation have been reported. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID. PMID:11009211

  17. Criteria for Behçet's disease with reflections on all disease criteria.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Hasan; Yazici, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    With no specific histologic, laboratory or imaging features the diagnosis/classification of Behçet's Disease (BD) remains clinical. As such, disease criteria are needed. The International Study Group Criteria set is the most widely used. It has some limitations, especially in telling BD from Crohn's disease. On the other hand the main issue, as it also applies to many of the other criteria sets in rheumatology, is our lack of appreciation of a list of misconceptions--some examples of which are unluckily also found in the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA Criteria set--about diagnostic/classification criteria making and their implementation. 1. The view that classification and diagnostic criteria should be different is ill advised in that the cerebral/arithmetic basis of both are the same. 2. The default promise of diagnostic criteria to come once we formulate a classification criteria set is an extension of the previous misconception. 3.Taking pains to avoid circularity in criteria making is unwarranted since the essence of criteria making is circular. In addition we fail to exploit the utility of the disease criteria in ruling out, rather than ruling in, the diseases we seek. Finally we also fail to appreciate the paramount importance of the Bayesian prior (the pretest) probability in formulating and implementing these disease criteria. To formulate criteria tailored to subspecialties, as well as giving the often forgotten family history more importance in our criteria sets are some ways to improve the prior probability on which our diagnostic/classification decisions will be based. We first have to reconcile with ourselves that probabilities are very important in our practice and research. Moreover that reconciliation must also be shared with the public, which includes our patients. PMID:24461382

  18. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified. PMID:1979447

  19. Diffusive over-hydration of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Neave, David A.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thor

    2015-09-01

    The pre-eruptive water content of magma is often estimated using crystal-hosted melt inclusions. However, olivine-hosted melt inclusions are prone to post-entrapment modification by H+ diffusion as they re-equilibrate with their external environment. This effect is well established for the case of H+ loss from olivine-hosted inclusions that have cooled slowly in degassed magma. Here we present evidence for the opposite effect: the addition of H+ into inclusions that are held in melts that are enriched in H2O with respect to the trapped melts. The compositional variability in a suite of 211 olivine-hosted inclusions from the Laki and Skuggafjöll eruptions in Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone indicates that diffusive H+ gain governs the H2O content of incompatible trace element depleted inclusions. Individual eruptive units contain olivine-hosted inclusions with widely varying incompatible element concentrations but near-constant H2O. Furthermore, over 40% of the inclusions have H2 O /Ce > 380, significantly higher than the H2O/Ce expected in primary Icelandic melts or mid-ocean ridge basalts (150-280). The fact that the highest H2O/Ce ratios are found in the most incompatible element depleted inclusions indicates that hydration is a consequence of the concurrent mixing and crystallisation of compositionally diverse primary melts. Hydration occurs when olivines containing depleted inclusions with low H2O contents are juxtaposed against more hydrous melts during mixing. Melt inclusions from a single eruption may preserve evidence of both diffusive H+ loss and H+ gain. Trace element data are therefore vital for determining H2O contents of melt inclusions at the time of inclusion trapping and, ultimately, the H2O content of the mantle source regions.

  20. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  1. Singing and social inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  2. Using the Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Frontotemporal Dementia in India: Evidence of an Advanced and Florid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Amitabha; Dutt, Aparna; Ghosh, Madhura; Bhargava, Pallavi; Rao, Sulakshana

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Consortium (FTDC) that revised the diagnostic criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) did not have an Asian representation. Whether the revised criteria are equally useful in the early detection of Asian bvFTD patients therefore remains largely unexplored. Earlier studies have indicated differences in clinical manifestations in Indian and other Asian bvFTD patients when compared to western groups. There is an urgent need for clarification, given the projected exponential rise in dementia in these countries and the imminent clinical trials on bvFTD. Objective To assess how Indian bvFTD patients fulfil the FTDC criteria, hypothesizing that our patients might present differently early in the illness. Method In a hospital-based retrospective observational study, we assessed 48 probable bvFTD patients, diagnosed according to the FTDC criteria, for the speed with which these criteria were fulfilled, the frequency of individual symptoms and their order of appearance during the illness. Results Most of our patients presented with moderate to severe dementia, in spite of having relatively short onset to diagnosis times. Patients on average took 1.4 years from onset to meet the FTDC criteria, with 90% of them presenting with four or more symptoms at diagnosis. Disinhibition was the commonest symptom and the first symptom in most patients. Conclusion With most patients presenting with advanced and florid disease, the FTDC criteria have little additional impact in early identification of bvFTD in India. Modifying the criteria further could allow detection of Indian patients early enough for their inclusion in future clinical trials. PMID:23596513

  3. [Assessment of clinical practice guidelines evaluation. Scales and criteria].

    PubMed

    Rico Iturrioz, Rosa; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Asua Batarrita, José; Navarro Puerto, Maria Asunción; Reyes Domínguez, Antonio; Marín León, Ignacio; Briones Pérez de la Blanca, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Not only are there large number of guides, protocols and other support tools available for the clinical decision-making process in the Spanish National Health System, but there is also a major degree of variability among them, reflecting inconsistencies and low quality of those documents. This study is aimed at conducting all inventory of the Clinical Practice Guideline assessment scales and clinical analysis tools and to propose a scale or set of criteria for assessing the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines put out in Spain. A systematic search of critical evaluation scales was conducted. The inclusion criteria and the concordance analysis of the items by three evaluators were independently applied. The discordances were resolved by explicit consensus. Ten suggested critical assessment scales and sets of criteria from eleven institutions were identified, eight of which consist of scales and tools proposed for assessing the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines, the other two being proposals for assessing the implementation and inclusion of the Clinical Practice Guidelines in a register. In the comparative analysis, the criteria most often repeated on the scales analysed were related to the areas included in the AGREE Instrument. The areas considered in most of the critical assessment scales were the same as those of the AGREE Instrument. Although this tool does not take in criteria for guide implementation assessment purposes, it is considered suitable for use in the assessment prior to inclusion to the national CPG register. PMID:15384260

  4. Can We Build Inclusion?

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural

  5. Selection criteria for unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Alterman, R L; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Fazzini, E; Eidelberg, D; Perrine, K; Beric, A

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt to refine the indications for posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) the authors instituted strict selection criteria which are based on the experience gained from the first 60 pallidotomy patients treated at their institution. In addition to clinical evaluation, all pallidotomy candidates undergo neuropsychological testing and 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose utilization positron emission tomography (FDG/PET). The data from which these criteria were developed are presented as are early clinical results. The authors demonstrate that these criteria enhance the efficacy of the procedure by assuring therapeutic response and reducing the incidence of post-operative dementia. Their indications and contraindications for pallidotomy are discussed. PMID:9233408

  6. Some Criteria for Humanizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charlotte S.

    Patterns for humanizing the information sciences include recognizing essential "humanness," taking a holistic approach to the subject field, and being aware of the epistemological nature of how people communicate and relate to others and themselves. The complete inclusion of the human factor in information theory researches can only amplify the…

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    SciTech Connect

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  9. [Inclusion-body myositis].

    PubMed

    Benveniste, O

    2014-07-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM) presents in average at the sixth decade of life and affects three men for one woman. It is a non-lethal, slowly progressive but disabling disease. Except the striated muscles, no other organs (such as the interstitial lung) are involved. The phenotype of this myopathy is particular since it involves the axial muscles (camptocormia, swallowing dysfunction) and limb girdle (notably the quadriceps) but also the distal muscles (in particular the fingers' and wrists' flexors) in a bilateral but non-symmetrical manner. The clinical presentation is then very suggestive of the diagnosis, which remains to be proven by a muscle biopsy. Histological features defining the diagnosis associate endomysial inflammatory infiltrates with frequent invaded fibres (the myositis) and amyloid deposits generally accompanying rimmed vacuoles (the inclusions). There is still today a debate to know if this disease is at its beginning a degenerative or an auto-immune condition. Nonetheless, usual immunosuppressive drugs (corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate) or polyvalent immunoglobulines remain ineffective and even may worsen the handicap. Some controlled randomized trials will soon be launched for this condition, but for now, the best therapeutic approach to slow down the rapidity of progression of the disease is to maintain muscle exercise with the help of the physiotherapists. PMID:24128435

  10. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  11. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  12. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  13. Lung donor selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence. PMID:102583

  17. Anisotropy of Silicate-Hosted Magnetite Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic properties is a hallmark of silicate crystals with oriented iron-oxide inclusions. Strongly magnetic magnetite-bearing silicates (10-1 A m-1) are common components of gabbros and layered intrusions, contributing to local and regional magnetic anomalies. Additionally, these iron-oxide silicates hold the promise of being exceptional paleomagnetic recorders owing to their features of: physical/chemical isolation from altering fluids, chemical equilibrium with their silicate host, and long relaxation times (enhanced coercivity). However, anisotropy of remanence must be understood before these advantageous features can be utilized. Measurements of single crystals of clinopyroxene and plagioclase (10-4 g) show anisotropy in direction and intensity that directly reflect the crystallography of the silicate host. The host controls both the crystallographic orientation of the magnetite (magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and the elongation direction of the magnetite inclusion (shape anisotropy). We have found another source of anisotropy that involves an internal exsolution of ulvöspinel within titanomagnetite inclusions. This also reflects a host control as this second exsolution occurs along the magnetite \\{100\\}. This fixed wall shape anisotropy creates an array of interacting single domain magnetite parallelepipeds, parallel to \\{100\\}. Each of these anisotropies contributes to enhanced coercivity of remanence, which significantly exceeds the IRM saturation magnetization for magnetite (300 mT). The anisotropy of IRM (aIRM@ 1.1 T) of magnetite-bearing clinopyroxene and plagioclase shows clustering of directions, reflecting the mixture of variables that include: inclusion elongation direction and abundance, orientation of magnetite easy axes relative to the applied field, inclusion aspect ratio and diameter, and pre-existing magnetic domain structure. For pyroxene (monoclinic) with two arrays of needle-shaped magnetite inclusions, the aIRM is

  18. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

  19. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  20. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  1. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  2. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  3. Graphite criteria peer review

    SciTech Connect

    1986-09-01

    This report documents a review of the stress criteria proposed for the graphite components of the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) core. The review was conducted by a panel of six independent consultants, chosen for their expertise over a range of relevant disciplines.

  4. CRITERIA FOR COUNSELOR PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, LEONARD A.; MUTHARD, JOHN E.

    THIS RESEARCH CONCERNS THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG REHABILITATION COUNSELOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CURRENTLY BEING USED OR READILY AVAILABLE TO STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AGENCIES. THE 143 COUNSELORS STUDIED CAME FROM MIDDLE-SIZED AGENCIES IN SIX STATES AND, SINCE COWORKER RATINGS WERE REQUIRED, THE SAMPLE WAS LIMITED TO COUNSELORS WORKING WITH TWO…

  5. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  6. Serbian Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Gojkovic, Dina; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete "My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire" (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards…

  7. Principals Influence Culture of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…

  8. In Support of Unfinished Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

    2014-01-01

    This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

  9. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  10. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  11. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  12. Promoting a Lifetime of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzaglia, Adelle; Karvonen, Meagan; Drasgow, Erik; Stoxen, Craig C.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote inclusion for individuals with severe disabilities first establishes the principle of normalization, then describes conditions and practices that reflect this principle and foster inclusion across the life span. These include universal design, person-centered planning, self-determination, and positive behavior…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  14. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  15. Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

  16. Inclusion Kinetics of Polyrotaxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shoko; Ito, Kohzo; Yamada, Norifumi

    Inclusion complex (IC) formation of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush in water was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy(SPR), neutron reflectometry(NR) and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering(GISANS). Spontaneous IC formation of α-CD with PEG (polyrotaxanes) is believed to be due to hydrophobic interaction between the hydrophobic interior of α-CD and PEG; however, the detail of the IC formation kinetics has not been observed because IC formation results in aggregation and precipitation of the complex. SPR revealed that IC formation occurs after induction period, which often appears in crystallization. When concentration of α-CD solution is 10%, IC consisting randomly oriented α-CD polycrystal appeared. In contrast, when the concentration of α-CD solution is 5%, a uniform 10-nm-thick IC layer with α-CD stacked perpendicular to the substrate appeared. 10-nm-thick IC was also found in the diluted PEG brush in contact with a 10% α-CD solution. The characteristic 10-nm-thick layer is related to the folded crystalline structure of α-CD on PEG brush. Such crystallization was proved to be the main driving force for IC formation.

