Science.gov

Sample records for additional information derived

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  5. 17 CFR 230.408 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.408 Additional information. (a) In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement,...

  6. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  7. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  11. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  12. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging. PMID:26721993

  13. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  14. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  15. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information. 80.7 Section 80.7... § 80.7 Additional information. If an issuer's or domestic concern's submission does not contain all of the information required by § 80.6, the Department of Justice may request whatever...

  16. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms—causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning—define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate—purification—singles out quantum theory within this class.

  17. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2011-07-15

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms - causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning - define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate - purification - singles out quantum theory within this class.

  18. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  19. Fuel additives derived from amido-amines

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1993-08-24

    A process is described for producing a dispersant useful as an oil additive which comprises: (a) providing a long chain hydrocarbyl substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid producing material formed by reacting an olefin polymer of C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] monoolefin having a number average molecular weight of about 300 to 10,000 and at least one of a C[sub 4] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated dicarboxylic acid material and a C[sub 3] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated monocarboxylic acid material, said acid producing material having an average of at least about 0.3 dicarboxylic acid producing moieties, per molecule of said olefin polymer present in the reaction mixture used to form said acid producing material; (b) providing an amido-amine compound having at least one primary amino group prepared by reacting at least one polyamine with at least one alpha, beta-unsaturated compound of the formula: R[sup 1]-(C-R[sup 2])[double bond](C-R[sup 3])-(C[double bond]X)-Y wherein X is sulfur or oxygen, Y is -OR[sup 4],-SR[sup 4], or -NR[sup 4](R[sup 5]), and R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], R[sup 4] and R[sup 5] are the same or different and are hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl; and (c) contacting the said acid producing material with said amido-amine compound under conditions sufficient to effect reaction of at least a portion of the primary amino groups on said amido-amine compound with at least a portion of the acid-producing groups in said acid producing material, to form said dispersant.

  20. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  1. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  2. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  3. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  4. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  5. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  6. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  7. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  8. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  9. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  10. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  11. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  12. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  13. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Procedures to Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  14. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information. 1008.39 Section 1008.39 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion §...

  15. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments..., with respect to individual administrations, by successfully completing coordination agreements. Any... terms and conditions as required to effect coordination of the frequency assignments with...

  16. 17 CFR 240.12b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 General Requirements As to Contents § 240.12b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a statement or report, there shall...

  17. 17 CFR 270.8b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 270.8b...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement or report, there...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  19. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2 Section... Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted timely, some, but not all of the information required in § 3430.4-1 of this title, the authorized...

  20. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  1. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  2. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  3. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  4. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Processing of Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional...

  5. A quinozolinone derivative as a novel rubber additive

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B.C.; Khanra, T.K.; Maiti, S.; Adhikari, B.

    1993-12-31

    A new quinozolinone derivative containing -NH and -SH functional sites has been developed as a novel antioxidant for diene rubbers. A sulfenamide derivative was prepared from the above compound which acts as an excellent accelerator cum antioxidant for natural rubber. This sulfenamide compound even when used at 50% concentration of the combined amount of commercial accelerator (CBS) and antioxidant (MBI) exhibits comparable accelerating characteristics and superior antiaging performance in the vulcanization of natural rubber. This dual function sulfenamide promises to offer better dispersion in the rubber matrix than two separate chemicals - one accelerator and the other antioxidant - used commercially.

  6. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  8. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... particular language of the proposed statement of charges as to which additional information is needed. If...

  9. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  10. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  11. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  12. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  13. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  14. 10 CFR 71.39 - Requirement for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for additional information. 71.39 Section 71.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.39 Requirement for additional information. The...

  15. Micropatterned, clickable culture substrates enable in situ spatiotemporal control of human PSC-derived neural tissue morphology† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08665a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, G. T.; Sha, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a modular culture platform that enables spatiotemporal control of the morphology of 2D neural tissues derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) by simply adding clickable peptides to the media. It should be widely applicable for elucidating how spatiotemporal changes in morphology and substrate biochemistry regulate tissue morphogenesis. PMID:25688384

  16. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  17. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  18. Can metabolomics in addition to genomics add to prognostic and predictive information in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Howell, Anthony

    2010-11-16

    Genomic data from breast cancers provide additional prognostic and predictive information that is beginning to be used for patient management. The question arises whether additional information derived from other 'omic' approaches such as metabolomics can provide additional information. In an article published this month in BMC Cancer, Borgan et al. add metabolomic information to genomic measures in breast tumours and demonstrate, for the first time, that it may be possible to further define subgroups of patients which could be of value clinically. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/628.

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral β-alkynyl carbonyl and sulfonyl derivatives via sequential palladium and copper catalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01724j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, James T.; Taft, Benjamin R.; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a full account detailing the development of a sequential catalysis strategy for the synthesis of chiral β-alkynyl carbonyl and sulfonyl derivatives. A palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of terminal alkyne donors with acetylenic ester, ketone, and sulfone acceptors generates stereodefined enynes in high yield. These compounds are engaged in an unprecedented, regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate reduction. The process exhibits a high functional group tolerance, and this enables the synthesis of a broad range of chiral products from simple, readily available alkyne precursors. The utility of the method is demonstrated through the elaboration of the chiral β-alkynyl products into a variety of different molecular scaffolds. Its value in complex molecule synthesis is further validated through a concise, enantioselective synthesis of AMG 837, a potent GPR40 receptor agonist. PMID:27746892

  20. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  1. 21 CFR 807.26 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FDA electronic device registration and listing system. Electronic submissions of such information must...) MEDICAL DEVICES ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND DEVICE LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS AND INITIAL IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Procedures for Device Establishments § 807.26 Additional listing information. (a) Each owner...

  2. Value Addition in Information Technology and Literacy: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanghera, Kamaljeet K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the value addition in students' information communication and technology (ICT) literacy level and confidence in using technology after completing a general education information technology course at a four-year university. An online survey was created to examine students' perceptions. The findings revealed…

  3. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  4. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  5. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  6. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  7. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  8. 46 CFR 535.606 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for additional information. 535.606 Section 535.606 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984...

  9. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  13. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  14. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  15. 49 CFR 235.12 - Additional required information-prints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OR MATERIAL MODIFICATION OF A SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.12... application should be shown uncolored. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional required information-prints....

  16. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  17. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  18. Enantioselective addition of diphenyl phosphonate to ketimines derived from isatins catalyzed by binaphthyl-modified organocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hee Seung; Kim, Yubin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chiral binaphthyl-modified squaramide-catalyzed enantioselective addition of diphenyl phosphonate to ketimines derived from isatins has been achieved. This method affords practical and efficient access to chiral 3-amino-3-phosphonyl-substituted oxindole derivatives in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). PMID:27559405

  19. Young children's use of derived fact strategies for addition and subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Dowker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Forty-four children between 6;0 and 7;11 took part in a study of derived fact strategy use. They were assigned to addition and subtraction levels on the basis of calculation pretests. They were then given Dowker's (1998) test of derived fact strategies in addition, involving strategies based on the Identity, Commutativity, Addend +1, Addend −1, and addition/subtraction Inverse principles; and test of derived fact strategies in subtraction, involving strategies based on the Identity, Minuend +1, Minuend −1, Subtrahend +1, Subtrahend −1, Complement and addition/subtraction Inverse principles. The exact arithmetic problems given varied according to the child's previously assessed calculation level and were selected to be just a little too difficult for the child to solve unaided. Children were given the answer to a problem and then asked to solve another problem that could be solved quickly by using this answer, together with the principle being assessed. The children also took the WISC Arithmetic subtest. Strategies differed greatly in difficulty, with Identity being the easiest, and the Inverse and Complement principles being most difficult. The Subtrahend +1 and Subtrahend −1 problems often elicited incorrect strategies based on an overextension of the principles of addition to subtraction. It was concluded that children may have difficulty with understanding and applying the relationships between addition and subtraction. Derived fact strategy use was significantly related to both calculation level and to WISC Arithmetic scaled score. PMID:24431996

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Primary-tertiary diamine-catalyzed Michael addition of ketones to isatylidenemalononitrile derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshay; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Simple primary-tertiary diamines easily derived from natural primary amino acids were used to catalyze the Michael addition of ketones with isatylidenemalononitrile derivatives. Diamine 1a in combination with D-CSA as an additive provided Michael adducts in high yield (up to 94%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99%). The catalyst 1a was successfully used to catalyze the three-component version of the reaction by a domino Knoevenagel-Michael sequence. The Michael adduct 4a was transformed into spirooxindole 6 by a reduction with sodium borohydride in a highly enantioselective manner.

  2. Increased loss of soil-derived carbon in response to litter addition and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C.; Krull, E. S.; Sanderman, J.; Farrell, M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to predict the response of soil organic matter (SOM) to increasing temperatures, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between OM quality, OM availability, and microbial community structure and function is needed. We used short-term incubations of 13C enriched (20 atom%) fresh and pre-incubated eucalyptus leaf litter in an Australian woodland soil to determine changes in allocation of C to various OM pools, as dictated by microbial activity, in response to temperature and substrate quality. The quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were measured along with the quantity of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen at four destructive time points. The quantity and isotopic composition of respired CO2 was measured throughout the incubation. Although the temperature sensitivities of the two litters were similar (despite different chemical compositions), soil-C was significantly more temperature sensitive than litter-C. We also observed negative priming of soil-C in the fresh litter treatment and positive priming of soil-C in the pre-incubated litter treatment relative to the control (no litter addition). The extent of positive priming in the pre-incubated litter treatment also increased significantly with temperature. The quantity of soil-derived DOC was consistent between both litter treatments and the control, confirming that differences in soil-C availability were not controlling the observed differences in soil-C mineralization. In contrast, dissolved N was significantly higher in the pre-incubated litter treatment and increased with temperature, suggesting enhanced SOM decomposition in the pre-incubated litter treatment resulted in greater N cycling, production, or destabilization from SOM. The pre-incubated litter treatment also had greater proportions of PLFA that predominately cycled soil-derived OM (gram-positive bacteria), and increased in response to elevated temperature

  3. Additive-free decarboxylative coupling of cinnamic acid derivatives in water: synthesis of allyl amines.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungho; Lee, Sunwoo

    2015-03-01

    The first example of an additive-free decarboxylative coupling of cinnamic acid derivatives with formaldehyde and amines to afford the corresponding allyl amines is reported. This reaction is highly environmentally friendly because it was conducted in H2O and without any additives, releasing only CO2 and H2O as byproducts. This reaction showed a broad substrate scope including cyclic and acyclic amines and high functional group tolerance. Moreover, phenyl dienoic acid participated in this type of decarboxylative coupling reaction.

  4. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tentative denial letter. At the same time, the applicant should indicate generally the type of information... penalty of perjury attesting to the truth and correctness of the information provided, which is dated...

  5. Evaluation of a biomass-derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H.

    1995-12-31

    A biomass derived oil referred to as sludge derived oil (SDO) has been evaluated to determine its potential use as an asphalt cement additive. The oil is derived from a relatively low temperature (450{degrees}C) atmospheric pressure thermoconversion process called Enersludge. The Enersludge process converts dried sewage sludge to a liquid hydrocarbon fraction. Relatively high concentrations of polar groups were identified in extensive characterization tests which indicated SDO could be utilized as an additive for asphalt. The oil`s unique properties make it a antistripping additive. Also, its strong affinity for heavy asphaltic material makes it an ideal rejuvenating agent for recycled asphalt. The SDO performed as well as the commercial antistripping asphalt additives tested in static immersion stripping tests. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the strength of asphalt concrete produced using SDO is similar to that produced using commercial additives. In September 1994 SDO was used to pave a test strip in Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the work done at ERL/CANMET to develop SDO for antistripping applications.

  6. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  7. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  8. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions; Extension... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on food additive petitions regarding... of information technology. Food Additive Petitions and Investigational Food Additive Exemptions,...

  9. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  10. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  11. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved...

  12. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State is taking to ensure equitable access to, and equitable participation in, the part C statewide system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require. (Approved by Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  13. Photochemical electron transfer mediated addition of naphthylamine derivatives to electron-deficient alkenes.

    PubMed

    Jahjah, Rabih; Gassama, Abdoulaye; Dumur, Frédéric; Marinković, Siniša; Richert, Sabine; Landgraf, Stephan; Lebrun, Aurélien; Cadiou, Cyril; Sellès, Patrice; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Using photochemical electron transfer, N,N-dimethylnaphthylamine derivatives are added to α,β-unsaturated carboxylates. The addition takes place exclusively in the α-position of electron-deficient alkenes and mainly in the 4-position of N,N-dimethylnaphthalen-1-amine. A minor regioisomer results from the addition in the 5-position of this naphthylamine. A physicochemical study reveals that the fluorescence quenching of N,N-dimethylnaphthalen-1-amine is diffusion-controlled and that the back electron transfer is highly efficient. Therefore no transformation is observed at lower concentrations. To overcome this limitation and to induce an efficient transformation, minor amounts of water or another proton donor as well as an excess of the naphthylamine derivative are necessary. A mechanism involving a contact radical ion pair is discussed. Isotopic labeling experiments reveal that no hydrogen is directly transferred between the substrates. The hydrogen transfer to the furanone moiety observed in the overall reaction therefore results from an exchange with the reaction medium. An electrophilic oxoallyl radical generated from the furanone reacts with the naphthylamine used in excess. Concerning some mechanistic details, the reaction is compared with radical and electrophilic aromatic substitutions. The transformation was carried out with a variety of electron-deficient alkenes. Sterically hindered furanone derivatives are less reactive under standard conditions. In a first experiment, such a compound was transformed using heterogeneous electron transfer photocatalysis with TiO(2).

  14. Multifunctional fuel additives derived from aminodiols to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel composition comprising a major amount of a combustible liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor low-temperature properties improving amount of from about 0.001% to about 10 wt % based on the total weight of the composition of an additive comprising a product of reaction made by reacting comonomers. It comprises: an aminodiol or combination or mixture of aminodiols with a reactive acid/anhydride product alone or in combination with other monomers derived from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent.

  15. Additional boundary condition for electric quadrupolar continua derived from Maxwell's differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghjian, A. D.; Silveirinha, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    Electric quadrupolar continua satisfying a physically reasonable constitutive relation supports both an evanescent and a propagating eigenmode. Thus, three interface boundary conditions, two plus an "additional boundary condition" (ABC), are required to obtain a unique solution to a plane wave incident from free space upon an electric quadrupolar half-space. By generalizing the constitutive relation to hold within the transition layer between the free space and the quadrupolar continuum, we derive these three boundary conditions directly from Maxwell's differential equations. The three boundary conditions are used to determine the unique solution to the boundary value problem of an electric quadrupolar slab. Numerical computations show that for long wavelengths, two previous boundary conditions, derived under the assumption that the electric quadrupolarization contains negligible effective delta functions in the transition layer, produce an accurate solution by neglecting the evanescent eigenmode, that is, by assuming it decays within the transition layer. It appears that the general method used to derive the electric quadrupolar ABC can be applied to obtain the boundary conditions for any other realizable constitutive relation in a Maxwellian multipole continuum.

  16. Graphene quantum dots as additives in capillary electrophoresis for separation cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaming; Bi, Qing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Xia; Dong, Shuqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-05-01

    A facile capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the separation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives (3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as additives with direct ultraviolet (UV) detection is reported. GQDs were synthesized by chemical oxidization and further purified by a macroporous resin column to remove salts (Na2SO4 and NaNO3) and other impurities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that GQDs have a relatively uniform particle size (2.3 nm). Taking into account the structural features of GQDs, cinnamic acid and its derivatives were adopted as model compounds to investigate whether GQDs can be used to improve CE separations. The separation performance of GQDs used as additives in CE was studied through variations of pH, concentration of the background electrolyte (BGE), and contents of GQDs. The results indicated that excellent separation can be achieved in less than 18 min, which is mainly attributed to the interaction between the analytes and GQDs, especially isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, and cinnamic acid.

  17. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  18. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial..., Table 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Additional Information for Initial Notification of... applies to you. For . . . You shall provide this additional information . . . 1. Identification...

  19. The force-field derivation and application of explosive/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The inter-molecular force-field across RDX/(paraffin, fluoropolymer) interfaces are derived from first-principles calculated energies under the GGA+vdW functional. Based on the force-field, the polycrystal structures of mixture explosives are obtained, and a set of thermodynamic properties are calculated, including the elastic constants, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, isothermal curve and the Hugoniot curve. The results are in good agreement with the available experiments, and provide a reasonable prediction about the properties of plastic bonded explosives. We find that the thermal expansion coefficient of a multi-component explosive is not only determined by the properties of the components, but is also affected by the thermal stress at the explosive/additive interfaces.

  20. Tailoring of Boehmite-Derived Aluminosilicate Aerogel Structure and Properties: Influence of Ti Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Guo, Haiquan; Sheets, Erik J.; Miller, Derek R.; Newlin, Katy N.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminosilicate aerogels offer potential for extremely low thermal conductivities at temperatures greater than 900 C, beyond where silica aerogels reach their upper temperature limits. Aerogels have been synthesized at various Al:Si ratios, including mullite compositions, using Boehmite (AlOOH) as the Al source, and tetraethoxy orthosilicate as the Si precursor. The Boehmite-derived aerogels are found to form by a self-assembly process of AlOOH crystallites, with Si-O groups on the surface of an alumina skeleton. Morphology, surface area and pore size varies with the crystallite size of the starting Boehmite powder, as well as with synthesis parameters. Ternary systems, including Al-Si-Ti aerogels incorporating a soluble Ti precursor, are possible with careful control of pH. The addition of Ti influences sol viscosity, gelation time pore structure and pore size distribution, as well as phase formation on heat treatment.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    PubMed

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations.

  2. Automatic derivation of formal software specifications from informal descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1991-01-01

    SPECIFIER, an interactive system which derives formal specifications of data types and programs from their informal descriptions, is described. The process of deriving formal specifications is viewed as a problem-solving process. The system uses common problem-solving techniques such as schemas, analogy, and difference-based reasoning to derive formal specifications. If an informal description is a commonly occurring operation for which the system has a schema, then the formal specification is derived by instantiating the schema. If there is no such schema, SPECIFIER tries to find a previously solved problem which is analogous to the current problem. If the problem found is directly analogous to the current problem, it applies an analogy mapping to obtain a formal specification. On the other hand, if the analogy found is only approximate, it solves the directly analogous part of the problem by analogy and performs difference-based reasoning using the remaining (unmatched) parts to transform the formal specification obtained by analogy to a formal specification for the entire original problem.

  3. Derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A nonlinear stationary homogeneous digital filter DIRSIT (derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique) is investigated. The spectrum of a quasi-linear discrete describing function (DDF) to DIRSIT is obtained by a digital measuring scheme. A finite impulse response (FIR) approximation to the quasi-linearization is then obtained. Finally, DIRSIT is compared with its quasi-linear approximation and with a standard digital differentiating technique. Results indicate the effects of DIRSIT on a wide variety of practical signals.

  4. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...

  5. Highly Functionalized Cyclopentane Derivatives by Tandem Michael Addition/Radical Cyclization/Oxygenation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, Peter G; Jahn, Ullrich

    2015-06-26

    Densely functionalized cyclopentane derivatives with up to four consecutive stereocenters are assembled by a tandem Michael addition/single-electron transfer oxidation/radical cyclization/oxygenation strategy mediated by ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, a recyclable, less toxic single-electron transfer oxidant. Ester enolates were coupled with α-benzylidene and α-alkylidene β-dicarbonyl compounds with switchable diastereoselectivity. This pivotal steering element subsequently controls the diastereoselectivity of the radical cyclization step. The substitution pattern of the radical cyclization acceptor enables a switch of the cyclization mode from a 5-exo pattern for terminally substituted olefin units to a 6-endo mode for internally substituted acceptors. The oxidative anionic/radical strategy also allows efficient termination by oxygenation with the free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl, and two C-C bonds and one C-O bond are thus formed in the sequence. A stereochemical model is proposed that accounts for all of the experimental results and allows the prediction of the stereochemical outcome. Further transformations of the synthesized cyclopentanes are reported.

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color... and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a color... because of the deficiencies involved: (1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted...

  7. 42 CFR 435.955 - Additional requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements regarding information... requirements regarding information released by a Federal agency. (a) Unless waived under paragraph (d) of this section, based on information received from a computerized data match in which information on...

  8. Seawater-derived rare earth element addition to abyssal peridotites during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisby, Carl; Bizimis, Michael; Mallick, Soumen

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized abyssal peridotites are evidence for active communication between the Earth's hydrosphere and the upper mantle, where exchange and retention of both major and trace elements occur. Bulk rock Nd isotopes in serpentinized abyssal peridotites imply interaction of seawater with the peridotite. In contrast, the Nd isotopes of clinopyroxenes from serpentinized abyssal peridotites retain their primary magmatic signature. It is currently unclear if, how and where seawater-derived Nd and other REE are being added or exchanged with the mantle peridotite minerals during serpentinization. To remedy this knowledge gap, we present in situ trace and major element concentrations, bulk rock and sequential leaching experiment trace element concentrations as well as Nd, Sr isotope data on refertilized and depleted serpentinized abyssal peridotites from the Southwest Indian Ridge. The secondary serpentine matrix and magnetite veins in these peridotites have elevated LREE concentrations, with variable negative Ce anomalies and large Rb, Sr, Pb and U enrichments that resemble seawater trace element patterns. The LREE concentrations in the serpentine phase are higher than those expected for the primary mantle mineralogy (olivine, orthopyroxene) based on data from relic clinopyroxenes and equilibrium partition coefficients. These data are consistent with seawater-derived REE addition to the peridotite during serpentinization. The bulk rocks have more radiogenic Sr and more unradiogenic Nd isotopes than their clinopyroxene (up to 8 εNd units lower than clinopyroxene). Sequential leaching experiments designed to mobilize secondary carbonates and Fe-oxides show even more unradiogenic Nd isotope ratios in the leachates than the bulk rock and clinopyroxene, approaching seawater compositions (up to 15 εNd units lower than clinopyroxene). Mass balance calculations using trace elements or Nd isotopes suggest that up to 30% of the bulk peridotite Nd budget is of seawater origin and

  9. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  10. Structural and electronic characterisation of π-extended tetrathiafulvalene derivatives as active components in field-effect transistors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data, XRD single crystal data, computational details and device fabrication. CCDC 1460868 and 1460869. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ce01200k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Antonio; Oxtoby, Neil; Galindo, Sergi; Pfattner, Raphael; Veciana, Jaume; Bromley, Stefan T.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of two tetrathiafulvalene derivatives bearing aromatic benzene rings are reported. Thin film transistors of these materials show p-type characteristics with comparable mobility values. It is found that the rigidification of the molecule is beneficial for reducing the reorganisation energy but also has an unfavorable impact on the electronic structure dimensionality. PMID:27774040

  11. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  12. Polymerized fatty acid amine derivatives useful as friction and wear-reducing additives

    SciTech Connect

    Coupland, K.; Smith, C.R.

    1981-02-10

    A hydrocarbon composition having a major portion of a hydrocarbon preferably a lubricating oil such as mineral oil and at least a friction-reducing amount usually 0.01 to 10 weight percent of an amine or amine derivative of a hydrocarbon-soluble polymerized fatty acid e.g. a dimeramine derived from a dicarboxylic acid containing at least 12 carbon atoms such as 9(10)-carboxy stearic acid has improved antifriction and flue economy properties.

