Science.gov

Sample records for additional information gained

  1. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  2. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  3. Modeling techniques for gaining additional urban space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thunig, Holger; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    One of the major accompaniments of the globalization is the rapid growing of urban areas. Urban sprawl is the main environmental problem affecting those cities across different characteristics and continents. Various reasons for the increase in urban sprawl in the last 10 to 30 years have been proposed [1], and often depend on the socio-economic situation of cities. The quantitative reduction and the sustainable handling of land should be performed by inner urban development instead of expanding urban regions. Following the principal "spare the urban fringe, develop the inner suburbs first" requires differentiated tools allowing for quantitative and qualitative appraisals of current building potentials. Using spatial high resolution remote sensing data within an object-based approach enables the detection of potential areas while GIS-data provides information for the quantitative valuation. This paper presents techniques for modeling urban environment and opportunities of utilization of the retrieved information for urban planners and their special needs.

  4. Information gain and information leak in quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the relationships among various quantities of information during the process of an efficient quantum measurement, e.g., information gain, quantum loss, Holevo information, and coherent information. In particular, we give an uncertaintylike relation between information gain and coherent information. We also investigate the information gain by local measurements and quantum correlations in bipartite quantum systems. Moreover, we discuss two cases of information leak according to whether the observer of the environment possesses extra information about the measured system.

  5. Experience matters: information acquisition optimizes probability gain.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan D; McKenzie, Craig R M; Cottrell, Garrison W; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-07-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information-information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact-are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects' information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects' preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects' search behavior. PMID:20525915

  6. Experience Matters: Information Acquisition Optimizes Probability Gain

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jonathan D.; McKenzie, Craig R.M.; Cottrell, Garrison W.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information—information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact—are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects’ information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects’ preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects’ search behavior. PMID:20525915

  7. Information gains from cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Paranjape, Aseem; Akeret, Joël

    2014-07-01

    To shed light on the fundamental problems posed by dark energy and dark matter, a large number of experiments have been performed and combined to constrain cosmological models. We propose a novel way of quantifying the information gained by updates on the parameter constraints from a series of experiments which can either complement earlier measurements or replace them. For this purpose, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy from information theory to measure differences in the posterior distributions in model parameter space from a pair of experiments. We apply this formalism to a historical series of cosmic microwave background experiments ranging from Boomerang to WMAP, SPT, and Planck. Considering different combinations of these experiments, we thus estimate the information gain in units of bits and distinguish contributions from the reduction of statistical errors and the "surprise" corresponding to a significant shift of the parameters' central values. For this experiment series, we find individual relative entropy gains ranging from about 1 to 30 bits. In some cases, e.g. when comparing WMAP and Planck results, we find that the gains are dominated by the surprise rather than by improvements in statistical precision. We discuss how this technique provides a useful tool for both quantifying the constraining power of data from cosmological probes and detecting the tensions between experiments.

  8. Information Gains in Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Paranjape, Aseem; Akeret, Joël

    2014-05-01

    Combining datasets from different experiments and probes to constrain cosmological models is an important challenge in observational cosmology. We summarize a framework for measuring the constraining power and the consistency of separately or jointly analyzed data within a given model that we proposed in earlier work (Seehars et al. 2014). Applying the Kullback-Leibler divergence to posterior distributions, we can quantify the difference between constraints and distinguish contributions from gains in precision and shifts in parameter space. We show results from applying this technique to a combination of datasets and probes such as the cosmic microwave background or baryon acoustic oscillations.

  9. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  10. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  11. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  12. Approximate reversibility in the context of entropy gain, information gain, and complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-06-01

    There are several inequalities in physics which limit how well we can process physical systems to achieve some intended goal, including the second law of thermodynamics, entropy bounds in quantum information theory, and the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Recent results provide physically meaningful enhancements of these limiting statements, determining how well one can attempt to reverse an irreversible process. In this paper, we apply and extend these results to give strong enhancements to several entropy inequalities, having to do with entropy gain, information gain, entropic disturbance, and complete positivity of open quantum systems dynamics. Our first result is a remainder term for the entropy gain of a quantum channel. This result implies that a small increase in entropy under the action of a subunital channel is a witness to the fact that the channel's adjoint can be used as a recovery map to undo the action of the original channel. We apply this result to pure-loss, quantum-limited amplifier, and phase-insensitive quantum Gaussian channels, showing how a quantum-limited amplifier can serve as a recovery from a pure-loss channel and vice versa. Our second result regards the information gain of a quantum measurement, both without and with quantum side information. We find here that a small information gain implies that it is possible to undo the action of the original measurement if it is efficient. The result also has operational ramifications for the information-theoretic tasks known as measurement compression without and with quantum side information. Our third result shows that the loss of Holevo information caused by the action of a noisy channel on an input ensemble of quantum states is small if and only if the noise can be approximately corrected on average. We finally establish that the reduced dynamics of a system-environment interaction are approximately completely positive and trace preserving if and only if the data processing

  13. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  14. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  15. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  16. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  17. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  18. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  19. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216... § 1710.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the association has been..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  1. 12 CFR 1010.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.116 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.116 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) Will there... obligation to retire the debt. (c) Violations and litigations. This information need appear only if any...

  2. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 1010.216 Section 1010...) Reporting Requirements § 1010.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the..., information on such matters as to: (i) Whether the developer will employ his own sales force or will...

  4. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  5. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  6. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  7. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  8. 42 CFR 1008.39 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Submission of a Formal Request for an Advisory Opinion § 1008.39 Additional information. (a) If the request for an advisory opinion does not contain all of the information... advisory opinion, the OIG may, at any time, request whatever additional information or documents it...

  9. Informant Agreement in Treatment Gains for Child Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined multiple informant agreement in reports of treatment gains in a sample of children (M age = 10.27) treated for social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Mothers and fathers agreed on their child's improvement, and parents and children also generally agreed on the child's improvement.…

  10. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  11. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  12. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  13. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  14. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  15. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  16. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  17. 46 CFR 502.314 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information. 502.314 Section 502.314 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.314 Additional information. The administrative law...

  18. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  19. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  20. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  1. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  3. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  4. Flood information from affected people - gains and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Poser, Kathrin; Pech, Ina; Müller, Meike

    2013-04-01

    For emergency management and reconstruction planning, a broad overview of the flood event is required. For this overview, information from many different sources has to be acquired and integrated. Observations from the affected population can be an important source of information. New Internet technologies facilitate fast and easy data collection from the public, but also interviews with the affected population can be used. A major obstacle for using such kind of information is its unknown quality. Thus, information about a flood event, i.e. impact data and associated losses collected in telephone interviews, is assessed for its reliability and fitness for use for flood loss modeling. First results show that water level can be estimated by observers with very good accuracy in comparison with results of hydraulic models. Flow velocity, however, is very difficult to estimate and the estimates differ significantly from modeled values. Household specific flood damage data compares very well with official damage information. Some information like precautionary and emergency measures undertaken can only be gained from affected people.

  5. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.116 Section 1710.116 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  10. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  12. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 1710.216 Section 1710.216 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  14. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  15. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  16. 15 CFR 970.2601 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 970.2601 Section 970.2601 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...

  17. Information gain on reheating: The one bit milestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We show that the Planck 2015 and BICEP2/KECK measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies provide together an information gain of 0.82 ±0.13 bits on the reheating history over all slow-roll single-field models of inflation. This corresponds to a 40% improvement compared to the Planck 2013 constraints on the reheating. Our method relies on an exhaustive CMB data analysis performed over nearly 200 models of inflation to derive the Kullback-Leibler entropy between the prior and the fully marginalized posterior of the reheating parameter. This number is a weighted average by the Bayesian evidence of each model to explain the data thereby ensuring its fairness and robustness.

  18. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Jao, Jeremy; Neapolitan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects. Methodology/Findings We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer’s dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain. Conclusions/Significance When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer’s dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is

  19. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  20. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  1. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information it requires for the Advance Publication, Coordination and Notification of frequency assignments... information required by the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau to advance publish, coordinate and notify...

  2. Gaining information advantage: an integrated approach to airborne mission recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundgren, Mats; Ljunggren, Lars

    1999-08-01

    Information advantage is the key success factor in all conflicts. In a modern combat aircraft the amount of available information is continuously increasing with new and more sophisticated sensor systems. By incorporating an integrated mission recording system the vast amount of information captured in a modern combat aircraft is recorded. Evaluating this information, whether for aircraft development, pilot training or in combat, will maximize the experience from each flight and enhance the efficiency of the following missions. All Lot 3 of the Swedish fighter JAS39 Gripen as well as the export versions will be equipped with a digital mission recording system. The system is called DiRECT and is used for video, audio and data recording on a direct access, solid- state memory.

  3. How do early career health sciences information professionals gain competencies?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bethany A.; Rodriguez, Bredny

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe early career health sciences information professionals' self-reported attainment of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Competencies for Lifelong Learning and Professional Success and to investigate the various methods by which participants developed these competencies. Methods A SurveyMonkey survey was designed to ascertain participants' demographic information and their competency attainment. “Early career” health information professionals were defined as those with less than five years of professional experience. Participants were asked to rate each of the seven competencies on a five-point Likert scale regarding their level of agreement with the statement, “I have demonstrated this competency.” Participants who responded positively were then asked to indicate how they acquired the competency on a multiple-choice, multiple-answer list. Free-text fields were provided for general comments and for participants to elaborate on their answers. The survey was distributed through the MLA email discussion list and other related email discussion lists. Participation was anonymous. Results One hundred eighty-seven responses were received. Out of those 187 respondents, 95 completed the entire survey. The majority of early career health sciences information professionals agreed that they had attained all 7 competencies. Of the various methods used to develop competencies, the most selected method was formal library and information studies education. Participants were least likely to report attaining competencies via mentoring, volunteering, or internships. Participants reported the highest level of confidence in having attained the “Health Sciences Information Services” competency, and the lowest level of confidence in having attained the “Research, Analysis, and Interpretation” competency. Conclusions These results contribute to the ongoing discussions regarding proposed changes to the MLA competencies

  4. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  5. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  6. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  7. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  8. 28 CFR 80.7 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE... receipt of the opinion request, or, in the case of an incomplete response to a previous request for... requesting an FCPA Opinion must promptly provide the information requested. A request will not be...

  9. Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    Several norms for how people should assess a question's usefulness have been proposed, notably Bayesian diagnosticity, information gain (mutual information), Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact (absolute change). Several probabilistic models of previous experiments on categorization, covariation assessment,…

  10. Informed Additive Literacy Instruction for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous reasons why schools struggle to provide English-language learners (ELLs) with additive literacy instruction. One reason for this is the lack of available trained bilingual teachers, mainstream teachers who have not received adequate training on how to teach ELLs, and the current political climate that appears to support an…

  11. Deterministic Ants in Labyrinth — Information Gained by Map Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Janusz; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    A few ant robots are placed in a labyrinth, formed by a square lattice with a small number of corridors removed. Ants move according to a deterministic algorithm designed to explore all corridors. Each ant remembers the shape of corridors which it has visited. Once two ants meet, they share the information acquired. We evaluate how the time of getting a complete information by an ant depends on the number of ants, and how the length known by an ant depends on time. Numerical results are presented in the form of scaling relations.

  12. GaIN: The Georgia Interactive Network for Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Elaine

    Five years ago, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) funded an Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) study of the impact of new information and communications technologies on the roles of health sciences libraries in a radically changing health care and educational environment. A key recommendation of the resulting report called for…

  13. Gaining (mutual) information about quark/gluon discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2014-11-01

    Discriminating quark jets from gluon jets is an important but challenging problem in jet substructure. In this paper, we use the concept of mutual information to illuminate the physics of quark/gluon tagging. Ideal quark/gluon separation requires only one bit of truth information, so even if two discriminant variables are largely uncorrelated, they can still share the same "truth overlap". Mutual information can be used to diagnose such situations, and thus determine which discriminant variables are redundant and which can be combined to improve performance. Using both parton showers and analytic resummation, we study a two-parameter family of generalized angularities, which includes familiar infrared and collinear (IRC) safe observables like thrust and broadening, as well as IRC unsafe variants like p {/T D } and hadron multiplicity. At leading-logarithmic (LL) order, the bulk of these variables exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their truth overlap is a universal function of the color factor ratio C A /C F . Only at next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order can one see a difference in quark/gluon performance. For the IRC safe angularities, we show that the quark/gluon performance can be improved by combining angularities with complementary angular exponents. Interestingly, LL order, NLL order, Pythia 8, and Herwig++ all exhibit similar correlations between observables, but there are significant differences in the predicted quark/gluon discrimination power. For the IRC unsafe angularities, we show that the mutual information can be calculated analytically with the help of a nonperturbative "weighted-energy function", providing evidence for the complementarity of safe and unsafe observables for quark/gluon discrimination.

  14. 36 CFR 51.64 - May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS...

  15. 36 CFR 51.64 - May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS...

  16. 36 CFR 51.64 - May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS...

  17. 36 CFR 51.64 - May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in... Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONCESSION CONTRACTS...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  19. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples; additional information. 71.4 Section 71.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.4 Samples; additional information. The Commissioner may request samples of the color additive,...

  20. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  1. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  2. 34 CFR 303.212 - Additional information and assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system as required by section 427(b) of GEPA; and (b) Other information and assurances as the Secretary... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Additional information and assurances. 303.212 Section... Additional information and assurances. Each application must contain— (a) A description of the steps...

  3. The role of spiking nonlinearity in contrast gain control and information transmission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuguo; Potetz, Brian; Lee, Tai Sing

    2005-03-01

    Threshold and saturation are two nonlinear features common to almost all spiking neurons. How these nonlinearities affect the performance gain of the transfer function and coding properties of the neurons has attracted much attention. Here, we deduce basic analytical relationships among these nonlinearities (threshold and saturation), performance gain and information transmission in neurons. We found that performance gain and information transmission can be maximized by input signals with optimal variance. The threshold and saturation inside the model determines the gain tuning property and maximum coding capacity. This framework provides an understanding of some basic design principles underlying information processing systems that can be adjusted to match the statistics of signals in the environment. This study also isolates the exact contributions of the nonlinearities on the contrast adaptation phenomena observed in real visual neurons. PMID:15621176

  4. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Parabolic replicator dynamics and the principle of minimum Tsallis information gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-linear, parabolic (sub-exponential) and hyperbolic (super-exponential) models of prebiological evolution of molecular replicators have been proposed and extensively studied. The parabolic models appear to be the most realistic approximations of real-life replicator systems due primarily to product inhibition. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the distribution of individual frequencies in an evolving parabolic population is not described by the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) Principle in its traditional form, whereby the distribution with the maximum Shannon entropy is chosen among all the distributions that are possible under the given constraints. We sought to identify a more general form of the MaxEnt principle that would be applicable to parabolic growth. Results We consider a model of a population that reproduces according to the parabolic growth law and show that the frequencies of individuals in the population minimize the Tsallis relative entropy (non-additive information gain) at each time moment. Next, we consider a model of a parabolically growing population that maintains a constant total size and provide an “implicit” solution for this system. We show that in this case, the frequencies of the individuals in the population also minimize the Tsallis information gain at each moment of the ‘internal time” of the population. Conclusions The results of this analysis show that the general MaxEnt principle is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of replicator systems including not only exponential but also parabolic and hyperbolic systems. The choice of the appropriate entropy (information) function depends on the growth dynamics of a particular class of systems. The Tsallis entropy is non-additive for independent subsystems, i.e. the information on the subsystems is insufficient to describe the system as a whole. In the context of prebiotic evolution, this “non-reductionist” nature of parabolic replicator

  6. Trade-off between information gain and fidelity under weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Longfei; Ge, Wenchao; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-08-01

    It is of general interest how a quantum measurement may disturb a quantum system while it gives information on the state of the system. We study a trade-off relation between the information gain and the output fidelity for a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme for photon numbers. Toward this aim, we obtain general expressions for the information gain and the output fidelity for an arbitrary initial state. We particularly investigate how these two quantities vary with measurement strength for some specific classes of states, through a single measurement or successive measurements.

  7. 43 CFR 3430.4-2 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.4-2 Additional information. (a) If the applicant for a preference right lease has submitted... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 3430.4-2...

  8. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  9. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  10. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  11. 33 CFR 403.6 - Additional information. [Rule 6

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information. 403.6 Section 403.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.6 Additional information. The Board...