  17. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  18. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  19. The infidelity of melt inclusions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide important information about magmatic systems and represent unique records of magma composition and evolution. However, it is also clear that melt inclusions do not necessarily constitute a petrological 'magic bullet', and potential exists for trapped melt compositions to be modified by a range of inclusion-specific processes. These include trapping of diffusional boundary layers, crystallization of the host mineral after trapping and dissolution of co-trapped minerals during homogenization, diffusional exchange between trapped liquid and the host mineral and external melt, and cryptic alteration of trapped material during weathering or hydrothermal alteration. It clearly important to identify when melt inclusions are unmodified, and which compositional indices represent the most robust sources of petrogenetic information. In this presentation I review and discuss various approaches for evaluating compositions and compositional variations in inclusion suites. An overriding principle is that the variations evident in melt inclusions should be able to be understood in terms of petrological processes that are known, or can be reasonably inferred to also effect bulk magma compositions. One common approach is to base petrological conclusions on species that should be more robust, and many workers use variations in incompatible trace elements for this purpose. However important information may also be obtained from a comparison of variations in melt inclusions and the lavas that host them, and in most cases this comparison is the key to identifying inclusions and suites that are potentially suspect. Comparisons can be made between individual inclusions and lavas, although comparison of average inclusion composition and the host lava, after correction for differences in crystal fractionation, may also be valuable. An important extension of this is the comparison of the variability of different species in inclusions and host lavas. This also provides

  20. Nontraditional Student Perceptions of Collegiate Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Patricia; Mendez, Sylvia; Ogunbowo, Oluwafolakemi; Clayton, Grant; Hernandez, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored student responses to a Student Inclusiveness Survey (SIS), with specific attention to nontraditional student responses about collegiate inclusion. Specifically, the SIS constructs that related to inclusion, the Perceptions of Inclusiveness and Institutional Safeguarding of Inclusiveness, were analyzed descriptively, and…

  1. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  2. Criteria for Assessing Naturalistic Inquiries as Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Research on the assessment of naturalistic inquiries is reviewed, and criteria for assessment are outlined. Criteria reviewed include early foundational and non-foundational criteria, trustworthiness criteria, axiomatic criteria, rhetorical criteria, action criteria, and application/transferability criteria. Case studies that are reports of…

  3. Inclusion filters: a class of self-dual connected operators.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nilanjan; Acton, Scott T

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we define a connected operator that either fills or retains the holes of the connected sets depending on application-specific criteria that are increasing in the set theoretic sense. We refer to this class of connected operators as inclusion filters, which are shown to be increasing, idempotent, and self dual (gray-level inversion invariance). We demonstrate self duality for 8-adjacency on a discrete Cartesian grid. Inclusion filters are defined first for binary-valued images, and then the definition is extended to grayscale imagery. It is also shown that inclusion filters are levelings, a larger class of connected operators. Several important applications of inclusion filters are demonstrated-automatic segmentation of the lung cavities from magnetic resonance imagery, user interactive shape delineation in content-based image retrieval, registration of intravital microscopic video sequences, and detection and tracking of cells from these sequences. The numerical performance measures on 100-cell tracking experiments show that the use of inclusion filter improves the total number of frames successfully tracked by five times and provides a threefold reduction in the overall position error. PMID:16279174

  4. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions inclusion body myopathy 2 inclusion body myopathy 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Inclusion body myopathy 2 is a condition that primarily affects skeletal muscles , ...

  5. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  6. Criteria for software modularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  7. Teacher Attitudes Concerning Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1970s, an estimated 3 million children with disabilities received inappropriate or inadequate educational services, and an additional almost 1 million children were excluded from the educational system (U. S. Department of Education as cited by Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2004). Most of the programs that existed were limited…

  8. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  9. SCORE: a novel multi-criteria decision analysis approach to assessing the sustainability of contaminated land remediation.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Lars; Back, Pär-Erik; Söderqvist, Tore; Norrman, Jenny; Brinkhoff, Petra; Norberg, Tommy; Volchko, Yevheniya; Norin, Malin; Bergknut, Magnus; Döberl, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    The multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method provides for a comprehensive and transparent basis for performing sustainability assessments. Development of a relevant MCDA-method requires consideration of a number of key issues, e.g. (a) definition of assessment boundaries, (b) definition of performance scales, both temporal and spatial, (c) selection of relevant criteria (indicators) that facilitate a comprehensive sustainability assessment while avoiding double-counting of effects, and (d) handling of uncertainties. Adding to the complexity is the typically wide variety of inputs, including quantifications based on existing data, expert judgements, and opinions expressed in interviews. The SCORE (Sustainable Choice Of REmediation) MCDA-method was developed to provide a transparent assessment of the sustainability of possible remediation alternatives for contaminated sites relative to a reference alternative, considering key criteria in the economic, environmental, and social sustainability domains. The criteria were identified based on literature studies, interviews and focus-group meetings. SCORE combines a linear additive model to rank the alternatives with a non-compensatory approach to identify alternatives regarded as non-sustainable. The key strengths of the SCORE method are as follows: a framework that at its core is designed to be flexible and transparent; the possibility to integrate both quantitative and qualitative estimations on criteria; its ability, unlike other sustainability assessment tools used in industry and academia, to allow for the alteration of boundary conditions where necessary; the inclusion of a full uncertainty analysis of the results, using Monte Carlo simulation; and a structure that allows preferences and opinions of involved stakeholders to be openly integrated into the analysis. A major insight from practical application of SCORE is that its most important contribution may be that it initiates a process where criteria

  10. Innovation for an Inclusive Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springett, Mark; Rice, Mark; Carmichael, Alex; Griffiths, Richard

    This workshop will focus on setting the agenda for research, practice and policy in support of inclusive design for third generation computer-based products. The next generation of technology represents an unprecedented opportunity to improve the quality of life for groups of users who have previously faced exclusion, such as those with impairments and older citizens. At the same time it risks creating a greater digital divide and further exclusion. How we approach design for this new generation will determine whether or not the third wave will provide positive advances towards an inclusive digital world. We therefore need to put forward both a rationale for inclusive design and provide pointers towards technical development and design practice in support of inclusion. It is our belief that there is not only a strong moral case for design for inclusion but also significant commercial incentive, which may be key to persuading influential players to focus on inclusion. Therefore one of our key objectives is to describe and promote the advantages of designing ‘in from the edges’ of the user population rather than designing for a notional ‘average’ user.

  11. Quartic Rotation Criteria and Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the current analytic rotation criteria for simple structure in factor analysis are summarized and identified as members of a general symmetric family of quartic criteria. A unified development of algorithms for orthogonal and direct oblique rotation using arbitrary criteria from this family is presented. (Author/TJH)

  12. Petrography and classification of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic petrographic survey of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite are reported, and a new classification system based on clearly defined and readily applied petrographic criteria is presented. Most Allende inclusions are aggregates containing one or more of three distinct constituents: (1) rimmed concentric objects enriched in Al- and Ti-rich oxide minerals and various amounts of Ca-rich silicates; (2) porous, 'fine-grained' chaotic material enriched in Ca-rich silicates, especially clinopyroxenes and garnets; and (3) porous, 'fine-grained', mafic inclusion matrix, enriched in olivine, pyroxene, and feldspathoids. Two texturally distinct varieties of inclusions consist primarily of inclusion matrix: unrimmed olivine aggregates and rimmed olivine aggregates. Ca, Al-rich inclusions are classified on the basis of the size and abundance of their constituent concentric objects. Some fundamental relationships among Allende inclusions that previusly have not been emphasized are discussed.

  13. History and Evolution of the Johnson Criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Tracy A.; Smith, Collin S.; Birch, Gabriel Carisle

    2015-07-01

    The Johnson Criteria metric calculates probability of detection of an object imaged by an optical system, and was created in 1958 by John Johnson. As understanding of target detection has improved, detection models have evolved to better model additional factors such as weather, scene content, and object placement. The initial Johnson Criteria, while sufficient for technology and understanding at the time, does not accurately reflect current research into target acquisition and technology. Even though current research shows a dependence on human factors, there appears to be a lack of testing and modeling of human variability.

  14. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Palumbo, Antonio; Blade, Joan; Merlini, Giampaolo; Mateos, María-Victoria; Kumar, Shaji; Hillengass, Jens; Kastritis, Efstathios; Richardson, Paul; Landgren, Ola; Paiva, Bruno; Dispenzieri, Angela; Weiss, Brendan; LeLeu, Xavier; Zweegman, Sonja; Lonial, Sagar; Rosinol, Laura; Zamagni, Elena; Jagannath, Sundar; Sezer, Orhan; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Caers, Jo; Usmani, Saad Z; Lahuerta, Juan José; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Beksac, Meral; Cavo, Michele; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Terpos, Evangelos; Kyle, Robert A; Anderson, Kenneth C; Durie, Brian G M; Miguel, Jesus F San

    2014-11-01

    This International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the disease definition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). These changes are based on the identification of biomarkers associated with near inevitable development of CRAB features in patients who would otherwise be regarded as having smouldering multiple myeloma. A delay in application of the label of multiple myeloma and postponement of therapy could be detrimental to these patients. In addition to this change, we clarify and update the underlying laboratory and radiographic variables that fulfil the criteria for the presence of myeloma-defining CRAB features, and the histological and monoclonal protein requirements for the disease diagnosis. Finally, we provide specific metrics that new biomarkers should meet for inclusion in the disease definition. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the implementation of these criteria in routine practice and in future clinical trials, and recommends that future studies analyse any differences in outcome that might occur as a result of the new disease definition. PMID:25439696

  15. Origins of Majoritic Inclusions in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseeva, K.; Wood, B. J.; Ghosh, S. K.; Stachel, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral inclusions in diamonds are the only available samples from the transition zone and the lower mantle. The dominant type of inclusions for the range of transition zone (410-660 km) pressures is majoritic garnet, a high-pressure Si-rich tetragonal garnet which crystallises when pyroxene breaks down and dissolves in the garnet structure. Two majoritic garnet endmembers: Na2MgSi5O12 and Mg4Si4O12 can be distinguished for eclogitic and peridotitic parageneses, respectively. In our recent study [1] we used these idealised substitutions to show that the majority of majoritic garnets reported in the literature belong to neither eclogitic nor peridotitic lithologies and rather crystallised from a wide range of intermediate compositions, referred to as pyroxenites [1]. Here we elaborate on the origin and composition of the pyroxenite lithology. According to Si geobarometry most majoritic garnet inclusions formed at mantle transition zone pressures, predominantly within the stability field of clinopyroxene + garnet. Using experimental partition coefficients for Na, Al, Mg and Fe between garnet and clinopyroxene, we have calculated the compositions of clinopyroxene in equilibrium with majoritic garnet, which allows us to estimate the locus of possible bulk rock compositions. These lie in the field of upper mantle pyroxenites as defined by Hirschmann and Stolper [2]. We also find that occasional clinopyroxene inclusions in diamond actually coexisting with majoritic garnet inclusions are all close in composition to those predicted by our study. Additionally, we show experimentally that the pyroxenite-diamond association is probably a consequence of the interaction between basaltic and peridotitic compositions in the presence of carbonate melt and that layering of pyroxenites is a natural consequence of this interaction. Reduction of carbonate to carbon at high pressures is responsible for the genetic connection between pyroxenite and diamond and the abundance of

  16. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Inclusions in Continuously Cast High-Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Masoumeh; Wilcox, David P.; Thackray, Richard; Howe, Andrew A.; Todd, Iain; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2015-12-01

    Existing standards for the characterization of the size, morphology, chemistry, and distribution of inclusions in steels using different techniques are briefly reviewed in this work. Strengths and shortfalls of different methods are discussed, and a combination of different criteria is used to quantitatively characterize the inclusions in a continuously cast high-carbon steel. It is shown that the main elements in the inclusions for the studied steel were Mn, S, Ti, Al, and oxygen and that alongside MnS and some Al2O3 inclusions many non-metallic inclusions appeared in complex forms, consisting of silicates, sulfides, and different types of oxides. Duplex inclusions, mainly cores of Al2O3, or SiO2 surrounded by MnS were the most common complex multiphase inclusions in this steel. An industrial approach was used to classify the inclusions into thirteen different oxide types. Based upon this approach, data are presented according to the chemistry of inclusions using diagrams featuring different quantitative parameters. Furthermore, it is shown that the number of oxides per unit area and the size of oxides, respectively, decreased and increased with increasing distance from the surface of the bloom which had solidified at the highest cooling rate.