  13. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  14. Facile synthesis of enantioenriched Cγ-tetrasubstituted α-amino acid derivatives via an asymmetric nucleophilic addition/protonation cascade.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shu-Wen; An, Jing; Chen, Jia-Rong; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2011-05-01

    An asymmetric nucleophilic addition/protonation reaction of 3-substituted oxindoles and ethyl 2-phthalimidoacrylate has been described. This strategy can give direct access to C(γ)-tetrasubstituted α-amino acid derivatives bearing 1,3-nonadjacent stereocenters with up to 98% yield, 94:6 dr, and >99% ee. Dual activation is proposed in the transition state, and the opposite enantiomers can be obtained simply by changing cinchonidine-derived catalyst to the cinchonine analogue.

  15. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Styrene-Derived Nucleophiles to Imines Enabled by Ligand-Controlled Chemoselective Hydrocupration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Perry, Ian B; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-08-10

    The copper-catalyzed intermolecular enantioselective addition of styrenes to imines has been achieved under mild conditions at ambient temperature. This process features the use of styrenes as latent carbanion equivalents via the intermediacy of catalytically generated benzylcopper derivatives, providing an effective means for accessing highly enantiomerically enriched amines bearing contiguous stereocenters. Mechanistic studies shed light on the origin of the preferential styrene hydrocupration in the presence of an imine with the Ph-BPE-derived copper catalyst. PMID:27454393

  16. Synthesis and synergistic, additive inhibitory effects of novel spiro derivatives against ringworm infections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gajanand; Sharma, Richa; Dandia, Anshu; Bansal, Preeti

    2013-01-01

    An environmentally benign solvent free synthesis of various spiro-1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) incorporating 2-oxindole/piperidines is performed in 5-8 min with reasonable purity in 80-90% yield under microwave irradiation using montmorillonite KSF as an inorganic solid support. The reaction is found to be general with respect to various cyclic carbonyl compounds, e.g. cyclohexanone, substituted indole-2,3-dione, and piperidinone derivatives. In our study, these compounds were also found effective against dermatophytes and other fungal organisms. Our results suggest that novel spiro derivatives can be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis or ringworm infections.

  17. Synthesis and synergistic, additive inhibitory effects of novel spiro derivatives against ringworm infections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gajanand; Sharma, Richa; Dandia, Anshu; Bansal, Preeti

    2013-01-01

    An environmentally benign solvent free synthesis of various spiro-1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) incorporating 2-oxindole/piperidines is performed in 5-8 min with reasonable purity in 80-90% yield under microwave irradiation using montmorillonite KSF as an inorganic solid support. The reaction is found to be general with respect to various cyclic carbonyl compounds, e.g. cyclohexanone, substituted indole-2,3-dione, and piperidinone derivatives. In our study, these compounds were also found effective against dermatophytes and other fungal organisms. Our results suggest that novel spiro derivatives can be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis or ringworm infections. PMID:24397035

  18. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Chung, Won-Jin

    2008-06-20

    A catalytic system involving silicon tetrachloride and a chiral, Lewis basic bisphosphoramide catalyst is effective for the addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. It was found that the sense of diastereoselectivity could be modulated by changing the size of the substituents on the silyl ketene acetals. In general, the trimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from methyl glycolates with a large protecting group on the alpha-oxygen provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high syn-diastereoselectivity, whereas the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from bulky esters of alpha-methoxyacetic acid provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high anti-diastereoselecitvity.

  19. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  20. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  1. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  2. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.4 Additional...

  3. Development and substrate specificity screening of an in vivo biosensor for the detection of biomass derived aromatic chemical building blocks† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc04559f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Leopoldo F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring substrate and/or product concentration can create a major bottleneck for synthetic and biosynthetic processes. Here we report the development and substrate screening of a whole cell biosensor to detect biomass-derived aromatic chemical building blocks, supporting the use of sustainable feedstocks in the bulk and fine chemical industries. PMID:27722239

  4. Pyrrolidinyl-sulfamide derivatives as a new class of bifunctional organocatalysts for direct asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Fu, Liang; Zou, You-Quan; Chang, Ning-Jie; Rong, Jian; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2011-07-21

    A series of chiral pyrrolidinyl-sulfamide derivatives have been identified as efficient bifunctional organocatalysts for the direct Michael addition of cyclohexanone to a wide range of nitroalkenes. The desired Michael adducts were obtained in high chemical yields and excellent stereoselectivities (up to 99/1 dr and 95% ee).

  5. Enantioselective Michael addition of 3-aryloxindoles to a vinyl bisphosphonate ester catalyzed by a cinchona alkaloid derived thiourea catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xin; Dai, Tong-Lei; Liu, Ran; Wei, Deng-Ke; Zhou, Hao; Ji, Fei-Hu; Shi, Min

    2012-10-21

    A highly enantioselective Michael addition of 3-aryloxindole to vinyl bisphosphonate ester catalyzed by a cinchonidine derived thiourea catalyst has been investigated. The corresponding adducts, containing a chiral quaternary carbon center and geminal bisphosphonate ester fragment at the 3-position of the oxindole, were obtained in moderate to good yields (65-92%) and moderate to good enantioselectivities (up to 92% ee).

  6. Antimicrobial combinations: Bliss independence and Loewe additivity derived from mechanistic multi-hit models.

    PubMed

    Baeder, Desiree Y; Yu, Guozhi; Hozé, Nathanaël; Rolff, Jens; Regoes, Roland R

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics reduce the net growth rate of bacterial populations they target. It is relevant to understand if effects of multiple antimicrobials are synergistic or antagonistic, in particular for AMP responses, because naturally occurring responses involve multiple AMPs. There are several competing proposals describing how multiple types of antimicrobials add up when applied in combination, such as Loewe additivity or Bliss independence. These additivity terms are defined ad hoc from abstract principles explaining the supposed interaction between the antimicrobials. Here, we link these ad hoc combination terms to a mathematical model that represents the dynamics of antimicrobial molecules hitting targets on bacterial cells. In this multi-hit model, bacteria are killed when a certain number of targets are hit by antimicrobials. Using this bottom-up approach reveals that Bliss independence should be the model of choice if no interaction between antimicrobial molecules is expected. Loewe additivity, on the other hand, describes scenarios in which antimicrobials affect the same components of the cell, i.e. are not acting independently. While our approach idealizes the dynamics of antimicrobials, it provides a conceptual underpinning of the additivity terms. The choice of the additivity term is essential to determine synergy or antagonism of antimicrobials.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. PMID:27160596

  7. Polymers bearing groups derived from n-substituted lactams and their use as lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brulet, D.; Chauvel, B.; Pocheville, R.

    1980-09-16

    Novel lubricating oil polymer additives are obtained by the following: (1) by preparing, by anionic polymerization, a living diene polymer of mn of between about 20,000 and 300,000; (2) by functionalizing the said polymer by means of an nsubstituted lactam of the type of n-alkylcaprolactam, nbinylcaprolactam, and particularly of the type of nalkylpyrrolidione and n-vinylpyrrolidone; and (3) by hydrogenating the said functionalized polymer. A variant method of preparing the said polymers comprises subjecting the living polymer to a metalation operation before functionalization; the hydrogenation operation is carried out before metalation or after functionalization. The said polymers may be used as additives which improve the viscosity index and the dispersing power of lubricating oils. The amount of additive added is between about 0.1 and 10 percent by weight.

  8. Biomedical applications of polymers derived by reversible addition - fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT).

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-08-30

    RAFT- mediated polymerization, providing control over polymer length and architecture as well as facilitating post polymerization modification of end groups, has been applied to virtually every facet of biomedical materials research. RAFT polymers have seen particularly extensive use in drug delivery research. Facile generation of functional and telechelic polymers permits straightforward conjugation to many therapeutic compounds while synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers via RAFT allows for the generation of self-assembled structures capable of carrying therapeutic payloads. With the large and growing body of literature employing RAFT polymers as drug delivery aids and vehicles, concern over the potential toxicity of RAFT derived polymers has been raised. While literature exploring this complication is relatively limited, the emerging consensus may be summed up in three parts: toxicity of polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents is observed at high concentrations but not with polymers generated with trithiocarbonate RAFT agents; even for polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents, most reported applications call for concentrations well below the toxicity threshold; and RAFT end-groups may be easily removed via any of a variety of techniques that leave the polymer with no intrinsic toxicity attributable to the mechanism of polymerization. The low toxicity of RAFT-derived polymers and the ability to remove end groups via straightforward and scalable processes make RAFT technology a valuable tool for practically any application in which a polymer of defined molecular weight and architecture is desired.

  9. Analytical forms for most likely matrices derived from incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Kostas N.

    2012-03-01

    Consider a rectangular matrix describing some type of communication or transportation between a set of origins and a set of destinations, or a classification of objects by two attributes. The problem is to infer the entries of the matrix from limited information in the form of constraints, generally the sums of the elements over various subsets of the matrix, such as rows, columns, etc., or from bounds on these sums, down to individual elements. Such problems are routinely addressed by applying the maximum entropy method to compute the matrix numerically, but in this article we derive analytical, closed-form solutions. For the most complicated cases we consider the solution depends on the root of a non-linear equation, for which we provide an analytical approximation in the form of a power series. Some of our solutions extend to 3-dimensional matrices. Besides being valid for matrices of arbitrary size, the analytical solutions exhibit many of the appealing properties of maximum entropy, such as precise use of the available data, intuitive behaviour with respect to changes in the constraints, and logical consistency.

  10. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction.

    PubMed

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral cycloalkenone derivatives via palladium catalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and copies of NMR spectra and HPLC chromatograms. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc53250j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, James T.; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Fateen, Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed oxidative desymmetrization of meso-dibenzoates yields γ-benzoyloxy cycloalkenones in good yields and with excellent levels of enantioselectivity. These compounds serve as precursors to a broad range of substituted cycloalkenones, including well-established synthetic building blocks and elaborated cycloalkanone derivatives. The ability to prepare both enantiomers of the oxidative desymmetrization products enables a unified strategy toward stereochemically diverse epoxyquinoid natural products. PMID:24761221

  12. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  13. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  14. Additions to the class of symmetric-antisymmetric multiwavelets: Derivation and use as quantum basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Daniel W.; Acevedo, Ramiro; Johnson, Bruce R.

    2006-01-01

    Multiwavelet bases have been shown recently to apply to a variety of quantum problems. There are, however, only a few multiwavelet families that have been defined to date. Chui-Lian-type symmetric and antisymmetric multiwavelets are derived here that equal and exceed the polynomial interpolating power of previously available examples. Adaptations to domain edges are made with a view to use in curvilinear coordinate molecular calculations. The new highest-order multiwavelet family is shown to provide uniformly better performance for (i) basis representation of terms such as 1/r2 in near approach to the singularity at r =0 and (ii) eigenvalue calculation of a bending Hamiltonian taken from a curvilinear model of the ground-state vibrations of nitrosyl chloride.

  15. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-24

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  16. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  17. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  18. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Construction of Spiroindane Derivatives by Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-Type 1,4-Addition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Itatsu, Yukihiro; Fujino, Yuta; Inoue, Hiroki; Takao, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic construction of spiroindanes containing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type 1,4-addition is described. The reaction was catalyzed by a cinchonidine-based primary amine and accelerated by water and p-bromophenol. A variety of spiro compounds containing quaternary stereocenters were obtained with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 95 % ee). The reaction was applied to the asymmetric formal synthesis of the spirocyclic natural products (-)-cannabispirenones A and B. PMID:27111396

  19. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Construction of Spiroindane Derivatives by Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-Type 1,4-Addition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Itatsu, Yukihiro; Fujino, Yuta; Inoue, Hiroki; Takao, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic construction of spiroindanes containing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type 1,4-addition is described. The reaction was catalyzed by a cinchonidine-based primary amine and accelerated by water and p-bromophenol. A variety of spiro compounds containing quaternary stereocenters were obtained with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 95 % ee). The reaction was applied to the asymmetric formal synthesis of the spirocyclic natural products (-)-cannabispirenones A and B.

  20. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  1. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  2. Expression of perforin in nasal lymphoma. Additional evidence of its natural killer cell derivation.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, N.; Yatabe, Y.; Oka, K.; Kinoshita, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, T.; Asai, J.

    1996-01-01

    Eight patients with nasal lymphoma in whom fresh-frozen tissues were available were studied to elucidate the nature of the lymphoma cells. Two cases were diagnosed as diffuse, large cell lymphoma, and the remaining six cases as diffuse, mixed cell types. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that all of the cases were positive for perforin, which is a specific marker for cytotoxic T or natural killer (NK) cells. As all of the cases were CD8 negative, the perforin-positive finding further confirmed the concept that nasal lymphoma is a distinct neoplastic entity derived from NK or NK-related cells. Light microscopic immunohistochemical studies revealed that these nasal lymphoma cases could be classified into Leu19(CD56)+Leu4(CD3)+ (two cases) and Leu19(CD56)+Leu4(CD3)- (six cases) types according to the phenotypes of the proliferating cells. However, simultaneous staining for perforin and Leu4 (CD3) using immunoelectron microscopy on the Leu19+Leu4+ cases showed that the perforin-positive cells were different from the Leu4-positive cells. This finding suggests that the Leu4-positive cells are not neoplastic NK cells but reactive T cells. Six cases were positive for EBER-1 by in situ hybridization analysis. This finding reconfirms the previous studies that Epstein-Barr virus plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of nasal lymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8702007

  3. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  4. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    PubMed

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel.

  5. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  6. Fate of Aegilops speltoides-derived, repetitive DNA sequences in diploid Aegilops species, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Friebe, B; Gill, B S

    2010-07-01

    The present study reports the cloning and characterization of an Aegilops speltoides-derived subtelomeric repeat, designated as pSp1B16. Clone pSp1B16 has 98% sequence homology with the previously isolated Ae. speltoides repeat Spelt1. The distribution of pSp1B16 and another Ae. speltoides repeat, pGc1R1, was analyzed in diploid Aegilops species, tetra- and hexaploid wheats, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clones pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 revealed FISH sites in Ae. speltoides, Ae. sharonensis and Triticum timopheevii, whereas additional pGc1R1 FISH sites were observed in Ae. longissima and Ae. caudata. The pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 FISH patterns of the Aegilops chromosomes in the wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and chromosome addition lines are similar to those present in the Aegilops parent accession. We did not observe any evidence of pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 sequence elimination, which is in contrast to previous studies using similar hybrids and repeats. The presented data suggest that the genomic changes in synthetic amphiploids observed in previous studies might be caused by homoeologous recombination, which was suppressed in the amphiploid analyzed in this study.

  7. 38 CFR 61.15 - Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grants-obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants. 61.15 Section 61.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants § 61.15...

  8. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  9. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time. 803.21 Section 803.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF...

  10. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  11. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  12. 13 CFR 126.403 - May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May SBA require additional information from a HUBZone SBC? 126.403 Section 126.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... adverse inference from the failure of a HUBZone SBC to cooperate with a program examination or...

  13. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  14. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... role that entry could play in mitigating adverse competitive effects of the transaction; (3)...

  15. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  16. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  17. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... competitive effects of the transaction. (ii) The potential for entry in the market and the role that...

  18. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing...

  19. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  20. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  1. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my APD? You must include the following with the APD: (a) Rated capacities of the drilling rig and...

  2. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  3. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  4. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  5. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  6. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  7. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nderived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  8. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(c)-1 - Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as... additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However...) of this section. (f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to...

  10. The Initial Development of a Technique for Deriving Additional Information from Test Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, John W.

    A pattern-analytical technique, Similar Response Analysis (SRA), was developed, validated with contrived data, verified using previously reported data based on other pattern-analytical methods, and used successfully with "real" data. This technique orders subjects on the basis of the similarity of responses of adjacent individuals, not on the…

  11. A Methodological Framework for Enterprise Information System Requirements Derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinskas, Albertas; Paškevičiūtė, Lina

    Current information systems (IS) are enterprise-wide systems supporting strategic goals of the enterprise and meeting its operational business needs. They are supported by information and communication technologies (ICT) and other software that should be fully integrated. To develop software responding to real business needs, we need requirements engineering (RE) methodology that ensures the alignment of requirements for all levels of enterprise system. The main contribution of this chapter is a requirement-oriented methodological framework allowing to transform business requirements level by level into software ones. The structure of the proposed framework reflects the structure of Zachman's framework. However, it has other intentions and is purposed to support not the design but the RE issues.

  12. Oxidative addition of halogens to homoleptic perfluoromethyl or perfluorophenyl derivatives of platinum(II): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Menjón, Babil; Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Gómez-Saso, Miguel A; Forniés, Juan; Falvello, Larry R; Martín, Antonio; Tsipis, Athanassios

    2009-06-22

    Chlorocarbon solvents (solv=CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3)) are suggested to play an active role in the oxidative addition of halogens, X(2) (X=Cl, Br, I), to homoleptic d(8) perfluoromethyl and -phenyl platinum(II) species [Pt(R(F))(4)](2-) (R(F)=CF(3), C(6)F(5)). The perfluoromethyl group, CF(3), has been found to be considerably less prone to undergo reductive elimination processes, and is, therefore, more suitable for stabilizing organoplatinum(IV) derivatives (see scheme).The equilibrium geometries of the homoleptic perfluorinated organoplatinate(II) anions [Pt(CF(3))(4)](2-) and [Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)](2-) have been computed at the B3P86/LANL2DZ level of theory. Remarkably good agreement with the experimentally determined structures has been obtained by X-ray diffraction methods. The reactivity of [NBu(4)](2)[Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) towards halogens (Cl(2), Br(2), and I(2)) has been investigated by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. The perfluoromethyl derivative 1 has been found to undergo clean oxidative addition of the three halogens under investigation, giving rise to [NBu(4)](2)[trans-Pt(CF(3))(4)X(2)] (X=Cl (7), Br (10), I (13)) in a quantitative and stereoselective way. In the low-temperature reaction of the perfluorophenyl derivative [NBu(4)](2)[Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)] (3) with Cl(2) or Br(2), the corresponding oxidative-addition products [NBu(4)](2)[trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)X(2)] (X=Cl (14), Br (15)) can also be obtained. In the case in which X=Br and working in CHCl(3) at -55 degrees C, it has been possible to detect the formation of an intermediate species to which we assign the formula [trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)Br(ClCHCl(2))](-) (16). The solvento complex 16 is thermally unstable and prone to undergo reductive elimination of C(6)F(5)--C(6)F(5). In the presence of PhCN, complex [NBu(4)][trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(4)Br(NCPh)] (17) was isolated and structurally characterized. The reaction of 3 with I(2) gave no organoplatinum(IV) compound. Our comparative study reveals that

  13. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  14. 20 CFR 30.518 - Can OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... overpayment to submit additional financial information? 30.518 Section 30.518 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... OWCP require the recipient of the overpayment to submit additional financial information? (a) The recipient of the overpayment is responsible for providing information about income, expenses and assets...

  15. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration. PMID:26848656

  16. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  17. CHARMM additive all-atom force field for carbohydrate derivatives and its utility in polysaccharide and carbohydrate-protein modeling

    PubMed Central

    Guvench, Olgun; Mallajosyula, Sairam S.; Raman, E. Prabhu; Hatcher, Elizabeth; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Foster, Theresa J.; Jamison, Francis W.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2011-01-01

    Monosaccharide derivatives such as xylose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GlaNAc), glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) are important components of eukaryotic glycans. The present work details development of force-field parameters for these monosaccharides and their covalent connections to proteins via O-linkages to serine or threonine sidechains and via N-linkages to asparagine sidechains. The force field development protocol was designed to explicitly yield parameters that are compatible with the existing CHARMM additive force field for proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and small molecules. Therefore, when combined with previously developed parameters for pyranose and furanose monosaccharides, for glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and for proteins, the present set of parameters enables the molecular simulation of a wide variety of biologically-important molecules such as complex carbohydrates and glycoproteins. Parametrization included fitting to quantum mechanical (QM) geometries and conformational energies of model compounds, as well as to QM pair interaction energies and distances of model compounds with water. Parameters were validated in the context of crystals of relevant monosaccharides, as well NMR and/or x-ray crystallographic data on larger systems including oligomeric hyaluronan, sialyl Lewis X, O- and N-linked glycopeptides, and a lectin:sucrose complex. As the validated parameters are an extension of the CHARMM all-atom additive biomolecular force field, they further broaden the types of heterogeneous systems accessible with a consistently-developed force-field model. PMID:22125473

  18. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  19. Beyond the corporeal: Extending propertisation of body parts to derivative information.

    PubMed

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce Baer

    2016-03-01

    Jurisprudential consideration of property in the human body has typically conceptualised it as tangible, of finite lifespan, with limited end uses. This article offers an alternative conceptualisation: the body as information--intangible, infinite, and perpetual. Global markets in health "big data"--including population genomic data--trade this information. Emerging jurisprudence on source rights in this information are derived from jurisprudence based on the traditional, tangible, finite conceptualisation of the body--itself controversial--criticised in part for disregarding property rights vesting in the self, while recognising them in strangers. As such, it provides an uncertain foundation for extension to govern rights over derivatives, enabling disregard of legitimate concerns about health, commercialisation and genetic privacy, concerns compounded by the intergenerational nature of genetic information. A more nuanced approach, recognising that donors and strangers alike hold only weak custodial rights over access, use, and dissemination of tissues and derivative information, is required.

  20. Beyond the corporeal: Extending propertisation of body parts to derivative information.

    PubMed

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce Baer

    2016-03-01

    Jurisprudential consideration of property in the human body has typically conceptualised it as tangible, of finite lifespan, with limited end uses. This article offers an alternative conceptualisation: the body as information--intangible, infinite, and perpetual. Global markets in health "big data"--including population genomic data--trade this information. Emerging jurisprudence on source rights in this information are derived from jurisprudence based on the traditional, tangible, finite conceptualisation of the body--itself controversial--criticised in part for disregarding property rights vesting in the self, while recognising them in strangers. As such, it provides an uncertain foundation for extension to govern rights over derivatives, enabling disregard of legitimate concerns about health, commercialisation and genetic privacy, concerns compounded by the intergenerational nature of genetic information. A more nuanced approach, recognising that donors and strangers alike hold only weak custodial rights over access, use, and dissemination of tissues and derivative information, is required. PMID:27323644

  1. Additive effects on the improvement of insecticidal activity: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pymetrozine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu; Song, Hongjian; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-02-01

    A series of new pymetrozine analogues containing both methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens pallens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed good insecticidal activity against bean aphid; especially, IIIf (80%) and IIIl (80%) exhibited higher aphicidal activity than pymetrozine (30%) at 5mg/kg, and the two compounds still showed 20% and 30% mortality at 2.5mg/kg, respectively, whereas pymetrozine displayed no activity at the same concentration. These compounds exhibited a completely different structure-activity relationship to that of known pymetrozine derivatives, in which it is thought introducing alkyl group on the imine carbon could be detrimental to the activities. Our new result suggested that the methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring of phenoxy group may play additive effects on the improvement of aphicidal activity. Besides this, compound IIIs, containing an allyl at the para position of phenoxy group, exhibited excellent insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, lepidoptera pests cotton bollworm, corn borer and oriental armyworm. PMID:26342545

  2. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13629), FDA published the notice... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived...