  12. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  13. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  14. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  15. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  16. 21 CFR 607.31 - Additional blood product listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional blood product listing information. 607... BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Domestic Blood Product Establishments § 607.31 Additional blood... following information by letter or by Federal Register notice: (1) For a particular blood product so...

  17. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  18. 29 CFR 502.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 502.44 Section 502.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Administrative Law Judge's Decision § 502.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined...

  19. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  20. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44... ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF... Decision § 501.44 Additional information, if required. Where the ARB has determined to review such...

  1. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  2. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  3. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  4. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  5. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  6. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.60 Request for additional information. If,...

  7. 78 FR 75568 - Notice of Request for Additional Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Request for Additional Information The Commission gives notice that it has formally requested that the parties to the below listed agreement provide additional information pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 40304(d). This action prevents the...

  8. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  9. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  10. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  11. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  12. 32 CFR 1698.3 - Requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADVISORY OPINIONS § 1698.3 Requests for additional information. (a) The Director may request additional appropriate information from the requester for an advisory opinion. (b) The Director will forward a copy of the request by a Federal, state or municipal governmental agency for an advisory opinion to the...

  13. Representation of potential information gain to measure the price of anarchy on ISR activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Peña, Hector J.; Hirsch, Michael; Karwan, Mark; Nagi, Rakesh; Sudit, Moises

    2013-05-01

    One of the main technical challenges facing intelligence analysts today is effectively determining information gaps from huge amounts of collected data. Moreover, getting the right information to/from the right person (e.g., analyst, warfighter on the edge) at the right time in a distributed environment has been elusive to our military forces. Synchronization of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities to maximize the efficient utilization of limited resources (both in quantity and capabilities) has become critically important to increase the accuracy and timeliness of overall information gain. Given this reality, we are interested in quantifying the degradation of solution quality (i.e., information gain) as a centralized system synchronizing ISR activities (from information gap identification to information collection and dissemination) moves to a more decentralized framework. This evaluation extends the concept of price of anarchy, a measure of the inefficiency of a system when agents maximize decisions without coordination, by considering different levels of decentralization. Our initial research representing the potential information gain in geospatial and time discretized spaces is presented. This potential information gain map can represent a consolidation of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield products as input to automated ISR synchronization tools. Using the coordination of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) as an example, we developed a mathematical programming model for multi-perspective optimization in which each UxV develops its own fight plan to support mission objectives based only on its perspective of the environment (i.e., potential information gain map). Information is only exchanged when UxVs are part of the same communication network.

  14. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  15. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  16. 78 FR 74125 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Reporting System for Adult Education AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Vocational and Adult... available to the public for any reason. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department of Education (ED), in... of Collection: Measuring Educational Gain in the National Reporting System for Adult Education....

  17. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1011 - (Item 1011) Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1011) Additional....1011 (Item 1011) Additional information. (a) Agreements, regulatory requirements and legal proceedings... and the relief sought. Instruction to Item 1011(a)(5): A copy of any document relating to a...

  2. Crowdsourcing and the Accuracy of Online Information Regarding Weight Gain in Pregnancy: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Bianca A; Shull, Trevor; Moniz, Michelle H; Kohatsu, Lauren; Plegue, Melissa A; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess weight gain affects nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States and is a strong risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including long-term obesity. The Internet is a prominent source of information during pregnancy; however, the accuracy of this online information is unknown. Objective To identify, characterize, and assess the accuracy of frequently accessed webpages containing information about weight gain during pregnancy. Methods A descriptive study was used to identify and search frequently used phrases related to weight gain during pregnancy on the Google search engine. The first 10 webpages of each query were characterized by type and then assessed for accuracy and completeness, as compared to Institute of Medicine guidelines, using crowdsourcing. Results A total of 114 queries were searched, yielding 305 unique webpages. Of these webpages, 181 (59.3%) included information regarding weight gain during pregnancy. Out of 181 webpages, 62 (34.3%) contained no specific recommendations, 48 (26.5%) contained accurate but incomplete recommendations, 41 (22.7%) contained complete and accurate recommendations, and 22 (12.2%) were inaccurate. Webpages were most commonly from for-profit websites (112/181, 61.9%), followed by government (19/181, 10.5%), medical organizations or associations (13/181, 7.2%), and news sites (12/181, 6.6%). The largest proportion of for-profit sites contained no specific recommendations (44/112, 39.3%). Among pages that provided inaccurate information (22/181, 12.2%), 68% (15/22) were from for-profit sites. Conclusions For-profit websites dominate the online space with regard to weight gain during pregnancy and largely contain incomplete, inaccurate, or no specific recommendations. This represents a significant information gap regarding an important risk factor for obesity among mothers and infants. Our findings suggest that greater clinical and public health efforts to disseminate accurate information

  3. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  4. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  5. 29 CFR 501.44 - Additional information, if required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information, if required. 501.44 Section 501.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218...

  6. 25 CFR 103.14 - Can BIA request additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA request additional information? 103.14 Section 103.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY How a Lender Obtains a Loan Guaranty or Insurance Coverage § 103.14 Can...

  7. 25 CFR 215.17 - Additional information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required. 215.17 Section 215.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... interested in lead and zinc mining leases, or land under the jurisdiction of the Quapaw Indian Agency,...

  8. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examinations; requests for additional information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  9. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  10. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  11. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  13. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire Leases §...

  14. 25 CFR 227.7 - Additional information from applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information from applicant. 227.7 Section 227.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  15. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  16. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  17. 38 CFR 39.3 - Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisionmakers, notifications, and additional information. 39.3 Section 39.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT...

  18. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  19. 43 CFR 3922.30 - Application-Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application-Additional information. 3922.30 Section 3922.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE LEASING...

  20. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  1. 21 CFR 207.31 - Additional drug listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional drug listing information. 207.31 Section 207.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REGISTRATION OF PRODUCERS OF DRUGS AND LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL...

  2. 21 CFR 807.31 - Additional listing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional listing information. 807.31 Section 807.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... joint ownership and control exists, the registered establishment must provide the Food and...

  3. Assessing the impact of case sensitivity and term information gain on biomedical concept recognition.

    PubMed

    Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition (CR) is a foundational task in the biomedical domain. It supports the important process of transforming unstructured resources into structured knowledge. To date, several CR approaches have been proposed, most of which focus on a particular set of biomedical ontologies. Their underlying mechanisms vary from shallow natural language processing and dictionary lookup to specialized machine learning modules. However, no prior approach considers the case sensitivity characteristics and the term distribution of the underlying ontology on the CR process. This article proposes a framework that models the CR process as an information retrieval task in which both case sensitivity and the information gain associated with tokens in lexical representations (e.g., term labels, synonyms) are central components of a strategy for generating term variants. The case sensitivity of a given ontology is assessed based on the distribution of so-called case sensitive tokens in its terms, while information gain is modelled using a combination of divergence from randomness and mutual information. An extensive evaluation has been carried out using the CRAFT corpus. Experimental results show that case sensitivity awareness leads to an increase of up to 0.07 F1 against a non-case sensitive baseline on the Protein Ontology and GO Cellular Component. Similarly, the use of information gain leads to an increase of up to 0.06 F1 against a standard baseline in the case of GO Biological Process and Molecular Function and GO Cellular Component. Overall, subject to the underlying token distribution, these methods lead to valid complementary strategies for augmenting term label sets to improve concept recognition. PMID:25790125

  4. Assessing the Impact of Case Sensitivity and Term Information Gain on Biomedical Concept Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition (CR) is a foundational task in the biomedical domain. It supports the important process of transforming unstructured resources into structured knowledge. To date, several CR approaches have been proposed, most of which focus on a particular set of biomedical ontologies. Their underlying mechanisms vary from shallow natural language processing and dictionary lookup to specialized machine learning modules. However, no prior approach considers the case sensitivity characteristics and the term distribution of the underlying ontology on the CR process. This article proposes a framework that models the CR process as an information retrieval task in which both case sensitivity and the information gain associated with tokens in lexical representations (e.g., term labels, synonyms) are central components of a strategy for generating term variants. The case sensitivity of a given ontology is assessed based on the distribution of so-called case sensitive tokens in its terms, while information gain is modelled using a combination of divergence from randomness and mutual information. An extensive evaluation has been carried out using the CRAFT corpus. Experimental results show that case sensitivity awareness leads to an increase of up to 0.07 F1 against a non-case sensitive baseline on the Protein Ontology and GO Cellular Component. Similarly, the use of information gain leads to an increase of up to 0.06 F1 against a standard baseline in the case of GO Biological Process and Molecular Function and GO Cellular Component. Overall, subject to the underlying token distribution, these methods lead to valid complementary strategies for augmenting term label sets to improve concept recognition. PMID:25790125

  5. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  6. Analysis of information gain and Kolmogorov complexity for structural evaluation of cellular automata configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaheri Javid, Mohammad Ali; Blackwell, Tim; Zimmer, Robert; Majid al-Rifaie, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.

  7. Bearing fault component identification using information gain and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinay, Vakharia; Kumar, Gupta Vijay; Kumar, Kankar Pavan

    2015-04-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to identify various bearing faults using machine learning algorithm. Vibration signals obtained from faults in inner race, outer race, rolling element and combined faults are considered. Raw vibration signal cannot be used directly since vibration signals are masked by noise. To overcome this difficulty combined time frequency domain method such as wavelet transform is used. Further wavelet selection criteria based on minimum permutation entropy is employed to select most appropriate base wavelet. Statistical features from selected wavelet coefficients are calculated to form feature vector. To reduce size of feature vector information gain attribute selection method is employed. Modified feature set is fed in to machine learning algorithm such as random forest and self-organizing map for getting maximize fault identification efficiency. Results obtained revealed that attribute selection method shows improvement in fault identification accuracy of bearing components.

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Net gain analysis, an addition to responder analysis--The case of antipsychotic treatment of acute mania.

    PubMed

    Welten, C C M; Koeter, M W J; Wohlfarth, T D; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, H G M; Denys, D A J P

    2015-10-01

    Net Gain Analysis (NGA) is proposed as an alternative to Responders Analysis (RA) as a more comprehensive method to tap clinical relevance of the effect of treatment. NGA is the group difference in responders minus the group difference in deteriorators; while RA is the group difference in responders. We examined the performance of these two methods in a dataset consisting of individual patient data from 10 randomized controlled trials (N = 2666) of five different antipsychotics in patients with acute mania by comparing the rank ordering of the five compounds according to both systems (NGA and RA). The rank order did not differ between the 2 systems but the inferiority of one compound was revealed more evidently by the NGA in comparison to the RA. PMID:26164267

  10. Visual Landmark Information Gains Control of the Head Direction Signal at the Lateral Mammillary Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Ryan M.; Peck, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS → LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

  11. Visual landmark information gains control of the head direction signal at the lateral mammillary nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Ryan M; Peck, James R; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-28

    The neural representation of directional heading is conveyed by head direction (HD) cells located in an ascending circuit that includes projections from the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) to the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) to the postsubiculum (PoS). The PoS provides return projections to LMN and ADN and is responsible for the landmark control of HD cells in ADN. However, the functional role of the PoS projection to LMN has not been tested. The present study recorded HD cells from LMN after bilateral PoS lesions to determine whether the PoS provides landmark control to LMN HD cells. After the lesion and implantation of electrodes, HD cell activity was recorded while rats navigated within a cylindrical arena containing a single visual landmark or while they navigated between familiar and novel arenas of a dual-chamber apparatus. PoS lesions disrupted the landmark control of HD cells and also disrupted the stability of the preferred firing direction of the cells in darkness. Furthermore, PoS lesions impaired the stable HD cell representation maintained by path integration mechanisms when the rat walked between familiar and novel arenas. These results suggest that visual information first gains control of the HD cell signal in the LMN, presumably via the direct PoS → LMN projection. This visual landmark information then controls HD cells throughout the HD cell circuit. PMID:25632114

  12. 36 CFR 51.64 - May the concessioner gain additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or adds a new structure (e.g., a new wing to an existing building or an extension of an existing... additional leasehold surrender interest by undertaking a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in... a major rehabilitation or adding to a structure in which the concessioner has a leasehold...

  13. Attentional capture by evaluative stimuli: gain- and loss-connoting colors boost the additional-singleton effect.

    PubMed

    Wentura, Dirk; Müller, Philipp; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    In a valence induction task, one color acquired positive valence by indicating the chance to win money (in the case of fast and correct responses), and a different color acquired negative valence by indicating the danger to lose money (in the case of slow or incorrect responses). In the additional-singleton trials of a visual search task, the task-irrelevant singleton color was either the positive one, the negative one, or one of two neutral colors. We found an additional-singleton effect (i.e., longer RTs with a singleton color than in the no-singleton control condition). This effect was significantly increased for the two valent colors (with no differences between them) relative to the two neutral colors (with no differences between them, either). This result favors the hypothesis that the general relevance of stimuli elicits attentional capture, rather than the negativity bias hypothesis. PMID:24488806

  14. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  15. 21 CFR 71.4 - Samples; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in... additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color... respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date...

  16. Probabilistic Decision Making with Spikes: From ISI Distributions to Behaviour via Information Gain

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Javier A.; Lepora, Nathan F.; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Computational theories of decision making in the brain usually assume that sensory 'evidence' is accumulated supporting a number of hypotheses, and that the first accumulator to reach threshold triggers a decision in favour of its associated hypothesis. However, the evidence is often assumed to occur as a continuous process whose origins are somewhat abstract, with no direct link to the neural signals - action potentials or 'spikes' - that must ultimately form the substrate for decision making in the brain. Here we introduce a new variant of the well-known multi-hypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT) for decision making whose evidence observations consist of the basic unit of neural signalling - the inter-spike interval (ISI) - and which is based on a new form of the likelihood function. We dub this mechanism s-MSPRT and show its precise form for a range of realistic ISI distributions with positive support. In this way we show that, at the level of spikes, the refractory period may actually facilitate shorter decision times, and that the mechanism is robust against poor choice of the hypothesized data distribution. We show that s-MSPRT performance is related to the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) or information gain between ISI distributions, through which we are able to link neural signalling to psychophysical observation at the behavioural level. Thus, we find the mean information needed for a decision is constant, thereby offering an account of Hick's law (relating decision time to the number of choices). Further, the mean decision time of s-MSPRT shows a power law dependence on the KLD offering an account of Piéron's law (relating reaction time to stimulus intensity). These results show the foundations for a research programme in which spike train analysis can be made the basis for predictions about behavior in multi-alternative choice tasks. PMID:25923907

  17. College in the Information Age: Gains Associated with Students' Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly college students are expected to use computers and technology in their studies. This study estimated the relationship between students' use of technology and self-reported educational gains. These gains range from general learning outcomes to specific outcomes related to computers and technology. Results suggest a modest, but…

  18. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regional Offices. In addition, NRC Functional Organization Charts, NUREG-0325, contains...

  19. 7 CFR 20.11 - Additional reports and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EXPORT SALES REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 20.11... Administrator information with respect to sales of agricultural commodities as requested. Daily reports shall be... reports and information, including price data, as may be requested with respect to export sales...

  20. 78 FR 51265 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous...: Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa Pages or Miscellaneous Passport... applies for the addition of visa pages to that passport, the Department must confirm the...

  1. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... business activity is consistent with the housing finance and community lending mission of the Banks and the... information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN...

  2. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  3. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  4. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  5. 31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own procedures, the... information is insufficient to provide an adequate basis for analyzing the environmental impact of the... determine that a project would have a significant impact on the human environment, but that the level...

  6. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  7. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  8. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  9. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  10. Women's Reflections on Formal Sex Education and the Advantage of Gaining Informal Sexual Knowledge through a Feminist Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nichole

    2016-01-01

    By recognising the limitations of formal sex education, young people are able to seek out alternative material, gaining informal sexual knowledge through their own means and through a wide variety of sources. This paper derives from part of a larger study centred on feminism and heterosexuality in practice which features 17 feminist-identified…

  11. Everything, everywhere, all the time: quantifying the information gained from intensive hydrochemical sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.; Neal, C.