  18. Universal Steering Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest.

  19. Universal Steering Criteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-19

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest. PMID:26943513

  20. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  1. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  2. 48 CFR 836.602-1 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection criteria. 836.602-1 Section 836.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.602-1 Selection criteria. (a) In addition...

  3. Trends and Evaluative Criteria of Informational Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Frances Smardo

    1990-01-01

    Describes six trends and five evaluative criteria of children's nonfiction books and suggests four additional criteria for activity books. Topics discussed include humor, unusual formats, graphics and illustrations, accuracy and authenticity, content and perspective, and organization. Specific titles appropriate for kindergarten through sixth…

  4. 48 CFR 836.602-1 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection criteria. 836.602-1 Section 836.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.602-1 Selection criteria. (a) In addition...

  5. 48 CFR 836.602-1 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection criteria. 836.602-1 Section 836.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.602-1 Selection criteria. (a) In addition...

  6. 48 CFR 836.602-1 - Selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection criteria. 836.602-1 Section 836.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.602-1 Selection criteria. (a) In addition...

  7. 43 CFR 2420.1 - Use of criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) MULTIPLE-USE MANAGEMENT CLASSIFICATIONS Criteria for Multiple-Use Management Classifications § 2420.1 Use of criteria. In addition to the...

  8. 43 CFR 2420.1 - Use of criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) MULTIPLE-USE MANAGEMENT CLASSIFICATIONS Criteria for Multiple-Use Management Classifications § 2420.1 Use of criteria. In addition to the...

  9. 43 CFR 2420.1 - Use of criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) MULTIPLE-USE MANAGEMENT CLASSIFICATIONS Criteria for Multiple-Use Management Classifications § 2420.1 Use of criteria. In addition to the...

  10. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  11. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  12. 42 CFR 460.124 - Additional appeal rights under Medicare or Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.124 Additional appeal rights under...

  13. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  14. 42 CFR 460.124 - Additional appeal rights under Medicare or Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.124 Additional appeal rights under...

  15. 42 CFR 460.124 - Additional appeal rights under Medicare or Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.124 Additional appeal rights under...

  16. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  17. 42 CFR 460.124 - Additional appeal rights under Medicare or Medicaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Rights § 460.124 Additional appeal rights under...

  18. 42 CFR 460.48 - Additional actions by CMS or the State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.48 Additional actions...

  19. Salinity of multivolatile fluid inclusions determined from clathrate hydrate stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Larryn W.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the final dissociation temperature of gas-clathrate hydrates ( TmCLA) are routinely used to determine the salinity of fluid inclusions which contain a volatile component in addition to water. Traditionally, experimental data are used to quantitatively relate TmCLA to the inclusion electrolyte concentration. Because of limitations in the experimental database, however, this method has hitherto not been applicable to the multivolatile fluid inclusions that are common in crustal rocks. A general solution to this problem is provided by statistical thermodynamics predictions of multivolatile clathrate stability. Published theoretical models explicitly account for the effect of aqueous NaCl in depressing the stability of clathrates composed of any mixture of CO 2, N 2, H 2S, CH 4 and higher-order hydrocarbons. Analysis of phase relations in complex clathrate systems shows that such theoretical predictions yield model salinities if the following fluid inclusion data are available: (1) the identity of the phase assemblage at TmCLA, (2) the relative concentrations of the volatile species, and (3) either the homogenization temperature of the volatile fluid fraction (bubble point or dew point, either stable or metastable), or an independent estimate of internal pressure at TmCLA. Additional data on fluid inclusion cation ratios can be incorporated in the calculations to recast equivalent weight percent aqueous NaCl in terms of effective electrolyte concentrations. New experimental data on mixed N 2-CO 2 clathrates, obtained from synthetic fluid inclusions, provide a test of both the model predictions and of the analytical procedure proposed for natural fluid inclusions. While the accuracy of the predictions varies between volatile compositions, the uncertainties in the salinities derived from the statistical thermodynamics method are generally of the order acceptable for geochemical applications. Applications to multivolatile, multi-electrolyte fluid

  20. Enhancing reuse of structured eligibility criteria and supporting their relaxation.

    PubMed

    Milian, Krystyna; Hoekstra, Rinke; Bucur, Anca; Ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Paulissen, John

    2015-08-01

    Patient recruitment is one of the most important barriers to successful completion of clinical trials and thus to obtaining evidence about new methods for prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The reason is that recruitment is effort consuming. It requires the identification of candidate patients for the trial (the population under study), and verifying for each patient whether the eligibility criteria are met. The work we describe in this paper aims to support the comparison of population under study in different trials, and the design of eligibility criteria for new trials. We do this by introducing structured eligibility criteria, that enhance reuse of criteria across trials. We developed a method that allows for automated structuring of criteria from text. Additionally, structured eligibility criteria allow us to propose suggestions for relaxation of criteria to remove potentially unnecessarily restrictive conditions. We thereby increase the recruitment potential and generalizability of a trial. Our method for automated structuring of criteria enables us to identify related conditions and to compare their restrictiveness. The comparison is based on the general meaning of criteria, comprised of commonly occurring contextual patterns, medical concepts and constraining values. These are automatically identified using our pattern detection algorithm, state of the art ontology annotators and semantic taggers. The comparison uses predefined relations between the patterns, concept equivalences defined in medical ontologies, and threshold values. The result is a library of structured eligibility criteria which can be browsed using fine grained queries. Furthermore, we developed visualizations for the library that enable intuitive navigation of relations between trials, criteria and concepts. These visualizations expose interesting co-occurrences and correlations, potentially enhancing meta-research. The method for criteria structuring processes only certain types of

  1. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  2. Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…

  3. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

  4. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  5. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  6. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  7. The Needs of Inclusive Preschool Teachers about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalin, Selma; Demir, Seyda; Sucuoglu, Bülbin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Iscen, Fadime

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Since the law related to the inclusion of children with special needs was passed, the number of children with special needs in preschool classrooms has increased each year. Preschool teachers face serious challenges when they teach children with diverse abilities in the same environment. Although most of them support the idea of…

  8. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  9. Towards understanding microvillus inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Georg F; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Huber, Lukas A; Janecke, Andreas R; Müller, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is characterised by onset of intractable life-threatening watery diarrhoea during infancy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates shortening or absence of apical microvilli, pathognomonic microvillus inclusions in mature enterocytes and subapical accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules or vesicles confirming diagnosis. Mutations in MYO5B have been found to cause MVID. In two patients with MVID, whole-exome sequencing of DNA revealed homozygous truncating mutations in STX3. Mutations in these genes disrupt trafficking between apical cargo vesicles and the apical plasma membrane. Thus, disturbed delivery of certain brush border membrane proteins is a common defect in MVID. PMID:26830108

  10. 13 CFR 120.333 - Are there any special credit criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.333 Are there any special credit criteria? In addition to regular credit evaluation criteria, SBA shall weigh the greater risk associated with...

  11. 13 CFR 120.333 - Are there any special credit criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.333 Are there any special credit criteria? In addition to regular credit evaluation criteria, SBA shall weigh the greater risk associated with...

  12. 13 CFR 120.333 - Are there any special credit criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.333 Are there any special credit criteria? In addition to regular credit evaluation criteria, SBA shall weigh the greater risk associated with...

  13. 13 CFR 120.333 - Are there any special credit criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.333 Are there any special credit criteria? In addition to regular credit evaluation criteria, SBA shall weigh the greater risk associated with...

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26653797

  15. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  16. Elastostatics of a spherical inclusion in homogeneous biological media.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, M; Insana, M F

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional spherical inclusion model that approximates a lesion bonded to a tissue matrix is proposed for biomedical elastography. Analytical formulae describing spatial strain and stress distributions generated in infinite media by uniform loading are given under a linear, homogeneous, isotropic elasticity assumption. Strain and stress distributions are also calculated using finite-element analysis (FEA) for a variety of cases to determine the effects of shear modulus distribution, external loading conditions (uniform stress versus uniform displacement), compressor size and matrix dimensions on the elastostatics of the tissue. Analytical strain and stress predictions are shown to agree with the FEA results to within 10% accuracy provided that the matrix dimensions are at least ten times that of the inclusion. Also for these cases, uniform-stress boundary conditions can be equivalently represented by uniform displacement of the boundary. Spherical inclusions exhibit a lower efficiency for transferring elastic shear modulus contrast into strain contrast than cylindrical or planar inclusions. Additional compression will increase the strain contrast. However, large compressions also lead to increases in ultrasonic signal decorrelation and strain and stress concentrations in the homogeneous matrix around the inclusion. Although strain concentrations may help describe the boundaries of the inclusion more clearly, they also increase the risk of damaging the tissue. Understanding the strain and stress distributions in a biological tissue containing a lesion is necessary for optimizing the experimental configurations and consequently improving the diagnostic values of elasticity imaging. PMID:9483620

  17. Classroom Management in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodak, Leslie C.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classes provides an opportunity for teachers to identify classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community. Community-building management strategies that facilitate friendships, collaboration, parent involvement, and address challenging behaviors in a…

  18. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  19. Managing Special and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a guide to special and inclusive education and provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field. Author Stephen Rayner examines context, policy, and practice, and shows how to successfully navigate the managerial challenges involved, while contributing to the way forward through leadership in a diverse field. The author…

  20. Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Fern

    A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

  1. Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  3. Supporting General Educators' Inclusive Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Mead, Jean

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Project Inclusion, a state-funded project at Southeastern Louisiana University, which provided financial support for general educators to take university courses to develop their knowledge and skills concerning students with disabilities. The courses emphasized collaboration techniques, curricular modifications, and behavior…

  4. Taking Inclusion into the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1998-01-01

    According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration, refocused…

  5. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  6. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  8. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  9. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  10. Inclusive Education: Programmes and Provisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappen, Mini Dejo

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive education is a practice of teaching handicapped children in regular classrooms with non-handicapped children to the fullest extent possible; such children may have orthopedic, intellectual, emotional, or visual difficulties or handicaps associated with hearing or learning. In India there are constitutional provisions for Inclusive…

  11. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  13. Commentary on the Inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder in DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelen, Paul A.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2012-01-01

    The DSM-5 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorders Work Group has proposed criteria for Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder (PCBRD) for inclusion in the appendix of DSM-5. The authors feel that it is important that dysfunctional grief will become a formal condition in DSM-5 because that would…

  14. Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of the Literature from 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Obrusnikova, Iva

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the review is to critically analyze English-written research articles pertaining to inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education published in professional journals both within and outside of the United States from 1995-2005. Each study included in this review had to meet seven a priori criteria. Findings of the 38…

  15. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  16. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  17. Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lee, Changhee

    2016-06-01

    Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B-N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.

  18. Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lee, Changhee

    2016-03-01

    Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B-N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.

  19. Effect of Mg on Behavior and Particle Size of Inclusions in Al-Ti Deoxidized Molten Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tongsheng; Liu, Chengjun; Jiang, Maofa

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium addition on the evolution of inclusions in Al-Ti deoxidized melts, both thermodynamic calculations and deoxidized experiments were carried out in the present work. The samples took from the melts were polished and analyzed by field scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that the addition of magnesium significantly influenced the size of oxide inclusions in Al-Ti deoxidized melts. Superfluous MgO raised the melting point of these complex inclusions, and then degraded the steel castability. Therefore, the amount of magnesium addition should be carefully controlled. Based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental results, the recommended range of [Mg] is 1~5 ppm. All inclusions observed in the sample were nearly spherical except for solid titanium aluminate inclusions. Oxide inclusions were modified quickly after magnesium addition. Meanwhile, magnesium could also modify solid titanium aluminate inclusions in the melts similarly, but there were unreacted cores in the inclusions at the initial stage. The evolution mechanisms of inclusions were comprehensively discussed, and models for the formation of oxide inclusions were set up. As for the production practice, the addition amount of magnesium and titanium should be considered simultaneously to liquefy inclusions in molten steel.