  3. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic N-sulfonyl ketimines towards the synthesis of α,α-diaryl-α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Takahiro

    2015-05-01

    Rhodium/chiral diene complex-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic ketimines having an ester group proceeded to give the corresponding α-amino acid derivatives in high yields with high enantioselectivity. The cyclic amino acid derivative was transformed into a linear α,α-diaryl-substituted α-N-methylamino acid ester.

  4. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  5. A multi information dissemination model considering the interference of derivative information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Bartolacci, Michael R.; Ting, I.-Hsien

    2016-06-01

    With the tremendous growth of social network research, many information diffusion models have been proposed from multiple perspectives with the intent of finding out key factors. However, most models only focus on the individual behavior patterns or the usage habits of social applications; the potential interrelationships between information items have not been explored. From this point of view, we propose an information interference model that takes into account the interrelationships between information items in social network. The effect of interference and anti-interference abilities of information in diffusion are analyzed in highly clustered regular networks and also the random networks. We find that information diffusion in regular networks is more easily affected by interference information; but the corresponding reduction of the information diffusion range is the negative consequence in random networks. We also find that the individuals who know about information are the main spreaders of interference. From the aspect of the interference, random network shows a higher timeliness requirement to interference. Furthermore, simulation results indicate that increasing initial forwarding probability of information is much better than increasing the influence of it in reducing interference.

  6. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  7. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  8. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 102-75.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  10. EURADOS IC2012N: FURTHER INFORMATION DERIVED FROM AN EURADOS INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, M-A; Fantuzzi, E; Cruz-Suarez, R; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Mayer, S; Thomas, D J; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) performed an intercomparison for neutron dosemeters that are intended to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10). A total of 31 participants registered with 34 dosimetry systems. The irradiation tests were chosen to provide the participants with useful information on their dosimetry systems, i.e. linearity, reproducibility, responses for different energies and angles and to simulated workplace fields. This paper gives details of the extensive information derived from the exercise. PMID:26715777

  11. Derivation of particulate directional information from analysis of elliptical impact craters on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. J.; Mackay, N.; Deshpande, S. P.; Green, S. F.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility provided a gravity gradient stabilized platform which allowed limited directional information to be derived from particle impact experiments. The morphology of impact craters on semi-infinite materials contains information which may be used to determine the direction of impact much more accurately. We demonstrate the applicability of this technique and present preliminary results of measurements from LDEF and modelling of interplanetary dust and space debris.

  12. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Integrated Workplace concepts? The GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy provides additional guidance in...

  13. Does the anti-prothrombin antibodies measurement provide additional information in patients with thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Nathalie; Alessi, Marie Christine; Dignat-George, Francoise; Vague, Irene Juhan; Sampol, Jose; Harlé, Jean Robert; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get new insight into the relevance of IgG anti-prothrombin antibodies in patients with thrombosis and to determine whether human prothrombin alone (aPT) or complexed to phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT) should be preferentially used for measuring these antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To this end, prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies, their characteristics in terms of avidity and heterogeneity, and their relationship with anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (abeta2GPI) were studied in 152 patients with thrombosis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), called aPL+ or aPL-, respectively. In the aPL- group (n=90), the prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies was substantial (10%) but not significantly different from that of control (5%). In the aPL+ group (n=62), lupus anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) positive, 61% were positive for anti-prothrombin antibodies with no statistical difference between aPT and aPS/PT prevalence (42% vs. 55%, respectively). In the whole thrombotic population, 19% were only aPT and 34% only aPS/PT suggesting the presence of different antibodies. Absorption experiments confirmed the heterogeneity of aPT and aPS/PT. No difference in their avidity was demonstrated. From the aPL+ group, 60 were LA positive. Among them, 18% were negative for abeta2GPI and anti-prothrombin antibodies showing that the detection of these antibodies could not substitute for LA determination. In conclusion, our data show that the screening of the different anti-prothrombin antibodies is not warranted in the aPL+ group since these antibodies do not provide additional information compared to aCL, LA and/or abeta2GPI measurement. Nevertheless, the substantial prevalence of anti-prothrombin antibodies in the aPL- group should be further explored in a large prospective study. PMID:17678713

  14. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  15. Chiral separation of cathinone and amphetamine derivatives by HPLC/UV using sulfated ß-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive.

    PubMed

    Taschwer, Magdalena; Seidl, Yvonne; Mohr, Stefan; Schmid, Martin G

    2014-08-01

    In the last years the identification of new legal and illegal highs has become a huge challenge for the police and prosecution authorities. In an analytical context, only a few analytical methods are available to identify these new substances. Moreover, many of these recreational drugs are chiral and it is supposed that the enantiomers differ in their pharmacological potency. Since nonenantioselective synthesis is easier and cheaper, they are mainly sold as racemic mixtures. The goal of this research work was to develop an inexpensive method for the chiral separation of cathinones and amphetamines. This should help to discover if the substances are sold as racemic mixtures and give further information about their quality as well as their origin. Chiral separation of a set of 6 amphetamine and 25 cathinone derivatives, mainly purchased from various Internet shops, is presented. A LiChrospher 100 RP-18e, 250 x 4 mm, 5 µm served as the stationary phase. The chiral mobile phase consisted of methanol, water, and sulfated ß-cyclodextrin. Measurements were performed under isocratic conditions in reversed phase mode using UV detection. Four model compounds of the two substance classes were used to optimize the mobile phase. Under final conditions (methanol:water 2.5:97.5 + 2% sulfated ß-cyclodextrin) enantiomers of amphetamine and five derivatives were baseline separated within 23 min. In all, 17 cathinones were completely or partially chirally separated. However, as only 3 of 25 cathinones were baseline resolved, the application of this method is limited for cathinone analogs. Additionally, the results were compared with an RP-8e column.

  16. Antimycobacterial evaluation of novel [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives synthesized by microwave-mediated Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Vida; Azerang, Parisa; Sardari, Soroush

    2015-06-01

    The focus of this study is the synthesis and biological activity evaluation of a series of dibenzalaceton derivatives (3a-3n) and novel [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives (5a-5g) against Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Dibenzalacetone derivatives were synthesized by benzaldehyde derivatives. The [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives were synthesized by Michael addition reaction and using green chemistry microwave-mediated method. All compounds were evaluated against BCG and the activity expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in μM. The result showed good activity for all the compounds especially compounds (3a), (3n), and (5a) illustrated high activity (7.03, 8.10 and 5.37 μM, respectively). PMID:25219796

  17. Antimycobacterial evaluation of novel [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives synthesized by microwave-mediated Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Vida; Azerang, Parisa; Sardari, Soroush

    2015-06-01

    The focus of this study is the synthesis and biological activity evaluation of a series of dibenzalaceton derivatives (3a-3n) and novel [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives (5a-5g) against Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Dibenzalacetone derivatives were synthesized by benzaldehyde derivatives. The [4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbonyl]pyridine derivatives were synthesized by Michael addition reaction and using green chemistry microwave-mediated method. All compounds were evaluated against BCG and the activity expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in μM. The result showed good activity for all the compounds especially compounds (3a), (3n), and (5a) illustrated high activity (7.03, 8.10 and 5.37 μM, respectively).

  18. Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions.

    PubMed

    Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A

    2003-11-12

    Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision.

  19. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  20. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  1. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  2. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  3. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  4. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  5. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information... of Fresh and Processed Fruits, Vegetables and Other Products AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  6. An empirical approach for deriving information on total duration of exposure from information on historical exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.S.; Scott, P.K.; Paustenbach, D.J.

    1998-10-01

    Exposure duration is an important component in determining long-term dose rates associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. Surveys of exposed populations collect information on individuals` past behaviors, including the durations of a behavior up to the time of the survey. This paper presents an empirical approach for determining the distribution of total durations that is consistent with the distribution past durations obtained from surveys. This approach is appropriate where the rates of beginning and ending a behavior are relatively constant over time. The approach allows the incorporation of information on the distribution of age in a population into the determination of the distribution of durations. The paper also explores the impact of longevity bias on survey data. A case study of the application of this approach to two angler populations is also provided. The results of the case study have characteristics similar to the results reported by Israeli and Nelson from their analytical model of residential duration. Specifically, the average period of time for the total duration in the entire population is shorter than the average period of time reported for historical duration in the surveyed individuals.

  7. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species. PMID:27266714

  8. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species.

  9. Intramolecular addition of diarylmethanols to imines promoted by KOt-Bu/DMF: a new synthetic approach to indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hua; Chen, Zi-Cong; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Wei-Juan; Zou, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Yan, Ming

    2016-04-26

    KOt-Bu/DMF promoted intramolecular addition of diarylmethanols to imines was developed. A series of 2,3-disubstituted indoles was obtained in good yields. A reaction mechanism of radical cyclization and subsequent dehydration is proposed. PMID:27055383

  10. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  11. Development of LANDSAT Derived Forest Cover Information for Integration into Adirondack Park GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. P.; Banta, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Based upon observed changes in timber harvest practices partially attributable to forest biomass removable for energy supply purposes, the Adirondack Park Agency began in 1979 a multi-year project to implement a digital geographic information system (GIS). An initial developmental task was an inventory of forest cover information and analysis of forest resource change and availability. While developing the GIS, a pilot project was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of LANDSAT derived land cover information for this purpose, and to explore the integration of LANDSAT data into the GIS. The prototype LANDSAT analysis project involved: (1) the use of both recent and historic data to derive land cover information for two dates; and (2) comparison of land cover over time to determine quantitative and geographic changes. The "recent data," 1978 full foliage data over portions of four LANDSAT scenes, was classified, using ground truth derived training samples in various forested and non-forested categories. Forested categories include the following: northern hardwoods, pine, spruce-fir, and pine plantation, while nonforested categories include wet-conifer, pasture, grassland, urban, exposed soil, agriculture, and water.

  12. Testing 1...2...3...: Additional Files Available for Test Information Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    1984-01-01

    Reviews databases providing information on published, standardized and unpublished, non-standardized test instruments: Educational Testing Service File, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database, Dissertation Abstracts Online, ERIC, and Psychological Abstracts. Search strategies, search examples, and a summary chart of searchable fields for test…

  13. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transaction documents. Describe the reports or other documents provided to security holders required under the... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Commission. (2) Disclose whether other reports to...

  14. 75 FR 68608 - Information Collection; Request for Authorization of Additional Classification and Rate, Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...(c), and 5.15 (records to be kept by employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 29 CFR 516... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose This regulation prescribes labor standards for federally financed and assisted construction contracts subject to the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts (DBRA), as well as...

  15. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  16. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corresponding to those used in this section, the following information: (a) A narrative statement detailing...; and (f) A narrative description of Applicant's management team, including: (1) Rail experience of top... narrative description of Applicant's workforce and the historical rate of employee turnover....

  17. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  18. 78 FR 22937 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... Passport Services ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and ] Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below....

  19. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  20. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  1. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete. (5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption... information as defined in § 20.61 of this chapter: (1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including...

  2. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  3. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  4. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  5. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., percentage by weight, and method of analysis of each element in the additive are required provided, however, that a percentage figure combining the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen may be provided unless the breakdown into percentages for these individual elements is already known to the...

  6. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  7. 75 FR 62404 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...-counter (OTC) drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. DATES: Submit either... additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded (2002 TEA final rule). The regulations in Sec. 330.14 state that OTC drug...

  8. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  9. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  10. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  11. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  12. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  13. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  14. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  15. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.80 Section 52.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  16. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 52.158 Section 52.158 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  17. Rapid spatial characterization measurements of a multi-element focal plane using derived geometrical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, James W.; Drouillard, Thomas F.

    2012-10-01

    While some instrument requirements are levied on a per-pixel basis, efficiencies and economies can be gained by testing them in parallel. Furthermore, the use of detector arrays as imagers with extended targets enables the derivation of geometrical information from select pixels in each image, and its propagation to neighboring pixels. We discuss the implementation of one such test regime for the Operational Landsat Imager (OLI) at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. This enabled rapid measurement of spatial parameters, including Edge Response Function and aliasing, for all of the nearly 70,000 active pixels of the focal plane assembly with reduced reliance on the precision and stability of the supporting equipment. The derived geometrical information enabled us to replace a step-stare testing of individual pixels with a continuous scan of the entire assembly, without demanding precision motion or introducing noise from variations in the scan velocity. Three complete scans were performed in under 30 hours.

  18. A simple derivation and classification of common probability distributions based on information symmetry and measurement scale.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A; Smith, E

    2011-03-01

    Commonly observed patterns typically follow a few distinct families of probability distributions. Over one hundred years ago, Karl Pearson provided a systematic derivation and classification of the common continuous distributions. His approach was phenomenological: a differential equation that generated common distributions without any underlying conceptual basis for why common distributions have particular forms and what explains the familial relations. Pearson's system and its descendants remain the most popular systematic classification of probability distributions. Here, we unify the disparate forms of common distributions into a single system based on two meaningful and justifiable propositions. First, distributions follow maximum entropy subject to constraints, where maximum entropy is equivalent to minimum information. Second, different problems associate magnitude to information in different ways, an association we describe in terms of the relation between information invariance and measurement scale. Our framework relates the different continuous probability distributions through the variations in measurement scale that change each family of maximum entropy distributions into a distinct family. From our framework, future work in biology can consider the genesis of common patterns in a new and more general way. Particular biological processes set the relation between the information in observations and magnitude, the basis for information invariance, symmetry and measurement scale. The measurement scale, in turn, determines the most likely probability distributions and observed patterns associated with particular processes. This view presents a fundamentally derived alternative to the largely unproductive debates about neutrality in ecology and evolution. PMID:21265914

  19. Techniques Deriving Land Cover and Earth Surface Deformation Information from Polarimetric SAR Interferometry- Final Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, E.; Chen, E.; Li, Z.; Hong, W.; Xiang, M.; Li, Y.; Cloude, S. R.; Papathanassiou, K.; Zhang, L.; Li, X.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a summary of activities carried out under the DRAGON collaborative program in a project concerned with the application of Pol-InSAR to deriving land cover and Earth Surface deformation information. This project (ID. 5344) is based around four main scientific topics: Land Cover Analysis, Earth Surface Deformation Monitoring and DEM Extraction, Forest Vertical Structure Parameters Extraction and PolSARpro Software Development.

  20. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  1. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? 23.25 Section 23.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...

  2. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  3. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  4. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  5. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  6. Assessing the value of information in climber's guidebooks to derive spatio-temporal rockfall patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Rockfall rates in mountain ranges are expensive to measure over large spatial scales, mainly due to the inaccessibility of mountainous terrain. Existing methods to measure rockfall include acoustic methods (listening to the rock's impact or creation by frost weathering) , spectral methods (looking at the colour of mountain faces to determine their freshness and by extension the time since last rockfall) and volumetric methods (measuring the volume that fell). These methods, especially in combination, have allowed researchers to quantitatively derive rates (and distribution of rates over time) of rockfall for several well studied locations. However, the small spatial support of these methods means that results are only valid for small well-studied locations. This is a problem when we want to derive baseline information on rockfall rates over entire mountain chains and ranges - which is important to study their temporal distribution and their relation with climate change. This contribution explores the potential of information contained in climber's guidebooks to derive qualitative rockfall rates with large spatial and temporal coverage. Climber's guidebooks have been published since the early 1900's, giving prospective mountaineers strongly codified information about routes and conditions expected along the way. The information about the looseness of rocks, which is clearly important for climbers from a safety perspective, may also be useful to link to rockfall rates. I have used a series of guidebooks published at irregular intervals for the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland to study the change in descriptions of looseness of rocks for a number of famous climbing routes. These routes were selected because of the opportunity to complement information in guidebooks with other (visual and written) sources of information. Results indicate that descriptions of looseness of rock can be used to derive a qualitative pattern of rockfall, especially over larger spatial scales

  7. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  8. Fire Usage and Ancient Hominin Detoxification Genes: Protective Ancestral Variants Dominate While Additional Derived Risk Variants Appear in Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general health and fertility, probably resulting in genetic selection for improved detoxification. To investigate whether such genetic selection occurred, we investigated the alleles in Neanderthals, Denisovans and modern humans at gene polymorphisms well-known to be relevant from modern human epidemiological studies of habitual tobacco smoke exposure and mechanistic evidence. We compared these with the alleles in chimpanzees and gorillas. Neanderthal and Denisovan hominins predominantly possess gene variants conferring increased resistance to these toxic compounds. Surprisingly, we observed the same in chimpanzees and gorillas, implying that less efficient variants are derived and mainly evolved in modern humans. Less efficient variants are observable from the first early Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers onwards. While not clarifying the deep history of fire use, our results highlight the long-term stability of the genes under consideration despite major changes in the hominin dietary niche. Specifically for detoxification gene variants characterised as deleterious by epidemiological studies, our results confirm the predominantly recent appearance reported for deleterious human gene variants, suggesting substantial impact of recent human population history, including pre-Holocene expansions. PMID:27655273

  9. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes.

  10. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; van Asselt, E D; Garcia-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G; Zwietering, M H

    2007-05-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and stakeholders to make decisions on food safety management. The present study was conducted to investigate how detailed sensitivity analysis can be used by assessors to extract more information on risk factors and how results can be communicated to managers and stakeholders in an understandable way. The extended sensitivity analysis revealed that the extremes at the right side of the dose distribution (at consumption, 9 to 11.5 log CFU per serving) were responsible for most of the cases of listeriosis simulated. For concentration at retail, values below the detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g and the often used limit for L. monocytogenes of 100 CFU/g (also at retail) were associated with a high number of annual cases of listeriosis (about 29 and 82%, respectively). This association can be explained by growth of L. monocytogenes at both average and extreme values of temperature and time, indicating that a wide distribution can lead to high risk levels. Another finding is the importance of the maximal population density (i.e., the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes assumed at a certain temperature) for accurately estimating the risk of infection by opportunistic pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. According to the obtained results, mainly concentrations corresponding to the highest maximal population densities caused risk in the simulation. However, sensitivity analysis applied to the uncertainty parameters revealed that prevalence at retail was the most important source of uncertainty in the model.

  11. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Thinopyrum chromatin in a wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid and six derived chromosome addition lines

    PubMed

    Chen; Conner; Laroche; Ji; Armstrong; Fedak

    1999-12-01

    The genomic origin of alien chromosomes present in a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 (2n = 8x = 56) and six derived chromosome addition lines were analyzed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (2n = 2x = 14, SS) as a probe. The GISH analysis clearly showed that the chromosome complement of the partial amphiploid TAF46 consists of an entire wheat genome plus one synthetic genome consisting of a mixture of six S genome chromosomes and eight J (=E) genome chromosomes derived from Th. intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJ(s)J(s)SS). There were no Js genome chromosomes present in TAF46. The J genome chromosomes present in TAF46 displayed a unique GISH hybridization pattern with the S genomic DNA probe, in which S genome DNA strongly hybridized at the terminal regions and weakly hybridized over the remaining parts of the chromosomes. This provides a diagnostic marker for distinguishing J genome chromosomes from Js or S genome or wheat ABD genome chromosomes. The genomic origin of the alien chromosomes present in the six derived chromosome addition lines were identified by their characteristic GISH hybridization patterns with S genomic DNA probe. GISH analysis showed that addition lines L1, L2, L3, and L5 carried one pair of J genome chromosomes, while addition lines L4 and L7 each carried one pair of S genome chromosomes. GISH patterns detected by the S genome probe on addition line of L1 were identical to those of the J genome chromosomes present in the partial amphiploid TAF46, suggesting that these chromosomes were not structurally altered when they were transferred from TAF46 to addition lines.

  12. α(δ')-Michael addition of alkyl amines to dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate: synthesis of α,β-dehydroamino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Arjun S; Deng, Jie-Cheng; Chuang, Shih-Ching

    2013-02-27

    The direct nucleophilic addition of alkyl amines to the α(δ')-carbon atom of dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate to generate α,β-dehydroamino acid derivatives is reported. Herein, we have studied the reactivity of various primary and secondary alkyl amines in the α-selective nucleophilic conjugate addition to conjugated dimethyl (E)-hex-2-en-4-ynedioate. The reaction with primary alkyl amines gives only the (2E,4E)-stereoisomer, while that with secondary alkyl amines gives the (2E,4E) and (2Z,4E)-stereoisomers of dimethyl (2-alkylamino)-muconic ester.

  13. Highly efficient asymmetric additions of diethylzinc to aldehydes triply activated by chiral phosphoramide-Zn(II) complexes derived from cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Huang, Huayin; Bian, Guangling; Zong, Hua; Song, Ling

    2013-09-01

    New chiral phosphoramide ligands derived from cinchona alkaloids were developed, which react with diethylzinc to form chiral phosphoramide-Zn(II) complexes containing two Lewis bases and one Lewis acid. These trifunctional complexes can serve as highly efficient chiral catalysts for triple activation of enantioselective addition reactions of diethylzinc with aldehydes to give desired alcohol products with excellent yields and enantiomeric excess (ee) values up to 99%.

  14. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches.

  15. The potential of oceanic transport and onshore leaching of additive-derived lead by marine macro-plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Shin; Guo, Xinyu

    2016-06-15

    The long-distance transport potential of toxic lead (Pb) by plastic marine debris was examined by pure water leaching experiments using plastic fishery floats containing high level of additive-Pb such as 5100±74.3mgkg(-1). The leaching of Pb ended after sequential 480-h leaching experiments, and the total leaching amount is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total Pb in a float. But it recovered when the float was scratched using sandpaper. We propose that a "low-Pb layer," in which Pb concentration is negligibly small, be generated on the float surface by the initial leaching process. Thickness of the layer is estimated at 2.5±1.2μm, much shallower than flaws on floats scratched by sandpaper and floats littering beaches. The result suggests that the low-Pb layer is broken by physical abrasion when floats are washed ashore, and that Pb inside the floats can thereafter leach into beaches. PMID:27095373

  16. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  17. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  18. Additive In Vitro Antiplasmodial Effect of N-Alkyl and N-Benzyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Derivatives and Cysteine Protease Inhibitor E64

    PubMed Central

    Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening; Hadanu, Ruslin; Jumina, Jumina; Supargiyono, Supargiyono; Mustofa, Mustofa

    2010-01-01

    Potential new targets for antimalarial chemotherapy include parasite proteases, which are required for several cellular functions during the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle. Four new derivatives of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized. Those are (1)-N-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1)-N-ethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1)-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium chloride, and (1)-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium iodide. Those compounds had potential antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values from 260.42 to 465.38 nM. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 was used to investigate the mechanism of action of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives. A modified fixed-ratio isobologram method was used to study the in vitro interactions between the new compounds with either E64 or chloroquine. The interaction between N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives and E64 was additive as well as their interactions with chloroquine were also additive. Antimalarial mechanism of chloroquine is mainly on the inhibition of hemozoin formation. As the interaction of chloroquine and E64 was additive, the results indicated that these new compounds had a mechanism of action by inhibiting Plasmodium proteases. PMID:22332022

  19. Effect of addition of plants-derived polyamide 11 elastomer on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber reinforced polyamide 1010 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaida, Jun; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the effect of the addition of plant-derived polyamide 11 Elastomer (PA11E) on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber(HF) reinforced polyamide 1010 (HF/PA1010) composites was investigated. PA1010 and PA11E (except the polyether groups used as soft segment) were made from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fiber was surface-treated by two types of treatment: alkali treatment by NaOH solution and surface treatment by ureido silane coupling agent. HF/PA1010/PA11E ternary composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their mechanical properties such as tensile, bending, Izod impact and tribological properties by ring-on-plate type sliding wear testing were evaluated. The effect of the addition of PA11E on the mechanical and tribological properties of HF/PA1010 composite differed for each property. Izod impact strength and specific wear rate improved with the addition of PA11E although tensile strength, modulus, and friction coefficient decreased with PA11E. It follows from these results that it may be possible to develop the new engineering materials with sufficient balance between mechanical and tribological properties.