    2011-12-01

    Catchment hydrochemical studies have suffered from a stark mismatch of measurement timescales: water fluxes are typically measured sub-hourly, but their chemical signatures are typically sampled only weekly or monthly. At the Plynlimon catchment in mid-Wales, however, precipitation and streamflow have now been sampled every seven hours for nearly two years, and analyzed for deuterium, oxygen-18, and more than 40 chemical species. This high-frequency sampling reveals temporal patterns that would be invisible in typical weekly monitoring samples. Furthermore, recent technological developments are now leading to systems that can provide measurements of rainfall and streamflow chemistry at hourly or sub-hourly intervals, similar to the time scales at which hydrometric data have long been available - and to provide these measurements for long spans of time, not just for intensive field campaigns associated with individual storms. But at what point will higher-frequency measurements become pointless, as additional measurements simply "connect the dots" between lower-frequency data points? Information Theory, dating back to the original work of Shannon and colleagues in the 1940's, provides mathematical tools for rigorously quantifying the information content of a time series. The key input data for such an analysis are the power spectrum of the measured data, and the power spectrum of the measurement noise. Here we apply these techniques to the high-frequency Plynlimon data set. The results show that, at least up to 7-hourly sampling frequency, the information content of the time series increases nearly linearly with the frequency of sampling. These results rigorously quantify what inspection of the time series visually suggests: these high-frequency data do not simply "connect the dots" between lower-frequency measurements, but instead contain a richly textured signature of dynamic behavior in catchment hydrochemistry.

  12. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  13. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.3 - Sources of assassination records and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records and additional records and information. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. Assassination records and additional records and information may be located at, or under the control of, without limitation:...

  15. 47 CFR 1.10017 - How can I submit additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I submit additional information? 1... International Bureau Filing System § 1.10017 How can I submit additional information? In response to an official request for information from the International Bureau, you can submit additional...

  16. Sourcebook: gaining access to US government information on the environment and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, F.M. Jr.; O'Hara, L.

    1984-11-01

    This publication is designed to acquaint the reader with the broad range of services and publications that are offered by the US government and that provide information about the environment and natural resources. These sources of information include referral services, public-information offices, computerized data banks, information-analysis centers, and publication-distribution systems as well as published sources like bibliographies, abstract and index journals, reports, handbooks, and atlases. The subject matter covered by this sourcebook includes air pollution, meteorology, water resources and quality, fisheries, aquaculture, marine science, solid and hazardous waste treatment, land use, soil science, population and demography, anthropology, architecture, geography, urban studies, health, biology, agriculture, forestry, habitat, wildlife, geology, minerals, and related sciences and technologies.

  17. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  18. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  19. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. (a) The following data and information in a...

  20. Key concepts in MR spectroscopy and practical approaches to gaining biochemical information in children.

    PubMed

    Astrakas, Loukas G; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides independent biochemical information and has become an invaluable adjunct to MRI and other imaging modalities. This review introduces key concepts and presents basic methodological steps regarding the acquisition and the interpretation of proton MRS. We review major brain metabolites and discuss MRS dependence on age, location, echo time and field strength. PMID:27233787

  1. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  2. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by the additive manufacturer. 79.21 Section 79.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Additive Registration Procedures § 79.21 Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer....

  3. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  4. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  5. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions. 71.15 Section 71.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color...

  7. 19 CFR 141.89 - Additional information for certain classes of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information for certain classes of merchandise. 141.89 Section 141.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.89 Additional information for certain classes of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information required in returns of... Investment Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails... income tax return a statement showing, to the best of his knowledge and belief— (a) The number of...

  10. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  11. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  12. Data-based information gain on the response behaviour of hydrological models at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    A data-based approach is presented to analyse the response behaviour of hydrological models at the catchment scale. The approach starts with a number of sequential time series processing steps, applied to available rainfall, ETo and river flow observation series. These include separation of the high frequency (e.g., hourly, daily) river flow series into subflows, split of the series in nearly independent quick and slow flow hydrograph periods, and the extraction of nearly independent peak and low flows. Quick-, inter- and slow-subflow recession behaviour, sub-responses to rainfall and soil water storage are derived from the time series data. This data-based information on the catchment response behaviour can be applied on the basis of: - Model-structure identification and case-specific construction of lumped conceptual models for gauged catchments; or diagnostic evaluation of existing model structures; - Intercomparison of runoff responses for gauged catchments in a river basin, in order to identify similarity or significant differences between stations or between time periods, and relate these differences to spatial differences or temporal changes in catchment characteristics; - (based on the evaluation of the temporal changes in previous point:) Detection of temporal changes/trends and identification of its causes: climate trends, or land use changes; - Identification of asymptotic properties of the rainfall-runoff behaviour towards extreme peak or low flow conditions (for a given catchment) or towards extreme catchment conditions (for regionalization, ungauged basin prediction purposes); hence evaluating the performance of the model in making extrapolations beyond the range of available stations' data; - (based on the evaluation in previous point:) Evaluation of the usefulness of the model for making extrapolations to more extreme climate conditions projected by for instance climate models. Examples are provided for river basins in Belgium, Ethiopia, Kenya

  13. An SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Text Spelling With Adaptive Queries That Maximize Information Gain Rates.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Norton, James J S; Bretl, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a brain-computer interface for text entry using steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP). Like other SSVEP-based spellers, ours identifies the desired input character by posing questions (or queries) to users through a visual interface. Each query defines a mapping from possible characters to steady-state stimuli. The user responds by attending to one of these stimuli. Unlike other SSVEP-based spellers, ours chooses from a much larger pool of possible queries-on the order of ten thousand instead of ten. The larger query pool allows our speller to adapt more effectively to the inherent structure of what is being typed and to the input performance of the user, both of which make certain queries provide more information than others. In particular, our speller chooses queries from this pool that maximize the amount of information to be received per unit of time, a measure of mutual information that we call information gain rate. To validate our interface, we compared it with two other state-of-the-art SSVEP-based spellers, which were re-implemented to use the same input mechanism. Results showed that our interface, with the larger query pool, allowed users to spell multiple-word texts nearly twice as fast as they could with the compared spellers. PMID:25474810

  14. Optimizing experimental design, overcoming challenges, and gaining valuable information from the Sb K-edge XANES region

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Gordon, Robert A.; Jamieson, Heather E.

    2009-10-05

    There are many challenges associated with collecting, processing, and interpreting high-energy XAS data. The most significant of these are broad spectra, minimal separation of edge positions, and high background owing to the Compton tail. Studies of the Sb system are a particular challenge owing to its complex bonding character and formation of mixed oxidation-state minerals. Furthermore, in environmental samples such as stream sediment containing mine waste, different Sb phases may coexist. Ways to overcome these challenges and achieve accurate and useful information are presented. Our investigations used Sb K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to elucidate Sb geochemical behavior. Several Sb mineral spectra are presented, including Sb sulfosalts, and contrasted based on the different hosting and coordination environments around the Sb atom in the crystal structure. These comparisons lead to the recognition of how the different hosting and coordination environments are manifested in the shape of the Sb mineral spectra. In fact from the shape of the spectra, the occupation of the Sb atom in a single or in multiple crystallographic sites, regardless of whether multiple phases are present in the sample, is discernible. Furthermore, we demonstrate that quantitative information can be derived from the XANES region using linear combination fitting of the derivative spectra, rather than the energy spectra. Particularly useful to the advancement of Sb research is the demonstration that a significant amount of information can be gained from the Sb K-edge XANES region.

  15. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I submit with my...

  16. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  17. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must...

  18. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated... identifying information for one individual whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  19. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  20. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  1. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  2. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  3. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20. (b) Second request procedures—(1) Notice. Every request for additional information or documentary material issued under 16 CFR 803.20 shall inform the..., glossaries, proposed form of relief and any appendices containing only sections of statutes or...

  4. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  5. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  6. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 146.122 Section 146.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access...

  7. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  8. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 2590.702-1 Section 2590.702-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health...

  9. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  10. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.200 - Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instructions for Statement of Record, Additional Information and Documentation. 1710.200 Section 1710.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  12. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  13. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21159). OMB authorization for an ICR cannot be for more than three (3) years...; Additional Information Collection Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations ACTION: Notice... Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  14. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional information must I submit with my APD? 250.418 Section 250.418 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... plot if the well is to be directionally drilled; (d) A Hydrogen Sulfide Contingency Plan (see §...

  15. 30 CFR 250.418 - What additional information must I submit with my APD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.418 What additional information must I... applicable, and not previously submitted; (e) A welding plan (see §§ 250.109 to 250.113) if not...

  16. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts. 33.4 Section 33.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  17. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS GOVERNING LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES UNDER THE...

  18. 75 FR 61572 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing additional identifying information associated with the eight individuals listed in the Annex to the Executive Order of September 28, 2010, ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions,'' whose property and interests......

  19. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS...

  20. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  1. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  2. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  3. 40 CFR Table 42 to Subpart Uuu of... - Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional Information for Initial Notification of Compliance Status 42 Table 42 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  4. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  5. 49 CFR 260.25 - Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... credit rating. 260.25 Section 260.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Financial Assistance § 260.25 Additional information for Applicants not having a credit rating. Each application submitted by Applicants not having a recent credit rating from one or more nationally...

  6. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  7. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  8. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS... RULES § 803.20 Requests for additional information or documentary material. (a)(1) Persons and... documentary material relevant to the acquisition may be required from one or more persons required to...

  9. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  10. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  11. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  12. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  13. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  14. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 42 U.S.C. 7545(f)(4). (i) The manufacturer shall submit, or shall reference prior submissions... data and information as are specified in the designation of the additive in subpart D. (f) Assurances... the provisions of subpart F of this part....

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  16. 76 FR 24854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Additional Protocol Report Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on a number of commercial nuclear and nuclear-related items, materials... for a nuclear weapons program. These forms provides the IAEA with information about additional aspects...; buildings on sites of facilities selected by the IAEA from the U.S. Eligible Facilities List;...

  17. Additional sensory information reduces body sway of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Thatia Regina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Barela, José Angelo

    2008-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the additional sensory information could improve postural control in individuals with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Twenty-eight individuals with unilateral ACL injury (mean age 23.6, 26 males, 2 females) and 28 healthy young control subjects (mean age 22.1 years, 26 males, 2 females) participated in this study. Postural control was evaluated with subjects single-leg standing on a force platform with eyes closed under two sensory conditions: normal sensory information and light touch to a stationary bar (applied force below 1N). Three trials of 30s were performed in each single-leg stance and in each sensory condition. Mean sway amplitude and predominant frequency of center of pressure were calculated for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Individuals with ACL injury showed greater mean sway amplitude than healthy control individuals even though the predominant frequency was similar for both groups. Additional sensory information improved postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury and healthy control, with a greater effect observed for the ACL group. Based on these results, we suggest that reduction in postural control performance in individuals with ACL injury would be due to the reduction of sensory information provided by the ACL, but when sensory information is enhanced, postural control performance improves. These results have implications for novel approaches to improve stability in individuals with ACL injury. PMID:18582536

  18. 75 FR 35119 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4085 Application for Additional Visa Pages or... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Application for Additional Visa... collection: The information collected on the DS-4085 is used to facilitate the issuance of additional...

  19. Gaining Ground in the Middle School Grades: Why Some Schools Do Better. A Large-Scale Study of Middle Grades Practices and Student Outcomes. The Informed Educator Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Informed Educator" draws content from several reports as well as a PowerPoint presentation that describe findings from a study conducted by EdSource and its research partners from Stanford University and the American Institutes for Research. The project--Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades: Why Some Schools Do Better--focused on identifying…

  20. The Effect of Non-equispaced Sampling Instants, Sub-period Record Epochs, and Timebase Gain on the Information Content of Discretized Replicas of Periodic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Paulter, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of non-equispaced sampling instants and timebase gain on the information content of the discretized replica of a periodic signal is examined. The effect of the duration of record epochs that are not equal to an integer number of signal periods on the information content of the discretized replica is also explored. A general model describing sampled and windowed data is provided and compared to related models developed by other researchers. PMID:26900517

  1. Assessing traumatic experiences in screening for PTSD in substance use disorder patients: what is the gain in addition to PTSD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa; de Jong, Cor

    2015-03-30

    Traumatic experiences have been linked with substance use disorders (SUD) and may be an important factor in the perpetuation of SUD, even in the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and substance use severity in 192 SUD inpatients. Childhood trauma was assessed using the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC). With variables derived from this measure in addition to PTSD symptoms, two regression models were created with alcohol use or drug use severity as dependent variables. Alcohol severity was explained by PTSD symptoms as well as the age of trauma. Drug severity was explained solely by PTSD symptoms. The clinical value of assessing childhood trauma in determining the addiction severity appears to be limited in comparison with PTSD symptoms. PMID:25687377

  2. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  3. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  6. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  7. Multiple small RNAs act additively to integrate sensory information and control quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kimberly C.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell–cell communication mechanism that bacteria use to collectively regulate gene expression and, at a higher level, to coordinate group behavior. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, sensory information from three independent quorum-sensing systems converges on the shared response regulator LuxO. When LuxO is phosphorylated, it activates the expression of a putative repressor that destabilizes the mRNA encoding the master quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator LuxR. In the closely related species Vibrio cholerae, this repressor was revealed to be the RNA chaperone Hfq together with four small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) called Qrr1–4 (quorum regulatory RNA). Here, we identify five Qrr sRNAs that control quorum sensing in V. harveyi. Mutational analysis reveals that only four of the five Qrrs are required for destabilization of the luxR mRNA. Surprisingly, unlike in V. cholerae where the sRNAs act redundantly, in V. harveyi, the Qrr sRNAs function additively to control quorum sensing. This latter mechanism produces a gradient of LuxR that, in turn, enables differential regulation of quorum-sensing target genes. Other regulators appear to be involved in control of V. harveyi qrr expression, allowing the integration of additional sensory information into the regulation of quorum-sensing gene expression. PMID:17234887

  8. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  9. Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: How to improve the solution by using additional information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    Past climate changes have caused certain perturbations in the subsurface temperature field. Their inversion yields the time variations of the ground surface temperature (GST), the solution of which however may be highly non-unique. To incorporate additional information on the behaviour of the unknown function usually helps treat the non-uniqueness. The traditionally used information imposing bounding and smoothing constraints on climate history can be further significantly extended by including stochastic properties of climate. It was shown that climatic records reveal: (1) long-term persistence of climate, and (2) high intermittency of climate variations characterized by hyperbolic decrease of probability tails. We have quantified and incorporated such information into the inversion method in the form of the covariance matrix of the unknown parameters. Inversion of almost 100 temperature-depth profiles from the Czech Republic (Bodri and Čermák, 1995, 1997) provided more meaningful climatic histories in comparison with simple inversion and increased the time span that could be resolved. In present work the effectiveness of the method is illistrated on the examples of 5 selected temperature logs.

  10. Gaining the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Perspective in Chronic Kidney Disease: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Selewski, David T.; Massengill, Susan F.; Troost, Jonathan P.; Wickman, Larysa; Messer, Kassandra L.; Herreshoff, Emily; Bowers, Corinna; Ferris, Maria E.; Mahan, John D.; Greenbaum, Larry A.; MacHardy, Jackie; Kapur, Gaurav; Chand, Deepa H.; Goebel, Jens; Barletta, Gina Marie; Geary, Denis; Kershaw, David B.; Pan, Cynthia G.; Gbadegesin, Rasheed; Hidalgo, Guillermo; Lane, Jerome C.; Leiser, Jeffrey D.; Song, Peter X.; Thissen, David; Liu, Yang; Gross, Heather E.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic kidney disease is a persistent chronic health condition commonly seen in pediatric nephrology programs. Our study aims to evaluate the sensitivity of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric instrument to indicators of disease severity and activity in pediatric chronic kidney disease. Methods This cross sectional study included 233 children 8–17 years old with chronic kidney disease from 16 participating institutions in North America. Disease activity indicators, including hospitalization in the previous 6 months, edema, and number of medications consumed daily, as well as disease severity indicators of kidney function and coexisting medical conditions were captured. PROMIS domains, including depression, anxiety, social-peer relationships, pain interference, fatigue, mobility, and upper extremity function, were administered via web-based questionnaires. Absolute effect sizes (AES) were generated to demonstrate the impact of disease on domain scores. Four children were excluded because of missing GFR estimations. Results 221 of the 229 children included in the final analysis completed the entire PROMIS questionnaire. Unadjusted PROMIS domains were responsive to chronic kidney disease activity indicators and number of coexisting conditions. PROMIS domain scores were worse in the presence of recent hospitalizations (depression AES 0.33, anxiety AES 0.42, pain interference AES 0.46, fatigue AES 0.50, mobility AES 0.49), edema (depression AES 0.50, anxiety AES 0.60, pain interference AES 0.77, mobility AES 0.54) and coexisting medical conditions (social peer-relationships AES 0.66, fatigue AES 0.83, mobility AES 0.60, upper extremity function AES 0.48). Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric domains of depression, anxiety, social-peer relationships, pain interference, and mobility were sensitive to the clinical status of children with chronic kidney disease in this multi-center cross sectional study

  11. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  12. 17 CFR 230.496 - Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of prospectus and statement of additional information used after nine months. 230.496 Section 230.496 Commodity and Securities... statement of additional information used after nine months. In the case of a registration statement filed...