  20. Effect of Mg on Behavior and Particle Size of Inclusions in Al-Ti Deoxidized Molten Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tongsheng; Liu, Chengjun; Jiang, Maofa

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium addition on the evolution of inclusions in Al-Ti deoxidized melts, both thermodynamic calculations and deoxidized experiments were carried out in the present work. The samples took from the melts were polished and analyzed by field scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that the addition of magnesium significantly influenced the size of oxide inclusions in Al-Ti deoxidized melts. Superfluous MgO raised the melting point of these complex inclusions, and then degraded the steel castability. Therefore, the amount of magnesium addition should be carefully controlled. Based on thermodynamic calculations and experimental results, the recommended range of [Mg] is 1~5 ppm. All inclusions observed in the sample were nearly spherical except for solid titanium aluminate inclusions. Oxide inclusions were modified quickly after magnesium addition. Meanwhile, magnesium could also modify solid titanium aluminate inclusions in the melts similarly, but there were unreacted cores in the inclusions at the initial stage. The evolution mechanisms of inclusions were comprehensively discussed, and models for the formation of oxide inclusions were set up. As for the production practice, the addition amount of magnesium and titanium should be considered simultaneously to liquefy inclusions in molten steel.

  1. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  2. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26435118

  3. Performance Criteria: Concrete, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenbeck, Roger F.; And Others

    The State University Construction Fund provides guidance and direction to professionals participating in its program by issuing performance criteria that set forth owner or user requirements. This document provides guidelines in the form of performance criteria, testing procedures, and instructions to achieve an acceptable level of performance in…

  4. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  5. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  6. Professional Development and Teacher Perception of Efficacy for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Susan Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed for the purpose of quantitatively examining the significant elements of reform-based professional development and their relationship to teachers' self-efficacies for inclusion. The theoretical frameworks for this study were drawn from Bandura's (1997) self-efficacy and social cognitive theory in addition to…

  7. What Do Turkish Prospective Primary Teachers Promise for Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocbeker-Eid, Beyhan Nazli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Turkish prospective primary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and readiness for their future roles and responsibilities as inclusive classroom teachers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how these roles and responsibilities relate to future teaching practices. In addition, this study examined…

  8. Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Su-Ann; van der Stouwe, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the "two faces" model of education through which Kenneth Bush and Diana Saltarelli (2000) describe the positive and negative roles that education can play in situations of ethnic conflict. The authors apply it more narrowly to analyze the effect of inclusion and diversity in education in a conflict situation. In addition to…

  9. The Attitudes of Teachers towards Inclusive Education in Vojvodina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galovic, Dragana; Brojcin, Branislav; Glumbic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of preschool, primary, secondary and high school teachers towards inclusive education of children with special educational needs. In addition, the study established the correlation between these attitudes and gender, education level, teaching experience, formal training in the special education…

  10. Learner Decision Making in the Inclusion Style of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byra, Mark; Jenkins, Jayne

    In the inclusion style of teaching, learners must make decisions about level of task difficulty. They must decide at which level to enter the presented task and then, for additional sets of trials, decide whether to perform the task the same way, make it more difficult, or make it less difficult. This study examined learner decision making in a…

  11. The inclusion of Science Technology Society topics in junior high school earth science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhli, Fathi Ali

    2000-10-01

    The Science Technology Society (STS) approach is a major science education reform through which a scientifically literate citizen could be produced. The teaching of science through STS approach is centered on science and technology related issues and problems. The purpose of this study was to analyze five earth science textbooks published in the 1990's for their inclusion of twelve sciences and technology related issues and problems and for their inclusion of activities focused on STS. The selected earth science textbooks were; Scott Foresman, Heath, Holt, Merrill and Prentice-Hall. The targeted twelve issues and problems were identified by Bybee (1987), as the most important global science and technology related issues and problems. The numbers of full text pages devoted to each topic were determined by classifying each segment to one of the targeted topics. In addition, the numbers of STS activities were also determined by using criteria developed for this study. ANOVA statistical analyses and t-tests showed that the analyzed earth science textbooks treated the studied STS issues and problems and treated the STS activities differently. It was found that six of the studied issues and problems were constantly receiving more attention in all the analyzed earth science textbooks than the rest of the topics. These topics were; Air Quality and Atmosphere, Energy Shortages, Water Resources, Land Use, Hazardous Substances, and Mineral Resources. The overall results revealed that only an average of 8.82% of the text pages in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were devoted to STS topics and 5.49% of the activities in all the analyzed earth science textbooks were focused on STS topics. However, none of the activities focused on STS topics were presented in STS approach as defined by NSTA. The percentage of STS topics inclusion and the percentage of activities focused on STS topics were considered to be very low. Accordingly, the objectives and goals of STS approach

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  13. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the...

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  15. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  16. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  17. The relevance of "non-criteria" clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome: 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Technical Task Force Report on Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mirhelen M; Danowski, Adriana; Wahl, Denis G; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Tektonidou, Maria; Pacheco, Marcelo S; Fleming, Norma; Domingues, Vinicius; Sciascia, Savino; Lyra, Julia O; Petri, Michelle; Khamashta, Munther; Levy, Roger A

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this task force was to critically analyze nine non-criteria manifestations of APS to support their inclusion as APS classification criteria. The Task Force Members selected the non-criteria clinical manifestations according to their clinical relevance, that is, the patient-important outcome from clinician perspective. They included superficial vein thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, renal microangiopathy, heart valve disease, livedo reticularis, migraine, chorea, seizures and myelitis, which were reviewed by this International Task Force collaboration, in addition to the seronegative APS (SN-APS). GRADE system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence of medical literature of each selected item. This critical appraisal exercise aimed to support the debate regarding the clinical picture of APS. We found that the overall GRADE analysis was very low for migraine and seizures, low for superficial venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, chorea, longitudinal myelitis and the so-called seronegative APS and moderate for APS nephropathy, heart valve lesions and livedo reticularis. The next step can be a critical redefinition of an APS gold standard, for instance derived from the APS ACTION registry that will include not only current APS patients but also those with antiphospholipid antibodies not meeting current classification criteria. PMID:25641203

  18. Women in Astronomy: Inclusion in Introductory Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Kristine M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for identifying the contributions of women astronomers in introductory textbooks. The evolution of inclusion over the past 4 decades is explored by examining the rates of inclusion of 10 women astronomers in textbooks. Contains 100 references. (DDR)

  19. Comparative analysis of current diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Boyadzhieva, Mariya V; Atanasova, Iliana; Zacharieva, Sabina; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Dimitrova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare current guidelines for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to identify the ones that are the most relevant for application among pregnant Bulgarian population. Methods A total of 800 pregnant women at high risk for GDM underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation as antenatal screening. The results were interpreted and classified according to the guidelines of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society, Canadian Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, New Zealand Society for the study of Diabetes and World Health Organization. Results The application of different diagnostic criteria resulted in prevalences of GDM between 10.8% and 31.6%. Using any two sets of criteria, women who were classified differently varied between 0.1% and 21.1% (P < 0.001).The IADPSG criteria were the most inclusive criteria and resulted in the highest prevalence of GDM. There was a significant difference in the major metabolic parameters between GDM and control groups, regardless of which of the diagnostic criteria applied. GDM diagnosed according to all criteria resulted in increased proportion of delivery by caesarean section (CS). However, only ADA and IADPSG criteria identified both increased macrosomia (odds ratio, 2.36; 2.29) and CS rate. Conclusion The need for GDM screening is indisputable. In our view, the new IADPSG guidelines offer a unique opportunity for a unified national and global approach to GDM.

  20. VARSEL: Variable Selection for Multiple-Purpose Prediction Systems in the Absence of External Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, R. Bruce; Christal, Raymond E.

    The absence of suitable external criteria is a recurrent problem for test, battery, and inventory developers in selecting items or tests for inclusion in final operational instruments. This report presents a computing algorithm developed for use when no adequate external selection criterion is available. The algorithm uses a multiple linear…

  1. Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L. A.; Skvortsova, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    Values of diagnostic indicators [K]-limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam - which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified.

  2. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  3. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  4. Inclusive Education's Promises and Trajectories: Critical Notes about Future Research on a Venerable Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer critical notes on inclusive education research in the U.S. We discuss issues germane to conceptual clarity and the ways in which inclusive education interacts with reforms that share equity goals, noting disruptions and unintended consequences that arise at the nexus of these reforms. In addition, we…

  5. A PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR STRAIN BASED FAILURE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes an alternative methodology to determine the failure criteria for use in dynamic simulations of radioactive material shipping packages in the events of hypothetical accident conditions. The current stress failure criteria defined in the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.6 [1] and the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2] for Level D Service Loads are based on the ultimate strength of uniaxial tensile test specimen rather than on the material fracture in the state of multi-axial stresses. On the other hand, the proposed strain-based failure criteria are directly related to the material failure mechanisms in multi-axial stresses. In addition, unlike the stress-based criteria, the strain-based failure criteria are applicable to the evaluation of cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads in the hypothetical accident events as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.8 [4].

  6. Peritoneal Inclusion Cysts in Female Children: Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Multimodality Imaging Review

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, John

    2014-01-01

    We report the multimodality imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts in two adolescent females each with a prior history of abdominal surgery. The few reports of peritoneal inclusion cysts in the pediatric population have largely focused on the clinical and pathological features of this entity. We wish to emphasize the imaging findings of peritoneal inclusion cysts on multiple modalities, the advantage of MRI in confirming the diagnosis, and the need to keep considering this diagnosis in patients who present with a pelvic cystic mass, with a history of surgery, even if remote. Additionally, we review the pathology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options of peritoneal inclusion cysts. PMID:25143853

  7. Modification of Alumina and Spinel Inclusions by Calcium in Liquid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Neerav

    2011-12-01

    Steel Cleanliness plays a crucial role in determining steel properties such as toughness, ductility, formability, corrosion resistance and surface quality. The production of clean steel often involves the elimination or chemical and morphological modification of oxide and sulfide inclusions. Along with deteriorating the steel properties, solid inclusions can affect steel castability through nozzle clogging. Nozzle clogging occurs when solid inclusions accumulate in the caster pouring system such as the ladle shroud or submerged entry nozzle (SEN). Thus, it is important to understand how to achieve desired inclusion characteristics (shape, size and chemistry) through the steelmaking process. Among the various practices adopted in industries to counteract the effect of solid inclusions, modification of solid inclusions to liquid or partially liquid state through calcium treatment is one of the methods. Calcium can be used because it has a strong ability to form oxides and sulfides. In Al-killed steels, the most common inclusions are alumina (Al2O3) inclusions, which are solid at steelmaking temperatures. On calcium treatment, solid alumina inclusions are converted to calcium aluminates, which have liquidus temperatures lower than steelmaking temperature (1600°C) [14]. It has been found that alumina inclusions may contain some MgO and such inclusions are termed alumina magnesia spinels (Al2O3.xMgO) [18]. These spinels are more stable than alumina and it has been suggested that they might be more difficult to modify [18]. But, some authors have proposed that MgO can actually help in the liquefaction of inclusions, and have demonstrated successful modification of spinels by Ca treatment [20, 21]. In the present research, the mechanism of transformation of alumina and spinel inclusions upon calcium treatment was studied by characterizing transient evolution of inclusions. A vacuum induction was used for melting, making additions (Al, Al-Mg and CaSi2) and sampling. The

  8. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  9. Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way for Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: normalization and inclusion. It reviews the aims, processes, and outcomes of the normalization and social role valorization movement and explores its compatibility with inclusion. Lessons from normalization are applied to the inclusion movement.…

  10. "Inclusion in Practice": Does Practice Make Perfect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slee, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Discusses four issues raised in this special issue: (1) problems with the term "inclusion"; (2) reductionist approaches to inclusive education; (3) politics of special education research and the need to include parent and student voices; and (4) preparation of teachers for inclusive education. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  11. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  12. Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Educational Inclusivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation for inclusion in Canadian schools for this Special Issue on Inclusive Education. In response to the need for an interdisciplinary framework, this paper uses an interpretive literature review methodology to construct a framework for educational inclusivity based on four disciplinary…

  13. Louisiana High School Principals' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorio, Katherine Matranga

    2011-01-01

    Principals' attitudes toward inclusion have been shown to have a positive impact on successful inclusive practices within schools. Providing guidance, support, and training to assist the faculty and staff with inclusion had been acknowledged to make a difference for schools administrators who were making changes to include more students with…

  14. Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the Research Say?" (Margaret J.…

  15. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  16. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  17. Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

  18. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  19. Inclusive Attitudes: A Pre-Service Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This enquiry has shown that pre-service teachers in Ontario, Canada (n = 141), believe they have the prerequisite training and knowledge to be inclusive educators. They believe inclusion is effective and produces required results for both identified and non-identified students. Inclusion was viewed as a difficult proposition dependent upon several…

  20. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  1. Inclusion: By Choice or by Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Derrick; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the development internationally of the inclusive education perspective. Inclusive education as a late modernity reform project is exemplified in the call for "Education for All". Despite the simplicity of its message, inclusion is highly contestable. We argue in this paper that the key questions raised by the concept of…

  2. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    SciTech Connect

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-08-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters.