  20. Quantum Fisher information and symmetric logarithmic derivative via anti-commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Jie; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2016-07-01

    The symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) is a key quantity to obtain quantum Fisher information (QFI) and to construct the corresponding optimal measurements. Here we develop a method to calculate the SLD and QFI via anti-commutators. This method has originated from the Lyapunov representation and would be very useful for cases where the anti-commutators among the state and its partial derivative exhibit periodic properties. As an application, we discuss a class of states whose squares linearly depend on the states themselves, and give the corresponding analytical expressions of SLD and QFI. A noisy scenario of this class of states is also considered and discussed. Finally, we readily apply the method to the block-diagonal states and the multi-parameter estimation scenarios.

  1. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  2. Carotid ultrasound segmentation using radio-frequency derived phase information and gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Carl; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Hicks, Yulia A

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound image segmentation is a field which has garnered much interest over the years. This is partially due to the complexity of the problem, arising from the lack of contrast between different tissue types which is quite typical of ultrasound images. Recently, segmentation techniques which treat RF signal data have also become popular, particularly with the increasing availability of such data from open-architecture machines. It is believed that RF data provides a rich source of information whose integrity remains intact, as opposed to the loss which occurs through the signal processing chain leading to Brightness Mode Images. Furthermore, phase information contained within RF data has not been studied in much detail, as the nature of the information here appears to be mostly random. In this work however, we show that phase information derived from RF data does elicit structure, characterized by texture patterns. Texture segmentation of this data permits the extraction of rough, but well localized, carotid boundaries. We provide some initial quantitative results, which report the performance of the proposed technique. PMID:26737742

  3. Pyrrolidinyl-camphor derivatives as a new class of organocatalyst for direct asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes and ketones to beta-nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Ting, Ying-Fang; Chang, Chihliang; Reddy, Raju Jannapu; Magar, Dhananjay R; Chen, Kwunmin

    2010-06-18

    Practical and convenient synthetic routes have been developed for the synthesis of a new class of pyrrolidinyl-camphor derivatives (7 a-h). These novel compounds were screened as catalysts for the direct Michael addition of symmetrical alpha,alpha-disubstituted aldehydes to beta-nitroalkenes. When this asymmetric transformation was catalyzed by organocatalyst 7 f, the desired Michael adducts were obtained in high chemical yields, with high to excellent stereoselectivities (up to 98:2 diastereomeric ratio (d.r.) and 99 % enantiomeric excess (ee)). The scope of the catalytic system was expanded to encompass various aldehydes and ketones as the donor sources. The synthetic application was demonstrated by the synthesis of a tetrasubstituted-cyclohexane derivative from (S)-citronellal, with high stereoselectivity.

  4. Information content of multiwavelength lidar data with respect to microphysical particle properties derived from eigenvalue analysis.

    PubMed

    Veselovskii, Igor; Kolgotin, Alexei; Müller, Detlef; Whiteman, David N

    2005-09-01

    The multiwavelength Raman lidar technique in combination with sophisticated inversion algorithms has been recognized as a new tool for deriving information about the microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols. The input optical parameter sets, provided by respective aerosol Raman lidars, are at the theoretical lower limit at which these inversion algorithms work properly. For that reason there is ongoing intense discussion of the accuracy of these inversion methods and the possibility of simultaneous retrieval of the particle size distribution and the complex refractive index. We present results of the eigenvalue analysis, used to study the information content of multiwavelength lidar data with respect to microphysical particle properties. Such an analysis provides, on a rather mathematical basis, more insight into the limitations of these inversion algorithms regarding the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. We show that the effective radius may be retrieved to 50% accuracy and the real and imaginary part of the complex refractive index to +/- 0.05 and +/- 0.005i, if the imaginary part is < 0.02i. These results are in accordance with the classic approach of simulation studies with synthetic particle size distributions. Major difficulties are found with a particle effective radius of < 0.15 microm. In that case the complex refractive index may not be derived with sufficient accuracy. The eigenvalue analysis also shows that the accuracy of the derived parameters degrades if the imaginary part is > 0.02i. Furthermore it shows the importance of the simultaneous use of backscatter and extinction coefficients for the retrieval of microphysical parameters.

  5. Benzophenone derivatives as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, H.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel having an initial boiling point of at least about 75/sup 0/F and an end boiling point of about 750/sup 0/F, and a minor amount sufficient to improve the fuel detergency thereof the reaction product of an ester of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or mixtures of such esters and an amine wherein the benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride ester or mixtures of such esters are reacted with the amine in a mole ratio of from about 3:1 to about 1:3 at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ - 300/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure from about three to about 10 hours.

  6. Protein Structure and Evolution: Are They Constrained Globally by a Principle Derived from Information Theory?

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, Leslie; Warr, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    That the physicochemical properties of amino acids constrain the structure, function and evolution of proteins is not in doubt. However, principles derived from information theory may also set bounds on the structure (and thus also the evolution) of proteins. Here we analyze the global properties of the full set of proteins in release 13-11 of the SwissProt database, showing by experimental test of predictions from information theory that their collective structure exhibits properties that are consistent with their being guided by a conservation principle. This principle (Conservation of Information) defines the global properties of systems composed of discrete components each of which is in turn assembled from discrete smaller pieces. In the system of proteins, each protein is a component, and each protein is assembled from amino acids. Central to this principle is the inter-relationship of the unique amino acid count and total length of a protein and its implications for both average protein length and occurrence of proteins with specific unique amino acid counts. The unique amino acid count is simply the number of distinct amino acids (including those that are post-translationally modified) that occur in a protein, and is independent of the number of times that the particular amino acid occurs in the sequence. Conservation of Information does not operate at the local level (it is independent of the physicochemical properties of the amino acids) where the influences of natural selection are manifest in the variety of protein structure and function that is well understood. Rather, this analysis implies that Conservation of Information would define the global bounds within which the whole system of proteins is constrained; thus it appears to be acting to constrain evolution at a level different from natural selection, a conclusion that appears counter-intuitive but is supported by the studies described herein. PMID:25970335

  7. Protein structure and evolution: are they constrained globally by a principle derived from information theory?

    PubMed

    Hatton, Leslie; Warr, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    That the physicochemical properties of amino acids constrain the structure, function and evolution of proteins is not in doubt. However, principles derived from information theory may also set bounds on the structure (and thus also the evolution) of proteins. Here we analyze the global properties of the full set of proteins in release 13-11 of the SwissProt database, showing by experimental test of predictions from information theory that their collective structure exhibits properties that are consistent with their being guided by a conservation principle. This principle (Conservation of Information) defines the global properties of systems composed of discrete components each of which is in turn assembled from discrete smaller pieces. In the system of proteins, each protein is a component, and each protein is assembled from amino acids. Central to this principle is the inter-relationship of the unique amino acid count and total length of a protein and its implications for both average protein length and occurrence of proteins with specific unique amino acid counts. The unique amino acid count is simply the number of distinct amino acids (including those that are post-translationally modified) that occur in a protein, and is independent of the number of times that the particular amino acid occurs in the sequence. Conservation of Information does not operate at the local level (it is independent of the physicochemical properties of the amino acids) where the influences of natural selection are manifest in the variety of protein structure and function that is well understood. Rather, this analysis implies that Conservation of Information would define the global bounds within which the whole system of proteins is constrained; thus it appears to be acting to constrain evolution at a level different from natural selection, a conclusion that appears counter-intuitive but is supported by the studies described herein.

  8. Phosphorus derivatives as electrolyte additives for lithium-ion battery: The removal of O2 generated from lithium-rich layered oxide cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seoksoo; Yoon, Jaegu; Lee, Jeawoan; Choi, Wanuk; Jung, Insun; Lee, Seungyeon; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2013-12-01

    Direct internal pressure measurements of the cylindrical Li-ion cells with a mixture of LiCoO2 and Li1.167Ni0.233Co0.1Mn0.467Mo0.033O2 (a solid solution between 0.4 Li2Mn0.8Ni0.1Mo0.1O3 and 0.6 LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2) as cathode and graphite as anode have been performed during cell charging. Cell internal pressure at the end of charging is greatly reduced from 2.85 to 0.84-1.84 bar by adding a small amount of phosphorus derivatives such as triphenyl phosphine (TPP), ethyl diphenylphosphinite (EDP), and triethyl phosphite (TEP) into a carbonate-based electrolyte. The phosphorus derivatives are supposed to react with O2 generated from the decomposition of the Li2MnO3 component. The chemical states of additive molecules before and after the charging process have been characterized with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It has also been shown that those additives improve the cycle life when applied in coin full cells.

  9. Removal of bisphenol A and its derivatives from aqueous medium through laccase-catalyzed treatment enhanced by addition of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuji; Takahashi, Ayumi; Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamada, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    In this study, enzymatic removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from the aqueous medium was investigated through the generation of water-insoluble oligomers, and this procedure was applied to removal of bisphenol derivatives. The experimental parameters, such as the temperature, pH value, enzyme concentration, and concentration and molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG), were determined for the laccase-catalyzed treatment of BPA. The optimum conditions were determined to be pH 7.0 and 40°C in the absence of PEG. Water-insoluble oligomers generated under these conditions were readily removed by filtration or centrifugation. The optimum pH value was decreased to 5.0 in the presence of PEG and the laccase dose was reduced to one-fiftieth of that in the absence of PEG. This indicates that the addition of PEG protects the enzymatic activity and prevents capture of laccase molecules in the oligomers. The oligomers generated in the presence of PEG were removed from the aqueous medium by filtration with a membrane filter or by centrifugation. The oligomers were completely filtrated out with a filter paper by decreasing the pH value to 3.0. In addition, several bisphenol derivatives were also treated and subsequently removed by adjusting the laccase dose in the presence of PEG using the above procedure.

  10. An Index of Information Content for Genotype Probabilities Derived from Segregation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, B. P.

    1997-01-01

    A genotype probability index (GPI) is proposed to indicate the information content of genotype probabilities derived from a segregation analysis. Typically, some individuals are genotyped at a marker locus or a quantitative trait locus, and segregation analysis is used to make genotype inferences about ungenotyped relatives. Genotype probabilities for a two-allele autosomal locus are plotted on a triangular surface. The GPI has a value of zero at the point corresponding to Hardy-Weinberg frequencies, and a value of 100% at the vertices of the triangle. Trigonometric functions are used to help calculate intermediate index values. It is proposed that such an index can be useful to help identify which ungenotyped individuals or loci should be genotyped to maximize the benefit/cost of genotyping operations. PMID:9071600

  11. Patients With Proneural Glioblastoma May Derive Overall Survival Benefit From the Addition of Bevacizumab to First-Line Radiotherapy and Temozolomide: Retrospective Analysis of the AVAglio Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sandmann, Thomas; Bourgon, Richard; Garcia, Josep; Li, Congfen; Cloughesy, Timothy; Chinot, Olivier L.; Wick, Wolfgang; Nishikawa, Ryo; Mason, Warren; Henriksson, Roger; Saran, Frank; Lai, Albert; Moore, Nicola; Kharbanda, Samir; Peale, Franklin; Hegde, Priti; Abrey, Lauren E.; Phillips, Heidi S.; Bais, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The AVAglio (Avastin in Glioblastoma) and RTOG-0825 randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma reported prolonged progression-free survival (PFS), but not overall survival (OS), with the addition of bevacizumab to radiotherapy plus temozolomide. To establish whether certain patient subgroups derived an OS benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to first-line standard-of-care therapy, AVAglio patients were retrospectively evaluated for molecular subtype, and bevacizumab efficacy was assessed for each patient subgroup. Patients and Methods A total of 349 pretreatment specimens (bevacizumab arm, n = 171; placebo arm, n = 178) from AVAglio patients (total, N = 921) were available for biomarker analysis. Samples were profiled for gene expression and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status and classified into previously identified molecular subtypes. PFS and OS were assessed within each subtype. Results A multivariable analysis accounting for prognostic covariates revealed that bevacizumab conferred a significant OS advantage versus placebo for patients with proneural IDH1 wild-type tumors (17.1 v 12.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.73; P = .002). This analysis also revealed an interaction between the proneural subtype biomarker and treatment arm (P = .023). The group of patients with mesenchymal and proneural tumors derived a PFS benefit from bevacizumab compared with placebo; however, this translated to an OS benefit in the proneural subset only. Conclusion Retrospective analysis of AVAglio data suggests that patients with IDH1 wild-type proneural glioblastoma may derive an OS benefit from first-line bevacizumab treatment. The predictive value of the proneural subtype observed in AVAglio should be validated in an independent data set. PMID:26124478

  12. Comparisons of GNSS and leveling-derived orthometric heights using geographic information system software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, K. M.; Satalich, J.

    2012-12-01

    We make comparisons between GNSS- and leveling-derived orthometric heights along a 31-km long leveling line of NAVD 88 benchmarks located on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, southern California. Our study makes comparisons using both the GEOID09 and GEOID12 models and note improvements using the newer model. The Palos Verdes Peninsula is located 40 km southeast of downtown Los Angeles. Geodetic leveling observations span 16 years over three epochs: 1978, 1989, and 1994. GNSS observations span 20 years over five epochs: 1992, 1994, 1997, 2011, and 2012. Comparisons between GNSS-derived and leveled orthometric heights indicate a systematic trend reaching a maximum of about +8 cm along the western flank of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The greatest improvements between the GEOID09 and GEOID12 models are shown on the southern portion of the peninsula between San Pedro and Point Vicente. Based upon new-minus-old comparisons of the GNSS and leveling observations, these differences cannot be attributed to either leveling or GNSS errors. We examine whether these differences may be attributable to steep gravity gradients in this region of the Peninsula. Our analysis of these results makes use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system (GIS) software. The analysis takes into account subsidence and rebound effects due to fluid extraction (petroleum and water), water injection, landslide prone areas, and faulting.

  13. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. PMID:27451227

  14. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives.

  15. Prediction of drug-target interaction by label propagation with mutual interaction information derived from heterogeneous network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zhang, Song-Yao

    2016-02-01

    The identification of potential drug-target interaction pairs is very important, which is useful not only for providing greater understanding of protein function, but also for enhancing drug research, especially for drug function repositioning. Recently, numerous machine learning-based algorithms (e.g. kernel-based, matrix factorization-based and network-based inference methods) have been developed for predicting drug-target interactions. All these methods implicitly utilize the assumption that similar drugs tend to target similar proteins and yield better results for predicting interactions between drugs and target proteins. To further improve the accuracy of prediction, a new method of network-based label propagation with mutual interaction information derived from heterogeneous networks, namely LPMIHN, is proposed to infer the potential drug-target interactions. LPMIHN separately performs label propagation on drug and target similarity networks, but the initial label information of the target (or drug) network comes from the drug (or target) label network and the known drug-target interaction bipartite network. The independent label propagation on each similarity network explores the cluster structure in its network, and the label information from the other network is used to capture mutual interactions (bicluster structures) between the nodes in each pair of the similarity networks. As compared to other recent state-of-the-art methods on the four popular benchmark datasets of binary drug-target interactions and two quantitative kinase bioactivity datasets, LPMIHN achieves the best results in terms of AUC and AUPR. In addition, many of the promising drug-target pairs predicted from LPMIHN are also confirmed on the latest publicly available drug-target databases such as ChEMBL, KEGG, SuperTarget and Drugbank. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our LPMIHN method, indicating that LPMIHN has a great potential for predicting drug-target interactions. PMID

  16. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  17. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  20. Improvement of erosion risk modelling using soil information derived from aerial Vis-NIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to test the benefit of the hyperspectral imagery in soil surface properties characterisation for soil erosion modelling purposes. The research area is the Lebna catchment located in the in the north of Tunisia (Cap Bon Region). Soil erosion is evaluated with the use of two different soil erosion models: PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment already used for the soil erosion risk mapping for the European Union, Kirkby et al., 2008) and Mesales (Regional Modelling of Soil Erosion Risk developed by Le Bissonnais et al., 1998, 2002); for that, different sources for soil properties and derived parameters such as soil erodibility map and soil crusting map have been evaluated with use of four different supports: 1) IAO soil map (IAO, 2000), 2) Carte Agricole - CA - (Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia), 3) Hyperspectral VIS-NIR map - HY - (Gomez et al., 2012; Ciampalini t al., 2012), and, 3) a here developed Hybrid map - CY - integrating information from Hyperspectral VIS-NIR and pedological maps. Results show that the data source has a high influence on the estimation of the parameters for both the models with a more evident sensitivity for Pesera. With regard to the classical pedological data, the VIS-NIR data clearly ameliorates the spatialization of the texture, then, the spatial detail of the results. Differences in the output using different maps are more important in Pesera model than in Mesales showing no-change ranges of about 15 to 41% and 53 to 67%, respectively.

  1. A model of STDP based on spatially and temporally local information: derivation and combination with gated decay.

    PubMed

    Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli; Versace, Massimiliano; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Temporal relationships between neuronal firing and plasticity have received significant attention in recent decades. Neurophysiological studies have shown the phenomenon of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Various models were suggested to implement an STDP-like learning rule in artificial networks based on spiking neuronal representations. The rule presented here was developed under three constraints. First, it only depends on the information that is available at the synapse at the time of synaptic modification. Second, it naturally follows from neurophysiological and psychological research starting with Hebb's postulate [D. Hebb. (1949). The organization of behavior. Wiley, New York]. Third, it is simple, computationally cheap and its parameters are straightforward to determine. This rule is further extended by addition of four different types of gating derived from conventionally used types of gated decay in learning rules for continuous firing rate neural networks. The results show that the advantages of using these gatings are transferred to the new rule without sacrificing its dependency on spike-timing.

  2. Method for deriving information regarding stress from a stressed ferromagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, D.C.

    1991-04-30

    A nondestructive evaluation technique is disclosed for deriving stress in ferromagnetic materials including deriving anhysteretic and hysteresis magnetization curves for the material in both unstressed and stressed states. The anhysteretic curve is expressed as a Langevin function. The stress is expressed as an equivalent magnetic field dependent on stress and change of magnetostriction with magnetization. By measurement of these bulk magnetic properties, stress can be derived.

  3. Method for deriving information regarding stress from a stressed ferromagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, David C.

    1991-04-30

    A non-destructive evaluation technique for deriving stress in ferromagnetic materials including deriving anhysteretic and hysteresis magnetization curves for the material in both unstressed and stressed states. The anhysteretic curve is expressed as a Langevin function. The stress is expressed as an equivalent magnetic field dependent on stress and change of magnetostriction with magnetization. By measurement of these bulk magnetic properties, stress can be derived.

  4. Discrimination of crop types with TerraSAR-X-derived information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonobe, Rei; Tani, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiufeng; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shimamura, Hideki

    Although classification maps are required for management and for the estimation of agricultural disaster compensation, those techniques have yet to be established. This paper describes the comparison of three different classification algorithms for mapping crops in Hokkaido, Japan, using TerraSAR-X (including TanDEM-X) dual-polarimetric data. In the study area, beans, beets, grasslands, maize, potatoes and winter wheat were cultivated. In this study, classification using TerraSAR-X-derived information was performed. Coherence values, polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values were also obtained and evaluated regarding their usefulness in crop classification. Accurate classification may be possible with currently existing supervised learning models. A comparison between the classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) algorithms was performed. Even though J-M distances were lower than 1.0 on all TerraSAR-X acquisition days, good results were achieved (e.g., separability between winter wheat and grass) due to the characteristics of the machine learning algorithm. It was found that SVM performed best, achieving an overall accuracy of 95.0% based on the polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values for HH and VV polarizations. The misclassified fields were less than 100 a in area and 79.5-96.3% were less than 200 a with the exception of grassland. When some feature such as a road or windbreak forest is present in the TerraSAR-X data, the ratio of its extent to that of the field is relatively higher for the smaller fields, which leads to misclassifications.

  5. Enantioseparation of mandelic acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography with substituted β-cyclodextrin as chiral mobile phase additive and evaluation of inclusion complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shengqiang; Zhang, Hu; Shen, Mangmang

    2014-01-01

    The enantioseparation of ten mandelic acid derivatives was performed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) or sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as chiral mobile phase additives, in which inclusion complex formations between cyclodextrins and enantiomers were evaluated. The effects of various factors such as the composition of mobile phase, concentration of cyclodextrins and column temperature on retention and enantioselectivity were studied. The peak resolutions and retention time of the enantiomers were strongly affected by the pH, the organic modifier and the type of β-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase, while the concentration of buffer solution and temperature had a relatively low effect on resolutions. Enantioseparations were successfully achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column (150×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.10 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer at pH 2.68 containing 20 mmol L-1 of HP-β-CD or SBE-β-CD. Semi-preparative enantioseparation of about 10 mg of α-cyclohexylmandelic acid and α-cyclopentylmandelic acid were established individually. Cyclodextrin-enantiomer complex stoichiometries as well as binding constants were investigated. Results showed that stoichiomertries for all the inclusion complex of cyclodextrin-enantiomers were 1:1. PMID:24893270

  6. A sintering study on the β-spodumene-based glass ceramics prepared from gel-derived precursor powders with LiF additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Moo-Chin; Wu, Nan-Chung; Yang, Sheng; Wen, Shaw-Bing

    2002-01-01

    Beta-spodumene (Li2O·Al2O3·4SiO2, LAS) powders were prepared by a sol-gel process using Si(OC2H5)4, Al(OC4H9)3, and LiNO3 as precursors and LiF as a sintering aid agent. Dilatometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and electron diffraction (ED) were utilized to study the sintering, phase transformation, microstructure, and properties of the β-spodumene glass-ceramics prepared from the gel-derived precursor powders with and without LiF additives. For the LAS precursor powders containing no LiF, the only crystalline phase obtained was β-spodumene. For the pellets containing less than 4 wt pct LiF and sintered at 1050 °C for 5 hours the crystalline phases were β-spodumene and β-eucryptite (Li2O·Al2O3·2SiO2). When the LiF content was 5 wt pct and the sintering process was carried out at 1050 °C for 5 hours, the crystalline phases were β-spodumene, β-eucryptite (triclinic), and eucryptite (rhombohedral (hex.)) phases. With the LiF additive increased from 0.5 to 4 wt pct and sintering at 1050 °C for 5 hours, the open porosity of the sintered bodies decrease from 30 to 2.1 pct. The grains size is about to 4 to 5 µm when pellect LAS compact contains LiF 3 wt pct as sintered at 1050 °C for 5 hours. The grains size grew to 8 to 25 µm with a remarkable discontinuous grain growth for pellet LAS compact contain LiF 5 wt pct sintered at 1050 °C for 5 hours. Relative densities greater than 90 pct could be obtained for the LAS precursor powders with LiF > 2 wt pct when sintered at 1050 °C for 5 hours. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered bodies decreased from 8.3 × 10-7 to 5.2 × 10-7/°C (25 °C to 900 °C) as the LiF addition increased from 0 to 5 wt pct.