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.111 - Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where may Executive agencies find additional information on Integrated Workplace concepts? 102-79.111 Section 102-79.111 Public... Space Integrated Workplace § 102-79.111 Where may Executive agencies find additional information...

  14. Humour as a Resource and Strategy for Boys to Gain Status in the Field of Informal School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huuki, Tuija; Manninen, Sari; Sunnari, Vappu

    2010-01-01

    Through a feminist approach this paper illustrates how humour is used as a resource and strategy for status among Finnish school boys and in constructing culturally accepted masculinity in the field of informal school. Based on interview and observation material collected in three schools, the results suggest that although humour is often…

  15. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  16. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  17. Lateralization of High-Frequency Clicks Based on Interaural Time: Additivity of Information across Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth Marie

    Lateralization performance based on interaural differences of time (IDTs) was measured for trains of Gaussian clicks which varied in spectral content. In the first experiment, thresholds ((DELTA)IDTs) were measured as a function of the number of clicks in the train (n = 1 to 32), the interclick interval (ICI = 2.5 or 5 ms), and the spectral content (1 vs. 2 or 4 carriers). Subjects' performance was compared to perfect statistical summation which predicts slopes of -.50 when log-(DELTA)IDT vs. long -n is plotted. The results showed that increasing the spectral content of the clicks decreased the intercepts of the log -log functions (decreased thresholds) while having little effect on their slopes. Shortening the ICIs caused the slopes of the functions to decrease in absolute value. To estimate the bandwidth of frequency-interaction in lateralization, d's were measured for clicks with constant IDTs (n = 1) with a fixed carrier (FF = 4000, 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz), both alone and combined with a second click whose carrier (F) varied from 3500 to 8500 Hz. Performance in combined conditions was compared to independent summation of the information carried by the two frequency-bands. Performance improved as the separation between F and FF increased until the level predicted by independence was reached. The final experiment investigated the interaction of frequency content with IDT. d's were measured as a function of the IDT in clicks with carriers of 5200, 6000 or 7200 Hz, both alone and combined with a 4000-Hz click with a fixed IDT. Performance in combined conditions was again compared to independent additivity. The improvement with frequency was explained by an increase in the number of samples of the IDT reaching the binaural centers due to spread of excitation along the basilar membrane. Less than independent summation was explained by correlation between overlapping bands which reduced the amount of information exciting independent channels. The data also suggest that

  18. Gaining Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Back in the 1990s, when Bill Clinton was president and the internet was still a novelty, college recruitment was remarkably low-tech. Most prospective students visited high school guidance offices, wrote away for information about schools, attended college fairs, and visited campuses they were considering. Most admissions and recruiting activities…

  19. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  20. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  1. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  2. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  3. 16 CFR 803.21 - Additional information shall be supplied within reasonable time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information or documentary material requested pursuant to section 7A(e) and § 803.20 (or, if such request is not fully complied with, the information or documentary material submitted and a statement of...

  4. 50 CFR 23.25 - What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....25 What additional information is required on a non-Party CITES document? (a) Purpose. Under Article... Certification (1) Export (i) For Appendix-I and -II specimens, the Scientific Authority has advised that...

  5. 40 CFR 79.21 - Information and assurances to be provided by the additive manufacturer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fuel additive will be sold, offered for sale, or introduced into commerce, and the fuel additive manufacturer's recommended range of concentration and purpose-in-use for each such type of fuel. (e) Such other... (e) of this section as provided in § 79.5(b). (g) Assurances that the additive manufacturer will...

  6. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  7. CMR Quantification of Myocardial Scar Provides Additive Prognostic Information in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Danik, Stephan B.; Shah, Ravi V.; Dodson, John A.; Verdini, Daniel J.; Tokuda, Michifumi; Daly, Caroline A.; Tedrow, Usha B.; Stevenson, William G.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation–based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for

  8. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  9. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  10. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  11. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information requirements, smoking... OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.317 Passenger information requirements, smoking... command. (c) No person may operate an airplane on a flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252...

  12. Behavior of moisture gain and equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) of various drug substances and correlation with compendial information on hygroscopicity and loss on drying.

    PubMed

    Visalakshi, N A; Mariappan, T T; Bhutani, Hemant; Singh, Saranjit

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of moisture gain and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was determined for 30 drug substances at relative humidities (RH) ranging from 11% to 93%. Based on the results, the drugs were categorized into different classes, following the classification system proposed by Callahan et al. About 23 fell under Class-I (nonhygroscopic), four under Class-II (slightly hygroscopic), and three under Class-III (moderately hygroscopic). Most of the Class-III drugs converted from solid to liquid state at > 75% RH, and the moisture increase was more than 40% above 90% RH. However, the moisture increase was comparatively much smaller at humidities < 40%-50%. Hence, no drug could be categorized in Class-IV (very hygroscopic), where gain of moisture is generally higher even at lower humidities. The results were correlated to the statements given in the compendia on hygroscopicity, and also the values of loss on drying (LOD). The study suggests that there is a need to rationalize the pharmacopoeial information. PMID:16370178

  13. 21 CFR 803.12 - Where and how do I submit reports and additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE REPORTING General Provisions § 803.12 Where and how do... information required under this part to FDA, CDRH, Medical Device Reporting, P.O. Box 3002, Rockville,...

  14. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  15. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  16. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  17. 10 CFR 52.158 - Contents of application; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.158 Contents of application; additional... environmental report as required by 10 CFR 51.54. (2) If the manufacturing license application references...

  18. Twenty-five additional cases of trisomy 9 mosaic: Birth information, medical conditions, and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah A; Campbell, Emily

    2015-05-01

    Limited literature exists on children and adults diagnosed with the mosaic form of trisomy 9. Data from the Tracking Rare Incidence Syndromes (TRIS) project has provided physical characteristics and medical conditions for 14 individuals. This article provides TRIS Survey results of 25 additional cases at two data points (birth and survey completion) as well as developmental status. Results confirmed a number of phenotypic features and medical conditions. In addition, a number of cardiac anomalies were reported along with feeding and respiratory difficulties in the immediate postnatal period. In addition, developmental status data indicated a range in functioning level up to skills in the 36 and 48-month range. Strengths were also noted across the sample in language and communication, fine motor and social-emotional development. Implications for professionals caring for children with this genetic condition are offered. PMID:25755087

  19. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1118 - (Item 1118) Reports and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Commission maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other... electronic or paper copies of those filings and other reports free of charge upon request. ... (http://www.sec.gov). (c) Web site access to reports. (1) State whether the issuing entity's...

  2. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  3. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include the information otherwise required by 10 CFR 50.10, in accordance with either 10 CFR 2.101(a)(1) through (a)(4... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR...

  4. 77 FR 31068 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Property and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Certain Persons With Respect to Grave Human Rights... Rights Abuses by Governments of Iran and Syria via Information Technology AGENCY: Office of...

  5. 78 FR 27936 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection With Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ..., certification and auditing services for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables, and other products on a ``user... provides a nationwide inspection, grading, and auditing service for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables... inspection, grading, or auditing services. Such information includes; the name and location of the person...

  6. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  7. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additive petition are available for public disclosure, unless extraordinary circumstances are shown, after... § 20.61 of this chapter. (3) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints... particular ingredient or group of ingredients shall be deleted from any such list prior to public...

  8. 18 CFR 33.3 - Additional information requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the horizontal Competitive Analysis Screen. (3) The applicant may use a computer model to complete one... requirements for applications involving horizontal competitive impacts. 33.3 Section 33.3 Conservation of Power... FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.3 Additional...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional... symbols; (g) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings... permanent base line points coordinated with the underground and surface mine traverses, and the location...

  13. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  14. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  15. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  16. 10 CFR 52.80 - Contents of applications; additional technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.80 Contents of applications; additional technical... environmental report, either in accordance with 10 CFR 51.50(c) if a limited work authorization under 10 CFR 50... under 10 CFR 50.10 be issued before issuance of the combined license, the application must include...

  17. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  18. 14 CFR 11.77 - Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace? 11.77 Section 11.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of the agency, office, facility, or person who would have authority to permit the use of the...

  19. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  20. 12 CFR 116.220 - If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 116.220 Section 116.220 Banks and Banking... Treatment § 116.220 If the OCC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and will briefly...

  1. 12 CFR 516.220 - If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 516.220 Section 516.220 Banks and Banking... Standard Treatment § 516.220 If OTS requests additional information to complete my application, how will it... your response. OTS will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial...

  2. 12 CFR 390.128 - If the FDIC requests additional information to complete my application, how will it process my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... complete my application, how will it process my application? 390.128 Section 390.128 Banks and Banking... additional information to complete my application, how will it process my application? (a) You may use the... will notify you that it has extended the period before the end of the initial 15-day period and...

  3. Estimating additive and dominance variances for complex traits in pigs combining genomic and pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Costa, E V; Diniz, D B; Veroneze, R; Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Guimaraes, S E F; Silva, F F; Lopes, P S

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dominance effects should improve ge-netic evaluations, provide the accurate selection of purebred animals, and enable better breeding strategies, including the exploitation of het-erosis in crossbreeds. In this study, we combined genomic and pedi-gree data to study the relative importance of additive and dominance genetic variation in growth and carcass traits in an F2 pig population. Two GBLUP models were used, a model without a polygenic effect (ADM) and a model with a polygenic effect (ADMP). Additive effects played a greater role in the control of growth and carcass traits than did dominance effects. However, dominance effects were important for all traits, particularly in backfat thickness. The narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates for growth (0.06 to 0.42, and 0.10 to 0.51, respectively) and carcass traits (0.07 to 0.37, and 0.10 to 0.76, respec-tively) exhibited a wide variation. The inclusion of a polygenic effect in the ADMP model changed the broad-sense heritability estimates only for birth weight and weight at 21 days of age. PMID:26125833

  4. Inclusion of Additional Plant Species and Trait Information in Dynamic Vegetation Modeling of Arctic Tundra and Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, E. S.; Patil, V.; Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) have been developed to model the ecophysiological characteristics of plant functional types in terrestrial ecosystems. They have frequently been used to answer questions pertaining to processes such as disturbance, plant succession, and community composition under historical and future climate scenarios. While DVMs have proved useful in these types of applications, it has often been questioned if additional detail, such as including plant dynamics at the species-level and/or including species-specific traits would make these models more accurate and/or broadly applicable. A sub-question associated with this issue is, 'How many species, or what degree of functional diversity, should we incorporate to sustain ecosystem function in modeled ecosystems?' Here, we focus on how the inclusion of additional plant species and trait information may strengthen dynamic vegetation modeling in applications pertaining to: (1) forage for caribou in northern Alaska, (2) above- and belowground carbon storage in the boreal forest and lake margin wetlands of interior Alaska, and (3) arctic tundra and boreal forest leaf phenology. While the inclusion of additional information generally proved valuable in these three applications, this additional detail depends on field data that may not always be available and may also result in increased computational complexity. Therefore, it is important to assess these possible limitations against the perceived need for additional plant species and trait information in the development and application of dynamic vegetation models.

  5. Tautomers of a Fluorescent G Surrogate and Their Distinct Photophysics Provide Additional Information Channels.

    PubMed

    Sholokh, Marianna; Improta, Roberto; Mori, Mattia; Sharma, Rajhans; Kenfack, Cyril; Shin, Dongwon; Voltz, Karine; Stote, Roland H; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Botta, Maurizio; Tor, Yitzhak; Mély, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Thienoguanosine ((th) G) is an isomorphic nucleoside analogue acting as a faithful fluorescent substitute of G, with respectable quantum yield in oligonucleotides. Photophysical analysis of (th) G reveals the existence of two ground-state tautomers with significantly shifted absorption and emission wavelengths, and high quantum yield in buffer. Using (TD)-DFT calculations, the tautomers were identified as the H1 and H3 keto-amino tautomers. When incorporated into the loop of (-)PBS, the (-)DNA copy of the HIV-1 primer binding site, both tautomers are observed and show differential sensitivity to protein binding. The red-shifted H1 tautomer is strongly favored in matched (-)/(+)PBS duplexes, while the relative emission of the H3 tautomer can be used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. These tautomers and their distinct environmental sensitivity provide unprecedented information channels for analyzing G residues in oligonucleotides and their complexes. PMID:27273741

  6. Getting the most out of additional guidance information in deformable image registration by leveraging multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating additional guidance information, e.g., landmark/contour correspondence, in deformable image registration is often desirable and is typically done by adding constraints or cost terms to the optimization function. Commonly, deciding between a "hard" constraint and a "soft" additional cost term as well as the weighting of cost terms in the optimization function is done on a trial-and-error basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of exploiting guidance information by taking a multi-objective optimization perspective. Hereto, next to objectives related to match quality and amount of deformation, we define a third objective related to guidance information. Multi-objective optimization eliminates the need to a-priori tune a weighting of objectives in a single optimization function or the strict requirement of fulfilling hard guidance constraints. Instead, Pareto-efficient trade-offs between all objectives are found, effectively making the introduction of guidance information straightforward, independent of its type or scale. Further, since complete Pareto fronts also contain less interesting parts (i.e., solutions with near-zero deformation effort), we study how adaptive steering mechanisms can be incorporated to automatically focus more on solutions of interest. We performed experiments on artificial and real clinical data with large differences, including disappearing structures. Results show the substantial benefit of using additional guidance information. Moreover, compared to the 2-objective case, additional computational cost is negligible. Finally, with the same computational budget, use of the adaptive steering mechanism provides superior solutions in the area of interest.

  7. Gain lever characterization in monolithically integrated diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocha, Michael; Bond, Tiziana; Welty, Rebecca; Vernon, Stephen; Kallman, Jeffrey; Behymer, Elaine

    2005-04-01

    Gain Lever, an effect for enhancing amplitude modulation (AM) efficiency in multisection laser diodes1, has been characterized in InGaAs DQW edge emitting lasers that are integrated with passive waveguides. Specifically designed structures which give a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1 have been fabricated and measured to fully characterize the parameter space for operation in the gain lever mode. Additionally the experimental results are compared to a hybrid 3-D simulation involving effective index method (EIM) reduction to 2-D. Gains greater than 6 dB in the AM efficiency can be achieved within the appropriate operating range, but this gain drops rapidly as the parameter range is exceeded. High speed RF modulation with significant gain is, in principle, possible if proper biasing and modulation conditions are used. This phenomenon can also be useful for high-speed digital information transmission.

  8. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  9. Did people "buy" what was "sold"? A qualitative evaluation of a contingent valuation survey information set for gains in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Bartczak, A; Chilton, S; Metcalf, H

    2014-01-15

    A number of stated preferences studies have estimated a monetary value for the gains in life expectancy resulting from pollution control, using a Value of a Life Year (VOLY) approach. However, life expectancy gains are a complex concept and no attempt has been made, to date, to investigate peoples' understanding of what it is they are being asked to value. Past practice has been to focus on the outcome of a policy i.e. a gain to the average person of X months', providing no details on how the individual receives, or experiences this gain, a potentially important attribute to value. This paper sets up and reports the results from a structured debriefing exercise to qualitatively investigate an alternative approach which explicitly emphasises how this gain is delivered (on-going reductions in the risk of death). We find that, for the majority of respondents, the approach is effective in communicating the on-going nature of the gain and reduces or eliminates the use of the (incorrect) heuristic that it is an 'add-on' at the end of life, in poor health. Further refinements are required, however, to communicate the cumulative nature of these risk reductions and the lack of impact on quality of life. The lesson for stated preference studies in general is that structured debriefings can be very useful, highlighting such issues as the persistence of ill-defined attributes and the difficulties that respondents may encounter setting aside their preferences over attributes of the good that should not be included in the valuation. PMID:24374166

  10. Review of information on the radiation chemistry of materials around waste canisters in salt and assessment of the need for additional experimental information

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    The brines, vapors, and salts precipitated from the brines will be exposed to gamma rays and to elevated temperatures in the regions close to a waste package in the salt. Accordingly, they will be subject to changes in composition brought about by reactions induced by the radiations and heat. This report reviews the status of information on the radiation chemistry of brines, gases, and solids which might be present around a waste package in salt and to assess the need for additional laboratory investigations on the radiation chemistry of these materials. The basic aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions, including concentrated salt solutions, were reviewed briefly and found to be substantially unchanged from those presented in Jenks's 1972 review of radiolysis and hydrolysis in salt-mine brines. Some additional information pertaining to the radiolytic yields and reactions in brine solutions has become available since the previous review, and this information will be useful in the eventual, complete elucidation of the radiation chemistry of the salt-mine brines. 53 references.