  3. Paleothermal study of Triassic Formation in Syria by using fluid inclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bilal, A.

    1988-08-01

    This study of fluid inclusions examined several hundred samples collected from different wells distributed throughout Syria. The results show the existence of aqueous, carbon, and hydrocarbon inclusions. Since aqueous inclusions vary in their common (form, distribution) and physicochemical properties (fusion temperature, homogeneity temperature, density, etc), a chronological relation could be made giving the following results: aqueous inclusions in the detritic minerals (type q/sub 1/) are prediagenesis, and aqueous inclusions related to overgrowth minerals (type q/sub 2/) are contemporary with diagenesis. But type q/sub 3/ aqueous inclusions in the secondary fractures that cross many minerals are post-diagenesis. Therefore, type q/sub 3/ inclusions are used to determine the temperature of Triassic formations, taking into consideration their saltiness (NaCl content is 10%, according to applied data). Carbon and hydrocarbon inclusions are postdiagenesis according to aqueous inclusion type q/sub 2/. By using both the density of type q/sub 2/ aqueous inclusions and the heaviness of the rock overburden according to the depth of the samples studies, thermal gradient can be determined. It ranges between 5 and 7% and increases from the north-northeast toward the west-southwest, i.e., in the direction of tectonic anomaly and volcanic activity connected with the Great Syrian Rift, which is a continuation of the Great African Rift. In addition, thermal gradient increases with depth in every well but is mainly related to the location of the well according to the common trend mentioned above.

  4. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail design and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.

  5. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease. PMID:24291262

  6. Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2007-03-01

    A recent model shows that altruism can evolve with limited migration and variable group sizes, and the authors claim that kin selection cannot provide a sufficient explanation of their results. It is demonstrated, using a recent reformulation of Hamilton's original arguments, that the model falls squarely within the scope of inclusive fitness theory, which furthermore shows how to calculate inclusive fitness and the relevant relatedness. A distinction is drawn between inclusive fitness, which is a method of analysing social behaviour; and kin selection, a process that operates through genetic similarity brought about by common ancestry, but not by assortation by genotype or by direct assessment of genetic similarity. The recent model is analysed, and it turns out that kin selection provides a sufficient explanation to considerable quantitative accuracy, contrary to the authors' claims. A parallel analysis is possible and would be illuminating for all models of social behaviour in which individuals' effects on each other's offspring numbers combine additively. PMID:17254996

  7. Correctness criteria for process migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

  8. Criteria for energy pricing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Siddayao, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of papers contributed by energy economists. Topics covered include: operationalising efficiency criteria in energy pricing policy; energy pricing policy framework and experience in developing countries; socio-economic goals in energy pricing policy: A framework for analysis; efficiency and equity criteria in energy pricing with practical application to LDC's in Asia; shadow-pricing indigenous energy: Its complexity and implications; and energy pricing in developing countries: Role of prices in investment allocation and consumer choices.

  9. Using melt inclusions and fluid inclusions to track ore-metal behavior in magma-hydrothermal systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Audétat, A.

    2013-12-01

    sources. For example, ore elements sequestered by magmatic crystallization at high temperature may be liberated and re-transported by fluids upon magma cooling due to breakdown and dissolution of oxides and sulfides at low temperature. Both fluid and melt inclusions can be open to modification between initial formation and ultimate petrographic inspection. In melt inclusions, bubbles separate from glass and variably re-hydrate the glass during cooling. In addition, crystals can form and elements can diffuse between glass and host mineral. These problems are yet more exaggerated in intrusive rocks, but workers are still able to obtain useful information through meticulous inspection, categorization and analysis through diverse techniques. This presentation will review a variety of recent studies that illustrate these concepts and demonstrate how to extract useful information from inclusions from a variety of deposit types. (1) Audétat, A. & Lowenstern, J.B. (in press) Melt Inclusions. In Scott. S. (ed.) Geochemistry of Mineral Resources: Treatise of Geochemistry, 2nd edition. (2) Zajacz Z, et al. (2008) Geochim et Cosmochim.Acta, 72: 2169-2197. (3) Lerchbaumer, L. & Audétat, A., (2013) Econ. Geol. v. 108, p. 987-1013.

  10. Questioning Secondary Inclusive Education: Are Inclusive Classrooms Always Best for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkachyk, Ruth Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Educating students with special needs in inclusive settings has become a priority for westernized governments as they strive to create more inclusive societies. While recognizing the societal benefits of inclusion, teachers and parents question whether or not implementation of full inclusion will come at the expense of learners' individual…

  11. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  12. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  13. Melt inclusions in Luna 24 soil fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, W.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Optical examinations of 28 slides of Luna 24 soil fragments revealed melt inclusions in grains of olivine, plagioclase, spinel, and ilmenite as well as interstitial inclusions. In contrast with Apollo samples, the Luna 24 samples contain sulfide melt inclusions, which indicates that saturation with respect to an iron sulfide melt took place throughout much of the crystallization history, even while olivine was crystallizing. The Luna 24 silicate-melt inclusions have recorded a more extensive differentiation toward higher iron magmas than have the Apollo inclusions, but they have also recorded some inexplicably low aluminum values.

  14. Compositional re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael Sterner, S.; Hall, Donald L.; Keppler, Hans

    1995-02-01

    Compositional modifications to salt-water fluid inclusions in quartz were observed following exposure to disequilibrium conditions in a series of laboratory experiments in which samples containing inclusions of known composition were annealed at 3 kbar and 600≤ T≤825°C in the presence of fluids having different compositions for time intervals ranging from a few days to one month. Changes in inclusion compositions following re-equilibration were monitored using salt crystal dissolution temperatures and/or IR (infra red) spectroscopy. The behaviors of both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions were studied. The synthetic samples were re-equilibrated under P int= P conf conditions to minimize stress in the crystal surrounding the inclusions, and were subjected to both f {H2O/int} f {H2O/conf} and f {H2O/int} f {H2O/conf}. After re-equilibration for four days at T≥600°C, most inclusions displayed significant compositional changes Without decrepitation. Salinity variations as large as ≈ 25 wt% were inferred for brine inclusions exposed to f {H2O/int}≠ f {H2O/conf} for 16 days at 825°C. The majority of our observations are consistent with the net diffusion of water toward the reservior having the lowest μH2O; i.e., synthetic NaCl-H2O fluid inclusions exhibited increased Tm(NaCl)s (implying lower relative H2O contents) when re-equilibrated in the presence of fluids having lower μH2O, whereas, similar (and, in some cases, the same) inclusions exhibited decreased Tm(NaCl)s (implying higher H2O contents) after exposure to fluids having higher μH2O. The behavior of natural salt-water fluid inclusions during re-equilibration was generally consistent with corresponding observations on synthetic samples verifying that compositional changes are not restricted to synthetic inclusions. Our results clearly show that there was chemical communication between fluids trapped as inclusions in quartz and the external fluid reservoir. Additionally, it is evident that

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-07-28

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  17. Laparoscopic splenectomy: a single center experience. Unusual cases and expanded inclusion criteria for laparoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Marte, Gianpaolo; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Rocca, Aldo; Surfaro, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Carla; Ceriello, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is nowadays considered as the gold standard for most hematological diseases where splenectomy is necessary, but many questions still remain. The aim of this study was to analyze our 5-years experiences consisting of 48 consecutive LS cases in order to assess the optimal approach and the feasibility of the procedure also in malignant diseases and unusual cases such as a primary spleen lymphoma, a big splenic artery aneurism, or a spleen infarct due to a huge pancreatic pseudo-cyst. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent LS from January 2006 to January 2011 with at least 1-year follow-up. Clinical data and immediate outcome were retrospectively recorded; age, diagnosis, operation time, perioperative transfusion requirement, conversion rate, accessory incision, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed. We had 14 cases of malignant splenic disease, the most frequent malignant diagnosis was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (12/14, 85.7 %). Splenomegaly (interpole diameter (ID) >20 cm) was observed in 12 cases (25 %) and massive splenomegaly (ID >25 cm) in 3 cases (6.25 %). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in two patients (4.16 %), both associated to uncontrollable bleeding in patients with splenomegaly. Mean operative time was 138 ± 22 min. Mean hospital stay was 4.5 days. Postoperative morbidity rate was 8.8 % for the benign group and 35.7 % in the malignant group. Mortality occurred in 1/48 patients (2.08 %), as a result of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). LS can be performed safely for malignant splenic disease and splenomegaly without any statistically significant increase of morbidity and mortality rate. Conversion rate is increased for massive splenomegaly. LS should be considered as the preferential approach even in patients with malignant disease, splenomegaly, or unusual cases. Massive splenomegaly should be considered as relative contraindication to LS even at experienced centers. PMID:23355349

  18. Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, Charles; Alexander, Corrine

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

  19. Transverse SSA in inclusive DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonyak, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) in inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), which requires a two-photon exchange to generate a non-zero effect. We present numerical results for the SSA that allow us to comment on the so-called "sign mismatch" issue invloving the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x,x). In particular, we discuss how our results indicate a collinear twist-3 Sivers-type effect may not be the main cause of the SSAs seen in proton-proton (pp) collisions.

  20. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John; Alizon, Samuel; Alpedrinha, Joao A C; Andersson, Malte; Andre, Jean-Baptiste; van Baalen, Minus; Balloux, Francois; Balshine, Sigal; Barton, Nick; Beukeboom, Leo W; Biernaskie, Jay M; Bilde, Trine; Borgia, Gerald; Breed, Michael; Brown, Sam; Bshary, Redouan; Buckling, Angus; Burley, Nancy T; Burton-Chellew, Max N; Cant, Michael A; Chapuisat, Michel; Charnov, Eric L; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Cockburn, Andrew; Cole, Blaine J; Colegrave, Nick; Cosmides, Leda; Couzin, Iain D; Coyne, Jerry A; Creel, Scott; Crespi, Bernard; Curry, Robert L; Dall, Sasha R X; Day, Troy; Dickinson, Janis L; Dugatkin, Lee Alan; El Mouden, Claire; Emlen, Stephen T; Evans, Jay; Ferriere, Regis; Field, Jeremy; Foitzik, Susanne; Foster, Kevin; Foster, William A; Fox, Charles W; Gadau, Juergen; Gandon, Sylvain; Gardner, Andy; Gardner, Michael G; Getty, Thomas; Goodisman, Michael A D; Grafen, Alan; Grosberg, Rick; Grozinger, Christina M; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Gwynne, Darryl; Harvey, Paul H; Hatchwell, Ben J; Heinze, Jürgen; Helantera, Heikki; Helms, Ken R; Hill, Kim; Jiricny, Natalie; Johnstone, Rufus A; Kacelnik, Alex; Kiers, E Toby; Kokko, Hanna; Komdeur, Jan; Korb, Judith; Kronauer, Daniel; Kümmerli, Rolf; Lehmann, Laurent; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Lion, Sébastien; Lyon, Bruce; Marshall, James A R; McElreath, Richard; Michalakis, Yannis; Michod, Richard E; Mock, Douglas; Monnin, Thibaud; Montgomerie, Robert; Moore, Allen J; Mueller, Ulrich G; Noë, Ronald; Okasha, Samir; Pamilo, Pekka; Parker, Geoff A; Pedersen, Jes S; Pen, Ido; Pfennig, David; Queller, David C; Rankin, Daniel J; Reece, Sarah E; Reeve, Hudson K; Reuter, Max; Roberts, Gilbert; Robson, Simon K A; Roze, Denis; Rousset, Francois; Rueppell, Olav; Sachs, Joel L; Santorelli, Lorenzo; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schwarz, Michael P; Scott-Phillips, Tom; Shellmann-Sherman, Janet; Sherman, Paul W; Shuker, David M; Smith, Jeff; Spagna, Joseph C; Strassmann, Beverly; Suarez, Andrew V; Sundström, Liselotte; Taborsky, Michael; Taylor, Peter; Thompson, Graham; Tooby, John; Tsutsui, Neil D; Tsuji, Kazuki; Turillazzi, Stefano; Ubeda, Francisco; Vargo, Edward L; Voelkl, Bernard; Wenseleers, Tom; West, Stuart A; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane; Westneat, David F; Wiernasz, Diane C; Wild, Geoff; Wrangham, Richard; Young, Andrew J; Zeh, David W; Zeh, Jeanne A; Zink, Andrew