  7. Protein structural information derived from NMR chemical shift with the neural network program TALOS-N.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Bax, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Chemical shifts are obtained at the first stage of any protein structural study by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shifts are known to be impacted by a wide range of structural factors, and the artificial neural network based TALOS-N program has been trained to extract backbone and side-chain torsion angles from (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C shifts. The program is quite robust and typically yields backbone torsion angles for more than 90 % of the residues and side-chain χ 1 rotamer information for about half of these, in addition to reliably predicting secondary structure. The use of TALOS-N is illustrated for the protein DinI, and torsion angles obtained by TALOS-N analysis from the measured chemical shifts of its backbone and (13)C(β) nuclei are compared to those seen in a prior, experimentally determined structure. The program is also particularly useful for generating torsion angle restraints, which then can be used during standard NMR protein structure calculations.

  8. An assessment of the information content of likelihood ratios derived from complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Rudin, Norah; Inman, Keith; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-05-01

    With the increasing sensitivity of DNA typing methodologies, as well as increasing awareness by law enforcement of the perceived capabilities of DNA typing, complex mixtures consisting of DNA from two or more contributors are increasingly being encountered. However, insufficient research has been conducted to characterize the ability to distinguish a true contributor (TC) from a known non-contributor (KNC) in these complex samples, and under what specific conditions. In order to investigate this question, sets of six 15-locus Caucasian genotype profiles were simulated and used to create mixtures containing 2-5 contributors. Likelihood ratios were computed for various situations, including varying numbers of contributors and unknowns in the evidence profile, as well as comparisons of the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This work was intended to illustrate the best-case scenario, in which all alleles from the TC were detected in the simulated evidence samples. Therefore the possibility of drop-out was not modeled in this study. The computer program DNAMIX was then used to compute LRs comparing the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This resulted in 140,000 LRs for each of the two scenarios. These complex mixture simulations show that, even when all alleles are detected (i.e. no drop-out), TCs can generate LRs less than 1 across a 15-locus profile. However, this outcome was rare, 7 of 140,000 replicates (0.005%), and associated only with mixtures comprising 5 contributors in which the numerator hypothesis includes one or more unknown contributors. For KNCs, LRs were found to be greater than 1 in a small number of replicates (75 of 140,000 replicates, or 0.05%). These replicates were limited to 4 and 5 person mixtures with 1 or more unknowns in the numerator. Only 5 of these 75 replicates (0.004%) yielded an LR greater than 1,000. Thus, overall, these results imply that the weight of evidence that can be derived from complex mixtures containing up to 5 contributors

  9. Additional food folate derived exclusively from natural sources improves folate status in young women with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jean; Yang, Tai Li; Urrutia, Tania F; Li, Rui; Perry, Cydne A; Hata, Hiroko; Cogger, Edward A; Moriarty, David J; Caudill, Marie A

    2006-11-01

    The effectiveness of additional food folate in improving folate status in humans is uncertain particularly in people with the common genetic variant (677 C-->T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. To examine the effect of a doubling of food folate consumption on folate status response variables, women (n=32; 18-46 years) with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype consumed either 400 (n=15; 7 CC and 8 TT) or 800 (n=17; 8 CC and 9 TT) microg/day of dietary folate equivalents (DFE) derived exclusively from naturally occurring food folate for 12 weeks. A repeated measures two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the effect of the dietary treatment, the MTHFR C677T genotype and their interactions on serum folate, RBC folate and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) during the last 3 weeks of the study. Consumption of 800 microg DFE/day resulted in serum folate concentrations that were 67% (P=.005) higher than consumption of 400 microg DFE/day (18.6+/-2.9 vs. 31.0+/-2.7 nmol/L, respectively) and RBC folate concentrations that were 33% (P=.001) higher (1172+/-75 vs. 1559+/-70 nmol/L, respectively). Serum folate (P=.065) and RBC folate (P=.022) concentrations were lower and plasma tHcy was higher (P=.039) in women with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype relative to the CC genotype. However, no genotype by dietary treatment interaction was detected. These data suggest that a doubling of food folate intake will lead to marked improvements in folate status in women with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype.

  10. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  14. 76 FR 64366 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Additional On-Site Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Collection for the Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative Fee Study AGENCY: Office of the Policy... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher Program Administrative...

  15. 33 CFR 148.108 - What if a Federal or State agency or other interested party requests additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment. MARAD will consider the request before making a final... time and effort required by the applicant in gathering the information will result in an undue delay...

  16. Using case-mix information in strategic hospital marketing. Deriving market research from patient data.

    PubMed

    Little, A

    1992-01-01

    Hospital survival requires adaptation, adaptation requires understanding, and understanding requires information. These are the basic equations behind hospital strategic marketing, and one of the answers may lie in hospitals' own patient-data systems. Marketers' and administrators' enlightened application of case-mix information could become one more hospital survival tool.

  17. Deriving meaning from others’ emotions: attribution, appraisal, and the use of emotions as social information

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, Evert A.; van Kleef, Gerben A.; van der Pligt, Joop

    2015-01-01

    Emotional expressions constitute a rich source of information. Integrating theorizing on attribution, appraisal processes, and the use of emotions as social information, we examined how emotional expressions influence attributions of agency and responsibility under conditions of ambiguity. Three vignette studies involving different scenarios indicate that participants used information about others’ emotional expressions to make sense of ambiguous social situations. Expressions of regret fueled inferences that the expresser was responsible for an adverse situation, whereas expressions of anger fueled inferences that someone else was responsible. Also, expressions of anger were interpreted as a sign of injustice, and expressions of disappointment increased prosocial intentions (i.e., to help the expresser). The results show that emotional expressions can help people understand ambiguous social situations by informing attributions that correspond with each emotion’s associated appraisal structures. The findings advance understanding of the ways in which emotional expressions help individuals understand and coordinate social life. PMID:26284001

  18. Deriving meaning from others' emotions: attribution, appraisal, and the use of emotions as social information.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Evert A; van Kleef, Gerben A; van der Pligt, Joop

    2015-01-01

    Emotional expressions constitute a rich source of information. Integrating theorizing on attribution, appraisal processes, and the use of emotions as social information, we examined how emotional expressions influence attributions of agency and responsibility under conditions of ambiguity. Three vignette studies involving different scenarios indicate that participants used information about others' emotional expressions to make sense of ambiguous social situations. Expressions of regret fueled inferences that the expresser was responsible for an adverse situation, whereas expressions of anger fueled inferences that someone else was responsible. Also, expressions of anger were interpreted as a sign of injustice, and expressions of disappointment increased prosocial intentions (i.e., to help the expresser). The results show that emotional expressions can help people understand ambiguous social situations by informing attributions that correspond with each emotion's associated appraisal structures. The findings advance understanding of the ways in which emotional expressions help individuals understand and coordinate social life. PMID:26284001

  19. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  3. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  6. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  7. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  8. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kevin C; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D; Staudacher, Erich M; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120-140 ms for the AL to

  9. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  10. Using object-based analysis to derive surface complexity information for improved filtering of airborne laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Menglong; Blaschke, Thomas; Tang, Hongzhao; Xiao, Chenchao; Sun, Xian; Zhang, Daobing; Fu, Kun

    2016-03-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a technique used to obtain Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) efficiently, and filtering is the key procedure used to derive DTM from point clouds. Generating seed points is an initial step for most filtering algorithms, whereas existing algorithms usually define a regular window size to generate seed points. This may lead to an inadequate density of seed points, and further introduce error type I, especially in steep terrain and forested areas. In this study, we propose the use of objectbased analysis to derive surface complexity information from ALS datasets, which can then be used to improve seed point generation.We assume that an area is complex if it is composed of many small objects, with no buildings within the area. Using these assumptions, we propose and implement a new segmentation algorithm based on a grid index, which we call the Edge and Slope Restricted Region Growing (ESRGG) algorithm. Surface complexity information is obtained by statistical analysis of the number of objects derived by segmentation in each area. Then, for complex areas, a smaller window size is defined to generate seed points. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could greatly improve the filtering results in complex areas, especially in steep terrain and forested areas.

  11. Systems, methods and apparatus for implementation of formal specifications derived from informal requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Erickson, John D. (Inventor); Gracinin, Denis (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an informal specification is translated without human intervention into a formal specification. In some embodiments the formal specification is a process-based specification. In some embodiments, the formal specification is translated into a high-level computer programming language which is further compiled into a set of executable computer instructions.

  12. Derivation and Implementation of a Model Teaching the Nature of Science Using Informal Science Education Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…

  13. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  14. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values <10(-15). A per-assay assessment showed that the BEDROC(α = 100), which is of particular relevance for early retrieval of actives, improved for 38 out of 46 assays, increasing the success rate of smaller follow-up screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives. PMID:27487177

  15. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values <10(-15). A per-assay assessment showed that the BEDROC(α = 100), which is of particular relevance for early retrieval of actives, improved for 38 out of 46 assays, increasing the success rate of smaller follow-up screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  16. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  17. Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory: An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) with Options for Assessing Additional Elements of Higher-Order Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    Focusing on better assessing the thinking, or meaning-making, aspects of reading that are emphasized in current views of the reading process, this book presents the Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory (IR-TI) which offers options to enhance assessment beyond assessing students' listening level, oral reading of words, and basic comprehension. The…

  18. Enhancing radar estimates of precipitation over complex terrain using information derived from an orographic precipitation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochet, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe objective of this paper is to present a radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation algorithm and assess its quality over the complex terrain of western Iceland. The proposed scheme deals with the treatment of beam blockage, anomalous propagation, vertical profile of reflectivity and includes a radar adjustment technique compensating for range, orographic effects and variations in the Z-R relationship. The quality of the estimated precipitation is remarkably enhanced after post-processing and in reasonably good agreement with what is known about the spatial distribution of precipitation in the studied area from both rain gauge observations and a gridded dataset derived from an orographic precipitation model. The results suggest that this methodology offers a credible solution to obtain an estimate of the distribution of precipitation in mountainous terrain and appears to be of practical value to meteorologists and hydrologists.

  19. Space transportation. [user needs met by information derived from satellites and the interface with space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    User-oriented panels were formed to examine practical applications of information or services derived from earth orbiting satellites. Topics discussed include: weather and climate; uses of communication; land use planning; agriculture, forest, and range; inland water resources; retractable resources; environmental quality; marine and maritime uses; and materials processing in space. Emphasis was placed on the interface of the space transportation system (STS) with the applications envisioned by the user panels. User requirements were compared with expected STS capabilities in terms of availability, carrying payload to orbit, and estimated costs per launch. Conclusions and recommendations were reported.

  20. Donor-derived West Nile virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients: report of four additional cases and review of clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Winston, Drew J; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Rabe, Ingrid B; Dhillon, Gundeep; Mulligan, David; Hong, Johnny C; Busuttil, Ronald W; Nowicki, Marek J; Mone, Thomas; Civen, Rachel; Tecle, Selam A; Trivedi, Kavita K; Hocevar, Susan N

    2014-05-15

    We describe four solid-organ transplant recipients with donor-derived West Nile virus (WNV) infection (encephalitis 3, asymptomatic 1) from a common donor residing in a region of increased WNV activity. All four transplant recipients had molecular evidence of WNV infection in their serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Serum from the organ donor was positive for WNV IgM but negative for WNV RNA, whereas his lymph node and spleen tissues tested positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Combination therapy included intravenous immunoglobulin (4 cases), interferon (3 cases), fresh frozen plasma with WNV IgG (2 cases), and ribavirin (1 case). Two of the four transplant recipients survived.Review of the 20 published cases of organ-derived WNV infection found that this infection is associated with a high incidence of neuroinvasive disease (70%) and severe morbidity and mortality (30%). Median time to onset of symptomatic WNV infection was 13 days after transplantation (range 5-37 days). Initial unexplained fever unresponsive to antibiotic therapy followed by rapid onset of neurologic deficits was the most common clinical presentation. Confirmation of infection was made by testing serum and CSF for both WNV RNA by RT-PCR and WNV IgM by serological assays. Treatment usually included supportive care, reduction of immunosuppression, and frequent intravenous immunoglobulin. The often negative results for WNV by current RT-PCR and serological assays and the absence of clinical signs of acute infection in donors contribute to the sporadic occurrence of donor-derived WNV infection. Potential organ donors should be assessed for unexplained fever and neurological symptoms, particularly if they reside in areas of increased WNV activity.

  1. Derivation of the Rules of Quantum Mechanics from Information-Theoretic Axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivel, Daniel I.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional quantum mechanics with a complex Hilbert space and the Born Rule is derived from five axioms describing experimentally observable properties of probability distributions for the outcome of measurements. Axioms I, II, III are common to quantum mechanics and hidden variable theories. Axiom IV recognizes a phenomenon, first noted by von Neumann (in Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1955) and independently by Turing (Teuscher and Hofstadter, Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker, Springer, Berlin, 2004), in which the increase in entropy resulting from a measurement is reduced by a suitable intermediate measurement. This is shown to be impossible for local hidden variable theories. Axiom IV, together with the first three, almost suffice to deduce the conventional rules but allow some exotic, alternatives such as real or quaternionic quantum mechanics. Axiom V recognizes a property of the distribution of outcomes of random measurements on qubits which holds only in the complex Hilbert space model. It is then shown that the five axioms also imply the conventional rules for any finite dimension.

  2. Vesicles derived via AP-3 dependent recycling contribute to asynchronous release and influence information transfer

    PubMed Central

    Evstratova, Alesya; Chamberland, Simon; Faundez, Victor; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Action potentials trigger synchronous and asynchronous neurotransmitter release. Temporal properties of both types of release could be altered in an activity-dependent manner. While the effects of activity-dependent changes in synchronous release on postsynaptic signal integration have been studied, the contribution of asynchronous release to information transfer during natural stimulus patterns is unknown. Here we find that during trains of stimulations, asynchronous release contributes to the precision of action potential firing. Our data show that this form of release is selectively diminished in AP-3b2 KO animals, which lack functional neuronal AP-3, an adaptor protein regulating vesicle formation from endosomes generated during bulk endocytosis. We find that in the absence of neuronal AP-3, asynchronous release is attenuated and the activity-dependent increase in the precision of action potential timing is compromised. Lack of asynchronous release decreases the capacity of synaptic information transfer and renders synaptic communication less reliable in response to natural stimulus patterns. PMID:25410111

  3. Effective extraction of diagnostic ECG waveform information using orthonormal basis functions derived from body surface potential maps.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, F; Rautaharju, P M; Warren, J W; Horacek, B M; Dramaix, M

    1985-10-01

    A common basis of orthogonal waveform functions was derived from 128 lead body surface potential maps of 405 subjects. Twelve such orthogonal functions or frames were adequate for reconstruction of original ECGs from the beginning of QRS to the end of T. A larger number of frames (18) was required when basis functions were derived separately for QRS (10) and ST-T segments (8). Diagnostic information content of the coefficients of the orthogonal basis functions was evaluated in comparison with Minnesota Code criteria for myocardial infarction and with a more advanced multivariate ECG analysis program (Pipberger Program). This was done by deriving a linear discriminant function for separating normals from ECGs of patients with myocardial infarction and testing the discriminant in a different test population of infarcts and normals. The diagnostic accuracy of orthogonal basis functions was as good as that of Pipberger's program and considerably better than that of the Minnesota Code. The classification method described is insensitive to noise and errors in detecting QRS and T wave onsets and offsets or in selecting proper baseline for amplitude measurements. The robustness and enhanced classification stability with respect to noise and minor wave detection errors is a potential advantage particularly in serial ECG comparison.

  4. Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) Derived-data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center has initiated the Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) project to improve our understanding of patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity - 'storminess'- within the Pacific region and develop a suite of integrated data and information products. Strong winds, heavy rains, and high seas theme-specific data integration and product development teams have been formed to carry out this work. These teams are comprised of recognized agency and university- based experts in the area of climate-related processes that govern storminess. They include representatives from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Center for Operational Products and Services (CO-OPS), and National Weather Service (NWS), as well as the University of Hawai'i, University of Alaska, University of Guam, and Oregon State University. Each team is developing regional climatological overviews, identifying corresponding extremes indices, establishing data treatment and analysis protocols, and conducting analyses to establish baseline statistics, long term trends, patterns of variability, and event return recurrence intervals via Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) analyses. Preliminary results of these analyses can be viewed via a beta-version of a Google map- based query utility (http://www.pricip.org/ddp.php ). Data sources for these analyses include NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH) mean sea level pressure and wind speed data; the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) precipitation dataset; the National Water Level Observing Network (NWLON) sea level station records; the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) wave buoy records; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers" Coastal Data Information (CDIP) buoy data, and other data. The northern and central north Pacific, which includes Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and Hawai'i, have been targeted as

  5. Airborne derivation of microburst alerts from ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar information: A flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA windshear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne windshear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a windshear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. Microburst information was extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the windshear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which atmospheric 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne reactive windshear detection system. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurements would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the practicality of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  6. Preparation of porous 45S5 Bioglass-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds by using rice husk as a porogen additive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsiao, Sheng-Hung; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2009-06-01

    Bioactive glass is currently regarded as the most biocompatible material in the bone regeneration field because of its bioactivity, osteoconductivity and even osteoinductivity. In the present work porous glass-ceramic scaffolds, which were prepared from the 45S5 Bioglass by foaming with rice husks and sintering at 1050 degrees C for 1 h, have been developed. The produced scaffolds were characterized for their morphology, properties and bioactivity. Micrographs taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of macropores, mesopores and micropores, respectively. The bioactivity of the porous glass-ceramic scaffolds was investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) and characterized by SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A great potential scaffold that provides sufficient mechanical support temporarily while maintaining bioactivity, and that can biodegrade at later stages is achievable with the developed 45S5 Bioglass-derived scaffolds.

  7. Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with (15)N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of (15)N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities.

  8. Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with (15)N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of (15)N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities. PMID:24334669

  9. Merging LANDSAT Derived Land Covers into Quad-referenced Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. M.; Ragan, R. M.; Lade, K. P.

    1982-01-01

    An approach for merging multiscene LANDSAT data bases into existing geographic information systems having 5-second or smaller cells is described. The approach uses the output from the State of Maryland's UNIVAC 1180-based LANDSAT classification program ASTEP (Algorithm Simulation Test and Evaluation) developed by NASA. The structure of the technique was designed to address the problems that emerged as part of the LANDSAT classification of the 64,000 square mile Chesapeake water shed involving twelve scenes. The removal of overlap among adjacent scenes, the crossreferencing of ground control points, and the isolation of the appropriate pixels from the LANDSAT data base for subsequent positioning into a file containing ancillary data referenced to a specific USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle sheet are described. Examples illustrate the clustering of classified LANDSAT pixels to define the dominant land use for each of 8,100 cells within a series of quadrangle sheets distributed over the State of Maryland. The approach uses a hard copy terminal tied to an ASTEP algorithm through telephone lines. A coordinate digitizing board for inputing the position of ground control points is also valuable, although manual measurements are possible. The approach is quite efficient and should be especially attractive for use on regional scale studies.

  10. Deriving quantitative dynamics information for proteins and RNAs using ROTDIF with a graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Konstantin; Longhini, Andrew; Dayie, T Kwaku; Fushman, David

    2013-12-01

    To facilitate rigorous analysis of molecular motions in proteins, DNA, and RNA, we present a new version of ROTDIF, a program for determining the overall rotational diffusion tensor from single- or multiple-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data. We introduce four major features that expand the program's versatility and usability. The first feature is the ability to analyze, separately or together, (13)C and/or (15)N relaxation data collected at a single or multiple fields. A significant improvement in the accuracy compared to direct analysis of R2/R1 ratios, especially critical for analysis of (13)C relaxation data, is achieved by subtracting high-frequency contributions to relaxation rates. The second new feature is an improved method for computing the rotational diffusion tensor in the presence of biased errors, such as large conformational exchange contributions, that significantly enhances the accuracy of the computation. The third new feature is the integration of the domain alignment and docking module for relaxation-based structure determination of multi-domain systems. Finally, to improve accessibility to all the program features, we introduced a graphical user interface that simplifies and speeds up the analysis of the data. Written in Java, the new ROTDIF can run on virtually any computer platform. In addition, the new ROTDIF achieves an order of magnitude speedup over the previous version by implementing a more efficient deterministic minimization algorithm. We not only demonstrate the improvement in accuracy and speed of the new algorithm for synthetic and experimental (13)C and (15)N relaxation data for several proteins and nucleic acids, but also show that careful analysis required especially for characterizing RNA dynamics allowed us to uncover subtle conformational changes in RNA as a function of temperature that were opaque to previous analysis.

  11. Deriving Quantitative Dynamics Information for Proteins and RNAs using ROTDIF with a Graphical User Interface

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Konstantin; Longhini, Andrew; Dayie, T. Kwaku; Fushman, David

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate rigorous analysis of molecular motions in proteins, DNA, and RNA, we present a new version of ROTDIF, a program for determining the overall rotational diffusion tensor from single-or multiple-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation data. We introduce four major features that expand the program’s versatility and usability. The first feature is the ability to analyze, separately or together, 13C and/or 15N relaxation data collected at a single or multiple fields. A significant improvement in the accuracy compared to direct analysis of R2/R1 ratios, especially critical for analysis of 13C relaxation data, is achieved by subtracting high-frequency contributions to relaxation rates. The second new feature is an improved method for computing the rotational diffusion tensor in the presence of biased errors, such as large conformational exchange contributions, that significantly enhances the accuracy of the computation. The third new feature is the integration of the domain alignment and docking module for relaxation-based structure determination of multi-domain systems. Finally, to improve accessibility to all the program features, we introduced a graphical user interface (GUI) that simplifies and speeds up the analysis of the data. Written in Java, the new ROTDIF can run on virtually any computer platform. In addition, the new ROTDIF achieves an order of magnitude speedup over the previous version by implementing a more efficient deterministic minimization algorithm. We not only demonstrate the improvement in accuracy and speed of the new algorithm for synthetic and experimental 13C and 15N relaxation data for several proteins and nucleic acids, but also show that careful analysis required especially for characterizing RNA dynamics allowed us to uncover subtle conformational changes in RNA as a function of temperature that were opaque to previous analysis. PMID:24170368

  12. Does an additional structured information program during the intensive care unit stay reduce anxiety in ICU patients?: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication and information in order to reduce anxiety in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been described as area needing improvement. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to evaluate whether a structured information program that intensifies information given in standard care process reduces anxiety in ICU patients. Methods Multicenter, two-armed, non-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial in hospitals in the cities of Marburg, Halle, and Stuttgart (Germany). The trial was performed in cardiac surgery, general surgery, and internal medicine ICUs. Two-hundred and eleven elective and non-elective ICU patients were enrolled in the study (intervention group, n = 104; control group, n = 107). The experimental intervention comprised a single episode of structured oral information that was given in addition to standard care and covered two main parts: (1) A more standardized part about predefined ICU specific aspects – mainly procedural, sensory and coping information, and (2) an individualized part about fears and questions of the patient. The control group received a non-specific episodic conversation of similar length additional to standard care. Both conversations took place at the beginning of the ICU stay and lasted 10–15 minutes. Study nurses administered both interventions. The primary outcome ICU-related anxiety (CINT-Score, 0–100 pts., higher scores indicate higher anxiety) was assessed after admission to a regular ward. Results The primary outcome could be measured in 82 intervention group participants and 90 control group participants resulting in mean values of 20.4 (SD 14.4) compared to 20.8 (SD 14.7) and a mean difference of −0.2 (CI 95% -4.5 to 4.1). Conclusions A structured information intervention additional to standard care during ICU stay had no demonstrated additional benefit compared to an unspecific communication of similar duration. Reduction of anxiety in ICU patients will probably require more continuous

  13. Deriving the equation of state of additive hard-sphere fluid mixtures from that of a pure hard-sphere fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, C.; Solana, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    We have analyzed the rate of convergence of a series expansion, in terms of the density, of the ratio of the excess compressibility factor of fluid mixtures of additive hard spheres to that of a pure hard-sphere fluid with the same reduced density. The terms in the series can be obtained from the virial coefficients. We have found that the series converges quickly, so that frequently the knowledge of the first two terms of the series, that can be obtained from the second and third virial coefficients which are known analytically, is sufficient to provide an accurate equation of state.