  11. CCD Side 2 Gain Ratio Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Linda

    2002-07-01

    Observe a bright spectrophotometric standard star at the center of the detector with a wide slit {52x2} with the 3 low dispersion gratings at gain 1 and gain 4, so that the ratio of gain 4 to gain 1 can be measured. {This will be used to calibrate gain 4 relative to gain 1, which is already well measured.} Read out some additional exposures through non-default amplifier B, which is used for some calibration programs, so that the gains of amp B relative to amp D can be measured. Place the target at row 900, close to the D amplifier and far from the B amplifier, then take long and short exposures with G230LB with both amplifiers, so that CTE can be measured over a broad range of counts. With gain 4/1, amp B/D, and CTE known from these measurements, find the sensitivity at row 900 relative to the central row.

  12. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  13. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  14. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  15. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  16. Health gain versus equity.

    PubMed

    Scott-Samuel, A

    1992-05-01

    A new organisation, the Association for Public Health, has just been formed 'to help deliver real health gain for the population'. Alex Scott-Samuel suggests that the concept of 'health gain' is counter to health equality and needs wider debate. PMID:1624317

  17. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  18. Nano-engineered ultra-high-gain microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, D. R.; Gorelikov, D.; de Rouffignac, P.; Saadatmand, K.; Stenton, K.; Sullivan, N.; Tremsin, A. S.

    2009-08-01

    Highly localized and very fast electron amplification of microchannel plates (MCPs) enables a large number of high-resolution and high-sensitivity detection technologies, which provide spatial and/or temporal information for each detected photon/electron/ion/neutron. Although there has been significant progress in photocathode and readout technologies the MCPs themselves have not evolved much from the technology developed several decades ago. Substantial increases in the gain of existing MCP technology have been accomplished by utilizing state-of-the-art processes developed for nano-engineered structures. The gain of treated MCPs with aspect ratio of 40:1 is reproducibly measured to reach unprecedented values of 2×10 5. This gain enhancement is shown to be stable during MCP operation. In addition, the initial experiments indicate improved stability of gain as a function of extracted charge and MCP storage conditions. We also present results from a fully independent thin-film process for manufacturing non-lead glass MCPs using engineered thin films for both the resistive and emissive layers. These substrate-independent MCPs show high gain, less gain degradation with extracted charge, and greater pore-to-pore and plate-to-plate uniformity than has been possible with conventional lead glass structures.

  19. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  20. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility... ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.12 What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a Presidential library facility? (a)...

  4. Observing permafrost dynamics at depth at the Zugspitze (German/Austrian Alps): Complementary information gained from borehole observation and temperature-calibrated quantitative geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; von Poschinger, A.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2007, in a gallery at 30 meters distance from the north face at 2800 m a.s.l., a 280 m long transect was instrumented with permanent electrodes for electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements and temperature loggers 600 m west of the Zugspitze summit. Both measurements target permafrost development at depth and offer complementary information on an almost identical steep bedrock permafrost setting. 25 temperature loggers in the borehole provide point and gradient information. ERT characterises the state of frozen rock via resistivity that is susceptible to rock temperature. Temperature resistivity gradients in frozen rock are regularly one magnitude higher than in unfrozen rock. Laboratory values, of dolomised Wetterstein limestone below the equilibrium freezing point of -0.5 °C could be described by p [in kohmm] = 19 - 19.3 (±2.1) * t [in C°] with an R² of 0.99. Referencing error-controlled quantitative ERT transects to laboratory values yields temperature-calibrated surveys that may be applicable to frozen rock. Borehole information provides accurate information on the propagation of thermal signals and of the state and distribution of permafrost in an intact rock mass temperature, but only provides point information. Measurements from 2007 to 2008 indicate that minimum temperatures close to -4°C occur at 10-15m depth. Active layer depth in 2008 was 1.5 meter on the north-face and 7 meters on the south-face while seasonal variations in temperature greater than ±0.5 are restricted to the upper 12-13 m from the north face and approximately 10 m from the south face. Referenced ERT provides less accurate information on the thermal state of the frozen rock, but can provide spatial 2D and 3D information even in unstable rock masses unsuitable for borehole installation. Both methods show similar permafrost distribution, thaw depths and permafrost core temperature values round -3°C. In fact, in the ER-tomographies we found the most pronounced

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 40 CFR part 761, if requested by the disposal agency. If the property does contain any equipment subject to EPA regulation under 40 CFR part 761, the certification must include the landholding agency's... report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.140 - In addition to the title report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 40 CFR part 761, if requested by the disposal agency. If the property does contain any equipment subject to EPA regulation under 40 CFR part 761, the certification must include the landholding agency's... report, and all necessary environmental information and certifications, what information must...

  7. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed numeracy barriers. Expressing relative risk using words communicated uncertainty and addressed numeracy barriers but was judged as highly inadequate. Risk communication and visual cognition concepts were applied to explain findings. PMID:26412960

  8. Processing time of addition or withdrawal of single or combined balance-stabilizing haptic and visual information.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Crisafulli, Oscar; Sozzi, Stefania; Schieppati, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the integration time of haptic and visual input and their interaction during stance stabilization. Eleven subjects performed four tandem-stance conditions (60 trials each). Vision, touch, and both vision and touch were added and withdrawn. Furthermore, vision was replaced with touch and vice versa. Body sway, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus activity were measured. Following addition or withdrawal of vision or touch, an integration time period elapsed before the earliest changes in sway were observed. Thereafter, sway varied exponentially to a new steady-state while reweighting occurred. Latencies of sway changes on sensory addition ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 s across subjects, consistently longer for touch than vision, and were regularly preceded by changes in muscle activity. Addition of vision and touch simultaneously shortened the latencies with respect to vision or touch separately, suggesting cooperation between sensory modalities. Latencies following withdrawal of vision or touch or both simultaneously were shorter than following addition. When vision was replaced with touch or vice versa, adding one modality did not interfere with the effect of withdrawal of the other, suggesting that integration of withdrawal and addition were performed in parallel. The time course of the reweighting process to reach the new steady-state was also shorter on withdrawal than addition. The effects of different sensory inputs on posture stabilization illustrate the operation of a time-consuming, possibly supraspinal process that integrates and fuses modalities for accurate balance control. This study also shows the facilitatory interaction of visual and haptic inputs in integration and reweighting of stance-stabilizing inputs. PMID:26334013

  9. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grants. These include: (1) The provisions of 45 CFR part 74 pertaining to the Administration of Grants; (2) The provisions of 45 CFR part 16, Departmental Grants Appeal Process, and the provisions of Informal Grant Appeal Procedures (Indirect Costs) in volume 45 CFR part 75; (3) The...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  15. Space Takes Time: Concentration Dependent Output Codes from Primary Olfactory Networks Rapidly Provide Additional Information at Defined Discrimination Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Bradley, Samual; Chapman, Phillip D.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Tiede, Regina; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    As odor concentration increases, primary olfactory network representations expand in spatial distribution, temporal complexity and duration. However, the direct relationship between concentration dependent odor representations and the psychophysical thresholds of detection and discrimination is poorly understood. This relationship is absolutely critical as thresholds signify transition points whereby representations become meaningful to the organism. Here, we matched stimulus protocols for psychophysical assays and intracellular recordings of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) in the moth Manduca sexta to directly compare psychophysical thresholds and the output representations they elicit. We first behaviorally identified odor detection and discrimination thresholds across an odor dilution series for a panel of structurally similar odors. We then characterized spatiotemporal spiking patterns across a population of individually filled and identified AL PNs in response to those odors at concentrations below, at, and above identified thresholds. Using spatial and spatiotemporal based analyses we observed that each stimulus produced unique representations, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Mean response latency did not decrease and the percent glomerular activation did not increase with concentration until undiluted odor. Furthermore, correlations between spatial patterns for odor decreased, but only significantly with undiluted odor. Using time-integrated Euclidean distance (ED) measures, we determined that added spatiotemporal information was present at the discrimination but not detection threshold. This added information was evidenced by an increase in integrated distance between the sub-detection and discrimination threshold concentrations (of the same odor) that was not present in comparison of the sub-detection and detection threshold. After consideration of delays for information to reach the AL we find that it takes ~120–140 ms for the AL to

  16. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  17. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  18. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  19. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  20. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  1. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flow into the turbine in klbs; for dual flash facilities, you must separate the steam flow into high... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

  2. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  3. Highly informative Y-chromosomal haplotypes by the addition of three new STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439.

    PubMed

    Grignani, P; Peloso, G; Fattorini, P; Previderè, C

    2000-01-01

    The Y chromosome STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were selected from publicly available genome databases and used to analyse an Italian population sample. A tetraplex PCR reaction including the highly informative DYS385 locus, was set up and used for the analysis of 131 male samples to determine allele frequencies and STR diversity values. The number of different haplotypes and the haplotype diversity value found from the analysis of the STRs included in the tetraplex reaction were very similar to those found from the analysis of the basic set of 7 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) previously carried out on the same population sample. By combining the allelic states of the 11 Y-chromosomal STRs we could construct highly informative haplotypes that allowed the discrimination of 93.8% (120 out of 128) of the samples tested. This approach represents a very powerful tool for individual identification and paternity testing in forensic medicine. PMID:11197619

  4. Adaptive gain control during human perceptual choice

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Samuel; Wyart, Valentin; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Myers, Nicholas; de Gardelle, Vincent; Castañón, Santiago Herce; Summerfield, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Neural systems adapt to background levels of stimulation. Adaptive gain control has been extensively studied in sensory systems, but overlooked in decision-theoretic models. Here, we describe evidence for adaptive gain control during the serial integration of decision-relevant information. Human observers judged the average information provided by a rapid stream of visual events (samples). The impact that each sample wielded over choices depended on its consistency with the previous sample, with more consistent or expected samples wielding the greatest influence over choice. This bias was also visible in the encoding of decision information in pupillometric signals, and in cortical responses measured with functional neuroimaging. These data can be accounted for with a new serial sampling model in which the gain of information processing adapts rapidly to reflect the average of the available evidence. PMID:24656259

  5. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

  6. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  7. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  8. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  9. High gain Raman amplifier with inherent gain flattening and dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkar, Charu; Thyagarajan, K.

    2005-06-01

    We report here an inherently gain-flattened, high-gain discrete Raman fiber amplifier design with 21 dB net gain (±1.4 dB gain ripple) over 25 nm bandwidth. The amplifier design is based on a W-shape highly nonlinear fiber, in which, optimized spectral variation of leakage loss has been used to achieve inherent gain flattening of Raman gain. The proposed fiber has an additional advantage of having a high negative dispersion coefficient (∼-84 ps/km nm) over the operating range of wavelength and thus the designed discrete amplifier module, based on this fiber, is also capable of compensating dispersion accumulated in one span (70 km) of transmission through G.652 fiber. Hence, the designed module is proposed as a composite amplifier and dispersion-compensating unit for 25 nm bandwidth, which is capable of handling both attenuation and dispersion of one span of G. 652 transmission.

  10. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944–1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Results Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Conclusion Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy. PMID:26496647

  11. Cochlear gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel

    2005-03-01

    The nonlinear auditory phenomena of compression, suppression, and distortion are known to have a cochlear-mechanical origin. An instantaneous nonlinear transfer function is often assumed to underlie these phenomena, but there are experimental indications that auditory nonlinearity is sluggish rather than instantaneous. This study analyzes the consequences of such sluggishness, using automatic gain control (AGC) as a model noninstantaneous nonlinearity. The distinctive characteristic of AGC, its delayed action, is shown to produce a number of observable and measurable effects that distinguish AGC from instantaneous nonlinearities. A major class of such AGC-specific effects concerns the phase of aural distortion products. For example, the phase of the cancellation tone in the classical psychoacoustic cancellation paradigm is linearly related to the frequency spacing of the primary tones in an AGC, as opposed to the square-law relationship produced by an instantaneous nonlinearity. These and other predictions are confronted with experimental data from the literature. The impact of putative AGC-related delays on the interpretation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) is discussed. Detailed suggestions are made for experiments specifically aimed at determining whether cochlear nonlinearity is instantaneous or delayed. .

  12. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  13. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  14. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  15. Commissural Gain Control Enhances the Midbrain Representation of Sound Location

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Llwyd David; Papasavvas, Christoforos A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate localization of sound sources is essential for survival behavior in many species. The inferior colliculi (ICs) are the first point in the auditory pathway where cues used to locate sounds, ie, interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and pinna spectral cues, are all represented in the same location. These cues are first extracted separately on each side of the midline in brainstem nuclei that project to the ICs. Because of this segregation, each IC predominantly represents stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. We tested the hypothesis that commissural connections between the ICs mediate gain control that enhances sound localization acuity. We recorded IC neurons sensitive to either ITDs or ILDs in anesthetized guinea pig, before, during, and following recovery from deactivation of the contralateral IC by cryoloop cooling or microdialysis of procaine. During deactivation, responses were rescaled by divisive gain change and additive shifts, which reduced the dynamic range of ITD and ILD response functions and the ability of neurons to signal changes in sound location. These data suggest that each IC exerts multiplicative gain control and subtractive shifts over the other IC that enhances the neural representation of sound location. Furthermore, this gain control operates in a similar manner on both ITD- and ILD-sensitive neurons, suggesting a shared mechanism operates across localization cues. Our findings reveal a novel dependence of sound localization on commissural processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sound localization, a fundamental process in hearing, is dependent on bilateral computations in the brainstem. How this information is transmitted from the brainstem to the auditory cortex, through several stages of processing, without loss of signal fidelity, is not clear. We show that the ability of neurons in the auditory midbrain to encode azimuthal sound location is dependent on gain control mediated by the commissure of

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  19. Gain-assisted transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hao, Jiaming; Tang, Xiaohong; Zouhdi, Said

    2011-04-25

    Loss severely degrades the cloaking effect of the device designed by traditional transformation. In this letter, we propose gain-assisted transformation optics to overcome the loss problem by introducing gain media into a spherical cloak. The gain media, which can amplify the electromagnetic fields, is controlled precisely to compensate the inherent loss in experimental realization of cloaks. We discuss the significance of controlling embedded gain materials in the context of the inverse design mechanism, which allows us to wisely select realizable materials with constant gain and loss along the radius. For practical realizations, isotropic spherical gain-assisted cloak is designed. Full-wave simulations validate the proposed design concept, which can be utilized to alleviate the inevitable loss problem in transformational optical devices. PMID:21643112

  20. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains. Methods/Design SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18–35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5–10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow

  1. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  2. Physics gains attraction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    A recent report from the American Institute of Physics has indicated that high school enrolments in physics in the USA have reached their highest level since World War II. Figures for the last decade show an increase in the proportion of high school students taking physics from 20 to 28% (800Â 000 students now), according to Physics Today (October 1999, p 68). The report, Maintaining Momentum: High School Physics for a New Millennium , was based on a 1997 survey of high school physics teachers, the fourth such since the mid-1980s. One conclusion drawn by the report's authors was that a broader range of physics courses is now offered, with increased popularity of `conceptual' physics courses using little algebra or trigonometry over the last ten years. The proportion of students with the strongest maths abilities now taking advanced placement or second-year physics has doubled since 1987. In addition the physics appeal has been noted among high school girls, where the percentage taking physics has risen from 39 to 47% in the ten years to 1997. These female students do not, however, seem to extend their studies into advanced placements or even into teaching physics (women constitute just a quarter of high school teachers of the subject). Sadly the good news is outweighed by the fact that physics still registers the lowest enrolments of all the high school sciences - about half those in chemistry for example. Indeed only around 1% of high school students have taken two years of physics before they graduate, which represents a much lower proportion than in many European and Asian countries. The full report can be viewed at the AIP's statistics division's homepage: www.aip.org/statistics/trends/hstrends.htm whilst summaries of the document are available free from the AIP, Education and Employment Statistics Division, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA.