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues. PMID:21430721

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Trauma to the Foot.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Kransdorf, Mark J; Adler, Ronald; Appel, Marc; Beaman, Francesca D; Bernard, Stephanie A; Bruno, Michael A; Dempsey, Molly E; Fries, Ian B; Khoury, Viviane; Khurana, Bharti; Mosher, Timothy J; Roberts, Catherine C; Tuite, Michael J; Ward, Robert J; Zoga, Adam C; Weissman, Barbara N

    2015-06-01

    This ACR Appropriateness Criteria article offers imaging triage guidance for several variants of patients presenting with acute foot trauma. Patients meeting inclusion criteria for the Ottawa Rules should undergo a 3-view radiographic series. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy should undergo radiography, even though they do not meet the Ottawa Rules inclusion criteria. Patients with suspected midfoot and/or Lisfranc injury should undergo 3-view radiographs with weight bearing on at least the anterior-posterior view. Patients with suspected Lisfranc injury and normal radiographs should be considered for MRI and CT on a case-by-case basis. MRI or ultrasound could confirm cases of suspected acute tendon rupture. Radiography is the initial imaging modality for suspected plantar plate injury after metatarsal-phalangeal joint injury. Weight-bearing anterior-posterior, lateral, and sesamoid axial views may detect proximal migration of the hallux sesamoids. Ultrasound or MRI can directly evaluate the capsuloligamentous complex, specifically the plantar plate. Radiography can detect radiopaque penetrating foreign bodies, and ultrasound can be helpful in detecting those that are nonradiopaque. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures, by the panel. In instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging and treatment. PMID:25935824

  2. Site Characterization Plan (SCP) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1986-05-19

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering effort for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design. 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. SCP (Site Characterization Plan) conceptual design criteria document

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1985-05-01

    This SCP Conceptual Design Criteria Document was developed to guide engineering efforts for Engineering Study No. 10, the supporting document for Chapter 6 of the SCP. The document provides regulatory design guidance, design rationale derived from the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geological Disposal System document, site-specific criteria, and design assumptions. Appendices were added to provide additional information on geology and seals design.

  4. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  5. Update on diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: 2015 Jones criteria

    PubMed Central

    Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler

    2016-01-01

    In the final Jones criteria, different diagnostic criteria were established for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever for low risk and moderate-high risk populations. Turkey was found to be compatible with moderate-high risk populations as a result of regional screenings performed in terms of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The changes in the diagnostic criteria for low-risk populations include subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram as a major criterion in addition to carditis found clinically and a body temperature of 38.5°C and above as a minor criterion. In moderate-high risk populations including Turkey, subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram in addition to clinical carditis is used as a major criterion as a new amendment. In addition, aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria in addition to migratory arthritis and monoarhtralgia is used as a minor criterion among joint findings. However, differentiation of subclinical carditis from physiological valve regurgitation found in healthy individuals and exclusion of other diseases involving joints when aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria are very important. In addition, a body temperature of 38°C and above and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 mm/h and above have been accepted as minor criteria. The diagnostic criteria for the first attack have not been changed; three minor findings have been accepted in presence of previous sterptococcal infection in addition to the old cirteria for recurrent attacks. In the final Jones criteria, it has been recommended that patients who do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever should be treated as acute rheumatic fever if another diagnosis is not considered and should be followed up with benzathine penicilin prophylaxis for 12 months. It has been decided that these patients be evaluated 12 months later and a decision for continuation or discontinuation of

  6. Update on diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: 2015 Jones criteria.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler

    2016-03-01

    In the final Jones criteria, different diagnostic criteria were established for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever for low risk and moderate-high risk populations. Turkey was found to be compatible with moderate-high risk populations as a result of regional screenings performed in terms of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The changes in the diagnostic criteria for low-risk populations include subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram as a major criterion in addition to carditis found clinically and a body temperature of 38.5°C and above as a minor criterion. In moderate-high risk populations including Turkey, subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram in addition to clinical carditis is used as a major criterion as a new amendment. In addition, aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria in addition to migratory arthritis and monoarhtralgia is used as a minor criterion among joint findings. However, differentiation of subclinical carditis from physiological valve regurgitation found in healthy individuals and exclusion of other diseases involving joints when aseptic monoarthritis and polyarthralgia are used as major criteria are very important. In addition, a body temperature of 38°C and above and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 mm/h and above have been accepted as minor criteria. The diagnostic criteria for the first attack have not been changed; three minor findings have been accepted in presence of previous sterptococcal infection in addition to the old cirteria for recurrent attacks. In the final Jones criteria, it has been recommended that patients who do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever should be treated as acute rheumatic fever if another diagnosis is not considered and should be followed up with benzathine penicilin prophylaxis for 12 months. It has been decided that these patients be evaluated 12 months later and a decision for continuation or discontinuation of

  7. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth. PMID:27520599

  8. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  9. Plagioclase-Hosted Magnetite Inclusions From the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Scott, G. R.; Renne, P. R.; Wenk, H.

    2004-12-01

    gabbros at both sites. Close examination of the inclusions' interiors using magnetic force microscopy shows no ulvöspinel exsolution as observed in other silicate exsolved titanomagnetites with comparably high coercivities. Consequently, we interpret the high coercivities of the inclusions to be a product of their small size and extreme shape anisotropy. Single crystals of plagioclase demonstrate a strong anisotropy of IRM acquisition (see Scott, et al. this conference). Additionally, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) orientation indexing shows a strongly preferred orientation for plagioclase and pyroxene (with (010)plag and (100)pyr parallel to subhorizontal layering) consistent with gravitational settling within a magma chamber. Thus, there are two anisotropies (silicate preferred orientation and magnetite inclusion remanence) to consider when describing the ancient magnetic field present during the emplacement of the Bushveld.

  10. Semi-inclusive DIS: Factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-10

    In this talk, we will present a QCD factorization theorem for the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. There has been considerable experimental and theoretical interest in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. For example, by studying the polarized and unpolarized SIDIS, one will be able to identify the sea quark distribution and polarization in nucleon, and the experimental results from the HERMES collaboration have revealed nontrivial sea structure in nucleon [1]. More recently, SIDIS opened a new window to study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions and fragmentation functions from the low transverse momentum hadron production. The transverse momentum distribution of the final state hadron is directly related to the transverse momentum dependence of the parton distributions and fragmentation. These studies will provide new opportunities to explore the partonic structure of nucleon, especially the three-dimension distribution of partons inside nucleon. The DIS experiments, including HERMES, COMPAS, and JLab Hall B collaborations, have studied various azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS. In particular, the HERMES collaboration found sizable single spin asymmetries in these processes involving nontrivial QCD effects and hadron structure.

  11. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Denis; O'Sullivan, David; Byrne, Stephen; O'Connor, Marie Noelle; Ryan, Cristin; Gallagher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: screening tool of older people's prescriptions (STOPP) and screening tool to alert to right treatment (START) criteria were first published in 2008. Due to an expanding therapeutics evidence base, updating of the criteria was required. Methods: we reviewed the 2008 STOPP/START criteria to add new evidence-based criteria and remove any obsolete criteria. A thorough literature review was performed to reassess the evidence base of the 2008 criteria and the proposed new criteria. Nineteen experts from 13 European countries reviewed a new draft of STOPP & START criteria including proposed new criteria. These experts were also asked to propose additional criteria they considered important to include in the revised STOPP & START criteria and to highlight any criteria from the 2008 list they considered less important or lacking an evidence base. The revised list of criteria was then validated using the Delphi consensus methodology. Results: the expert panel agreed a final list of 114 criteria after two Delphi validation rounds, i.e. 80 STOPP criteria and 34 START criteria. This represents an overall 31% increase in STOPP/START criteria compared with version 1. Several new STOPP categories were created in version 2, namely antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs, drugs affecting, or affected by, renal function and drugs that increase anticholinergic burden; new START categories include urogenital system drugs, analgesics and vaccines. Conclusion: STOPP/START version 2 criteria have been expanded and updated for the purpose of minimizing inappropriate prescribing in older people. These criteria are based on an up-to-date literature review and consensus validation among a European panel of experts. PMID:25324330

  12. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  13. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors with nuclear inclusion.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Saori; Tsuta, Koji; Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Sasaki, Naoshi; Shibuki, Yasuo; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear inclusion or pseudoinclusion is a peculiar cytological feature, and its recognition in appropriate clinicopathological settings can aid in the diagnosis of several disease entities. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with nuclear pseudoinclusion has been reported. A review of 227 patients who had undergone surgical resection for pulmonary NETs revealed 2 tumors with different mechanisms of nuclear inclusion. To explore the cause of nuclear inclusion, NET with nuclear inclusion was characterized immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Nuclear inclusions were observed in 2 of the 227 (0.9%) patients with pulmonary NETs. The first patient was a 46-year-old woman with small cell carcinoma. Tumor cells with nuclear inclusions were distributed focally. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these inclusions were pseudoinclusions. The second patient was a 62-year-old man with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Nuclear inclusions were observed in the focal area of the tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the intra-nuclear materials consisted of biotin and aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Mutational analysis revealed a CTNNB1 gene mutation. Although very rare, diagnostic errors may be observed in cases of pulmonary NETs with nuclear inclusions. The mechanisms of nuclear inclusion differed, with one due to herniation of the cytoplasm into the nucleus (pseudoinclusion) and the other due to accumulation of biotin resulting from a CTNNB1 gene mutation. PMID:23896262

  14. The crack-inclusion interaction problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.-H.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

  15. The crack-inclusion interaction problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

  16. Using Benefit-Cost Ratio to Select Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Test Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Heather L.; Neely, Stephen T.; Gorga, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Current protocols presumably use criteria that are chosen on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity rates they produce. Such an approach emphasizes test performance, but does not include societal implications of the benefit of early identification. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate an approach to selecting criteria for use in UNHS programs that utilizes BCR to demonstrate an alternative method to audiologists, administrators, and others involved in UNHS protocol decisions. Design Existing data from over 1200 ears were used to analyze benefit-cost ratio (BCR) as a function of DPOAE level. These data were selected because both audiometric and DPOAE data were available on every ear. Although these data were not obtained in newborns, this compromise was necessary because audiometric outcomes (especially in infants with congenital hearing loss) in neonates are either lacking or limited in number. As such, it is important to note that the characteristics of responses from the group of subjects that formed the bases of the present analyses are different from those for neonates. This limits the extent to which actual criterion levels can be selected but should not affect the general approach of using BCR as a framework for considering UNHS criteria. Estimates of the prevalence of congenital hearing loss identified through UNHS in 37 states and U.S. territories in 2004 were used to calculate BCR. A range of estimates for the lifetime monetary benefits and yearly costs for UNHS were used, based on data available in the literature. Still, exact benefits and costs are difficult to know. Both one-step (DPOAE alone) and two-step (DPOAE followed by AABR) screening paradigms were considered in the calculation of BCR. The influence of middle-ear effusion was simulated by incorporating a range of expected DPOAE level reductions into an additional BCR analyses. Results Our calculations indicate that for a range of proposed benefit and cost estimates

  17. The late chlamydial inclusion membrane is not derived from the endocytic pathway and is relatively deficient in host proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, T; Ward, D M; Ajioka, R S; Wyrick, P B; Davis-Kaplan, S R; Davis, C H; Kaplan, J

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular parasites which multiply within infected cells in a membrane-bound structure termed an inclusion. Newly internalized bacteria are surrounded by host plasma membrane; however, the source of membrane for the expansion of the inclusion is unknown. To determine if the membrane for the mature inclusion was derived by fusion with cellular organelles, we stained infected cells with fluorescent or electron-dense markers specific for organelles and examined inclusions for those markers. We observed no evidence for the presence of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, late endosomal, or lysosomal proteins in the inclusion. These data suggest that the expansion of the inclusion membrane, beginning 24 h postinoculation, does not occur by the addition of host proteins resulting from either de novo host synthesis or by fusion with preexisting membranes. To determine the source of the expanding inclusion membrane, antibodies were produced against isolated membranes from Chlamydia-infected mouse cells. The antibodies were demonstrated to be solely against Chlamydia-specified proteins by both immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled extracts and Western blotting (immunoblotting). Techniques were used to semipermeabilize Chlamydia-infected cells without disrupting the permeability of the inclusion, allowing antibodies access to the outer surface of the inclusion membrane. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated a ring-like fluorescence around inclusions in semipermeabilized cells, whereas Triton X-100-permeabilized cells showed staining throughout the inclusion. These studies demonstrate that the inclusion membrane is made up, in part, of Chlamydia-specified proteins and not of existing host membrane proteins. PMID:8751921

  18. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  19. FFTF fuel systems design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, D.S.; Baars, R.E.; Jackson, R.J.; Weber, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to first enumerate the design considerations that were given to the fuel system, then secondly, show how these design allowances, methods, and criteria compare to the subsequent irradiation data. This comparison will show that decisions made by the design team were generally correct and, if in error, tended to be conservative. The FFTF driver fuel assemblies addressed by this paper are composed of the duct, a spacer system, and 217 fuel pins. Each of these subcomponents is described as the criteria are discussed and important parameters noted.