  14. Ambiphilic properties of SF5CF2CF2Br derived perfluorinated radical in addition reactions across carbon-carbon double bonds.

    PubMed

    Dudziński, Piotr; Matsnev, Andrej V; Thrasher, Joseph S; Haufe, Günter

    2015-03-01

    The extraordinary properties of the pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group attract attention of organic chemists. While numerous SF5-substituted compounds have been synthesized, the direct introduction of SF5(CF2)n moieties has remained almost unexplored. Our investigations revealed the ambiphilic character of the SF5CF2CF2 radical. Addition reactions to electron-rich or electron-deficient alkenes profit either from its electrophilic or nucleophilic properties. Thus, the readily available SF5CF2CF2Br proved to be a promising and versatile building block for the introduction of this perfluorinated moiety.

  15. Enhancement of the performance of activated carbons as municipal odor removal media by addition of a sewage-sludge-derived phase.

    PubMed

    Sioukri, Evilambia; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2005-08-15

    Two commercial low-cost activated carbons and wood-based char were mixed with dewatered sludge and pyrolized at 950 degrees C. The sludge content on a dry basis was 23%. The obtained composite adsorbents were characterized from the point of view of surface chemistry (pH) and texture (adsorption of nitrogen at its boiling point: surface area, pore volume, pore size distributions). Then hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacities were measured using the home-designed dynamic test. The results revealed a significant increase in the capacity of the composite adsorbents compared to the unmodified carbons. Moreover, that increase was a few times greater than the hypothetical one predicted when desulfurization performance would be the sum of the contributions of both the sludge-derived and carbon phases. This is attributed to a synergetic effect related to the dispersion of the catalysts and the presence of small pores. Mixing activated carbon provides the active centers for oxidation (coming from sludge) and the developed pore system (from the activated carbon) where products of oxidation can be stored. Moreover, in the hydrophobic pore space the volatile organic compounds present in effluent air from a municipal waste treatment plant can be adsorbed. The selectivity for H2S oxidation, as in the case of pure activated carbon, depends on the pore sizes. Smaller pores lead to a higher yield of sulfuric acid; larger pores lead to a higher yield of sulfur.

  16. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the ..mu..-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate ethers and 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol with methyl ..cap alpha..-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6..cap alpha..-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6..cap alpha..-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose.

  17. Quinine-derived thiourea and squaramide catalyzed conjugate addition of α-nitrophosphonates to enones: asymmetric synthesis of quaternary α-aminophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Bera, Kalisankar; Namboothiri, Irishi N N

    2015-02-01

    Conjugate addition of α-nitrophosphonates to enones was carried out in the presence of two sets of organocatalysts, viz. a quinine-thiourea and a quinine-squaramide. The quinine-thiourea provided the products possessing an α-quaternary chiral center in high enantioselectivities only in the case of electron rich enones. On the other hand, the quinine-squaramide was more efficient in that a wide variety of electron rich and electron poor enones underwent Michael addition of nitrophosphonates to afford the quaternary α-nitrophosphonates in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The hydrogen bonding donor ability of the bifunctional catalyst, as shown in the proposed transition states, appears primarily responsible for the observed selectivity. However, a favorable π-stacking between the aryl groups of thiourea/squaramide and aryl vinyl ketone also appeared favorable. The reaction was amenable to scale up, and the enantioenriched quaternary α-nitrophosphonates could be easily transformed to synthetically and biologically useful quaternary α-aminophosphonates and other multifunctional molecules.

  18. Computer modelling integrated with micro-CT and material testing provides additional insight to evaluate bone treatments: Application to a beta-glycan derived whey protein mice model.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, D; Tu, P T; Dickinson, M; Watson, M; Blais, A; Das, R; Cornish, J; Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a whey protein diet on computationally predicted mechanical strength of murine bones in both trabecular and cortical regions of the femur. There was no significant influence on mechanical strength in cortical bone observed with increasing whey protein treatment, consistent with cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) and bone volume changes observed. Trabecular bone showed a significant decline in strength with increasing whey protein treatment when nanoindentation derived Young׳s moduli were used in the model. When microindentation, micro-CT phantom density or normalised Young׳s moduli were included in the model a non-significant decline in strength was exhibited. These results for trabecular bone were consistent with both trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-CT indices obtained independently. The secondary aim of this study was to characterise the influence of different sources of Young׳s moduli on computational prediction. This study aimed to quantify the predicted mechanical strength in 3D from these sources and evaluate if trends and conclusions remained consistent. For cortical bone, predicted mechanical strength behaviour was consistent across all sources of Young׳s moduli. There was no difference in treatment trend observed when Young׳s moduli were normalised. In contrast, trabecular strength due to whey protein treatment significantly reduced when material properties from nanoindentation were introduced. Other material property sources were not significant but emphasised the strength trend over normalised material properties. This shows strength at the trabecular level was attributed to both changes in bone architecture and material properties.

  19. Formation of low-δ18O magmas of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion by addition of water derived from dehydration of foundered basaltic roof rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riishuus, Morten S.; Harris, Chris; Peate, David W.; Tegner, Christian; Wilson, J. Richard; Brooks, C. Kent

    2015-05-01

    The Kangerlussuaq Intrusion in East Greenland is concentrically zoned from quartz nordmarkite (quartz syenite) at the margin, through pulaskite, to foyaite (nepheline syenite) in the centre, with no apparent intrusive contacts. The δ18O values of coexisting minerals are consistent with oxygen isotope equilibrium at magmatic temperatures. Most of the intrusion formed from low-δ18O magma; magma δ18O values generally increased upwards from about 3.3 ‰ in the quartz nordmarkites to 5.6 ‰ in the foyaites. The lowest magma δ18O value of about -1.0 ‰ is from the upper part of the nordmarkites, where there is a high concentration of foundered basaltic xenoliths (stoped from the roof of the intrusion). The amphiboles in the syenites have δD values that range from those typical of hydrous mantle-derived minerals to much lower values (-86 to -157 ‰), as do whole-rock samples of xenolith and country rock (-125 to -148 ‰). The low magma δ18O and δD values are consistent with continuous incorporation, exchange and upward escape of low-δ18O and δD fluids released from stoped basaltic roof material. Mass balance suggests that the integrated amount of water involved was 7 wt% of the volume of the magma, but locally reached 30 wt% water. The requirement for large amounts of water with low δ18O value is satisfied only if the foundered basalt contained most of its water in cavities as opposed to hydrous minerals. Even with this requirement, the volume of stoped basalt would have been equal to the volume of the magma. Repeated recharge of the residual magma with progressively less contaminated silica undersaturated melt resulted in a gradual shift across the low-pressure thermal divide. Crystallisation was suppressed by the depression of the liquidus due to water saturation of the residual magma (pH2O ~1 kbar).

  20. Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-kou; Jiang, Tian-yu; Li, Zhuo

    2012-08-30

    To develop new remediation methods for acidic soils polluted by heavy metals, the chemical fractions of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in an Ultisol with and without rice straw biochar were compared and the effect of biochar incorporation on the mobility and bioavailability of these metals was investigated. In light of the decreasing zeta potential and increasing CEC, the incorporation of biochar made the negative soil surface charge more negative. Additionally, the soil pH increased markedly after the addition of biochar. These changes in soil properties were advantageous for heavy metal immobilization in the bulk soil. The acid soluble Cu(II) and Pb(II) decreased by 19.7-100.0% and 18.8-77.0%, respectively, as the amount of biochar added increased. The descending range of acid soluble Cd(II) was 5.6-14.1%, which was much lower than that of Cu(II) and Pb(II). When 5.0 mmol/kg of these heavy metals was added, the reducible Pb(II) for treatments containing 3% and 5% biochar was 2.0 and 3.0 times higher than that of samples without biochar, while the reducible Cu(II) increased by 61.6% and 132.6% for the corresponding treatments, respectively. When 3% and 5% biochar was added, the oxidizable portion of Pb(II) increased by 1.18 and 1.94 times, respectively, while the oxidizable portion of Cu(II) increased by 8.13 and 7.16 times, respectively, primarily due to the high adsorption affinity of functional groups of biochar to Cu(II). The residual heavy metal contents were low and changed little with the incorporation of biochar. PMID:22704774

  1. Parametric Cognitive Modeling of Information and Computer Technology Usage by People with Aging- and Disability-Derived Functional Impairments.

    PubMed

    García-Betances, Rebeca I; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda; Ottaviano, Manuel; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, María T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance or support to effectively adapt their products and services to users' real needs. This paper presents the approach used to define and evaluate parametric cognitive models that describe interaction and usage of ICT by people with aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. A multisensorial training platform was used to train, based on real user measurements in real conditions, the virtual parameterized user models that act as subjects of the test-bed during all stages of simulated disabilities-friendly ICT-based products design. An analytical study was carried out to identify the relevant cognitive functions involved, together with their corresponding parameters as related to aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. Evaluation of the final cognitive virtual user models in a real application has confirmed that the use of these models produce concrete valuable benefits to the design and testing process of accessible ICT-based applications and services. Parameterization of cognitive virtual user models allows incorporating cognitive and perceptual aspects during the design process. PMID:26907296

  2. Parametric Cognitive Modeling of Information and Computer Technology Usage by People with Aging- and Disability-Derived Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda; Ottaviano, Manuel; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance or support to effectively adapt their products and services to users’ real needs. This paper presents the approach used to define and evaluate parametric cognitive models that describe interaction and usage of ICT by people with aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. A multisensorial training platform was used to train, based on real user measurements in real conditions, the virtual parameterized user models that act as subjects of the test-bed during all stages of simulated disabilities-friendly ICT-based products design. An analytical study was carried out to identify the relevant cognitive functions involved, together with their corresponding parameters as related to aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. Evaluation of the final cognitive virtual user models in a real application has confirmed that the use of these models produce concrete valuable benefits to the design and testing process of accessible ICT-based applications and services. Parameterization of cognitive virtual user models allows incorporating cognitive and perceptual aspects during the design process. PMID:26907296

  3. Triosmium clusters formed by oxidative addition and decarbonylation of 2-formylpyrrole: Crystal structures of three triosmium clusters containing aromatic or nonaromatic heterocyclic ligands derived from pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Day, M.W.; Hardcastle, K.I. ); Deeming, A.J. ); Arce, A.J.; De Sanctis, Y. )

    1990-01-01

    The {mu}-acyl cluster (Os{sub 3}H({mu}{sub 2}-NHCH=CHCH=CCO)(CO){sub 10}) (1) is formed by oxidative addition of 2-formylpyrrole to (Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(MeCN){sub 2}) in refluxing cyclohexane in the same manner as with other aldehydes. The crystals of 1 are triclinic, space group P{bar 1}, with cell dimensions a = 14.882 (2) {angstrom}, b = 15.626 (4) {angstrom}, c = 9.447 (3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 107.39 (2){degree}, {beta} = 97.29 (2){degree}, {gamma} = 97.84 (2){degree}, and Z = 4. The structure was refined to R{sub w} = 0.034. The pyrrolylacyl ligand bridges two osmium atoms through the C and O atoms of the original formyl group. Thermal loss of two COs from 1 gives two isomers of the cluster (Os{sub 3}H{sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}N)(CO){sub 9}) (2 and 3), isomer 2 converting to 3 thermally. Isomer 2, (Os{sub 3}H{sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-NHCH=CHC=C)(CO){sub 9}), retains the NH bond and is directly related to the N-methyl analogue of 2, (Os{sub 3}H{sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-MeNCH=CHC=C)(CO){sub 9}) (5), and closely related to the benzyne cluster (Os{sub 3}H{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 4})(CO){sub 9}), both of known X-ray structure. Cluster 2 converts to 3 by cleavage of N-H and Os-C bonds and with formation of C-H and Os-N bonds. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c, with cell dimensions a = 11.308 (2) {angstrom}, b = 12.457 (2) {angstrom}, c = 15.384 (3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 123.59 (2){degree}, and Z = 8. The structure was refined to R{sub w} = 0.052. The structure is best defined by a model in which the {mu}{sub 3}-N=CHCH=CHC ligand is coordinated to one Os atom through a N atom and to the other two through a single C atom forming a {mu}{sub 2}-alkylidene bridge. The C{sub 4}N ring is formally nonaromatic and is oriented vertically to the metal plane.

  4. A Bio-inspired Collision Avoidance Model Based on Spatial Information Derived from Motion Detectors Leads to Common Routes.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Olivier J N; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Avoiding collisions is one of the most basic needs of any mobile agent, both biological and technical, when searching around or aiming toward a goal. We propose a model of collision avoidance inspired by behavioral experiments on insects and by properties of optic flow on a spherical eye experienced during translation, and test the interaction of this model with goal-driven behavior. Insects, such as flies and bees, actively separate the rotational and translational optic flow components via behavior, i.e. by employing a saccadic strategy of flight and gaze control. Optic flow experienced during translation, i.e. during intersaccadic phases, contains information on the depth-structure of the environment, but this information is entangled with that on self-motion. Here, we propose a simple model to extract the depth structure from translational optic flow by using local properties of a spherical eye. On this basis, a motion direction of the agent is computed that ensures collision avoidance. Flying insects are thought to measure optic flow by correlation-type elementary motion detectors. Their responses depend, in addition to velocity, on the texture and contrast of objects and, thus, do not measure the velocity of objects veridically. Therefore, we initially used geometrically determined optic flow as input to a collision avoidance algorithm to show that depth information inferred from optic flow is sufficient to account for collision avoidance under closed-loop conditions. Then, the collision avoidance algorithm was tested with bio-inspired correlation-type elementary motion detectors in its input. Even then, the algorithm led successfully to collision avoidance and, in addition, replicated the characteristics of collision avoidance behavior of insects. Finally, the collision avoidance algorithm was combined with a goal direction and tested in cluttered environments. The simulated agent then showed goal-directed behavior reminiscent of components of the navigation

  5. A Bio-inspired Collision Avoidance Model Based on Spatial Information Derived from Motion Detectors Leads to Common Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Olivier J. N.; Lindemann, Jens P.; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding collisions is one of the most basic needs of any mobile agent, both biological and technical, when searching around or aiming toward a goal. We propose a model of collision avoidance inspired by behavioral experiments on insects and by properties of optic flow on a spherical eye experienced during translation, and test the interaction of this model with goal-driven behavior. Insects, such as flies and bees, actively separate the rotational and translational optic flow components via behavior, i.e. by employing a saccadic strategy of flight and gaze control. Optic flow experienced during translation, i.e. during intersaccadic phases, contains information on the depth-structure of the environment, but this information is entangled with that on self-motion. Here, we propose a simple model to extract the depth structure from translational optic flow by using local properties of a spherical eye. On this basis, a motion direction of the agent is computed that ensures collision avoidance. Flying insects are thought to measure optic flow by correlation-type elementary motion detectors. Their responses depend, in addition to velocity, on the texture and contrast of objects and, thus, do not measure the velocity of objects veridically. Therefore, we initially used geometrically determined optic flow as input to a collision avoidance algorithm to show that depth information inferred from optic flow is sufficient to account for collision avoidance under closed-loop conditions. Then, the collision avoidance algorithm was tested with bio-inspired correlation-type elementary motion detectors in its input. Even then, the algorithm led successfully to collision avoidance and, in addition, replicated the characteristics of collision avoidance behavior of insects. Finally, the collision avoidance algorithm was combined with a goal direction and tested in cluttered environments. The simulated agent then showed goal-directed behavior reminiscent of components of the navigation

  6. A new approach of mapping soils in the Alps - Challenges of deriving soil information and creating soil maps for sustainable land use. An example from South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian E.; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays sustainable land use management is gaining importance because intensive land use leads to increasing soil degradation. Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps sustainable land use management is important, as topography limits land use. Therefore, a database containing detailed information of soil characteristics is required. However, information of soil properties is far from being comprehensive. The project "ReBo - Terrain classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, aims at developing a methodical framework of how to obtain soil data. The approach combines geomorphometric analysis and soil mapping to generate modern soil maps at medium-scale in a time and cost efficient way. In this study the open source GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon (Jasciewicz and Stepinski, 2013) is used to derive topographically homogeneous landform units out of high resolution DTMs on scale 1:5.000. Furthermore, for terrain segmentation and classification we additionally use medium-scale data sets (geology, parent material, land use etc.). As the Alps are characterized by a great variety of topography, parent material, wide range of moisture regimes etc. getting reliable soil data is difficult. Additionally, geomorphic activity (debris flow, landslide etc.) leads to natural disturbances. Thus, soil properties are highly diverse and largely scale dependent. Furthermore, getting soil information of anthropogenically influenced soils is an added challenge. Due to intensive cultivation techniques the natural link between the soil forming factors is often repealed. In South Tyrol we find the largest pome producing area in Europe. Normally, the annual precipitation is not enough for intensive orcharding. Thus, irrigation strategies are in use. However, as knowledge about the small scaled heterogeneous soil properties is mostly lacking, overwatering and modifications of the

  7. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  8. Biobased lubricant additives derived from limonene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limonene is a natural product widely found in many plants as a constituent of “essential oils.” It is commercially produced as a byproduct of the citrus industry from processing of fruits such as oranges, lemons, lime, tangerines, mandarins, and grapefruits. Limonene is a C10 hydrocarbon with a com...

  9. Derivation of 3-D surface deformation from an integration of InSAR and GNSS measurements based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haipeng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ting; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to derive 3-D surface deformation from an integration of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC), considering relationship between deformations of neighbouring locations. This method avoids interpolated errors by excluding the interpolation of GNSS into the same spatial resolution as InSAR images and harnesses the data sets and the prior smooth constraints of surface deformation objectively and simultaneously by using ABIC, which were inherently unresolved in previous studies. In particular, we define surface roughness measuring smoothing degree to evaluate the performance of the prior constraints and deduce the formula of the covariance for the estimation errors to estimate the uncertainty of modelled solution. We validate this method using synthetic tests and the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We find that the optimal weights associated with ABIC minimum are generally at trade-off locations that balance contributions from InSAR, GNSS data sets and the prior constraints. We use this method to evaluate the influence of the interpolated errors from the Ordinary Kriging algorithm on the derivation of surface deformation. Tests show that the interpolated errors may contribute to biasing very large weights imposed on Kriged GNSS data, suggesting that fixing the relative weights is required in this case. We also make a comparison with SISTEM method, indicating that our method allows obtaining better estimations even with sparse GNSS observations. In addition, this method can be generalized to provide a solution for situations where some types of data sets are lacking and can be exploited further to account for data sets such as the integration of displacements along radar lines and offsets along satellite tracks.

  10. No Additional Prognostic Value of Genetic Information in the Prediction of Vascular Events after Cerebral Ischemia of Arterial Origin: The PROMISe Study

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, Sefanja; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Traylor, Matthew; Algra, Ale

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who have suffered from cerebral ischemia have a high risk of recurrent vascular events. Predictive models based on classical risk factors typically have limited prognostic value. Given that cerebral ischemia has a heritable component, genetic information might improve performance of these risk models. Our aim was to develop and compare two models: one containing traditional vascular risk factors, the other also including genetic information. Methods and Results We studied 1020 patients with cerebral ischemia and genotyped them with the Illumina Immunochip. Median follow-up time was 6.5 years; the annual incidence of new ischemic events (primary outcome, n=198) was 3.0%. The prognostic model based on classical vascular risk factors had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.69). When we added a genetic risk score based on prioritized SNPs from a genome-wide association study of ischemic stroke (using summary statistics from the METASTROKE study which included 12389 cases and 62004 controls), the AUC-ROC remained the same. Similar results were found for the secondary outcome ischemic stroke. Conclusions We found no additional value of genetic information in a prognostic model for the risk of ischemic events in patients with cerebral ischemia of arterial origin. This is consistent with a complex, polygenic architecture, where many genes of weak effect likely act in concert to influence the heritable risk of an individual to develop (recurrent) vascular events. At present, genetic information cannot help clinicians to distinguish patients at high risk for recurrent vascular events. PMID:25906364

  11. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  12. Human Ribosomal RNA-Derived Resident MicroRNAs as the Transmitter of Information upon the Cytoplasmic Cancer Stress.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masaru; Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses. We have previously shown that miRNA synergism is significantly correlated with disease and the miRNA package is implicated in memory for diseases; therefore, quantum Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) was also calculated using MESer program. As a result, seventeen RNA sequences identical with known miRNAs were detected in the human rRNA and termed as rRNA-hosted miRNA analogs (rmiRNAs). Eleven of them were predicted to form stem-loop structures as pre-miRNAs, and especially one stem-loop was completely identical with hsa-pre-miR-3678 located in the non-rDNA region. Thus, these rmiRNAs showed significantly high DNS values, participation in regulation of cancer-related pathways, and interaction with nucleolar RNAs, suggesting that rmiRNAs may be stress-responsible resident miRNAs which transmit stress-tuning information in multiple levels. PMID:27517048

  13. Human Ribosomal RNA-Derived Resident MicroRNAs as the Transmitter of Information upon the Cytoplasmic Cancer Stress

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of ribosome biogenesis induces divergent ribosome-related diseases including ribosomopathy and occasionally results in carcinogenesis. Although many defects in ribosome-related genes have been investigated, little is known about contribution of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome-related disorders. Meanwhile, microRNA (miRNA), an important regulator of gene expression, is derived from both coding and noncoding region of the genome and is implicated in various diseases. Therefore, we performed in silico analyses using M-fold, TargetScan, GeneCoDia3, and so forth to investigate RNA relationships between rRNA and miRNA against cellular stresses. We have previously shown that miRNA synergism is significantly correlated with disease and the miRNA package is implicated in memory for diseases; therefore, quantum Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) was also calculated using MESer program. As a result, seventeen RNA sequences identical with known miRNAs were detected in the human rRNA and termed as rRNA-hosted miRNA analogs (rmiRNAs). Eleven of them were predicted to form stem-loop structures as pre-miRNAs, and especially one stem-loop was completely identical with hsa-pre-miR-3678 located in the non-rDNA region. Thus, these rmiRNAs showed significantly high DNS values, participation in regulation of cancer-related pathways, and interaction with nucleolar RNAs, suggesting that rmiRNAs may be stress-responsible resident miRNAs which transmit stress-tuning information in multiple levels. PMID:27517048

  14. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  15. Linking local knowledge and satellite-derived land-use/land-cover change information in Krabi province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva-Reed, Elitsa I.