  3. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  4. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  5. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  6. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  7. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  8. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  9. Gain enhancement in a XeCl-pumped Raman amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Rifkin, J.; Bernt, M.L.; MacPherson, D.C.; Carlsten, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    A comparison of the theoretical predictions of a multimode broadband model with the experimentally measured gain enhancement in a Raman amplifier is presented. The results show that the multimode theory with fixed and totally random phases is in agreement with the data obtained from an excimer-laser-pumped Raman amplifier. Additionally, this theory indicates that the correlated gain can be larger than the gain for a monochromatic laser, as might be expected for a model with amplitude modulation.

  10. Reliability of Raw Gain, Residual Gain, and Estimated True Gain Scores: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachor, Robert E.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    The gain, or difference, score is defined as the difference between the posttest score and the pretest score for an individual. Gain scores appear to be a natural measure of growth for education and the social sciences, but they contain two sources of measurement error, error in either the pretest or posttest scores, and cannot be considered…

  11. 39 CFR 3010.62 - Supplemental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental information. 3010.62 Section 3010.62... information. The Commission may require the Postal Service to provide clarification of its request or to provide information in addition to that called for by § 3010.61 in order to gain a better understanding...

  12. User preference and reliability of bilateral hearing aid gain adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Mueller, H Gustav

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consistency and reliability of user adjustments to hearing aid gain and the resulting effects on speech understanding. Sixteen bilaterally aided individuals with hearing loss adjusted their hearing aid gain to optimize listening comfort and speech clarity while listening to speech in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Following these adjustments, participants readjusted their aids to optimize clarity and comfort while listening to speech in quiet. These final gain settings were recorded and compared to those provided by NAL-NL1 prescriptive targets. In addition, speech understanding was tested with the hearing aids set at target and user gain settings. Performance differences between the gain settings were then assessed. Study results revealed that although some listeners preferred more or less gain than prescribed, on average, user and prescribed gain settings were similar in both ears. Some individuals, however, made gain adjustments between ears resulting in "gain mismatches." These "mismatches" were often inconsistent across trials suggesting that these adjustments were unreliable. Speech testing results, however, showed no significant difference across the different gain settings suggesting that the gain deviations introduced in this study were not large enough to significantly affect speech understanding. PMID:18669129

  13. Multiparametric PET/CT-perfusion does not add significant additional information for initial staging in lung cancer compared with standard PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of CT-perfusion (CTP), 18F-FDG-PET/CT and histological parameters, and the possible added value of CTP to FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of lung cancer. Methods Fifty-four consecutive patients (median age 65 years, 15 females, 39 males) with suspected lung cancer were evaluated prospectively by CT-perfusion scan and 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan. Overall, 46 tumors were identified. CTP parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and mean transit time (MTT) of the tumor tissue were calculated. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was assessed quantitatively. Differences in CTP parameters concerning tumor type, location, PET positivity of lymph nodes, TNM status, and UICC stage were analyzed. Spearman correlation analyses between CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, PETvol, and TLG), MVD, tumor size, and tumor stage were performed. Results The mean BF (mL/100 mL min-1), BV (mL/100 mL), and MTT (s) was 35.5, 8.4, and 14.2, respectively. The BF and BV were lower in tumors with PET-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.02). However, the CTP values were not significantly different among the N stages. The CTP values were not different, depending on tumor size and location. No significant correlation was found between CTP parameters and MVD. Conclusions Overall, the CTP information showed only little additional information for the initial staging compared with standard FDG-PET/CT. Low perfusion in lung tumors might possibly be associated with metabolically active regional lymph nodes. Apart from that, both CTP and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameter sets may reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in lung cancer. PMID:24450990

  14. Gaining approval for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Vanessa; Srinivasan, Neil; Lambiase, Pier

    2016-07-01

    Set-up and delivery of a clinical research project can be complicated and difficult. This article introduces the regulatory processes involved in gaining approval for clinical research and discusses the obstacles that may be encountered. PMID:27388381

  15. Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Interactive program yields eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and gains for feedback-control systems. Interactive Modal Analysis and Gain Estimation System (IMAGES) provides eigensystem synthesis capability to control-system engineer. IMAGES modular and flexible. Capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. IMAGES user-oriented, interactive program that frees engineer to concentrate on eigensystem synthesis. Engineer provided with scratch-pad capability that speeds control-system design.

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. Postsynaptic conversion of silent synapses during LTP affects synaptic gain and transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Poncer, J C; Malinow, R

    2001-10-01

    Synaptic transmission relies on both the gain and the dynamics of synapses. Activity-dependent changes in synaptic gain are well-documented at excitatory synapses and may represent a substrate for information storage in the brain. Here we examine the mechanisms of changes in transmission dynamics at excitatory synapses. We show that paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) of AMPAR and NMDAR EPSCs onto dentate gyrus granule cells are often different; this difference is reduced during LTP, reflecting PPR changes of AMPAR but not NMDAR EPSCs. Presynaptic manipulations, however, produce parallel changes in AMPAR and NMDAR EPSCs. LTP at these synapses reflects a reduction in the proportion of silent synapses lacking functional AMPARs. Changes in PPR during LTP therefore reflect the initial difference between PPRs of silent and functional synapses. Functional conversion of silent synapses permits postsynaptic sampling from additional release sites and thereby affects the dynamics and gain of signals conveyed between neurons. PMID:11544481

  19. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  20. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa. PMID:26273683

  1. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  2. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  3. Automatic Gain Control in Compact Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Protopopov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    An image intensifier installed in the optical path of a compact spectrometer may act not only as a fast gating unit, which is widely used for time-resolved measurements, but also as a variable attenuator-amplifier in a continuous wave mode. This opens the possibility of an automatic gain control, a new feature in spectroscopy. With it, the user is relieved from the necessity to manually adjust signal level at a certain value that it is done automatically by means of an electronic feedback loop. It is even more important that automatic gain control is done without changing exposure time, which is an additional benefit in time-resolved experiments. The concept, algorithm, design considerations, and experimental results are presented. PMID:26810181

  4. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  5. High current gain transistor laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  6. High current gain transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  7. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  8. Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

  9. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  10. Age differences in hypermnesia: word gain versus word loss.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Fox, P W; McGue, M

    1995-01-01

    A hypermnesic task was administered to 82 younger adults (ages 27-39), 63 middle-aged adults (ages 40-59), and 119 older adults (ages 60-87). Previous research suggests that relational encoding prevents loss of items and item-specific encoding promotes item gains in a hypermnesic task (Klein et al., 1989) and that there are age differences in relational but not item-specific encoding (Luszcz et al., 1990). This information provided the basis for three predictions: (a) There are age differences in hypermnesia, (b) there are age differences in word losses in a hypermnesic task, and (c) there are no age differences in word gains in a hypermnesic task. In order to manipulate type of encoding, a list of words with high association strength (to evoke relational encoding) and words with low association strength (to evoke item-specific encoding) was constructed. The results of this investigation provide support for the encoding manipulation and for all three predictions. In addition, the nature of the age differences in word loss observed suggests that although older adults may be capable of relational encoding, this form of encoding is not as effective at preventing word loss for them as it is for younger adults. PMID:7744169

  11. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  12. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  13. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  14. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  15. Transient gain-absorption of the probe field in triple quantum dots coupled by double tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hao; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Li-Jie; Tong, Cun-Zhu

    2016-06-01

    The transient gain-absorption property of the probe field in a linear triple quantum dots coupled by double tunneling is investigated. It is found that the additional tunneling can dramatically affect the transient behaviors under the transparency condition. The dependence of transient behaviors on other parameters, such as probe detuning, the pure dephasing decay rate of the quantum dots and the initial conditions of the population, are also discussed. The results can be explained by the properties of the dressed states generated by the additional tunneling. The scheme may have important application in quantum information network and communication.

  16. Diverse women's beliefs about weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Kearney, Margaret H

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to describe ethnically diverse new mothers' perceptions of gestational weight gain. Forty-nine low-income women of diverse racial and ethnic origins who birthed an infant within the past year completed a semistructured interview in a pediatric clinic waiting room. The interviews were designed to elicit views on gestational weight gain, including expectations and perceived consequences. Data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Women believed that others like themselves were concerned about pregnancy weight gain. Many focused on the effects of insufficient pregnancy weight gain on the infant but were not aware of the infant risks of excessive gain. Several had inaccurate knowledge of appropriate gestational weight gain, and many suggested an amount below the current recommendations. One-third of the women believed women will weigh more following pregnancy, yet others assumed that even with excessive weight gain there would be a return to prepregnant weight following pregnancy. Pregnancy-related weight gain is disturbing to women. Health care providers have the opportunity to intervene by acknowledging these concerns and providing information and support to help women make positive choices and achieve appropriate weight gain. PMID:19879517

  17. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance. PMID:7567003

  18. [A list of social support gaining tactics].

    PubMed

    Jou, Y H

    2000-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to compile a list of social support gaining tactics. Support of three types (tangible, mental, and informational) from four sources (parents, professors, close friends/boy girl-friends/siblings, and friends) was considered. In Study 1, 25 Taiwanese college students were interviewed, and 151 students filled out an open-ended questionnaire. They were asked, for each type and source, to list the kinds of tactics they had used or they would use when they needed social support, and 33 items were collected. In Study 2, factor analysis found seven factors for them: passionate appeal, entreaty, roundabout appeal, other exploitation, reward, reason appeal, and threat. PMID:11081235

  19. Releasing resources for reinvestment in health gain.

    PubMed

    Riley, C D; Warner, M M; Simpson, D; Felvus, J

    1992-01-01

    The National Health Services in Wales has adopted a strategic approach based on health gain. Five approaches to meeting this problem are considered (i) eliminating basic inefficiencies; (ii) eliminating unnecessary clinical activity; (iii) doing what is done now but differently; (iv) investing now to save later and (v) withdrawing from a particular area of activity, because it is less important than other competing claims. Each of these is briefly considered with particular reference to the Welsh situation. Three particular lines of advance are identified to achieve the above: creating new sources of information; working more effectively across organisational boundaries; and making the cultural changes to make it all possible. PMID:10166349

  20. 36 CFR 1281.12 - What information must be provided to NARA for its report to Congress on a change or addition to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must submit a report to Congress on a proposed physical or material change or addition to an existing... advance of the anticipated date that work will begin on the physical or material change or addition to the... standards. (2) A statement of the estimated total cost of the proposed physical or material change...

  1. Divergence and Convergence of Risky Decision Making Across Prospective Gains and Losses: Preferences and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies—the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping. PMID:26733779

  2. Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Mark A.; Turner, Amy C.; Sharping, Jay E.; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2006-06-01

    Developing an optical amplifier on silicon is essential for the success of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic integrated circuits. Recently, optical gain with a 1-nm bandwidth was demonstrated using the Raman effect, which led to the demonstration of a Raman oscillator, lossless optical modulation and optically tunable slow light. A key strength of optical communications is the parallelism of information transfer and processing onto multiple wavelength channels. However, the relatively narrow Raman gain bandwidth only allows for amplification or generation of a single wavelength channel. If broad gain bandwidths were to be demonstrated on silicon, then an array of wavelength channels could be generated and processed, representing a critical advance for densely integrated photonic circuits. Here we demonstrate net on/off gain over a wavelength range of 28nm through the optical process of phase-matched four-wave mixing in suitably designed SOI channel waveguides. We also demonstrate wavelength conversion in the range 1,511-1,591nm with peak conversion efficiencies of +5.2dB, which represents more than 20 times improvement on previous four-wave-mixing efficiencies in SOI waveguides. These advances allow for the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexing in an all-silicon photonic integrated circuit. Additionally, all-optical delays, all-optical switches, optical signal regenerators and optical sources for quantum information technology, all demonstrated using four-wave mixing in silica fibres, can now be transferred to the SOI platform.

  3. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  4. Gain functionalization of silica microresonators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Vahala, K J

    2003-04-15

    Erbium-doped solgel films are applied to the surface of silica microspheres to create low-threshold microactivity lasers. This gain functionalization can be applied by use of a number of different dopants, thereby extending the wavelength range of this class of device. Also, by varying the doping concentration and thickness of the applied solgel layer, one can vary the laser dynamics so that both continuous-wave and pulsating modes of operation are possible. PMID:12703910

  5. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  6. Optimal Gain Filter Design for Perceptual Acoustic Echo Suppressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyeon; Ko, Hanseok

    This Letter proposes an optimal gain filter for the perceptual acoustic echo suppressor. We designed an optimally-modified log-spectral amplitude estimation algorithm for the gain filter in order to achieve robust suppression of echo and noise. A new parameter including information about interferences (echo and noise) of single-talk duration is statistically analyzed, and then the speech absence probability and the a posteriori SNR are judiciously estimated to determine the optimal solution. The experiments show that the proposed gain filter attains a significantly improved reduction of echo and noise with less speech distortion.

  7. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  8. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

  9. Local attitudes, moral obligation, customary obedience and other cultural practices: their influence on the process of gaining informed consent for surgery in a tertiary institution in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Irabor, David O; Omonzejele, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The process of obtaining informed consent in a teaching hospital in a developing country (e.g. Nigeria) is shaped by factors which, to the Western world, may be seen to be anti-autonomous: autonomy being one of the pillars of an ideal informed consent. However, the mix of cultural bioethics and local moral obligation in the face of communal tradition ensures a mutually acceptable informed consent process. Paternalism is indeed encouraged by the patients who prefer to see the doctor as all-powerful and all-knowing, and this is buttressed by the cultural practice of customary obedience to those 'above you': either in age or social rank. The local moral obligation reassures the patients that those in authority will always look after others placed in their care without recourse to lengthy discussions or signed documentation, while the communal traditions ensure that the designated head of a family unit has the honor and sole responsibility of assenting and consenting to an operation to be carried out on a younger, or female, member of the family. Indeed it is to only a few educated patients that the informed consent process is deemed a shield against litigation by the doctors. This paper later addresses the need for physicians to update their knowledge on the process of informed consent through the attendance of biomedical ethics courses, which should highlight socio-cultural practices that may make this process different from the Western concept, but perfectly acceptable in this setting. PMID:19302568

  10. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  11. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  12. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    PubMed

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-01

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers. PMID:17537359

  13. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  14. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  15. Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes123

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Himes, Katherine P; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term, for all obese women. Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity. Design: We studied a cohort of singleton, live-born infants without congenital anomalies born to obesity class 1 (prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)]: 30–34.9; n = 3254), class 2 (BMI: 35–39.9; n = 1451), and class 3 (BMI: ≥40; n = 845) mothers. We defined the adequacy of gestational weight gain as the ratio of observed weight gain to IOM-recommended gestational weight gain. Results: The prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain declined, and weight loss increased, as obesity became more severe. Generally, weight loss was associated with an elevated risk of SGA, iPTB, and sPTB, and a high weight gain tended to increase the risk of LGA and iPTB. Weight gains associated with probabilities of SGA and LGA of ≤10% and a minimal risk of iPTB and sPTB were as follows: 9.1–13.5 kg (obesity class 1), 5.0–9 kg (obesity class 2), 2.2 to <5.0 kg (obesity class 3 white women), and <2.2 kg (obesity class 3 black women). Conclusion: These data suggest that the range of gestational weight gain to balance risks of SGA, LGA, sPTB, and iPTB may vary by severity of obesity. PMID:20357043

  16. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey) and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and information on their

  17. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  18. Depo-provera associated with weight gain in Navajo women.

    PubMed

    Espey, E; Steinhart, J; Ogburn, T; Qualls, C

    2000-08-01

    Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an increasingly popular contraceptive choice among Navajo women. Weight gain is cited as a common side effect and major reason for discontinuation of DMPA. No controlled trials have evaluated the association between weight gain and DMPA in Navajo women. We aimed to clarify whether DMPA is associated with weight gain in Navajo women and to quantify the magnitude of weight gain. A cohort of 172 Navajo women who had used DMPA continuously for one or 2 years comprised the study group. A cohort of 134 Navajo women who used a non-progestin method or no method over 1 or 2 years comprised the comparison group. Initial weight, one-year weight and 2-year weights were recorded for all patients. Study subjects gained a mean of 6 pounds over one year and 11 pounds over 2 years relative to the comparison group (p < 0.001) after controlling for possible confounding variables including age, parity and initial weight. Use of DMPA is associated with significant weight gain in Navajo women. This weight gain is greater than that reported in previous uncontrolled studies in non-Navajo populations. This information should be utilized in counseling Navajo women about the side effects of DMPA. PMID:11102587

  19. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  20. Temporal Gain Correction for X-ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. S.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Sawada, M.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.