  20. Counit Inclusion in Hydrogenated Polynorbornene Copolymer Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Adam; Showak, Michael; Stella, Andrew; Register, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Crystallization in poly(A-co-B) random copolymers, where homopolymer A is crystalline but B is not, is dictated by the degree to which crystals of A can include B units. Typically, B units are strongly excluded from the A crystals, drastically reducing the degree of crystallinity wc and crystal thickness tc even at modest comonomer contents. However, in some cases, B units can be incorporated into the crystals as defects, significantly diminishing the counits' impact on wc and tc. The extent and consequences of counit inclusion have been investigated in hydrogenated polynorbornene (hPN) with alkylnorbornene counits, synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization followed by hydrogenation. In the case of 5-hexylnorbornene (HxN) counits, a steep decline in wc and tc with counit content is found, indicative of strong exclusion. In contrast, when the counits are 5-methylnorbornene (MeN), extensive inclusion of MeN units into the crystals is observed. hP(N-co-MeN) copolymers maintain appreciable crystallinity above 30 mol% MeN, and the dependence of the melting point Tm on tc tracks that of the hPN homopolymer. Four times as much MeN as HxN (molar basis) is required to produce a comparable drop in wc. Therefore, copolymerization with MeN can be used to tune Tm without drastically reducing wc. Additionally, hPN exhibits a polymorphic transition to a rotationally disordered (RD) crystal at temperature Tcc

  1. What can we learn from melt inclusions in migmatites and granulites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, B.; Acosta-Vigil, A.; Bartoli, O.; Ferrero, S.

    2015-12-01

    With less than two decades of activity, research on melt inclusions (MI) in crystals from rocks that have undergone crustal anatexis - migmatites and granulites - is a recent addition to crustal petrology and geochemistry. Studies on this subject started with glassy inclusions in anatectic crustal enclaves in lavas, and then progressed to regionally metamorphosed and partially melted crustal rocks, where melt inclusions are normally crystallized into a cryptocrystalline aggregate (nanogranitoid). Since the first paper on melt inclusions in the granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt in 2009, reported and studied occurrences are already a few tens. Melt inclusions in migmatites and granulites show many analogies with their more common and long studied counterparts in igneous rocks, but also display very important differences and peculiarities, which are the subject of this review. Microstructurally, melt inclusions in anatectic rocks are small, commonly 10 μm in diameter, and their main mineral host is peritectic garnet, although several other hosts have been observed. Inclusion contents vary from glass in enclaves that were cooled very rapidly from supersolidus temperatures, to completely crystallized material in slowly cooled regional migmatites. The chemical composition of the inclusions can be analyzed combining several techniques (SEM, EMP, NanoSIMS, LA-ICP-MS), but in the case of crystallized inclusions the experimental remelting under confining pressure in a piston cylinder is a prerequisite. The melt is generally granitic and peraluminous, although granodioritic to trondhjemitic compositions have also been found. Being mostly primary in origin, inclusions attest for the growth of their peritectic host in the presence of melt. As a consequence, the inclusions have the unique ability of preserving information on the composition of primary anatectic crustal melts, before they undergo any of the common following changes in their way to produce crustal magmas

  2. Formation of Inclusions in Ti-Stabilized 17Cr Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xue; Sun, Yanhui; Yang, Yindong; Bai, Xuefeng; Barati, Mansoor; Mclean, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The behavior and formation mechanisms of inclusions in Ti-stabilized, 17Cr Austenitic Stainless Steel produced by the ingot casting route were investigated through systematic sampling of liquid steel and rolled products. Analysis methods included total oxygen and nitrogen contents, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that the composition of inclusions was strongly dependent on the types of added alloying agents. During the AOD refining process, after the addition of ferrosilicon alloy and electrolytic manganese, followed by aluminum, the composition of inclusions changed from manganese silicate-rich inclusions to alumina-rich inclusions. After tapping and titanium wire feeding, pure TiN particles and complex inclusions with Al2O3-MgO-TiO x cores containing TiN were found to be the dominant inclusions when [pct Ti] was 0.307 mass pct in the molten steel. These findings were confirmed by thermodynamic calculations which indicated that there was a driving force for TiN inclusions to be formed in the liquid phase due to the high contents of [Ti] and [N] in the molten steel. From the start of casting through to the rolled bar, there was no further change in the composition of inclusions compared to the titanium addition stage. Stringer-shaped TiN inclusions were observed in the rolled bar. These inclusions were elongated along the rolling direction with lengths varying from 17 to 84 µm and could have a detrimental impact on the corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties of the stainless steel products.

  3. Effect of Non-metallic Inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S Alloy on Grain Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonjin; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2016-06-01

    The effect of characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with various compositions at 1473 K (1200 °C) on the microstructure was studied. The ASTM grain size number was determined in as-cast and heated samples by the optical microscopy, and the inclusion types in each sample were determined from composition analysis by field-emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The TiN-based inclusions certainly had a positive effect on the grain refinement. On the other hand, TiS-based inclusions exhibited no influence on the decrease of grain size. In addition, the formation and evolution behavior of inclusions by heating solid-state Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with those locations were clarified. A different change of inclusions in alloys was observed depending on the distribution and composition of inclusions.

  4. Selection Criteria for Communications Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuysen, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Provides criteria for selection of microcomputer communications software for asynchronous (serial) communication and for communication with host computers. The following features are discussed: (1) communication options; (2) transmitting data; (3) receiving data; (4) filtering; (5) translating; (6) special features; and (7) general features such…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

  6. Site Products. Performance Criteria, Interim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Performance criteria for the physical facilities of universities are reviewed to establish an understanding of the principles, policies and requirements that form the basis for an organized approach to building and site planning, development, design and construction. Guidelines are given emphasizing the designer's responsibility to analyze the…

  7. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  8. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  9. Making the case for inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

  10. Updating the research domain criteria: the utility of a motor dimension.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J A; Mittal, V A

    2015-10-01

    Within the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, dimensions of behavior are investigated across diagnoses with the goal of developing a better understanding of their underlying neural substrates. Currently, this framework includes five domains: cognitive, social, arousal/regulatory, negative, and positive valence systems. We argue that the inclusion of a motor systems domain is sorely needed as well. Independent of medication, distinct areas of motor dysfunction (e.g. motor planning/inhibition/learning/coordination, involuntary movements) commonly appear across a number of mental disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, depression) as well as neurological disorders accompanied by significant psychological symptoms (e.g. Parkinson's disease). In addition, motor systems are amenable to study across multiple levels of analysis from the cellular molecular level focusing on cytoarchitechtonics and neurotransmitter systems, to networks and circuits measured using neuroimaging, and finally at the level of overt behavioral performance. Critically, the neural systems associated with motor performance have been relatively well defined, and different circuits have been linked to distinct aspects of motor behavior. As such, they may also be differentially associated with symptoms and motor dysfunction across diagnoses, and be uniquely informative about underlying etiology. Importantly, motor signs can change across stages of illness; they are also often present in the prodromal phases of disease and closely linked with course, suggesting that these behaviors represent a core feature reflective of pathogenic processes. The inclusion of a motor domain would allow researchers to better understand psychopathology more broadly, and may also reveal important contributions to disease processes across diagnoses. PMID:26005109

  11. Additional Improvements to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the feedback of the user community, three major features have been added to the NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE. These features include: first, further improvements to the numerics of the code so that more time steps can be run and so that the code is more stable; second, inclusion and refinement of the roughness prediction model described in an earlier paper; third, inclusion of multi-element trajectory and ice accretion capabilities to LEWICE. This paper will describe each of these advancements in full and make comparisons with the experimental data available. Further refinement of these features and inclusion of additional features will be performed as more feedback is received.

  12. 10 CFR 60.122 - Siting criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Siting criteria. 60.122 Section 60.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Siting Criteria § 60.122 Siting criteria. (a)(1) A geologic setting shall exhibit an appropriate combination of the...

  13. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  14. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  15. 10 CFR 710.8 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 710.8 Section 710.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Criteria...

  16. 40 CFR 125.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria. 125.11 Section 125.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Criteria for Issuance of Permits to Aquaculture Projects § 125.11 Criteria. (a) No...

  17. 40 CFR 125.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria. 125.11 Section 125.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Criteria for Issuance of Permits to Aquaculture Projects § 125.11 Criteria. (a) No...

  18. 40 CFR 125.11 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria. 125.11 Section 125.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Criteria for Issuance of Permits to Aquaculture Projects § 125.11 Criteria. (a) No...

  19. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  20. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  1. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  2. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  3. Social inclusion and the Fatosphere: the role of an online weblogging community in fostering social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Dickins, Marissa; Browning, Colette; Feldman, Susan; Thomas, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are one of the most salient issues within society today, and the stigmatisation of overweight individuals is prevalent and widespread. Utilising interviews with 44 individuals who blog within an online fat acceptance community known as the Fatosphere, participants' perceptions of inclusion and exclusion were examined within their offline and online environments. Additionally, the effect this had on their offline lives was examined. Participants described a profound sense of exclusion within their offline lives through three agencies: the medicalisation of 'fatness', the weight loss industry and the media, which echoed descriptions of moral judgement. Furthermore, a sense of inclusion was described within the Fatosphere through the protection and support that they found within this 'safe space'. The effects of the Fatosphere influenced their lives in both negative and positive ways, allowing them to better deal with stigma and discrimination, but sometimes effecting their offline relationships in a negative manner. The Fatosphere provides a unique opportunity for corpulent individuals to engage in a community that is removed from the prominent weight-related discourse within modern society. PMID:26799865

  4. A retrospective cohort study identifying the principal pathological features useful in the diagnosis of inclusion body myositis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Stefen; Squier, Waney; Sewry, Caroline; Hanna, Michael; Hilton-Jones, David; Holton, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current pathological diagnostic criteria for sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) lack sensitivity. Using immunohistochemical techniques abnormal protein aggregates have been identified in IBM, including some associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Our objective was to investigate the diagnostic utility of a number of markers of protein aggregates together with mitochondrial and inflammatory changes in IBM. Design Retrospective cohort study. The sensitivity of pathological features was evaluated in cases of Griggs definite IBM. The diagnostic potential of the most reliable features was then assessed in clinically typical IBM with rimmed vacuoles (n=15), clinically typical IBM without rimmed vacuoles (n=9) and IBM mimics—protein accumulation myopathies containing rimmed vacuoles (n=7) and steroid-responsive inflammatory myopathies (n=11). Setting Specialist muscle services at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London. Results Individual pathological features, in isolation, lacked sensitivity and specificity. However, the morphology and distribution of p62 aggregates in IBM were characteristic and in a myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, the combination of characteristic p62 aggregates and increased sarcolemmal and internal major histocompatibility complex class I expression or endomysial T cells were diagnostic for IBM with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 100%. In an inflammatory myopathy lacking rimmed vacuoles, the presence of mitochondrial changes was 100% sensitive and 73% specific for IBM; characteristic p62 aggregates were specific (91%), but lacked sensitivity (44%). Conclusions We propose an easily applied diagnostic algorithm for the pathological diagnosis of IBM. Additionally our findings support the hypothesis that many of the pathological features considered typical of IBM develop later in the disease, explaining their poor sensitivity at disease presentation and

  5. Chorea as a clinical feature of the basophilic inclusion body disease subtype of fused-in-sarcoma-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ito; Kobayashi, Zen; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Nonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Naoya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Higashi, Shinji; Katsuse, Omi; Hosokawa, Masato; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Choreoathetoid involuntary movements are rarely reported in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), suggesting their exclusion as a supportive feature in clinical diagnostic criteria for FTLD. Here, we identified three cases of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) that display chorea with fused in sarcoma (FUS)-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS) and the basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) subtype. We determined the behavioral and cognitive features in this group that were distinct from other FTLD-FUS cases. We also reviewed the clinical records of 72 FTLD cases, and clarified additional clinical features that are predictive of the BIBD pathology. Symptom onset in the three patients with chorea was at 44.0 years of age (±12.0 years), and occurred in the absence of a family history of dementia. The cases were consistent with a clinical form of FTD known as bvFTD, as well as reduced neurological muscle tone in addition to chorea. The three patients showed no or mild parkinsonism, which by contrast, increased substantially in the other FTLD cases until a later stage of disease. The three patients exhibited severe caudate atrophy, which has previously been reported as a histological feature distinguishing FTLD-FUS from FTLD-tau or FTLD-TAR DNA-binding protein 43. Thus, our findings suggest that the clinical feature of choreoathetosis in bvFTD might be associated with FTLD-FUS, and in particular, with the BIBD subtype. PMID:27044537

  6. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public

    PubMed Central

    Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms ‘Interstitial Cystitis’ and ‘Painful Bladder Syndrome’ from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the ‘Google Trends’ search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  7. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A

    2015-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms 'Interstitial Cystitis' and 'Painful Bladder Syndrome' from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the 'Google Trends' search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  8. Modeling Manganese Silicate Inclusion Composition Changes during Ladle Treatment Using FactSage Macros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Kumar, Deepoo; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2016-07-01

    This work investigated the use of FactSage macros to simulate steel-slag and steel-inclusion reaction kinetics in silicon-manganese killed steels, and predict oxide inclusion composition changes during ladle treatment. These changes were assessed experimentally using an induction furnace to simulate deoxidation and slag addition. The average steel mass transfer coefficient for the experimental setup was calculated from the analyzed aluminum pick-up by steel. Average oxide inclusion composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the physical state (solid or liquid) of oxide inclusions in selected samples. The changes in the chemical compositions of the oxide inclusions and the steel agreed with the FactSage macro simulations.

  9. Selection Criteria and Current Issues in Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an ideal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because it not only resects HCCs but it also replaces the underlying damaged liver with normal tissue. However, the selection criteria are still a matter of debate. After the introduction of the Milan criteria, some expanded criteria focusing on tumor size and number have been proposed. In addition, new expanded criteria considering tumor biology have been proposed using tumor markers and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. This review summarizes the selection criteria in LT for HCC and introduces current issues focusing on the treatment for hepatitis C virus infection and the significance of sarcopenia in this field. PMID:27386430

  10. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

  11. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  12. Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling. An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…

  13. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  14. Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…

  15. FUS immunogold labeling TEM analysis of the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease: a frontotemporal lobar degeneration with FUS proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Page, Tristan; Gitcho, Michael A; Mosaheb, Sabrina; Carter, Deborah; Chakraverty, Sumi; Perry, Robert H; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Ferrer, Isidre; Goate, Alison M; Cairns, Nigel J; Thorpe, Julian R

    2011-11-01

    Fused in sarcoma (FUS)-immunoreactive neuronal and glial inclusions define a novel molecular pathology called FUS proteinopathy. FUS has been shown to be a component of inclusions of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with FUS mutation and three frontotemporal lobar degeneration entities, including neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). The pathogenic role of FUS is unknown. In addition to FUS, many neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) of NIFID contain aggregates of α-internexin and neurofilament proteins. Herein, we have shown that: (1) FUS becomes relatively insoluble in NIFID and there are no apparent posttranslational modifications, (2) there are no pathogenic abnormalities in the FUS gene in NIFID, and (3) immunoelectron microscopy demonstrates the fine structural localization of FUS in NIFID which has not previously been described. FUS localized to euchromatin, and strongly with paraspeckles, in nuclei, consistent with its RNA/DNA-binding functions. NCI of varying morphologies were observed. Most frequent were the "loosely aggregated cytoplasmic inclusions," 81% of which had moderate or high levels of FUS immunoreactivity. Much rarer "compact cytoplasmic inclusions" and "tangled twine ball inclusions" were FUS-immunoreactive at their granular peripheries, or heavily FUS-positive throughout, respectively. Thus, FUS may aggregate in the cytoplasm and then admix with neuronal intermediate filament accumulations. PMID:21603978

  16. Investigation of Oxide Inclusions and Primary Carbonitrides in Inconel 718 Superalloy Refined through Electroslag Remelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Chun; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Guo, Han-Jie; Wang, Fei; Ren, Hao; Feng, Di

    2012-12-01

    The effect of remelting atmosphere and calcium treatment during electroslag remelting (ESR) of Inconel 718 superalloy on the oxide inclusions and primary carbonitrides was investigated. The results show that after ESR refining combined with calcium treatment, the original oxide inclusions in the electrode, mainly MgO·Al2O3 spinels and some MgO inclusions, were modified to CaO-Al2O3 system inclusions or the inclusions of MgO·Al2O3 spinel core surrounded by CaO-MgO-Al2O3 system inclusion layer. Without the calcium treatment in ESR process, all the oxide inclusions in superalloy ingots are MgO·Al2O3 spinels. All the oxide inclusions in ESR ingots act as the nucleation site for carbonitride (Nb,Ti)CN with two-layer structure precipitation, except for those with a single (Nb,Ti)CN layer containing a small amount of Ti and N in the ingot refined by a proper amount of calcium addition in ESR process. The carbonitrides (Nb,Ti)CN formed directly on the oxide inclusion have a small amount of Nb and C as well as a relatively fixed atomic ratio of Nb/Ti (about 0.6:1). There is a Nb-rich and C-rich (Nb,Ti)CN layer on the pre-existing (Nb,Ti)CN formed on the oxide inclusion. The size of the observed carbonitrides is in the range of 5 μm to 15 μm. The calcium treatment in the ESR process has a significant effect on the morphology of carbonitrides in superalloy ingot due to modification of oxide inclusions by Ca-treatment resulting in the change of precipitation and growth conditions for carbonitrides. The morphologies of carbonitrides were changed from clustered block or single octahedral to skeleton-like after calcium treatment.

  17. What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's Working, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1) educational…

  18. How Does Supervision Support Inclusive Teacherhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alila, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Supervision is a multidimensional concept and phenomenon. In this study, the advantages of supervision and its development in inclusive teacherhood was studied. Inclusive teacherhood means a teacher's professional development and the school culture's change toward participatory school for all students. The study analyzed the views of supervisors…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  20. Metaphors of Literacy: Dialogues in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causarano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of metaphors in education and in inclusive settings in particular. Metaphors are seen as the fabric of collaboration through dialogue across the curriculum. The article analyzes the dialogues among the Language Arts, Social Studies, and inclusion teacher in a large middle school in the Southwest of the United…

  1. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  2. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

  3. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  4. International Perspectives on Inclusion: Concluding Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses overall trends and commonalities among previous articles on inclusion in the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. It concludes that inclusive education must be viewed in a broader context that looks at school reform and the societal context. Teacher education is stressed.…

  5. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  6. The Challenges of Inclusive Education in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehbi, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Lebanon by four non-governmental organizations, primarily on the topic of inclusion of people with disabilities in education, with a secondary focus on inclusion in employment. This article reports on some of the findings of the assessment process that was four months in duration and aimed, through…

  7. Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

  8. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  9. Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

  10. Culturally Inclusive Curriculum in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridham, Bruce; Martin, Dona; Walker, Kym; Rosengren, Rosie; Wadley, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The Australian National Program Standards for Teacher Education prioritises knowledge of culturally inclusive practices and challenges the educational community to present research on well-structured, inclusive, cross-curricula education partnerships. This article meets this challenge as it explores a core unit of work for undergraduate teachers…

  11. Standards & Inclusion: Can We Have Both?. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    Designed for regular and special educators, this 40-minute video profiles inclusive schools from around the country that have successfully incorporated academic standards. It addresses many of the critical issues facing educators who are supporting students with disabilities in inclusive settings. Topics discussed include: (1) the consequences of…

  12. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  13. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  14. Inclusive Education: A Series of Issue Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Coalition on School Inclusion, Springfield.

    Thirteen brief papers address issues in inclusive education, with special emphasis on concerns and applications in Illinois. The following issues are discussed: (1) the relationship of the inclusive schools concept to that of providing a continuum of alternative placement options; (2) needed changes in current funding of special education to…

  15. Inclusion: Something More Than Sitting Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Mustafa Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Awareness about students with learning difficulty brought us to inclusive learning environments. The acceptance was to build collaborative atmospheres in the class. Unfortunately, when teachers are not enthusiastic and adequate to develop the interaction, the inclusive learning environment never occurs. This conclusion bases on this studies…

  16. Classroom Groups: Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Teesue H.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular classroom group. Analyzes the structure of the classroom group to determine its receptivity to students with disabilities. Presents special problems that might be encountered during inclusion and possibilities for improving classroom group skills. (LKS)

  17. Case Studies for Inclusive Schools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Peggy L.

    2005-01-01

    Case Studies for "Inclusive Schools, Second Edition" presents a sampling of case studies that contain realistic problems concerning inclusion issues for teacher education students to solve. This format was chosen because the case study approach to learning is gaining in popularity as it provides students with an opportunity to apply information…

  18. Design, Development and Implementation of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2006-01-01

    In inclusive education different pupils, including pupils with special educational needs and high ability pupils, can be stimulated to learn according to their capacities and potentials. The research question concentrates on the design features of inclusive education that will optimally promote the motivation and learning processes and outcomes of…

  19. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  20. Tensions around Inclusion: Reframing the Moral Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Jennifer; Murphy, Elizabeth; Almack, Kathryn; Harvey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inclusion is one of four policies for people with disabilities in the UK. Criticisms of its three key attributes--mainstreaming, independent living and employment--are reviewed. Methods: This study of 28 young people, most with severe intellectual disabilities, investigated engagement with inclusion at their transition to adult…

  1. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will

    2016-01-01

    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  2. Beyond Political Correctness: Toward the Inclusive University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Stephen, Ed.; Weir, Lorna, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the history of the discourse over political correctness (PC) in Canadian academia, focusing on the neoconservative backlash to affirmative action, inclusive policies, and feminist and anti-racist teaching in the classroom. It includes: (1) "Introduction: Political Correctness and the Inclusive University"…

  3. Inclusive Education: A Servant-Leadership Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The concept of inclusive education is common to the Canadian educational system and involves service to the students. According to Young and Levin, "The provision of appropriate education to meet the needs of each student is increasingly accepted as a right in Canadian education." Bloom, Perlmutter and Burnell define inclusion as "a philosophy…

  4. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  5. The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

  6. Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

  7. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  8. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  9. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  10. Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Shannon D.; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.; Moody, Raymond L.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing curriculum that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) people has the potential to create an equitable learning environment. In order to learn more about students' experiences of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum, 26 high school students with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, and gender identities…

  11. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  12. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  13. Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

  14. Inclusive Schooling Policy: An Educational Detective Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Julianne

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the Salamanca statement (UNESCO 1994), inclusive schooling has formed a growing part of the deliberations of the special education community. Inclusive schooling research in Australia in the main continues to reproduce traditions of the special education field, emphasising the dominant psychological perspectives that have…

  15. Inclusive Education: Is This Horse a Trojan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slee, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and elsewhere, governments are expending considerable effort in the production of inclusive education policy texts, resources allocation models, and programs. The author notes that despite of the analytic power and the political intent of inclusive education as a counterpoint to special education, its appropriation is imminent if not…

  16. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  17. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  18. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  19. International Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has become a universally debated topic in education. More schools all over the world are seeking to use inclusion as their main service delivery model for students with disabilities. Much research has been conducted globally to gain insights into general education…

  20. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…