    This study was designed to gain an understanding of the linkage between development and sustainability of mangrove forest conversion in three coastal communities in Thailand. It presents a methodology that could potentially aid coastal communities in determining sustainable land use conversion approaches by considering the viewpoint of villagers. A remote sensing analysis of Landsat satellite images from 1989, 2001 and 2007 showed the results of a moderate, but sustained shrimp farming industry that only partially exploited mangrove forests. The three villages experienced a range of changes in mangrove forest area. The villagers' perceptions (collected through field surveys) did not match the results from the remote sensing analysis and varied significantly. A logit multiple regression model was utilized to study the factors influencing whether villagers' estimates agreed or disagreed with the remote sensing analysis. Results showed that the only variables statistically significant at the 0.10 level were age, occupation, and proximity to the mangrove resource. There is a widespread belief that one of the main negative effects of the development of shrimp farms is the pollution of water and, as a consequence, the reduction of wild catch. In this study, a majority of fishing households reported a reduction in wild catch, with nearly all attributing it to shrimp farms. A relatively small number of households noted positive effects from shrimp farming and listed these as an increase of income as a result of working at shrimp farms. The most common negative effects identified by the locals were water pollution, followed by a decrease in wild catch, and an increase in the number of mosquitoes. Although shrimp farm developers promised many benefits from this enterprise, very few were realized by the villagers. Integrating information from household surveys with data on land-cover change derived from remote sensing improves our understanding of the causes and processes of

  16. Integration of Canopy Height Information Derived from Stereo Imagery with SAR Backscatter Data to Improve Biomass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, J.; Montesano, P. M.; Ni, W.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate forest biomass estimation over large areas is important for studies of global climate change and the carbon cycle. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to be effective for assessing forest biomass. SAR penetrates farther into forest canopies than optical sensors, so SAR data from forested areas can be related to standing woody biomass, especially at longer L and P bands wavelength. The effect of forest structure on radar signature reduces its sensitivity to biomass when the biomass reaches a threshold level (e.g. ~100Mg/ha at L-band). Therefore the ability for forest biomass mapping using only backscattering coefficients is limited. However, including height data in forest biomass mapping using SAR data will improve the sensitivity beyond saturation levels. There are many ways to get information related to forest canopy height including: 1) Lidar, a direct measurement of canopy height; 2) Height of scattering phase center (HSPC) from InSAR; 3) HSPC difference from two bands of InSAR, and 4) Polarimetric Interferometric SAR, which employs the polarization-dependent coherences. Photogrammetry (or stereo imagery) is another technique for quantifying forest vertical structure and is a traditional technique for the extraction of a digital surface model. The launch of spaceborne sensors, the application of digital cameras, the maturation of photogrammetry theory and the development of fully digital and automatic image processing make the application of photogrammetric methods feasible. Our previous studies using ALOS PRISM data have shown that the canopy height derived from PRISM stereo data were highly correlated with LVIS RH50 data. In this study we have integrated this canopy height with L-band SAR imagery data to map forest biomass in our test site in Howland, Maine. The point cloud data from multi-pair stereo imageries of five PRISM scenes were co-registered and used along with the USGS NED data to calculate the mean canopy height at 30m pixels. Multi

  17. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. A method to improve fluence resolution derived from two-dimensional detector array measurements for patient-specific IMRT verification using the information collected in dynalog files

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Juan Agustin Calama; Utrilla, Miguel Angel Infante; Rodriguez, Maria Elisa Lavado

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for improving the resolution of the fluence derived from detector array measurement using the information collected in dynalog files. From dynalog information, a file is generated with the actual multileaf collimator (MLC) positions and used as input to the treatment planning system (TPS) to obtain the dynalog-derived fluence and the theoretical response over the detector array. In contrast with the measured response, this theoretical response allows for correction of the dynalog-derived fluence and translation into the reconstructed fluence. This fluence is again introduced into the planning system to verify the treatment using clinical tools. Initially, more than 98% of the points passed the two-dimensional (2D) phantom gamma test (3% local dose - 3 mm) for all of the treatment verifications, but in some dose–volume histogram (DVH) comparisons, we note sensitive differences for the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and for the maximum doses in at-risk organs (up to 3.5%). In dose–distribution evaluations, we found differences of up to 5% in the PTV edges in certain cases due to detector array measurement errors. This work improves the resolution of the fluence derived from detector array measurements based on the treatment information, in contrast with the current commercial proposals based on planned data. PMID:26150681

  20. Summary of information on low-speed lateral-directional derivatives due to rate of change of sideslip beta prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Graham, A. B.; Chambers, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results presented show that the magnitudes of the aerodynamic stability derivatives due to rate of change of sideslip become quite large at high angles of attack for swept- and delta-wing configurations, and that such derivatives have large effects on the calculated dynamic stability of these configurations at high angles of attack. The wind-tunnel test techniques used to measure the beta prime derivatives and various approaches used to predict them are discussed. Both the conventional oscillating-airfoil theory and the lag-of-the-sidewash theory are shown to be inadequate for predicting the vertical-tail contribution to the acceleration-in-sideslip derivative; a flow-field-lag theory, which is discussed, appears to give qualitative agreement with experimental data for a current twin-jet fighter configuration.

  1. Evidence for an additional intracellular site of action of probucol in the prevention of oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Use of a new water-soluble probucol derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S

    1992-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) renders it more atherogenic. Probucol, a highly nonpolar antioxidant, is transported in lipoproteins, including LDL, and inhibits oxidative modification of LDL in vitro. The ability of probucol to inhibit atherogenesis in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit has been attributed to its antioxidant effect. We report synthesis of a new water-soluble analogue of probucol that is very effective in preventing cell-induced LDL oxidation. The polar probucol derivative, diglutaryl probucol, is efficiently taken up by endothelial cells and macrophages in culture and is hydrolyzed to release the active antioxidant, probucol. The treated cells, after thorough washing, show a marked decrease in their capacity to oxidize LDL during a subsequent incubation. At high concentrations of the derivative, the cells also released free probucol into the medium. Thus, the effectiveness of probucol in vivo may be related both to its presence in LDL, acting as a nonspecific antioxidant, and to an additional ability to inhibit cell-mediated oxidation of LDL by virtue of its uptake into cells. PMID:1569200

  2. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed WM for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy), inflected (boy+’s), and derived (boy+hood) words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2) or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3) is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in WM. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and semantic information. PMID:25642181

  3. A Plan to Organize Performance Based Auto Mechanics Programs and Derive Learning Content. Information Series Number Four. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bill R.; Brannock, Dennis

    A plan was created for organizing and deriving the learning content of a multi-occupational, performance based vocational education (PBVE) Indiana high school auto mechanics program in vehicle repair. Three surveys were conducted. First, 498 businesses were surveyed to determine existing vehicle repair job titles in Indiana and ways to group these…

  4. Evaluation of dentinal tubule occlusion and depth of penetration of nano-hydroxyapatite derived from chicken eggshell powder with and without addition of sodium fluoride: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kunam, Divya; Manimaran, Sujatha; Sampath, Vidhya; Sekar, Mahalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated the degree of dentinal tubule occlusion and depth of penetration of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) derived from chicken eggshell powder with and without the addition of 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Materials and Methods: nHAp was synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Dentin discs were obtained from extracted teeth, pretreated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 5 min and were divided into four groups based on the experimental agents as follows: Group 1: Untreated (control), Group 2: 2% NaF, Group 3: nHAp, Group 4: Combination of nHAp and 2% NaF. The treatment protocol was carried out for 7 days, after which the specimens were viewed under SEM and CLSM. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison tests (P < 0.05). Results: All the experimental agents occluded the dentinal tubules, but to varying degrees and depths. Specimens treated with the combination of nHAp and 2% NaF showed complete dentinal tubular occlusion and significantly greater depth of penetration than those treated with nHAp and 2% NaF alone. Conclusion: The combination of nHAp and 2% NaF was the most effective in occluding dentinal tubules. PMID:27217637

  5. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; and (v) A review of all critical spaces where NARA holdings will be stored, used, or exhibited, including information on life-safety, environmental, holdings storage, and other systems against...

  6. Experimentally Derived δ13C and δ15N Discrimination Factors for Gray Wolves and the Impact of Prior Information in Bayesian Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Melanie E.; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L.; Polfus, Jean L.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable. PMID:25803664

  7. Effect of additives on protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2009-06-01

    This paper overviews solution additives that affect protein stability and aggregation during refolding, heating, and freezing processes. Solution additives are mainly grouped into two classes, i.e., protein denaturants and stabilizers. The former includes guanidine, urea, strong ionic detergents, and certain chaotropic salts; the latter includes certain amino acids, sugars, polyhydric alcohols, osmolytes, and kosmotropic salts. However, there are solution additives that are not unambiguously placed into these two classes, including arginine, certain divalent cation salts (e.g., MgCl(2)) and certain polyhydric alcohols (e.g., ethylene glycol). Certain non-ionic or non-detergent surfactants, ionic liquids, amino acid derivatives, polyamines, and certain amphiphilic polymers may belong to this class. They have marginal effects on protein structure and stability, but are able to disrupt protein interactions. Information on additives that do not catalyze chemical reactions nor affect protein functions helps us to design protein solutions for increased stability or reduced aggregation. PMID:19519415

  8. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P.; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  9. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  10. Investigation of intervertebral disc degeneration using multivariate FTIR spectroscopic imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00160a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E. L.; Helder, Marco N.; Smit, Theo H.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sammon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally tissue samples are analysed using protein or enzyme specific stains on serial sections to build up a picture of the distribution of components contained within them. In this study we investigated the potential of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deconvolute 2nd derivative spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopic images measured in transflectance mode of goat and human paraffin embedded intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue sections, to see if this methodology can provide analogous information to that provided by immunohistochemical stains and bioassays but from a single section. MCR-ALS analysis of non-degenerate and enzymatically in vivo degenerated goat IVDs reveals five matrix components displaying distribution maps matching histological stains for collagen, elastin and proteoglycan (PG), as well as immunohistochemical stains for collagen type I and II. Interestingly, two components exhibiting characteristic spectral and distribution profiles of proteoglycans were found, and relative component/tissue maps of these components (labelled PG1 and PG2) showed distinct distributions in non-degenerate versus mildly degenerate goat samples. MCR-ALS analysis of human IVD sections resulted in comparable spectral profiles to those observed in the goat samples, highlighting the inter species transferability of the presented methodology. Multivariate FTIR image analysis of a set of 43 goat IVD sections allowed the extraction of semi-quantitative information from component/tissue gradients taken across the IVD width of collagen type I, collagen type II, PG1 and PG2. Regional component/tissue parameters were calculated and significant correlations were found between histological grades of degeneration and PG parameters (PG1: p = 0.0003, PG2: p < 0.0001); glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0055, PG2: p = 0.0001); and MRI T2* measurements and PGs (PG1: p = 0.0021, PG2: p < 0.0001). Additionally

  11. An empirically-derived approach for investigating Health Information Technology: the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework by drawing on a set of three case studies which assessed the impact of new Health Information Technology (HIT) on a pathology service. The EEOC framework was empirically developed as a tool to tackle organisational communication challenges in the implementation and evaluation of health information systems. Methods The framework was synthesised from multiple research studies undertaken across a major metropolitan hospital pathology service during the period 2005 to 2008. These studies evaluated the impact of new HIT systems in pathology departments (Laboratory Information System) and an Emergency Department (Computerised Provider Order Entry) located in Sydney, Australia. Results Key dimensions of EEOC are illustrated by the following case studies: 1) the communication infrastructure between the Blood Bank and the ward for the coordination and distribution of blood products; 2) the organisational environment in the Clinical Chemistry and Haematology departments and their attempts to organise, plan and control the processing of laboratory specimens; and 3) the temporal make up of the organisation as revealed in changes to the way the Central Specimen Reception allocated, sequenced and synchronised work tasks. Conclusions The case studies not only highlight the pre-existing communication architecture within the organisation but also the constitutive role communication plays in the way organisations go about addressing their requirements. HIT implementation involves a mutual transformation of the organisation and the technology. This is a vital consideration because of the dangers associated with poor organisational planning and implementation of HIT, and the potential for unintended adverse consequences, workarounds and risks to the quality and safety of patient care. The EEOC framework aims to account for the complex range of contextual

  12. Unique and complementary information on shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Pb region derived from Coulomb excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Gaffney, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Neutron-deficient isotopes of Pt-Hg-Pb-Po-Rn are the classic region in the investigation of shape coexistence in atomic nuclei. A large programme of Coulomb-excitation experiments has been undertaken at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN with a number of even-even isotopes in this region. These experiments have been used to probe the electromagnetic properties of yrast and non-yrast states of even-even exotic nuclei, above and below Z = 82. Amongst a large amount of different complementary techniques used to study nuclear structure, Coulomb excitation brings substantial and unique information detailing shape coexistence. In this paper we review the Coulomb-excitation campaign at REX-ISOLDE in the light-lead region together with most recently obtained results. Furthermore, we present some new interpretations that arise from this data and show testing comparisons to state-of-the-art nuclear models.

  13. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters.

  14. An Additive Definition of Molecular Complexity.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2016-03-28

    A framework for molecular complexity is established that is based on information theory and consistent with chemical knowledge. The resulting complexity index Cm is derived from abstracting the information content of a molecule by the degrees of freedom in the microenvironments on a per-atom basis, allowing the molecular complexity to be calculated in a simple and additive way. This index allows the complexity of any molecule to be universally assessed and is sensitive to stereochemistry, heteroatoms, and symmetry. The performance of this complexity index is evaluated and compared against the current state of the art. Its additive character gives consistent values also for very large molecules and supports direct comparisons of chemical reactions. Finally, this approach may provide a useful tool for medicinal chemistry in drug design and lead selection, as demonstrated by correlating molecular complexities of antibiotics with compound-specific parameters. PMID:26857537

  15. Land elevation and cancer mortality in u.s. Cities and counties using median elevations derived from geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of variables that are correlated with land elevation. Land elevation, and in particular, its surrogate variables such as natural background radiation, can be studied in relation to cancer rates. The present ecological study focuses on three such variables correlated with land elevation: natural background radiation (NBR), oxygen concentration (OC), and barometric pressure (BP). In addition, the study uses a novel approach for determining median land elevation values from which the surrogated variables are estimated. Inverse correlations were observed for NBR while direct correlations were found for OC and BP suggesting the presence of a protective effect with all three variables. Further study is indicated to either verify or refute these findings. PMID:23550227

  16. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism.  PMID:25113348

  17. Progress in the experimental observation of thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates on enzymes and mechanistic information derived from these observations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Frank; Nemeria, Natalia S

    2014-12-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), the vitamin B1 coenzyme is an excellent representative of coenzymes, which carry out electrophilic catalysis by forming a covalent complex with their substrates. The function of ThDP is to greatly increase the acidity of two carbon acids by stabilizing their conjugate bases, the ylide/carbene/C2-carbanion of the thiazolium ring and the C2α-carbanion/enamine, once the substrate binds to ThDP. In recent years, several ThDP-bound intermediates on such pathways have been characterized by both solution and solid-state methods. Prominent among these advances are X-ray crystallographic results identifying both oxidative and non-oxidative intermediates, rapid chemical quench followed by NMR detection of several intermediates which are stable under acidic conditions, solid-state NMR and circular dichroism detection of the states of ionization and tautomerization of the 4'-aminopyrimidine moiety of ThDP in some of the intermediates. These methods also enabled in some cases determination of the rate-limiting step in the complex series of steps. This review is an update of a review with the same title published by the authors in 2005 in this Journal. Much progress has been made in the intervening decade in the identification of the intermediates and their application to gain additional mechanistic insight.

  18. Do X-ray determined cardiac volume and signs of congestive heart failure provide additional prognostic information after myocardial infarction if the left ventricular ejection fraction is known?

    PubMed

    Rollag, A; Mangschau, A; Jonsbu, J; Aase, O; Nerdrum, H J; Erikssen, J

    1989-04-01

    Cardiac volume (CV) was measured and indices of pulmonary congestion (PCG) were judged from routine chest films taken post myocardial infarction (AMI) in a consecutive series of 477 patients (340 first and 137 recurrent AMIs). Cardiac volume (CV) and signs of PCG were compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), measured with isotope technique, and the prognostic value of all the parameters was assessed after 1 and 5 years. The accuracy of CV and PCG in predicting impaired LVEF was low (62% and 50% respectively). Although specificity is suboptimal, however, these parameters provided valuable prognostic information. For example, patients with signs of PCG had a very high 1 and 5 years' mortality, and two-thirds of those who died during the first year of observation had enlarged CV. The independent value of LVEF determination was mainly observed in re-AMI patients. A more restricted use of this expensive procedure may therefore be recommended. PMID:2498456

  19. Inter-Annual Variability of Burned Area in Brazil Based on a Synergistic use of Information Derived from MODIS and Landsat-TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, R.; Dacamara, C. C.; Setzer, A. W.; Morelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented that allows using information from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to improve the quality of monthly burned area estimates over Brazil. The method integrates MODIS derived information from two sources; the NASA MCD64A1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area Product and INPE's Monthly Burned Area MODIS product (AQM-MODIS). The latter product relies on an algorithm that was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil, taking advantage of the ability of MIR reflectances to discriminate burned areas. Information from both MODIS products is incorporated by means of a linear regression model where an optimal estimate of the burned area is obtained as a linear combination of burned area estimates from MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS. The linear regression model is calibrated using as optimal estimates values of burned area derived from Landsat TM during 2005 and 2006 over Jalapão, a region of Cerrado covering an area of 187 x 187 km2. Obtained values of coefficients for MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS were 0.51 and 0.35, respectively and the root mean square error was 7.6 km2. Robustness of the model was checked by calibrating the model separately for 2005 and 2006 and cross-validating with 2006 and 2005; coefficients for 2005 (2006) were 0.46 (0.54) for MCD64A1 and 0.35 (0.35) for AQM-MODIS and the corresponding root mean square errors for 2006 (2005) were 7.8 (7.4) km2. The linear model was then applied to Brazil as well as to the six Brazilian main biomes, namely Cerrado, Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal, Mata Atlântica and Pampa. As to be expected the interannual variability based on the proposed synergistic use of MCD64A1, AQM-MODIS and Landsat Tm data for the period 2005-2010 presents marked differences with the corresponding amounts derived from MCD64A1 alone. For instance during the considered period, values (in 103 km2) from the proposed approach (from MCD64A1) are 399 (142), 232 (62), 559 (259), 274 (73), 219 (31) and 415

  20. Sequential Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition and Thiol-Maleimide Addition for the Synthesis of Photo- and/or Electroactive Fullerodendrimers and Cysteine-Functionalized Fullerene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fensterbank, Hélène; Baczko, Krystyna; Constant, Céline; Idttalbe, Najat; Bourdreux, Flavien; Vallée, Anne; Goncalves, Anne-Marie; Méallet-Renault, Rachel; Clavier, Gilles; Wright, Karen; Allard, Emmanuel

    2016-09-16

    In this study, the functionalization of a fullerene building block in a stepwise process by means of the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) and thiol-maleimide reactions is reported. Grafting of the fullerene platform with a variety of azido derivatives, including Bodipy, pyrene and ferrocene, was carried out first. These fullerene compounds were then reacted with thiol derivatives to yield sophisticated structures comprising photo- and/or electroactive fullerodendrimers and cysteine-functionalized fullerene assemblies. This strategy, which combines the CuAAC and thiol-maleimide processes, could become more widely adopted in the field of fullerene chemistry. PMID:27518495

  1. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  3. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  4. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  5. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  6. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Miscellaneous §...

  7. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developer exercise, or have the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights... there any functions or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association... to a purchaser? If the taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a copy of the charter or certificate of incorporation. (2) If the developer exercises any control... developer or any affiliate or principal of the developer. If there have been, briefly summarize the terms of... to reimburse the developer, its affiliates or successors for any attorney's fees or costs...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., when will it be formed? Who is responsible for its formation? (2) Does the developer exercise, or have... or services that the developer now provides at no charge for which the association may be required to... taxes are to paid to the developer, include a statement that “Should we not forward the tax funds to...

  12. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J..., financial obligations including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer...

  13. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....116 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J..., financial obligations including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement... environment, land sales, securities sales, construction or sale of homes or home improvements, consumer...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is voluntary, you may be required to pay a disproportionate share of the association costs or it may... including operating costs, maintenance and repair costs and reserves for replacement? If not, how will any... it valid and what is its cost? (3) Time sharing. (i) How is title to be conveyed? How many...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... violation of a Federal, state or local law concerned with the environment, land sales, securities sales... owner of the land or any of their principals, officers, directors, parent corporation, subsidiaries...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... supporting documents, including copies of any laws which restrict the ownership of land by aliens, shall...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements... supporting documents, including copies of any laws which restrict the ownership of land by aliens, shall...

  18. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Heather; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric; Chao, Moses V

    2016-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain. PMID:27127458

  19. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Heather; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric; Chao, Moses V.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain. PMID:27127458

  20. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  1. Assignment of the stereochemistry and anomeric configuration of structurally informative product ions derived from disaccharides: infrared photodissociation of glycosyl-glycolaldehydes in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Bendiak, Brad; Fang, Tammy T

    2010-11-01

    Using mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode, m/z 221 ions are frequently observed as product ion substructures derived from reducing disaccharides having 2, 4, or 6 linkages. The ions have been shown to be glycosyl-glycolaldehydes. All 16 stereochemical variants of their pyranosides were prepared and evaluated by infrared photodissociation, in addition to HexNAc-glycolaldehyde variants (m/z 262) of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose. The stereochemistry and anomeric configuration of these ions were differentiated in the gas phase using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with infrared multiphoton dissociation at 10.6 μm. Results were compared to those obtained by collision-induced dissociation. In some cases, differentiation was far preferable using infrared photodissociation; in others, collision-induced dissociation was preferred. Using an instrument that interfaced a linear trap with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer, either dissociation technique could be used to optimally discriminate between isomers. With infrared photodissociation, spectral differences were highly statistically significant, even between pairs of isomers having spectra that appeared to be visually somewhat similar (p<1×10⁻⁹, student's t-test for key discriminatory ions). Comparisons among different instruments suggest that physical standards of the stereochemical variants of these ions will be required for their detailed structural assignments in unknowns, as some variation was observed among instruments, both using infrared photodissociation and collision-induced dissociation.

  2. Structure-Reactivity Relationships for β-Galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z): A Second Derivative Effect on β(nuc) for Addition of Alkyl Alcohols to an Oxocarbenium Ion Reaction Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Heo, Christina K; Toteva, Maria M

    2008-07-01

    Velocities for the synthesis of trifluoroethyl 2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside by transfer of the 2-deoxygalactosyl group from β-galactosidase to trifluoroethanol were determined from studies of the β-galactosidase-catalyzed cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside as the difference in rates of appearance of 4-nitrophenoxide anion and 2-D-deoxygalactose. These data were used to calculate a rate constant ratio of k(ROH)/k(s) = 2.3 M(-1) for partitioning of the intermediate between addition of trifluoroethanol and solvent water. Velocities for the synthesis of other alkyl 2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosides by transfer of the 2-deoxygalactosyl group from β-galactosidase to alkyl alcohols were determined from the effect of alkyl alcohols on the velocity of β-galactosidase-catalyzed cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside in a reaction where breakdown of the intermediate is rate determining. These data were used to calculate rate constant ratios k(ROH)/k(s) for the reactions of eight alkyl alcohols. Absolute rate constants k(ROH) (M(-1) s(-1)) were calculated from k(ROH)/k(s) and k(s) = 0.002 s(-1) for the addition of water. A Brønsted coefficient of β(nuc) = -0.07 ± 0.08 was determined as the slope of a logarithmic correlation of k(ROH) against alcohol pK(a). The change from a 2-OH to a 2-H substituent at the β-D-galactopyranosyl intermediate causes a 0.12 ± 0.04 increase in the value of β(nuc) for alcohol addition. This anti-Hammond effect provides evidence that general basecatalyzed addition of alcohols to an enzyme bound β-D-galactopyranosyl oxocarbenium ion intermediate proceeds along a reaction coordinate in which there is strong coupling between carbon-oxygen bond formation and proton transfer from the alcohol to a basic residue at the enzyme.