    2016-07-01

    Calorimetric X-ray detectors are very sensitive to their environment. The boundary conditions can have a profound effect on the gain including heat sink temperature, the local radiation temperature, bias, and the temperature of the readout electronics. Any variation in the boundary conditions can cause temporal variations in the gain of the detector and compromise both the energy scale and the resolving power of the spectrometer. Most production X-ray calorimeter spectrometers, both on the ground and in space, have some means of tracking the gain as a function of time, often using a calibration spectral line. For small gain changes, a linear stretch correction is often sufficient. However, the detectors are intrinsically non-linear and often the event analysis, i.e., shaping, optimal filters etc., add additional non-linearity. Thus for large gain variations or when the best possible precision is required, a linear stretch correction is not sufficient. Here, we discuss a new correction technique based on non-linear interpolation of the energy-scale functions. Using Astro-H/SXS calibration data, we demonstrate that the correction can recover the X-ray energy to better than 1 part in 104 over the entire spectral band to above 12 keV even for large-scale gain variations. This method will be used to correct any temporal drift of the on-orbit per-pixel gain using on-board calibration sources for the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory.

  1. Temporal Gain Correction for X-ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. S.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Fujimoto, R.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Sawada, M.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorimetric X-ray detectors are very sensitive to their environment. The boundary conditions can have a profound effect on the gain including heat sink temperature, the local radiation temperature, bias, and the temperature of the readout electronics. Any variation in the boundary conditions can cause temporal variations in the gain of the detector and compromise both the energy scale and the resolving power of the spectrometer. Most production X-ray calorimeter spectrometers, both on the ground and in space, have some means of tracking the gain as a function of time, often using a calibration spectral line. For small gain changes, a linear stretch correction is often sufficient. However, the detectors are intrinsically non-linear and often the event analysis, i.e., shaping, optimal filters etc., add additional non-linearity. Thus for large gain variations or when the best possible precision is required, a linear stretch correction is not sufficient. Here, we discuss a new correction technique based on non-linear interpolation of the energy-scale functions. Using Astro-H/SXS calibration data, we demonstrate that the correction can recover the X-ray energy to better than 1 part in 104 over the entire spectral band to above 12 keV even for large-scale gain variations. This method will be used to correct any temporal drift of the on-orbit per-pixel gain using on-board calibration sources for the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  3. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  4. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  5. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Grandner, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD = 0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N = 54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p < 0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship. PMID:23688114

  6. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen

    PubMed Central

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Grandner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD=0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N=54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p<0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship. PMID:23688114

  7. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed. PMID:25348826

  8. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  9. Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted

  10. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  11. Courseware Design by College Students: The Educational Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Or-Bach, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Describes the experience gained during several years of teaching courses on CBT (computer-based training) design to undergraduate students with varying backgrounds and interests. Discusses the theoretical background for the potential benefits; preparation for lifelong learning; information technology literacy and teaching multimedia development; a…

  12. Automating the evaluation of flood damages: methodology and potential gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleutério, Julian; Martinez, Edgar Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The evaluation of flood damage potential consists of three main steps: assessing and processing data, combining data and calculating potential damages. The first step consists of modelling hazard and assessing vulnerability. In general, this step of the evaluation demands more time and investments than the others. The second step of the evaluation consists of combining spatial data on hazard with spatial data on vulnerability. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a fundamental tool in the realization of this step. GIS software allows the simultaneous analysis of spatial and matrix data. The third step of the evaluation consists of calculating potential damages by means of damage-functions or contingent analysis. All steps demand time and expertise. However, the last two steps must be realized several times when comparing different management scenarios. In addition, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity test are made during the second and third steps of the evaluation. The feasibility of these steps could be relevant in the choice of the extent of the evaluation. Low feasibility could lead to choosing not to evaluate uncertainty or to limit the number of scenario comparisons. Several computer models have been developed over time in order to evaluate the flood risk. GIS software is largely used to realise flood risk analysis. The software is used to combine and process different types of data, and to visualise the risk and the evaluation results. The main advantages of using a GIS in these analyses are: the possibility of "easily" realising the analyses several times, in order to compare different scenarios and study uncertainty; the generation of datasets which could be used any time in future to support territorial decision making; the possibility of adding information over time to update the dataset and make other analyses. However, these analyses require personnel specialisation and time. The use of GIS software to evaluate the flood risk requires personnel with

  13. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  15. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort.

    PubMed

    Mariel, Petr; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. PMID:27310534

  16. Exploring Sudden Gains in Behavioral Activation Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the onset and course of sudden gains in treatment provides clinical information to the patient and clinician, and encourages clinicians to strive for these sudden clinical gains with their patients. This study characterizes the occurrence of sudden gains with Behavioral Activation (BA; Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001), and the extent to which pre-treatment dysfunctional depressive thinking predicts sudden gains during treatment. We enrolled a sample of adults (n = 42) between ages 18–65 diagnosed with primary Major Depressive Disorder. All participants completed a 16-week course of BA, with clinical and self-report assessments at pre-, mid- and post-treatment. Results indicated that sudden gain and non-sudden gain participants showed differential improvement across treatment. No significant effects emerged for the dysfunctional cognitive style as a predictor of sudden gain status. Sudden gains may result from interaction of non-specific factors with the BA techniques implemented during early phases of therapy. PMID:22336434

  17. PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain. PMID:20133152

  18. Gain-Compensating Circuit For NDE and Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushnick, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    High-frequency gain-compensating circuit designed for general use in nondestructive evaluation and ultrasonic measurements. Controls gain of ultrasonic receiver as function of time to aid in measuring attenuation of samples with high losses; for example, human skin and graphite/epoxy composites. Features high signal-to-noise ratio, large signal bandwidth and large dynamic range. Control bandwidth of 5 MHz ensures accuracy of control signal. Currently being used for retrieval of more information from ultrasonic signals sent through composite materials that have high losses, and to measure skin-burn depth in humans.

  19. Economics of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Mitsunori

    2000-06-01

    The economics of information covers a wide range of topics such as insurance, stochastic equilibria, the theory of finance (e.g. option pricing), job search, etc. In this paper, we focus on an economic model in which traders are uncertain about the true characteristics of commodities and know only the probability distributions of those characteristics. The traders acquire information on those characteristics via the actual consumption in the past and are allowed to exchange the information among themselves prior to the forthcoming trade. Though optimal consumption at the preceding trade generally alters optimal consumption at the succeeding trade, it may happen that they both coincide. We call this particular type of optimal consumption an information stable equilibrium (ISE). At an ISE, the traders gain no additional information from consumption, which is significant enough to revise their optimal choice at the succeeding trade. .

  20. Information and Pollution Permit Markets: Another View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, Smith and Yates (2003) argued that regulators could gain additional information about the optimal number of permits to issue from two-sided markets. The author argues that they are incorrect in their assertion because the market they refer to is an asymmetric two-sided market in which individuals are only allowed to decrease…

  1. US gas reserves show gain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports that the Energy Information Administration reports 1990 U.S. natural gas reserves increased for the first time since 1981. Reserves inched up 1.3% to 169.346 tcf, largely because of coalbed methane development. Gas reserves in Alaska and the Lower 48 not only increased, but the latter are higher than they were in 1985. Gas discoveries increased 23.3% and totaled 12.368 tcf in 1990. Major finds were drilled in New Mexico, in Alabama state water, and off Louisiana. Crude oil reserves dropped less than 1% to 26.254 billion bbl, close to the average decline of 1.2%/year for the past decade. Crude oil discoveries were 20% less than the annual average for the past decade.

  2. 24 CFR 1710.116 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to exercise, any control over the Association because of voting rights or placement of... buyers; the developer's right of first refusal; membership requirements)? If so, briefly explain the...) Must an alien obtain a permit or license to own land, build a home, live, work or do business in...

  3. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  4. Random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ting; Lü, Jiantao

    2016-07-01

    Spatial and spectral properties of random lasing with spatially nonuniform gain were investigated in two-dimensional (2D) disordered medium. The pumping light was described by an individual electric field and coupled into the rate equations by using the polarization equation. The spatially nonuniform gain comes from the multiple scattering of this pumping light. Numerical simulation of the random system with uniform and nonuniform gain were performed both in weak and strong scattering regime. In weak scattering sample, all the lasing modes correspond to those of the passive system whether the nonuniform gain is considered. However, in strong scattering regime, new lasing modes appear with nonuniform gain as the localization area changes. Our results show that it is more accurate to describe the random lasing behavior with introducing the nonuniform gain origins from the multiple light scattering.

  5. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  6. Pharmacodynamics of drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S. K.; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2001-08-01

    Body weight gain during treatment with drugs for any kind of disease may represent improvement of the disease itself. However, sometimes these drug-induced alterations of the body's appetite-regulating mechanisms result in excessive weight gain, thus jeopardizing compliance with prescribed medication. A number of drugs are capable of changing body weight as an adverse consequence of their therapeutic effect. Included in this category are the psychotropic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Antipsychotics are well-known culprits of weight gain. The low-potency (e.g., chlorpromazine and thioridazine) and atypical agents (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) are most often associated with weight gain. Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are most often associated with significant weight gain. The tertiary tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is thought to induce the most weight gain. Mood stabilizers such as lithium carbonate, valproic acid and carbamazepine also induce weight gain in a considerable number of patients. Treatment with corticosteroids is associated with dose-dependent body weight gain in many patients and corticosteroid-induced obesity aggravates other corticosteroid-associated health risks. Insulin therapy in diabetic patients usually increases body weight. Finally, sulfonylurea derivatives, antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of breast cancer and several drugs used in migraine prophylaxis may cause body weight gain as well. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12743638

  7. Very high gain Nd:YLF amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, M.G.; Thomas, M.D.; Chicklis, E.P.; Rines, G.A.; Seka, W.

    1988-05-01

    The authors report on high gain Nd:YLF rod amplifiers in which single-pass, small signal gains of over 1700 have been obtained along with stored energy densitiesgreater than or equal to0.4J/cm/sup 3/. The ability of Nd:YLF amplifiers to support such gains is a result of high parasitic oscillation thresholds, due primarily to the low refractive index of the material. These results suggest that Nd:YLF is an excellent candidate for amplifiers where high specific stored energies and/or very high gains are required.

  8. WFC3 SMOV Proposal 11419: UVIS Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, S.; Borders, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the gain results obtained from the SMOV UVIS Detector Functional program, proposal #11419. Based on internal calibration flatfields, the gain at the nominal 1.5 setting was measured at 1.61, 1.61, 1.63, and 1.62 e-/DN, with errors <0.01 e- /DN, for quadrants A, B, C, and D, respectively. These values are ~3% higher than those measured in ground test images and to date have been stable on-orbit: a preliminary mea- surement of the recent Cycle 17 gain data (proposal 11906, PI Pavlovsky) yielded gains within 1% or better of the SMOV values. The off-nominal gain settings are restricted parameters and unavailable for general use, however, the SMOV proposal obtained data to check these settings on-orbit relative to the nominal 1.5 setting. The values for the off-nominal gains were measured at 1.04, 1.02, 1.04, 1.04 e-/DN and at 2.17, 2.12, 2.17, 2.16 e-/DN for the gain 1.0 and gain 2.0 settings. The exposure times for the gain 4.0 images were erroneously set too low to allow a determination of that setting; the observations were not repeated.

  9. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  10. High gain proportional rf control stability at TESLA cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Fast proportional rf control is used as the basis for rf field regulation in actual linear accelerator projects like the international linear collider (ILC) and the European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) based on TESLA technology. Additional control loops improve the field regulation by treating repetitive effects and compensating the beam loading. Nevertheless, the ability for high gain operation of the fast loops is desirable for the strong suppression of nonpredictive and nonrepetitive disturbances. TESLA cavities host nine fundamental modes (FMs) where only one is used for beam acceleration. The unwanted FMs have a significant influence on the proportional rf control loop stability at high gains. Within this paper, the stability of proportional rf control loops taking the FMs and digitalization effects into account will be discussed in detail together with measures enabling a significant increase of the gain values.

  11. Exploring Potential Health Disparities in Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bursac, Zoran; McGehee, Mary A.; West, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Although previous public health efforts have focused on redressing health disparities associated with insufficient gestational weight gain, examination of the impact of excessive gestational weight gain is warranted currently given the 2009 revision of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines for obese women coupled with rising rates of obesity, particularly among African American women. Materials and Methods In the years 2004–2008, 4619 African American and Caucasian women gave birth to a single, live, and full-term infant, completed Arkansas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System questions about gestational weight gain and prepregnancy weight status, and gained within or in excess of the guidelines. Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and health variables associated with the odds of exceeding the 2009 IOM guidelines overall and by race. Results Regardless of race, overweight (odds ratio [OR]=3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.64–3.91) and obese (OR=4.37; 95% CI: 3.50–5.46) women had significantly higher odds of gaining excessively, as compared with normal weight women. In the multivariate model, women who were overweight or obese prepregnancy and who were married had higher odds of exceeding the IOM guidelines, while lower odds of exceeding the guidelines were seen among African American women, those who had Medicaid at any point in their pregnancy, who were multiparous, and those of Hispanic ethnicity. Discussion These findings can inform efforts to promote appropriate gestational weight gain among those at highest risk (i.e., overweight/obese women) and facilitate targeting to produce greatest improvement in the health of mothers and children. PMID:23751164

  12. Proprioceptive feedback determines visuomotor gain in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bartussek, Jan; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a prerequisite for effective locomotor control in most animals. Especially, the impressive aerial performance of insects relies on rapid and precise integration of multiple sensory modalities that provide feedback on different time scales. In flies, continuous visual signalling from the compound eyes is fused with phasic proprioceptive feedback to ensure precise neural activation of wing steering muscles (WSM) within narrow temporal phase bands of the stroke cycle. This phase-locked activation relies on mechanoreceptors distributed over wings and gyroscopic halteres. Here we investigate visual steering performance of tethered flying fruit flies with reduced haltere and wing feedback signalling. Using a flight simulator, we evaluated visual object fixation behaviour, optomotor altitude control and saccadic escape reflexes. The behavioural assays show an antagonistic effect of wing and haltere signalling on visuomotor gain during flight. Compared with controls, suppression of haltere feedback attenuates while suppression of wing feedback enhances the animal's wing steering range. Our results suggest that the generation of motor commands owing to visual perception is dynamically controlled by proprioception. We outline a potential physiological mechanism based on the biomechanical properties of WSM and sensory integration processes at the level of motoneurons. Collectively, the findings contribute to our general understanding how moving animals integrate sensory information with dynamically changing temporal structure. PMID:26909184

  13. Proprioceptive feedback determines visuomotor gain in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bartussek, Jan; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a prerequisite for effective locomotor control in most animals. Especially, the impressive aerial performance of insects relies on rapid and precise integration of multiple sensory modalities that provide feedback on different time scales. In flies, continuous visual signalling from the compound eyes is fused with phasic proprioceptive feedback to ensure precise neural activation of wing steering muscles (WSM) within narrow temporal phase bands of the stroke cycle. This phase-locked activation relies on mechanoreceptors distributed over wings and gyroscopic halteres. Here we investigate visual steering performance of tethered flying fruit flies with reduced haltere and wing feedback signalling. Using a flight simulator, we evaluated visual object fixation behaviour, optomotor altitude control and saccadic escape reflexes. The behavioural assays show an antagonistic effect of wing and haltere signalling on visuomotor gain during flight. Compared with controls, suppression of haltere feedback attenuates while suppression of wing feedback enhances the animal’s wing steering range. Our results suggest that the generation of motor commands owing to visual perception is dynamically controlled by proprioception. We outline a potential physiological mechanism based on the biomechanical properties of WSM and sensory integration processes at the level of motoneurons. Collectively, the findings contribute to our general understanding how moving animals integrate sensory information with dynamically changing temporal structure. PMID:26909184

  14. Coding gains and error rates from the Big Viterbi Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onyszchuk, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype hardware Big Viterbi Decoder (BVD) was completed for an experiment with the Galileo Spacecraft. Searches for new convolutional codes, studies of Viterbi decoder hardware designs and architectures, mathematical formulations, and decompositions of the deBruijn graph into identical and hierarchical subgraphs, and very large scale integration (VLSI) chip design are just a few examples of tasks completed for this project. The BVD bit error rates (BER), measured from hardware and software simulations, are plotted as a function of bit signal to noise ratio E sub b/N sub 0 on the additive white Gaussian noise channel. Using the constraint length 15, rate 1/4, experimental convolutional code for the Galileo mission, the BVD gains 1.5 dB over the NASA standard (7,1/2) Maximum Likelihood Convolution Decoder (MCD) at a BER of 0.005. At this BER, the same gain results when the (255,233) NASA standard Reed-Solomon decoder is used, which yields a word error rate of 2.1 x 10(exp -8) and a BER of 1.4 x 10(exp -9). The (15, 1/6) code to be used by the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF)/Cassini Missions yields 1.7 dB of coding gain. These gains are measured with respect to symbols input to the BVD and increase with decreasing BER. Also, 8-bit input symbol quantization makes the BVD resistant to demodulated signal-level variations which may cause higher bandwidth than the NASA (7,1/2) code, these gains are offset by about 0.1 dB of expected additional receiver losses. Coding gains of several decibels are possible by compressing all spacecraft data.

  15. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar Cruz, Karen Alicia; Medel Juárez, José de Jesús; Fernández Muñoz, José Luis; Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez, Midory

    2016-01-01

    A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system. PMID:27366146

  16. Weight Gain and Its Correlates Among Forensic Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Lang, Carol; Harris, Grant T

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), and other indices of the metabolic syndrome in forensic inpatients. Weight gain associated with newer antipsychotics (APs) is well established in the general psychiatric population. Methods: We examined the medical records of 291 men admitted to a forensic hospital at admission and again at discharge or 365 days later if still in hospital. We also recorded diagnosis and smoker status on admission and quantified psychotropic treatment and adherence, physical activity, and daytime occupation during the hospitalization. Results: On admission, 33% were obese and 22% of the 106 patients for whom sufficient data were available met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Among patients staying at least 30 days, 60% were weighed again before discharge but repeated blood pressure and waist circumference measures were uncommon, even among those at greatest risk. The 122 forensic inpatients with sufficient information gained an average of 12% of their body weight and 40% increased by at least 1 BMI category, gaining an average of 3.67 kg per month. Weight gain was associated with duration of time and was not attributable to being underweight on admission, diagnosis of schizophrenia, atypical AP treatment, medication adherence, or having been a smoker. Conclusions: Patients gained weight during forensic hospitalization independent of medication use. We recommend further research using consistent measurement and wider sampling of both metabolic syndrome indicators and its individual and systemic causes in forensic populations. PMID:26174527

  17. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model.

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cruz, Karen Alicia; Medel Juárez, José de Jesús; Fernández Muñoz, José Luis; Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez, Midory

    2016-01-01

    A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system. PMID:27366146

  18. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  19. The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Huang, Chang-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), a measure of visual sensitivity to a wide range of spatial frequencies, has been widely used as the gain profile of the front-end filter of the visual system to predict how we perceive spatial patterns. However, the CSF itself is determined by the gain profile and other processing inefficiencies of the visual system; it may be problematic to use the CSF as the gain profile in observer models. Here, we applied the external noise paradigm and the perceptual template model (PTM) to characterize several major properties of the visual system. With the external noise normalized gain profile, nonlinearity, and internal additive and multiplicative noises, the PTM accounted for 92.8% of the variance in the experiment data measured in a wide range of conditions and revealed the major processing components that determine the CSF. Unlike the CSF, the external noise normalized gain profile of the visual system is relatively flat across a wide range of spatial frequencies. The results may have major implications for understanding normal and abnormal spatial vision. PMID:25391301

  20. The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fang; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Huang, Chang-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), a measure of visual sensitivity to a wide range of spatial frequencies, has been widely used as the gain profile of the front-end filter of the visual system to predict how we perceive spatial patterns. However, the CSF itself is determined by the gain profile and other processing inefficiencies of the visual system; it may be problematic to use the CSF as the gain profile in observer models. Here, we applied the external noise paradigm and the perceptual template model (PTM) to characterize several major properties of the visual system. With the external noise normalized gain profile, nonlinearity, and internal additive and multiplicative noises, the PTM accounted for 92.8% of the variance in the experiment data measured in a wide range of conditions and revealed the major processing components that determine the CSF. Unlike the CSF, the external noise normalized gain profile of the visual system is relatively flat across a wide range of spatial frequencies. The results may have major implications for understanding normal and abnormal spatial vision. PMID:25391301

  1. 75 FR 63763 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Proposed Rulemaking on Program Integrity: Gainful Employment, published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2010 (75 FR 43616). DATES: The public meeting sessions will be held on the dates and at the locations... CFR Part 668 RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of...

  2. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  3. Decision-directed automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Logic circuitry determines whether gain fluctuation are result of signal-strength changes or of atypical strings of like data symbols. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) system provides tight control that is independent of short-term, average, received signal energy and has negligible degrading effect on probability of error for signal.

  4. Complying with physician gain-sharing restrictions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1998-05-01

    Many IDSs are considering implementing gain-sharing programs as a way to motivate their physicians to provide high-quality, cost-effective services. Before embarking on such programs, however, IDSs need to understand the legal requirements associated with such programs to ensure that the gain-sharing arrangement is in compliance with Federal law. PMID:10179436

  5. Preferred hearing aid gain in everyday environments.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M; Alexander, G C

    1991-04-01

    Thirty-three hearing-impaired individuals were each fitted with three hearing aids. The instruments conformed to three frequency-gain prescriptions, differing by a total of 8 dB/octave, with the middle prescription derived using the MSU version 3.0 procedure. The subjects were divided into three matched groups of eleven. Each group used the fitted hearing aids in one of three everyday listening environments representing quiet, reverberant, and noisy situations, respectively. In each listening environment, preferred hearing aid gain for conversationally produced speech was measured in each hearing aid condition for each subject. Preferred gain in daily listening situations was compared to prescribed gain. Results indicated that: (1) preferred gain averaged across all three environments was about equal to prescribed gain, (2) mean preferred gain in each separate environment was substantially different from the prescribed level, (3) volume control adjustments of about +/- 8 dB relative to the prescribed level would be necessary to accommodate the preferred gain settings of the typical hearing aid wearer in daily life. Guidelines are presented for establishing recommended volume control settings for hearing aid users who may be unable to set the volume control independently. PMID:2065837

  6. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  7. Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutomi, Yu

    Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient

  8. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  9. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  10. Gain recovery dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers with distributed feedback grating under assist light injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Cui; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Huilong; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The gain recovery dynamic characteristics of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with distributed feedback (DFB) grating are theoretically investigated. The interaction of the grating structure and the assist light is used to accelerate the gain recovery process in the SOA. The effects of the assist light that is injected into the SOA with DFB structure on the gain recovery dynamics, the steady-state carrier density, and field intensity distributions are analyzed, respectively. Results show that the recovery time in the DFB SOA is successfully reduced by injecting relatively high power assist light, whose wavelength is set at the gain region. Finally, under assist light injection, the effects of DFB grating on the gain recovery process are also discussed. It is shown that the gain recovery in the SOA with DFB grating is faster than that in the SOA without DFB grating. In addition, the coupling factor in the DFB grating structure can be optimized to shorten the gain recovery time.

  11. Comparative performance of various smart aggregates during strength gain and damage states of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothi Saravanan, T.; Balamonica, K.; Bharathi Priya, C.; Likhith Reddy, A.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-01

    Information regarding the early strength gain of fresh concrete determines the time for the removal of form work and the transfer of pre-stressing forces for pre-stressed concrete. An ultrasonic based non-destructive evaluation of early strength gain may not work for concrete in fluid and semi-solid phases. A possible alternative is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate embedded in concrete, which can evaluate the micro-structural and rheological properties right from the fluid phase. A set of five smart aggregates embedded in a concrete cube were investigated for their suitability to evaluate electromechanical impedance (EMI) signatures. Cubes were loaded to failure and the EMI during progressive strength loss under compressive loads was studied. To show the generalized applicability of this, experimental results for the performance of typical smart aggregates on a larger specimen, namely a concrete beam, are also discussed. Different statistical metrics were examined computationally on a three peak admittance curve with a parametric variation of stiffness, damping and simple scaling. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD), cross correlation (CC) and modified cross correlation (MCC) were investigated, in addition to the rate of change of the RMSD. Variations between the reference and modified states were studied. Both stiffness and mass gains occur for the smart aggregates, resulting in an increase or decrease of frequency and amplitude peaks due to progressive C-S-H gel formation. The trend of increasing stiffness and the consequent rightward shift of the resonant peaks and decrease of damping, with the consequent upward shift of amplitudes that happens during curing and strength gain, was observed to be reversed during the application of damaging loads.

  12. Total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from office and laboratory equipment in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hosni, M.H.; Jones, B.W.; Sipes, J.M.; Xu, Y.

    1998-10-01

    An accurate determination of the cooling load is important in the proper sizing of air-conditioning equipment. Improvements on the thermal insulation characteristics of building materials and recent advances in building envelope systems have reduced the building cooling load from external sources. However, the number of internal cooling load sources have increased due to the addition of various office and laboratory equipment (e.g., microcomputer, monitor, printer copier, scanner, overhead projector, microwave oven, incubator, etc.). In this article, typical office and laboratory equipment such as desktop computers (with a Pentium and a 486DX2-33 processor), monitors, a copier, a laser printer, and a biological incubator are evaluated to determine the total heat gain and the split between radiant and convective heat gain from these items. In addition, two standard objects with well-defined radiant heat loss characteristics, a heated flat slab, and a heated sphere are used to verify the accuracy of measurement and data reduction procedures. The total heat gain from tested office equipment was significantly less than the name plate ratings even when operated continuously. The actual power consumption ranged from 14% to 36% of the name plate ratings. Thus, care must be taken when using equipment nameplate ratings in estimating total heat gain for air-conditioning equipment sizing.

  13. Controlling gain one photon at a time

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

  14. High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Simakov, Nikita; Li, Zhihong; Jung, Yongmin; Daniel, Jae M O; Barua, Pranabesh; Shardlow, Peter C; Liang, Sijing; Sahu, Jayanta K; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

    2016-06-27

    We investigate the operation of holmium-doped fibre amplifiers (HDFAs) in the 2.1 µm spectral region. For the first time we demonstrate a diode-pumped HDFA. This amplifier provides a peak gain of 25 dB at 2040 nm with a 15 dB gain window spanning the wavelength range 2030 - 2100 nm with an external noise figure (NF) of 4-6 dB. We also compare the operation of HDFAs when pumped at 1950 nm and 2008 nm. The 1950 nm pumped HDFA provides 41 dB peak gain at 2060 nm with 15 dB of gain spanning the wavelength range 2050 - 2120 nm and an external NF of 7-10 dB. By pumping at the longer wavelength of 2008 nm the gain bandwidth of the amplifier is shifted to longer wavelengths and using this architecture a HDFA was demonstrated with a peak gain of 39 dB at 2090 nm and 15 dB of gain spanning the wavelength range 2050 - 2150 nm. The external NF over this wavelength range was 8-14 dB. PMID:27410557

  15. Gain-enhanced optical cooling in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Faez, Sanli; Marquardt, Florian; Tureci, Hakan

    2013-03-01

    We study the optical cooling of the mechanical motion of the resonator mirror in a cavity-optomechanical system that contains an optical gain medium. We find that the optical damping caused by radiation pressure force is vanishingly small if the active medium is pumped incoherently above its lasing threshold. In addition, we find that the spontaneous emission of the active medium always tends to increase the final effective temperature of the mechanical motion. In the presence of an additional seeding signal, i.e. a coherent drive of fixed frequency within the width of the gain curve however, we find that the cooling rate can be enhanced significantly with respect to that of a passive cavity. We attribute this effect to a reduced effective optical damping in the presence of incoherent pumping.

  16. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  17. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  18. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  19. A z gain nonuniformity correction for multislice volumetric CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Besson, G; Hu, H; Xie, M; He, D; Seidenschnur, G; Bromberg, N

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents a calibration and correction method for detector cell gain variations. A key functionality of current CT scanners is to offer variable slice thickness to the user. To provide this capability in multislice volumetric scanners, while minimizing costs, it is necessary to combine the signals of several detector cells in z, when the desired slice thickness is larger than the minimum provided by a single cell. These combined signals are then pre-amplified, digitized, and transmitted to the system for further processing. The process of combining the output of several detector cells with nonuniform gains can introduce numerical errors when the impinging x-ray signal presents a variation along z over the range of combined cells. These numerical errors, which by nature are scan dependent, can lead to artifacts in the reconstructed images, particularly when the numerical errors vary from channel-to-channel (as the filtered-backprojection filter includes a high-pass filtering along the channel direction, within a given slice). A projection data correction algorithm has been developed to subtract the associated numerical errors. It relies on the ability of calibrating the individual cell gains. For effectiveness and data flow reasons, the algorithm works on a single slice basis, without slice-to-slice exchange of information. An initial error vector is calculated by applying a high-pass filter to the projection data. The essence of the algorithm is to correlate that initial error vector, with a calibration vector obtained by applying the same high-pass filter to various z combinations of the cell gains (each combination representing a basis function for a z expansion). The solution of the least-square problem, obtained via singular value decomposition, gives the coefficients of a polynomial expansion of the signal z slope and curvature. From this information, and given the cell gains, the final error vector is calculated and subtracted from the projection

  20. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  1. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  2. Nonreciprocal gain control for ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dueker, G.; Lee, P.

    1967-01-01

    Nonreciprocal gain control is used in a ring laser where the two contracirculating beams may have differing intensities because of the residual Faraday rotation and other secondary nonreciprocal effects.

  3. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content ... as children, before they became heavy. Still other organic factors partly determine which kids can eat anything ...

  4. Coupling coefficient of gain-guided lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for the coupling coefficient for two gain-guided coupled waveguides, e.g., semiconductor laser arrays. A common parabolic gain distribution is assumed for the lasers, and the effective dielectric constant distribution is approximated in terms of the bulk refraction index, wavelength, power filling factor, and the antiguiding factor. The fundamental mode is then formulated and used in an integral for the coupling coefficient. The dependence of the coefficient of various waveguide parameters is described.

  5. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1250-1 - Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable realty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable... under section 1250(a)(1) is $19,000 (that is, 95 percent of $20,000). In addition, gain is recognized... January 1, 1975, with respect to which a mortgage is insured under section 221(d)(3) or 236 of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1250-1 - Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable realty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable... under section 1250(a)(1) is $19,000 (that is, 95 percent of $20,000). In addition, gain is recognized... January 1, 1975, with respect to which a mortgage is insured under section 221(d)(3) or 236 of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1250-1 - Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable realty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gain from dispositions of certain depreciable... under section 1250(a)(1) is $19,000 (that is, 95 percent of $20,000). In addition, gain is recognized... January 1, 1975, with respect to which a mortgage is insured under section 221(d)(3) or 236 of...

  9. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  10. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  11. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  12. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  13. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  14. Cognitive Adaptation of Sonar Gain Control in the Bottlenose Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Smith, Adam B.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Buck, John R.; Simmons, James A.; Pacini, Aude F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control. PMID:25153530

  15. 78 FR 4838 - Applications for New Awards; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...)--College Savings Account Research Demonstration Project AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness...

  16. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  17. Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Gain-of-function (GOF) research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to (and/or, perhaps, actually does) increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these important potential benefits, GOF research (GOFR) can pose risks regarding biosecurity and biosafety. In 2014 the administration of US President Barack Obama called for a "pause" on funding (and relevant research with existing US Government funding) of GOF experiments involving influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses in particular. With announcement of this pause, the US Government launched a "deliberative process" regarding risks and benefits of GOFR to inform future funding decisions-and the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) was tasked with making recommendations to the US Government on this matter. As part of this deliberative process the National Institutes of Health commissioned this Ethical Analysis White Paper, requesting that it provide (1) review and summary of ethical literature on GOFR, (2) identification and analysis of existing ethical and decision-making frameworks relevant to (i) the evaluation of risks and benefits of GOFR, (ii) decision-making about the conduct of GOF studies, and (iii) the development of US policy regarding GOFR (especially with respect to funding of GOFR), and (3) development of an ethical and decision-making framework that may be considered by NSABB when analyzing information provided by GOFR risk-benefit assessment, and when crafting its final recommendations (especially regarding policy decisions about funding of GOFR in particular). The ethical and decision-making framework

  18. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  19. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  20. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.