  3. Density Functional Theory-Derived Group Additivity and Linear Scaling Methods for Prediction of Oxygenate Stability on Metal Catalysts. Adsorption of Open-Ring Alcohol and Polyol Dehydrogenation Intermediates on Pt-Based Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Salciccioli, Michael; Chen, Ying; Vlachos, Dion G.

    2010-11-09

    Semiempirical methods for prediction of thermochemical properties of adsorbed oxygenates are developed. Periodic density functional theory calculations are used to study the relative stability of ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol dehydrogenation intermediates on Pt(111). For ethylene glycol dehydrogenation intermediates, it is found that the thermodynamically favored intermediates at each level of dehydrogenation are as follows: HOCH2CHOH, HOCHCHOH, HOCHCOH, HOCCOH ≈ HOCHCO, HOCCO, OCCO. Structural and energetic patterns emerge from these C2HxO2 adsorption calculations that lead to the formation of group additive properties for thermochemical property prediction of oxygenates on Pt(111). Finally, linear scaling relationships of atomic binding energy are used to predict the binding energy of the C2HxO2 species on the Ni(111) surface and Ni-Pt-Pt(111) bimetallic surface. It is shown that the linear scaling relationships can accurately predict the binding energy of larger oxygenates as well as of oxygenates on bimetallic catalysts. Corrections for ring strain and weak oxygen-metal and hydrogen-bonding interactions are added to increase the accuracy of group additivity and linear scaling relationships.

  4. Addition of CpG ODN and Poly (I:C) to a standard maturation cocktail generates monocyte-derived dendritic cells and induces a potent Th1 polarization with migratory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei; Xu, Wei; Su, Hong; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Baolong

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as immunoadjuvant cells in cancer vaccines and have made great progress. However, an optimal DCs subset is vital for this treatment effect, the current ′gold standard′ cytokine cocktail DCs have a shortcoming in their cytokines secretion, especially IL-12p70, mainly because of the existence of PGE2. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate DCs-based immunotherapeutic protocol. In this study, we compared a novel ′improved′ maturation cytokine cocktail with the current ′gold standard′ maturation cytokine cocktail used for generating standard DCs. The ′improved′ maturation cytokine cocktail DCs showed a higher levels surface markers expression (CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR), the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and chemokine CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL21, whereas CCR5 expression was reduced. Most importantly, in contrast to ′gold standard′ DCs, which secrete little IL-12p70 and as a result induce mainly Th2 immunity, ′improved′ cytokine cocktail DCs secreted higher levels IL-12p70 and also secreted similar concentration IL-10. To removal of PGE2 from the ′improved′ DCs did increase the IL-12p70 production. In conclusion, we here present the ′improved′ DCs, as an optimal maturation cocktail protocol, can induce high migratory potential, generate immunostimulatory DCs, produce higher levels IL-12p70 with superior capacity to induce Th1 immunity, when compared with the ′gold standard′ DCs. PMID:26039883

  5. Predicting density of Ixodes pacificus nymphs in dense woodlands in Mendocino County, California, based on geographic information systems and remote sensing versus field-derived data.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Lane, Robert S

    2006-04-01

    Ixodes pacificus nymphs are the primary vectors to humans of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, in California. We used a supervised classification model, based on remote sensing (RS) data from multi-seasonal Landsat TM 5 images, to identify the key habitat in Mendocino County where humans are exposed to I. pacificus nymphs (woodlands carpeted with leaf litter). The model, based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), brightness, and wetness, separated the nymphal risk habitat (52.6% of the county) from other habitat types with > 93% user and producer accuracies. Next, we determined the density of questing nymphs in 62 woodland-leaf areas located throughout Mendocino County and created forward-stepwise regression models explaining the variation in nymphal density based on traits attainable by a lay-person in the field (e.g., tree species present, deer signs; r(2) = 0.43, P < 0.0001), or geographic information systems (GIS)/RS-based environmental data (r(2) = 0.50, P < 0.0001). The GIS/RS model, using July NDVI, November greenness, a coastal influence category, May solar insolation, November hours of sunlight, and dominant hydrologic grouping as input variables, was 22% more accurate in predicting nymphal density at 16 validation sites (r(2) = 0.72) than the field-derived data model (r(2) = 0.50). The habitat classification and GIS/RS models were combined to create a continuous nymphal density surface for the entirety of Mendocino County. This risk surface showed that 11.9% of the county was classified as habitat posing at least moderate risk of human exposure to nymphs (> 6.4 nymphs per 100 m(2)). Furthermore, high-risk areas (> 10.5 nymphs per 100 m(2); 1.7% of the county) tended to cluster in the central interior and most heavily populated region of Mendocino County, but were rare in the proximity of coastal population centers. PMID:16606998

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  8. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial. PMID:24480160

  9. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  10. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  11. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  12. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... English, and for products bottled for consumption within Puerto Rico the required information may be... cannot be removed without thorough application of water or other solvents. (f) Additional information...

  13. Net Differences in Interview Data on Chronic Conditions and Information Derived from Medical Records. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, No. 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madow, William G.

    The California study, based on data from a national survey, compared accuracy and completeness of information on 7,182 chronic health conditions of persons, 17 years of age or older, given in household interviews with diagnostic information given by group medical plan physicians. Overreporting referred to conditions reported in the interview which…

  14. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  16. How much a quantum measurement is informative?

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.

    2014-12-04

    The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.

  17. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P < .000001) but larger association with the SP deviation (R(2) = 0.761; P < .001). Wlzip allows detecting levels of variability in SP that could be hazardous. This new indicator can be easily added to the 24-hour BP monitors improving information toward diagnosis.

  18. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  19. Derivative chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  20. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  1. A concurrent resolution expressing the sense of Congress that the census surveys and the information derived from those surveys are crucial to the national welfare.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2012-08-02

    08/29/2012 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs referred to Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. METSAT information content: Cloud screening and solar correction investigations on the influence of NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer derived vegetation assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the cloud indicator index (CII) for use with METSAT's advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) is described. The CII is very effective at identification of clouds. Also, explored are different solar correction and standard techniques and the impact of these corrections have on the information content of AVHRR data.

  3. Second derivative in the model of classical binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubekerov, M. K.; Gostev, N. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    We have obtained an analytical expression for the second derivatives of the light curve with respect to geometric parameters in the model of eclipsing classical binary systems. These expressions are essentially efficient algorithm to calculate the numerical values of these second derivatives for all physical values of geometric parameters. Knowledge of the values of second derivatives of the light curve at some point provides additional information about asymptotical behaviour of the function near this point and can significantly improve the search for the best-fitting light curve through the use of second-order optimization method. We write the expression for the second derivatives in a form which is most compact and uniform for all values of the geometric parameters and so make it easy to write a computer program to calculate the values of these derivatives.

  4. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  5. Experimentally derived δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N discrimination factors for gray wolves and the impact of prior information in Bayesian mixing models.

    PubMed

    Derbridge, Jonathan J; Merkle, Jerod A; Bucci, Melanie E; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L; Polfus, Jean L; Krausman, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable. PMID:25803664

  6. Experimentally derived δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N discrimination factors for gray wolves and the impact of prior information in Bayesian mixing models.

    PubMed

    Derbridge, Jonathan J; Merkle, Jerod A; Bucci, Melanie E; Callahan, Peggy; Koprowski, John L; Polfus, Jean L; Krausman, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of diet has become a common tool in conservation research. However, the multiple sources of uncertainty inherent in this analysis framework involve consequences that have not been thoroughly addressed. Uncertainty arises from the choice of trophic discrimination factors, and for Bayesian stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs), the specification of prior information; the combined effect of these aspects has not been explicitly tested. We used a captive feeding study of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to determine the first experimentally-derived trophic discrimination factors of C and N for this large carnivore of broad conservation interest. Using the estimated diet in our controlled system and data from a published study on wild wolves and their prey in Montana, USA, we then investigated the simultaneous effect of discrimination factors and prior information on diet reconstruction with Bayesian SIMMs. Discrimination factors for gray wolves and their prey were 1.97‰ for δ13C and 3.04‰ for δ15N. Specifying wolf discrimination factors, as opposed to the commonly used red fox (Vulpes vulpes) factors, made little practical difference to estimates of wolf diet, but prior information had a strong effect on bias, precision, and accuracy of posterior estimates. Without specifying prior information in our Bayesian SIMM, it was not possible to produce SIMM posteriors statistically similar to the estimated diet in our controlled study or the diet of wild wolves. Our study demonstrates the critical effect of prior information on estimates of animal diets using Bayesian SIMMs, and suggests species-specific trophic discrimination factors are of secondary importance. When using stable isotope analysis to inform conservation decisions researchers should understand the limits of their data. It may be difficult to obtain useful information from SIMMs if informative priors are omitted and species-specific discrimination factors are unavailable.

  7. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

  11. Binding of ( sup 3 H)idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative ( sup 3 H) RX821002 in human fat cells: ( sup 3 H)idazoxan but not ( sup 3 H) RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Langin, D.; Paris, H.; Lafontan, M. )

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, (3H)idazoxan and its methoxy derivative (3H)RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that (3H)RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas (3H)idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described imidazoline-preferring sites. (3H)idazoxan and (3H)RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible (3H)RX821002 binding sites, without modification of (3H)idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. (3H)idazoxan binding, but not (3H)RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  12. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15736) and March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17035), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 75 FR 22745 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784) and 3/5/2010 (75 FR 10223-10224), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 8/24/2012 (77 FR 51522-51523) and 10/5/2012 (77 FR 60969), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  2. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  3. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... INFORMATION: ] Addition On 4/132012 (77 FR 22289-22290), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  4. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 76 FR 54741 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/8/2011 (76 FR 40342-40343), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  7. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Towards “bionic” proteins: replacement of continuous sequences from HIF-1α with proteomimetics to create functional p300 binding HIF-1α mimics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and characterisation; additional biophysical data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01812b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Breeze, Alexander L.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Nelson, Adam; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    Using the HIF-1α transcription factor as a model, this manuscript illustrates how an extended sequence of α-amino acids in a polypeptide can be replaced with a non-natural topographical mimic of an α-helix comprised from an aromatic oligoamide. The resultant hybrid is capable of reproducing the molecular recognition profile of the p300 binding sequence of HIF-1α from which it is derived. PMID:27009828

  11. Respiratory rate and pulse oximetry derived information as predictors of hospital admission in young children in Bangladesh: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Ainara; Zhou, Guohai; Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Karlen, Walter; Dekhordi, Parastoo; Huda, Tanvir; Arifeen, Shams El; Larson, Charles; Kissoon, Niranjan; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxaemia is a strong predictor of mortality in children. Early detection of deteriorating condition is vital to timely intervention. We hypothesise that measures of pulse oximetry dynamics may identify children requiring hospitalisation. Our aim was to develop a predictive tool using only objective data derived from pulse oximetry and observed respiratory rate to identify children at increased risk of hospital admission. Setting Tertiary-level hospital emergency department in Bangladesh. Participants Children under 5 years (n=3374) presenting at the facility (October 2012–April 2013) without documented chronic diseases were recruited. 1-minute segments of pulse oximetry (photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR)) and respiratory rate were collected with a mobile app. Primary outcome The need for hospitalisation based on expert physician review and follow-up. Methods Pulse rate variability (PRV) using pulse peak intervals of the PPG signal and features extracted from the SpO2 signal, all derived from pulse oximetry recordings, were studied. A univariate age-adjusted logistic regression was applied to evaluate differences between admitted and non-admitted children. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed using a stepwise selection of predictors and was internally validated using bootstrapping. Results Children admitted to hospital showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased PRV and higher SpO2 variability compared to non-admitted children. The strongest predictors of hospitalisation were reduced PRV-power in the low frequency band (OR associated with a 0.01 unit increase, 0.93; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98), greater time spent below an SpO2 of 98% and 94% (OR associated with 10 s increase, 1.4; 95% CI 1.3 to 1.4 and 1.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.6, respectively), high respiratory rate, high HR, low SpO2, young age and male sex. These variables provided a bootstrap-corrected AUC of the receiver operating characteristic

  12. ShewRegDB: a Visualization Environment for Integration of Experimental and In Silico Derived Regulatory Information in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Syed, Mustafa H; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Leuze, Michael Rex; Kora, Guruprasad H; Romine, Margaret; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2009-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is an important model organism for environmental research as it has an exceptional metabolic and respiratory versatility regulated by a complex regulatory network. We have developed a database to collect experimental and computational data relating to regulation of gene and protein expression, and, a visualization environment that enables integration of these data types. The regulatory information in the database includes predictions of DNA regulator binding sites, sigma factor binding sites, transcription units, operons, promoters, and RNA regulators including non-coding RNAs, riboswitches, and different types of terminators.

  13. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  14. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  15. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. VITAL NMR: using chemical shift derived secondary structure information for a limited set of amino acids to assess homology model accuracy.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael C; Nesbitt, Anna E; Hallock, Michael J; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Tang, Ming; Harris, Jason; Baudry, Jerome; Schuler, Mary A; Rienstra, Chad M

    2012-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  18. VITAL NMR: Using Chemical Shift Derived Secondary Structure Information for a Limited Set of Amino Acids to Assess Homology Model Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, Michael C; Nesbitt, Anna E; Hallock, Michael J; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa; Tang, Ming; Harris, Jason B; Baudry, Jerome Y; Schuler, Mary A; Rienstra, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  19. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  20. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  1. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  2. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  3. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  4. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  5. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04647e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. Here we present the rational synthesis of a new, biomimetic, ice-recrystallization inhibiting polymer derived from a cheap commodity polymer, based on an ampholyte structure. The polymer is used to enhance the cryopreservation of red blood cells, demonstrating a macromolecular solution to tissue storage. PMID:26176027

  8. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially

  9. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. PMID:24315677

  10. Transfer of SAR information from hypotensive indazole to indole derivatives acting at α-adrenergic receptors: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Sączewski, Jaroslaw; Hudson, Alan; Scheinin, Mika; Wasilewska, Aleksandra; Sączewski, Franciszek; Rybczyńska, Apolonia; Ferdousi, Mehnaz; Laurila, Jonne M; Boblewski, Konrad; Lehmann, Artur; Watts, Helena; Ma, Daqing

    2016-06-10

    In a search for novel antihypertensive drugs we applied scaffold hopping from the previously described α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 1-[(imidazolin-2-yl)methyl]indazoles. The aim was to investigate whether the α-adrenergic properties of the indazole core were transferable to the indole core. The newly obtained 1-[(imidazolin-2-yl)methyl]indole analogues were screened in vitro for their binding affinities for α1-and α2-adrenoceptors, which allowed the identification of the target-based SAR transfer (T_SAR transfer) as well as structure-based SAR transfer (S_SAR transfer) events. However, when screened in vivo with use of anaesthetized male Wistar rats, the new indole ligands showed a different hemodynamic profile than expected. Instead of the immediate hypotensive effect characteristic of peripheral vasodilatator α1 blockers, a biphasic effect was observed, reminiscent of clonidine-like centrally acting antihypertensive agents. This was supported by subsequent in vitro functional studies in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay, where the indole analogues displayed partial agonist properties at α2-adrenergic receptors. Since no correlation was found between the in vitro binding to α-adrenoceptors and the in vivo hemodynamic effects of the two series of indazole and indole bioisosteric compounds, in a search for new imidazoline-containing adrenergic drugs, the structure-based SAR transfer information obtained from in vitro binding studies should be treated with caution.

  11. Rationale for the sluggish oxidative addition of aryl halides to Au(i)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 891201–891204 and 964933. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48914k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Livendahl, Madeleine; Goehry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative addition of Csp2–Br or Csp2–I bonds to gold(i) does not take place even under very favorable intramolecular conditions that could form five- or six-membered gold(iii) metallacycles. DFT calculations reveal that although this process could be feasible thermodynamically, it is kinetically very sluggish. PMID:24382586

  12. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  13. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  14. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  15. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  16. 77 FR 23665 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 2/24/2012 (77 FR 11072-11073), the Committee for Purchase From People...: Lighthouse of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. Contracting Activity: Defense Logistics Agency Troop...

  17. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 11/27/2012 (77 FR 70737-70738), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind.... Containers. NSN: 8950-01-E62-0111--Spice, Cumin, Ground, 6/16 oz. Containers. NSN:...

  18. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/26/2010 (75 FR 8927), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or..., Lemonade. NSN: 8955-01-E10-1650--Beverage Base, Non-nutritive Sweetened, Raspberry Ice. NPA:...

  19. 77 FR 44218 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 6/1/2012 (77 FR 32591-32592), the...: 3895-00-NIB-0002--Asphalt Lute, Aluminum Head, Industrial Grade, 67'' Fiberglass Handle,...

  20. 75 FR 28590 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 3/26/2010 (75 FR 14575-14576), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... NATICK, Natick, MA. Tape, Insulation, Electrical NSN: 5970-00-240-0617. NSN: 5970-00-685-9059. NSN:...

  1. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or..., Federal Aviation Administration, William J. Hughes Technical Center (Center- wide), Atlantic...

  2. 76 FR 65501 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 8/19/2011 (76 FR 51955-51956) and 8/26/2011 (76 FR 53419-53420), the Committee for..., FA8751 AFRL RIKO, Rome, NY. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations, Pricing...

  3. 77 FR 7137 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 11/28/2011 (76 FR 72908-72909) and 12/9/2011 (76 FR 76952- 76953), the... following products and service are added to the Procurement List: Products Blade, Surgical Knife,...

  4. 76 FR 55882 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/17/2011 (76 FR 35415-35417), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind...--Detergent, Laundry, Biobased with Bleach, Powdered/7930-01-490-7301 NPA: Association for the Blind...

  5. 75 FR 31769 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... Force, FA3020 82 CONS LGC, Sheppard AFB, TX. Barry S. Lineback, Director, Business Operations....

  6. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who...: Lakeview Center, Inc., Pensacola, FL. Contracting Activity: Dept of the Air Force, FA5004 354 CONS...

  7. 75 FR 75461 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 10/8/2010 (75 FR 62370), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... Center, Inc., Pensacola, FL. Contracting Activity: Dept of the Air Force, FA2823 96 CONS MSC, Eglin...

  8. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/11/2012 (77 FR 27737-27738) and 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596), the Committee..., Blue, 4 Piece. MR 1168--Carrier, Cake and Cupcake, Collapsible. NPA: Industries for the Blind,...

  9. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/14/2011 (76 FR 63905-63906) and 10/28/2011 (76 FR 66913- 66914), the Committee... Printing, (Offsite: 880 Mustang Dr., Grapevine, TX), 9000 Blue Mound Road, Fort Worth, TX. NPA:...

  10. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... St. Juliens Creek Annex, Building 174 ``E'' Street, Buildings 59 & 79 Magazine Road, Portsmouth,...

  11. 77 FR 42700 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596) and 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the Committee... Highway 6 West, Iowa City, IA NPA: Genesis Development, Jefferson, IA Contracting Activity: Department...

  12. 76 FR 43988 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998) and 5/27/2011 (76 FR 30923-30924), the...--Bamboo Placemat. NPA: Industries for the Blind, Inc., West Allis, WI. Contracting Activity:...

  13. High-Resolution Subtropical Summer Precipitation Derived from Dynamical Downscaling of the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis: How Much Small-Scale Information Is Added by a Regional Model?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Stefanova, Lydia B.; Chan, Steven C.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; OBrien, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the regional-scale summer precipitation produced by the dynamical downscaling of analyzed large-scale fields. The main goal of this study is to investigate how much the regional model adds smaller scale precipitation information that the large-scale fields do not resolve. The modeling region for this study covers the southeastern United States (Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) where the summer climate is subtropical in nature, with a heavy influence of regional-scale convection. The coarse resolution (2.5deg latitude/longitude) large-scale atmospheric variables from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/DOE reanalysis (R2) are downscaled using the NCEP Environmental Climate Prediction Center regional spectral model (RSM) to produce precipitation at 20 km resolution for 16 summer seasons (19902005). The RSM produces realistic details in the regional summer precipitation at 20 km resolution. Compared to R2, the RSM-produced monthly precipitation shows better agreement with observations. There is a reduced wet bias and a more realistic spatial pattern of the precipitation climatology compared with the interpolated R2 values. The root mean square errors of the monthly R2 precipitation are reduced over 93 (1,697) of all the grid points in the five states (1,821). The temporal correlation also improves over 92 (1,675) of all grid points such that the domain-averaged correlation increases from 0.38 (R2) to 0.55 (RSM). The RSM accurately reproduces the first two observed eigenmodes, compared with the R2 product for which the second mode is not properly reproduced. The spatial patterns for wet versus dry summer years are also successfully simulated in RSM. For shorter time scales, the RSM resolves heavy rainfall events and their frequency better than R2. Correlation and categorical classification (above/near/below average) for the monthly frequency of heavy precipitation days is also significantly improved

  14. Catalytic arylsulfonyl radical-triggered 1,5-enyne-bicyclizations and hydrosulfonylation of α,β-conjugates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1406678 (3f). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic formats see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02343b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Wen-Juan; Xu, Ge; Wu, Shuo; Miao, Jiao-Na; Wang, Shu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic bicyclization reaction of 1,5-enynes anchored by α,β-conjugates with arylsulfonyl radicals generated in situ from sulfonyl hydrazides has been established using TBAI (20 mol%) and Cu(OAc)2 (5 mol%) as co-catalysts under convenient conditions. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the oxidant and pivalic acid (PivOH) as an additive was proven to be necessary for this reaction. The reactions occurred through 5-exo-dig/6-endo-trig bicyclizations and homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) cascade mechanisms to give benzo[b]fluorens regioselectively. A similar catalytic process was developed for the synthesis of γ-ketosulfones. These reactions feature readily accessible starting materials and simple one-pot operation. PMID:26568814

  15. 77 FR 75616 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia, 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barry S. Lineback... INFORMATION: ] Additions On 10/12/2012 (77 FR 62219-62220), 10/19/2012 (77 FR 64326-64327) and 10/26/2012 (77 FR 65365), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled...

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  17. 75 FR 51444 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271); 6/ 18/2010 (75 FR 34701-34702); and 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... factors considered for this certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional...

  18. 75 FR 36362 - Procurement List Additions

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    2010-06-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 1/22/2010 (75 FR 3714); 3/19/2010 (75 FR 13263-13264); 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165); and 4/30/2010 (75 FR 22744-22745), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. Glove, Mechanic's...

  19. 77 FR 37658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Revision On 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... addition must be received on or before June 25, 2012. Additions On 4/13/2012 (77 FR 22289-22290) and 4/20/2012 (77 FR 23665-23666), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  20. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions

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    2012-05-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 9/23/2011 (76 FR 59117-59118); 3/9/2012 (77 FR 14352-14353); and 3/16/2012 (77 FR 15736), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase...