Science.gov

Sample records for additional key words

  1. "Journal of Geography" Key Words: Trends and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Brysch, Carmen P.; Collins, Larianne

    2015-01-01

    The "Journal of Geography" has used key words since 1990 to help readers and researchers seek out work of particular interest. Key words generally supplement article titles and are hopefully chosen with care. The focus of this article is the "Journal of Geography" key word, its presence, timing, and frequency. Using a…

  2. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  3. Strategic Key Word Instruction: Increasing Fluency in Connected Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on fluency in connected text were examined with three third-grade general education participants. Researchers used a multiple base-line design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching increased fluency in connected text written above the participant's instructional level of reading…

  4. Some Factors in Children's Identification of Key Words in Written Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Kennedy, Dale

    For this study of children's selection of key words, children in the first, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grades were asked to identify which words, in their judgment, were key words in written materials. Relationship of these choices to skilled readers, to words derived from passage analysis, and to random selections of hypothetical subjects…

  5. 2015: "key word" for wound care business success.

    PubMed

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    Wound care professionals should consider all this attention to the key word documentation as your 2015 "heads-up." You should conduct a self-audit and request an external audit of your own documentation against all the regulations, LCDs, Policy Articles, newsletters, and educational programs that CMS and your MACs are providing. You should also embrace the questioning and assistance, pertaining to your documentation, which you may receive from your coders and billers. These coding and billing professionals should be your "best friends" to help you improve your clinical documentation as soon as possible. You cannot afford to be one of the professionals who are requested to repay for services you actually provided just because you did not take the time to document your excellent wound care work. PMID:25502970

  6. Automatic activation of addition facts in arithmetic word problems.

    PubMed

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Rodriguez, Laura; Vicente, Santiago

    2010-02-01

    Studies of mental arithmetic have shown that adults solve simple arithmetic problems by retrieving an answer automatically from a network of stored associations. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In this article, we examine whether retrieval is also automatic in the context of more complex arithmetic tasks, such as arithmetic word problems. To test this hypothesis, we used a priming procedure with a target-naming task, in which the primes were the numbers included in two sentences containing the numerical information of an arithmetic word problem (e.g., 3 and 2 in "Joe had 3 marbles. Then Tom gave him 2 marbles"), and the targets were either congruent (e.g., 5) or incongruent (e.g., 8) with the prime. A neutral prime was also used replacing the numbers of the problem by capital letters (e.g., X and Y). Manipulating the relationship between the prime and the target and the duration of time that separates these two events, the overall results revealed shorter times in naming the congruent target than in a neutral condition and longer times in naming the incongruent target, even though mental arithmetic was completely irrelevant to the task. These results support the notion that automaticity of arithmetic-fact retrieval is not limited to simple addition, but it is also possible in other tasks, such as arithmetic word problems, which demand more cognitive resources than single-digit addition. PMID:19440930

  7. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  8. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  9. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  10. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  11. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  12. Video Feedback in Key Word Signing Training for Preservice Direct Support Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombouts, Ellen; Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research has demonstrated that formal training is essential for professionals to learn key word signing. Yet, the particular didactic strategies have not been studied. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of verbal and video feedback in a key word signing training for future direct support staff. Method: Forty-nine future…

  13. Fluency: A Key Link between Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Anthony S.; Hook, Pamela E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to respond to A. G. Kamhi's (2007) challenge to consider two points of view on reading--the broad and the narrow. Each point of view includes a component of the reading process; namely, comprehension and word recognition. Taken separately, each point of view is insufficient for our understanding of the…

  14. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  15. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  16. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  17. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  18. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  20. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  1. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  2. Additive Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency on Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality…

  3. Key Words to Reading: The Language Experience Approach Begins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veatch, Jeannette; And Others

    The classroom use of the key vocabulary, developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner as a reading approach--rather than as a reading method--which utilizes the child's actual experience, is the major concern of this book. Materials used and tested for a number of years present examples, outlines, and various methods for eliciting children's dramas through…

  4. Solving Word Problems in the Primary Grades: Addition and Subtraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Miriam M.

    The purpose of this manual is to present a series of lessons on solving word problems, each focusing on a specific concept. The solving of story problems should be incorporated into the daily mathematics lesson so that children can maintain and increase their skills. The lessons are sequenced according to their complexity. Lessons one through…

  5. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  6. Number words in young children's conceptual and procedural knowledge of addition, subtraction and inversion.

    PubMed

    Canobi, Katherine H; Bethune, Narelle E

    2008-09-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that varied according to the inclusion of concrete referents and number words. The results indicate that number words play a different role in conceptual and procedural development. Children have strong addition and subtraction concepts before they can translate the physical effects of these operations into number words. However, using number words does not detract from their calculation procedures. Moreover, consistent with iterative relations between conceptual and procedural development, the results suggest that inversion acquisition depends on children's calculation procedures and that inversion understanding influences these procedures. PMID:18621361

  7. Quality evaluation of extra high quality images based on key assessment word

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Masashi; Hayashi, Hidehiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Miyahara, Makoto M.

    2001-06-01

    An all encompassing goal of our research is to develop an extra high quality imaging system which is able to convey a high level artistic impression faithfully. We have defined a high order sensation as such a high level artistic impression, and it is supposed that the high order sensation is expressed by the combination of the psychological factor which can be described by plural assessment words. In order to pursue the quality factors that are important for the reproduction of the high order sensation, we have focused on the image quality evaluation of the extra high quality images using the assessment words considering the high order sensation. In this paper, we have obtained the hierarchical structure between the collected assessment words and the principles of European painting based on the conveyance model of the high order sensation, and we have determined a key assessment word 'plasticity' which is able to evaluate the reproduction of the high order sensation more accurately. The results of the subjective assessment experiments using the prototype of the developed extra high quality imaging system have shown that the obtained key assessment word 'plasticity' is the most appropriate assessment word to evaluate the image quality of the extra high quality images quasi-quantitatively.

  8. The Role of Additional Processing Time and Lexical Constraint in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Patterson, David

    2007-01-01

    Three phoneme monitoring experiments examined the manner in which additional processing time influences spoken word recognition. Experiment 1a introduced a version of the phoneme monitoring paradigm in which a silent interval is inserted prior to the word-final target phoneme. Phoneme monitoring reaction time decreased as the silent interval…

  9. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  10. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  11. 40 CFR 370.66 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined? 370.66 Section 370.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... substance listed in Appendices A and B of 40 CFR part 355. Facility means all buildings,...

  12. JPKWIC - General key word in context and subject index report generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jirka, R.; Kabashima, N.; Kelly, D.; Plesset, M.

    1968-01-01

    JPKWIC computer program is a general key word in context and subject index report generator specifically developed to help nonprogrammers and nontechnical personnel to use the computer to access files, libraries and mass documentation. This program is designed to produce a KWIC index, a subject index, an edit report, a summary report, and an exclusion list.

  13. Librarians Look at Bibliography: Title and Key Word Index to Small Business Administration Bibliography Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Robert Ellis

    1972-01-01

    Since the U.S. Small Business Administration bibliography series'' is without an index and/or table-of-contents, this librarian has compiled a complete-title and key words index to this collection for all types of business and industrial libraries. (Author/NH)

  14. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  19. Number Words in Young Children's Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Addition, Subtraction and Inversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…

  20. Improving Correct and Error Rate and Reading Comprehension Using Key Words and Previewing: A Case Report with a Language Minority Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patricia; Weber, Kimberly P.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of key words and previewing on the rate of words read correctly and the reading comprehension of a language minority student (age 10) were analyzed. The student read more words correctly and answered more comprehension questions accurately after the material was previewed and key words were discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Adolescents with Mental Disabilities through the Use of Key Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Stinson, Dawn M.

    1995-01-01

    Key words from product warning labels were taught to four adolescents with moderate mental disabilities using flash cards and a progressive time-delay procedure. Although students mastered the words in a relatively short time with minimal errors, generalization probe data with actual products across settings revealed the need for instruction to…

  2. Additive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality: the influence of trial history and data transformations.

    PubMed

    Balota, David A; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Yap, Melvin J

    2013-09-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear mixed effects modeling to provide evidence that the additive effects were actually being driven by previous trial history. Because Masson and Kliegl also included semantic priming as a factor in their study and recent evidence has shown that semantic priming can moderate the additivity of word frequency and stimulus quality (Scaltritti, Balota, & Peressotti, 2012), we reanalyzed data from 3 published studies to determine if previous trial history moderated the additive pattern when semantic priming was not also manipulated. The results indicated that previous trial history did not influence the joint influence of word frequency and stimulus quality. More important, and independent of Masson and Kliegl's conclusions, we also show how a common transformation used in linear mixed effects analyses to normalize the residuals can systematically alter the way in which two variables combine to influence performance. Specifically, using transformed, rather than raw reaction times, consistently produces more underadditive patterns. PMID:23565779

  3. An Analysis of Word Problems in School Mathematics Texts: Operation of Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parmjit

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of word problems represented in Malaysia's primary one, primary two and primary three mathematics texts based on Van De Walle's model (1998) in the operations of addition and subtraction. A test was constructed to measure students' success based on this model. The data from this study indicates that the Malaysian…

  4. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  5. Making a Bigger Deal of the Smaller Words: Function Words and Other Key Items in Research Writing by Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David Y. W.; Chen, Sylvia Xiao

    2009-01-01

    In many mainland Chinese universities, undergraduate students specializing in English language and applied linguistics are required to write a dissertation, in English, of about 5000 words exploring some aspect of original research. This is a task which is of considerable difficulty not only at the genre or discourse level but also at the…

  6. How Do Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some frequent content words and ignoring the function words. The present results show that deaf children, including those wearing CIs from an early age, do use the KWS. It is also shown that this tendency is related with a linguistic deficiency, especially with a poor ability to deal with function words. Furthermore, the age of implantation, and the degree of hearing loss for children without CIs, plays an important role in using the KWS. Some pedagogical consequences of this situation are considered. PMID:27151899

  7. Measuring Productive Elements of Multi-Word Phrase Vocabulary Knowledge among Children with English as an Additional or Only Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sara A.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a critical role in language and reading development for children, particularly those learning English as an additional language (EAL) (Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Previous research on vocabulary has mainly focused on measuring individual words without considering multi-word phrase knowledge, despite evidence that these items occur…

  8. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  9. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  10. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  11. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  12. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  13. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: An ESL Textbook/Workbook [In Four Volumes]: (1) Teaching Guide; (2) Edition A. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Hmong, Laotian, Korean, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Chinese; (3) Edition B. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Spanish, Somali, Russian, Farsi, Bosnian, Arabic; (4) Edition C. Key Vocabulary Words Translated in 6 Languages: Spanish, Russian, Bosnian, Somali, Vietnamese, Hmong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Charles

    Each of these three separately-published textbook/workbook editions on the topic of recycling presents key vocabulary words relating to this topic for English as a Second Language students in six languages. These books are designed to increase students' understanding of what the most typical local recycling rules are, why complying with them is…

  14. The KEY to the ROCK: Near-Homophony in Nonnative Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that native language (L1) phonology can affect the lexical representations of nonnative words, a visual semantic-relatedness decision task in English was given to native speakers and nonnative speakers whose L1 was Japanese or Arabic. In the critical conditions, the word pair contained a homophone or near-homophone of a…

  15. Teaching Generalized Reading of Cooking Product Labels to Adolescents with Mental Disabilities through the Use of Key Words Taught by Peer Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Four adolescents with moderate mental disabilities were taught by peers to read key words from labels of cooking products using constant time delay. Students mastered the reading of target key words in a relatively short amount of time with minimal errors, acquired some incidental learning of cooking definitions, and were able to generalize the…

  16. Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability is the Key

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Baurnschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit learning and language abilities, we show that sensitivity to sequential structure -- as measured by improvements to immediate memory span for structurally-consistent input sequences -- is significantly correlated with the ability to use knowledge of word predictability to aid speech perception under degraded listening conditions. Importantly, the association remained even after controlling for participant performance on other cognitive tasks, including short-term and working memory, intelligence, attention and inhibition, and vocabulary knowledge. Thus, the evidence suggests that implicit learning abilities are essential for acquiring long-term knowledge of the sequential structure of language -- i.e., knowledge of word predictability – and that individual differences on such abilities impact speech perception in everyday situations. These findings provide a new theoretical rationale linking basic learning phenomena to specific aspects of spoken language processing in adults, and may furthermore indicate new fruitful directions for investigating both typical and atypical language development. PMID:19922909

  17. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  18. Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya

    2011-12-15

    We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  1. Increasing Word-Reading Speed in Poor Readers: No Additional Benefits of Explicit Letter-Cluster Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinus, Eva; de Jong, Peter; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether explicit training of letter-clusters leads to more gains in word-reading speed than training of the separate letters of the same clusters. Ninety-nine poor reading second-grade children were randomly assigned to a cluster-training, a parallel letter-training, or a no-training condition. The cluster-training…

  2. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  3. Key Words in Instruction. Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    "Parents: the Anti-Drug" is a public service campaign developed on the premise that parents are the most influential adults in a child's life, at any age. Action is the operative term in these announcements. The parent is not influential in a quiet, reserved role nor as one who moves aside for others to deal with education of the child. The parent…

  4. Key Words in Instruction. Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Two challenging criteria for judging information involve bias and authority. In both cases, judgments may not be clearly possible. In both cases, there may be degrees or levels of acceptability. For students to gain experience and to demonstrate skills in making judgments, they need opportunities to consider a wide spectrum of resources under a…

  5. Key Words for New Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taeock; Isaac, Frederick

    This paper briefly describes the effects of changes instituted by new library administrators and discusses the roles of both upper and middle level library managers in the process of adapting to change. Suggestions based on the experience of the authors as new middle level managers at a time when extensive changes were occurring in a university…

  6. Key Words in Instruction: Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Defines illustrations and discusses their effective use. Topics include information literacy; statistical graphics; visual literacy; illustrating student term papers; understanding the visual display of information; illustrations that instruct; cognitive processes; and criteria for effective explanatory illustrations. (LRW)

  7. Additional records of the laomediid mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea), with a revised identification key.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Anker, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Six species of the peculiar mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Laomediidae) from various localities in the world are treated in this study: N. carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006 (newly recorded from Japan); N. japonica Komai, 2004 (second record since the original description); N. lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 (newly recorded from Papua New Guinea); N. portoricensis (Rathbun, 1901) (newly recorded from the French Antilles); N. serratipalma Komai & Anker, 2010 (newly recorded from Saudi Arabia); and N. draconis Anker, 2014 (newly recorded from Cuba). A detailed description and new illustrations are provided for N. portoricensis, a species for which a modern description was hitherto unavailable. Gill formula was re-examined in all six species. Colour photographs of living or fresh specimens are provided for most species. A revised key to all known species of Naushonia is presented, a eliminating misinterpretation of an important character in previous keys. PMID:26249909

  8. Word prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  9. Goodnight book: sleep consolidation improves word learning via storybooks

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie E.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children's word retention were tested 2.5 h later, 24 h later, and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children's word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed. PMID:24624111

  10. Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in Greek Grade A and Grade B Mathematics Textbooks: Distribution and Children's Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despina, Desli; Harikleia, Loukidou

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics textbooks are a predominant resource in primary school in Greece, as well as in many other countries. The present study reports on both a content analysis of Greek mathematics textbooks with regard to the types of word problems represented in them and a quantitative analysis of children's achievement in these problems. For the…

  11. The word without the tachistoscope.

    PubMed

    Prinzmetal, W; Silvers, B

    1994-03-01

    In experiments with an unlimited viewing time, we were able to isolate specific stimulus factors that lead to the word-superiority effect. We discovered that advantages of words over nonwords, and words over single letters, are caused by different factors. The word-nonword effect was found in a variety of circumstances, such as with small type, low contrast, or a simultaneously present mask. The advantage of words over single letters occurs only when the stimuli are embedded in a mask making it difficult to find a single letter. In addition, we obtained a word-detection effect without a brief exposure: Subjects were more accurate detecting the presence of words than nonwords. However, this effect only occurred when subjects were required to discriminate letters from nonletters. Thus, the word-superiority (word-nonword difference) and word-detection effects both involve letter discrimination and can be explained by similar mechanisms. PMID:8036111

  12. Fundamental studies and development of nickel-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl chlorides: active catalytic species and key roles of ligand and traceless MeCN additive revealed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Englert, Ulli; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2015-04-01

    A catalytic protocol to convert aryl and heteroaryl chlorides to the corresponding trifluoromethyl sulfides is reported herein. It relies on a relatively inexpensive Ni(cod)2/dppf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system and the readily accessible coupling reagent (Me4N)SCF3. Our computational and experimental mechanistic data are consistent with a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle and inconsistent with Ni(I) as the reactive species. The relevant intermediates were prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and tested for their catalytic competence. This revealed that a monomeric tricoordinate Ni(I) complex is favored for dppf and Cl whose role was unambiguously assigned as being an off-cycle catalyst deactivation product. Only bidentate ligands with wide bite angles (e.g., dppf) are effective. These bulky ligands render the catalyst resting state as [(P-P)Ni(cod)]. The latter is more reactive than Ni(P-P)2, which was found to be the resting state for ligands with smaller bite angles and suffers from an initial high-energy dissociation of one ligand prior to oxidative addition, rendering the system unreactive. The key to effective catalysis is hence the presence of a labile auxiliary ligand in the catalyst resting state. For more challenging substrates, high conversions were achieved via the employment of MeCN as a traceless additive. Mechanistic data suggest that its beneficial role lies in decreasing the energetic span, therefore accelerating product formation. Finally, the methodology has been applied to synthetic targets of pharmaceutical relevance. PMID:25790253

  13. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  14. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  15. Click-words: learning to predict document keywords from a user perspective

    PubMed Central

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Recognizing words that are key to a document is important for ranking relevant scientific documents. Traditionally, important words in a document are either nominated subjectively by authors and indexers or selected objectively by some statistical measures. As an alternative, we propose to use documents' words popularity in user queries to identify click-words, a set of prominent words from the users' perspective. Although they often overlap, click-words differ significantly from other document keywords. Results: We developed a machine learning approach to learn the unique characteristics of click-words. Each word was represented by a set of features that included different types of information, such as semantic type, part of speech tag, term frequency–inverse document frequency (TF–IDF) weight and location in the abstract. We identified the most important features and evaluated our model using 6 months of PubMed click-through logs. Our results suggest that, in addition to carrying high TF–IDF weight, click-words tend to be biomedical entities, to exist in article titles, and to occur repeatedly in article abstracts. Given the abstract and title of a document, we are able to accurately predict the words likely to appear in user queries that lead to document clicks. Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20810602

  16. Eye movements and word skipping during reading: Effects of word length and predictability

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4–6 letters), medium (7–9 letters), or long (10–12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity. PMID:21463086

  17. Key Words in Instruction. WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Annette

    2004-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, educators began exploring ways to make effective use of the vast information resources that were rapidly emerging on the Internet. Rather than using these new Web-based materials for low-level scavenger-hunt types of activities, school library media specialists sought ways to promote higher-order thinking through authentic…

  18. Words, feelings, and bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories were examined by eliciting memories of immigration from bilingual speakers. Forty-seven Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recount their immigration experiences in either Russian or English. Bilinguals used more emotion words when describing their immigration experiences in the second language (English) than in the first language (Russian). Bilinguals' immigration narratives contained more negative emotion words than positive emotion words. In addition, language preference (but not language proficiency) influenced results, with emotional expression amplified when speaking in the preferred language. These findings carry implications for organization of the bilingual lexicon and the special status of emotion words within it. We suggest that bilinguals' expression of emotion may vary across languages and that the linguistic and affective systems are interconnected in the bilingual cognitive architecture. PMID:19966924

  19. Addition to the study of the genus Dusona (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae) in Korea with description of a new species and key to the Korean species

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Korean species of the genus Dusona Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) are reviewed. Twenty seven species of Dusona are reported from South Korea, including 12 previously unrecorded species, D. bellipes (Holmgren, 1872), D. bicoloripes (Ashmead, 1906), D. chabarowski Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. cultrator (Gravenhorst, 1829), D. japonica (Cameron, 1906), D. mactatoides Hinz, 1994, D. scalprata Horstmann, 2004, D. sasayamae Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. oblitera (Holmgren, 1872), D. obtutor Hinz, 1994, D. auriculator Aubert, 1964, D. longicauda (Uchida, 1928), and a new species, D. koreana sp. n. An illustrated key to Korean species of Dusona provided. PMID:25061396

  20. Addition to the study of the genus Dusona (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae) in Korea with description of a new species and key to the Korean species.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Korean species of the genus Dusona Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) are reviewed. Twenty seven species of Dusona are reported from South Korea, including 12 previously unrecorded species, D. bellipes (Holmgren, 1872), D. bicoloripes (Ashmead, 1906), D. chabarowski Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. cultrator (Gravenhorst, 1829), D. japonica (Cameron, 1906), D. mactatoides Hinz, 1994, D. scalprata Horstmann, 2004, D. sasayamae Hinz & Horstmann, 2004, D. oblitera (Holmgren, 1872), D. obtutor Hinz, 1994, D. auriculator Aubert, 1964, D. longicauda (Uchida, 1928), and a new species, D. koreana sp. n. An illustrated key to Korean species of Dusona provided. PMID:25061396

  1. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  2. Identifying words that emerge into consciousness: Effects of word valence and unconscious previewing.

    PubMed

    Prioli, Simone C; Kahan, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Words with negative valence capture attention and this increase in attentional resources typically enhances perceptual processing. Recently, data using continuous flash suppression (CFS) appear to contradict this. In prior research when Chinese words were unconsciously presented in CFS and contrast was raised until the word was identified, RTs to identify words with negative valence were slower than RTs to words with neutral valence. This result might be limited to situations where a logographic writing system is used and could reflect a type of cognitive aftereffect where previewing the word causes habituation. Data (N=60) indicate that results generalize from a logographic (Chinese) to an orthographic writing system (English). In addition, when words were previewed in CFS RTs were slowed for words with negative valence relative to words with neutral valence and this was reversed when words were shown binocularly. Implications for theories of unconscious word processing and cognitive aftereffects are discussed. PMID:25982055

  3. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  4. Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  5. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  6. Sarbalap! Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  7. Magical Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  8. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

  9. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  10. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  11. Promiscuous words

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Promiscuity is frequently used to describe animal mating behaviour, and especially to describe multiple mating by females. Yet this use of the term is incorrect, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. We evaluated the patterns of use and misuse of the word ‘promiscuity’ in a representative journal of animal behaviour. This survey highlights how inappropriately the term is used, and how it can conceal critical features of animal mating strategies with intriguing evolutionary significance. Further analysis of the scientific impact of papers identified by the term promiscuous or polyandrous revealed that the former were cited less frequently. We argue that using promiscuity to describe animal mating strategies is anthropomorphic, inaccurate, and potentially misleading. Consistent with other biological disciplines, the word promiscuity should be used to describe indiscriminate mating behaviour only, and that polygyny and polyandry should be used to describe male and female mating frequency respectively. PMID:24209457

  12. The Feeling Words Curriculum: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Marvin

    The Feeling Words Curriculum, a curriculum that integrates the cognitive and affective domains in one course of study, is described in this paper. The opening sections explain how "feeling words," key vocabulary terms, are used to provide the missing link from one person's life to another's. Stressing the importance of helping students to develop…

  13. 57 Word Attack Skill Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mara, Patricia; Sorenson, Juanita

    These 57 game cards were developed to help teachers build their resource files for word-attack skills. Cards are keyed to skills suggested by the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and are color-coded according to their appropriateness for children in kindergarten through grade three. The front of each card gives the name of the skill,…

  14. Customize Your Word Processor Keyboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, H. Bradford

    1983-01-01

    Use of a translator and an interrupt handler to generate Escape (ESC) sequences without losing characters is discussed. The system (focusing on use of WordStar with a Zenith/Heath Z-19/H-19) allows assignment to single keys entire sequences of editor instructions and small routines. Program listings are included. (JN)

  15. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  16. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  17. Niche as a Determinant of Word Fate in Online Groups

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity. PMID:21589910

  18. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  19. Age differences in hypermnesia: word gain versus word loss.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Fox, P W; McGue, M

    1995-01-01

    A hypermnesic task was administered to 82 younger adults (ages 27-39), 63 middle-aged adults (ages 40-59), and 119 older adults (ages 60-87). Previous research suggests that relational encoding prevents loss of items and item-specific encoding promotes item gains in a hypermnesic task (Klein et al., 1989) and that there are age differences in relational but not item-specific encoding (Luszcz et al., 1990). This information provided the basis for three predictions: (a) There are age differences in hypermnesia, (b) there are age differences in word losses in a hypermnesic task, and (c) there are no age differences in word gains in a hypermnesic task. In order to manipulate type of encoding, a list of words with high association strength (to evoke relational encoding) and words with low association strength (to evoke item-specific encoding) was constructed. The results of this investigation provide support for the encoding manipulation and for all three predictions. In addition, the nature of the age differences in word loss observed suggests that although older adults may be capable of relational encoding, this form of encoding is not as effective at preventing word loss for them as it is for younger adults. PMID:7744169

  20. The Involvement of Morphological Information in the Memorization of Chinese Compound Words: Evidence from Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo

    2016-01-01

    The processing of morphological information during Chinese word memorization was investigated in the present study. Participants were asked to study words presented to them on a computer screen in the studying phase and then judge whether presented words were old or new in the test phase. In addition to parent words (i.e. the words studied in the…

  1. Words, Kids, and Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Jean Wallace; Kita, M. Jane

    The word sort is a technique which capitalizes upon a child's natural feature analysis abilities. In a word sort the learner physically arranges words printed on small cards into groups. This technique can be used in many ways to help children draw conclusions about how words are related. There are two types of sorts: in "closed sorts" the…

  2. Transfer of Word Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Nancy E.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the content of initial learning of a word facilitated transfer of the word meaning to other representations that were near or far, relative to the originally learned form of the word. Subjects in the first study were 40 undergraduate students, who were tested on a list of 13 uncommon words. Results…

  3. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  4. Unstressed Words in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hualde, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the prosodic nature of unstressed function words in Spanish. I defend the hypothesis that these words, like all other words in the language, have a syllable that is lexically designated as stressed. I suggest that the essential property of these words is that they are subject to a rule of prosodic merger with following…

  5. Word-gustatory synesthesia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gendle, Mathew H

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a rare form of synesthesia is presented, where specific words act as the inducer, and gustatory sensations function as the concurrent. The female participant (TD) was twice presented with a list of 806 English words and 222 grammatically correct non-words (with 3 months between presentations). For each presentation, TD was asked to provide: a subjective description of the gustatory experience (if any) associated with each stimulus; a rating (from 0 to 10) of the intensity of the gustatory experience; and an indication (yes/no) if the experience was aversive. TD's responses across the two presentations were quantified, and comparisons are provided. In addition, TD's ability to create and recall novel word-taste associations was compared to that demonstrated by a sample of ten age-matched non-synesthete females. TD's synesthetic experiences were found to be highly consistent, more common in English words than non-words, and rarely aversive. Although TD was superior to control participants in remembering novel word-taste associations, her reported experiences cannot be wholly explained by either an exceptional non-synesthetic learning of taste-word associations over time, or a clear response to phonemes, rather than whole words. These conclusions are compared to the five other published reports of word-gustatory synesthesia, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17564196

  6. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system. PMID:23672812

  7. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  8. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  9. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  10. The Influence of Orthographic Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Visual Word Recognition: Insights from RT Distributional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of orthographic neighborhood density and word frequency in visual word recognition were investigated using distributional analyses of response latencies in visual lexical decision. Main effects of density and frequency were observed in mean latencies. Distributional analyses additionally revealed a density × frequency interaction: for low-frequency words, density effects were mediated predominantly by distributional shifting whereas for high-frequency words, density effects were absent except at the slower RTs, implicating distributional skewing. The present findings suggest that density effects in low-frequency words reflect processes involved in early lexical access, while the effects observed in high-frequency words reflect late postlexical checking processes. PMID:27065902

  11. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”,...

  12. Mi Primer Libro de Palabras (My First Book of Words).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This book was written to facilitate the learning and teaching of phonetic and vocabulary skills important for the development of reading. The book uses the manipulative approach to the usage of words. Words are presented with corresponding pictures in order to enhance the child's comprehension. In addition to the words, the book includes a…

  13. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”,...

  14. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”,...

  15. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  16. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  17. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  18. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  19. Spatial representations of words and nonwords.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, R; Umiltà, C; Mapelli, D

    1992-06-01

    The first two experiments investigated whether the representations of words, besides being unitary, are also spatial in nature. Subjects were required to search for target letters in either five-letter words or five-letter nonwords. They were instructed to press the right-side key for one target and the left-side key for the other target. The center item of the letter string was always at fixation. Targets appeared one at a time, located at the second (left side) or the fourth (right side) position within the letter string. The results showed that: a) responses to targets within words were faster than responses to targets within nonwords (the word-superiority effect); b) responses to compatible stimulus-response pairings were faster than responses to incompatible stimulus-response pairings (the spatial compatibility, or, more precisely, the Simon effect); and c) in Experiment 2, left-side targets were responded to faster than right-side targets within nonwords (the left-right scanning effect). It was concluded that representations of both words and nonwords are spatial in nature. Experiment 3 was aimed at testing whether the spatial layout of the representations of words is always along the left-right horizontal dimension, regardless of the topographic transformation of the stimulus. The same words and nonwords used in the previous experiments were shown vertically and the subjects were required to make left-right discriminative responses to upper and lower target letters. The results showed the word-superiority effect but no spatial compatibility effects. It was concluded that the representation of a vertically presented word is vertically arranged. PMID:1499303

  20. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  1. New word needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    I wish to report and protest the theft of a word. The numerical modelers have stolen the word “data” from the experimentalists and are using it for purposes for which it was never intended. They should give it back and go find or invent their own word.

  2. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  3. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  4. Is there pain in champagne? Semantic involvement of words within words during sense-making.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, Petra M; van Berkum, Jos J A

    2010-11-01

    In an ERP experiment, we examined whether listeners, when making sense of spoken utterances, take into account the meaning of spurious words that are embedded in longer words, either at their onsets (e.g., pie in pirate) or at their offsets (e.g., pain in champagne). In the experiment, Dutch listeners heard Dutch words with initial or final embeddings presented in a sentence context that did or did not support the meaning of the embedded word, while equally supporting the longer carrier word. The N400 at the carrier words was modulated by the semantic fit of the embedded words, indicating that listeners briefly relate the meaning of initial- and final-embedded words to the sentential context, even though these words were not intended by the speaker. These findings help us understand the dynamics of initial sense-making and its link to lexical activation. In addition, they shed new light on the role of lexical competition and the debate concerning the lexical activation of final-embedded words. PMID:19702463

  5. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris): is shape important?

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  6. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  7. Which Words Shall They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Cheryl L.; Feinburg, Phil

    To devise a list of functional sight vocabulary words, a search was made of numerous curriculum guides and books, school district curricula, and several commercial materials purporting to teach such words. This search provided 16 word lists with a total of 466 different words and symbols. The word lists ranged from as few as five words to as many…

  8. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  9. Depth keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  10. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  11. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  12. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  13. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  14. The Effect of Sign Language Structure on Complex Word Reading in Chinese Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age. PMID:25799066

  15. The Uncertainty of Word Meanings Found in Nursery Rhyme Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruss, Linda C.

    A study examined how many of 11 key words in 4 famous Mother Goose nursery rhymes were understood by parents of first graders. The first questionnaire (designed to determine if context clues were helpful in deciphering what words meant) was returned by 37 parents in an urban school district and by 49 parents in a suburban school district. The…

  16. Improving Reading across Subject Areas with Word Generation. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This brief describes a quasi-experimental study of Word Generation, conducted in public middle schools in Boston. Word Generation is a robust vocabulary intervention that is implemented across key subject areas. The purpose of the program is to enhance students' vocabulary in support of improved reading comprehension. The brief outlines the…

  17. Intelligent word-based text recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenes, Frank; Bleisinger, Rainer; Dengel, Andreas R.

    1991-02-01

    STRACT The need for making information within paper documents available for computers increases steadily. In this paper we present a system which is capable to read and to simply understand address blocks of business letters. It is based on optical word recognition (OWR) techniques uses feature recognition methods based on word shapes and is largly independent from different fonts and sizes. Even uncertainly recognized words can be identified using a dictionary and a specific verification algorithm. Additionally recognition accuracy is improved considering different knowledge layers like address syntax and logical dictionaries. Keywords: Text recognition document layout classification text analysis pattern recognition intelligent interfaces

  18. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  19. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  20. From Addition to Multiplication ... and Back: The Development of Students' Additive and Multiplicative Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dooren, Wim; De Bock, Dirk; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on two lines of research that have so far developed largely separately: the use of additive methods to solve proportional word problems and the use of proportional methods to solve additive word problems. We investigated the development with age of both kinds of erroneous solution methods. We gave a test containing missing-value…

  1. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  2. Learning Word Meanings: Overnight Integration and Study Modality Effects

    PubMed Central

    van der Ven, Frauke; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we investigated whether novel word meanings are also gradually integrated after acquisition by measuring the extent to which newly learned words were able to prime semantically related words at two different time points. In addition, we investigated whether modality at study modulates this integration process. Sixty-four adult participants studied novel words together with written or spoken definitions. These words did not prime semantically related words directly following study, but did so after a 24-hour delay. This significant increase in the magnitude of the priming effect suggests that semantic integration occurs over time. Overall, words that were studied with a written definition showed larger priming effects, suggesting greater integration for the written study modality. Although the process of integration, reflected as an increase in the priming effect over time, did not significantly differ between study modalities, words studied with a written definition showed the most prominent positive effect after a 24-hour delay. Our data suggest that semantic integration requires time, and that studying in written format benefits semantic integration more than studying in spoken format. These findings are discussed in light of the CLS theory of word learning. PMID:25992958

  3. Statistical Word Learning at Scale: The Baby's View Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    A key question in early word learning is how children cope with the uncertainty in natural naming events. One potential mechanism for uncertainty reduction is cross-situational word learning--tracking word/object co-occurrence statistics across naming events. But empirical and computational analyses of cross-situational learning have made strong…

  4. Flexible word meaning in embodied agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellens, Peter; Loetzsch, Martin; Steels, Luc

    2008-06-01

    Learning the meanings of words requires coping with referential uncertainty - a learner hearing a novel word cannot be sure which aspects or properties of the referred object or event comprise the meaning of the word. Data from developmental psychology suggest that human learners grasp the important aspects of many novel words after just a few exposures, a phenomenon known as fast mapping. Traditionally, word learning is viewed as a mapping task, in which the learner has to map a set of forms onto a set of pre-existing concepts. We criticise this approach and argue instead for a flexible nature of the coupling between form and meanings as a solution to the problem of referential uncertainty. We implemented and tested the model in populations of humanoid robots that play situated language games about objects in their shared environment. Results show that the model can handle an exponential increase in uncertainty and allows scaling towards very large meaning spaces, while retaining the ability to grasp an operational meaning almost instantly for a great number of words. In addition, the model captures some aspects of the flexibility of form-meaning associations found in human languages. Meanings of words can shift between being very specific (names) and general (e.g. 'small'). We show that this specificity is biased not by the model itself but by the distribution of object properties in the world.

  5. Patience: A Key Word when Talking with Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Summer activities have grown old. Going swimming has lost its allure, and boredom has set in. No matter how well parents have planned interesting and educational activities for the summer months or how much they have enjoyed the freedom from stricter schedules and more rigid bedtimes, it is time to transition back to the routines of the school…

  6. Retrieving Images Verbally: No More Key Words and Other Heresies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jocelyn Penny

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a system to retrieve images for an international project that is producing a pictorial dictionary of classical mythology, the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. Applications to other types of information are discussed, two classification systems for Art History are described, and design principles for…

  7. Key Words in Instruction. The Student Information Scientist, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy standards for student learning, indicators for student performance, and hundreds of collaborative lesson plans around the country give some indication of the skills students are expected to master as effective and efficient users of information. Hopefully the goal is that all involved in information literacy education become…

  8. The Last Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Go look it up. That is what students who have questions about words are often told. But where should they go? Depending on the question, some resources are better than others, and some are not very good at all, no matter what the question. Finding the most helpful word resource for students can be a challenge, especially now that search engines…

  9. The Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes "The Power of Words," a free, online curriculum that explores common labels for ethnic groups, women and sexual minorities. From an activity exploring the roots of slang for immigrants to a lesson on recent attempts by marginalized groups to reclaim pejorative words, the curriculum's 10 lesson plans support content standards…

  10. Chippy's Computer Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne

    Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…

  11. Words That Encourage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  12. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  13. Lexical competition in young children’s word learning

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

  14. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect. PMID:25554248

  15. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  16. Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

    2001-05-01

    Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. An English Word Database of EMOtional TErms (EMOTE).

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Research in the socio-emotional domain may require words for experimental settings rated on emotionally and socially relevant word characteristics (e.g., valence and desirability). In addition, cognitively relevant word characteristics (e.g., imagery) are important for research in the interface of emotion and cognition (e.g., emotional memory). To provide researchers with a corresponding word pool, the database of English EMOtional TErms (EMOTE) provides subjective ratings for 1287 nouns and 985 adjectives. Nouns and adjectives were rated on valence, arousal, emotionality, concreteness, imagery, familiarity, and clarity of meaning. In addition, adjectives were rated on control, desirability, and likeableness. EMOTE norms provide an easily accessible word pool for research in the socio-emotional domain. To illustrate the usefulness of this database, norms were linked to memorability scores from a word recognition task for EMOTE nouns. The database as well as future directions are discussed. PMID:27401069

  19. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  20. Word centre is misperceived.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M H

    2000-01-01

    Normal readers were asked to mark the middle of visually presented words. They made systematic errors toward the left, indicating an overestimation of the length of the beginning of a word. The number of characters determines the size of this error. The bias extended to pseudowords, letter strings, and symbols, but not to blocks, dashes, and lines. Finally, the bias was sensitive to typographical errors but not to colour cuing. These findings suggest that special cognitive operations determine the perceived spatial extent of words. Implications for our understanding of perceptual and cognitive processes in reading are discussed. PMID:10889943

  1. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  2. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  3. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  4. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  5. Do Chinese Readers Follow the National Standard Rules for Word Segmentation during Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Li, Wei-Jun; Lin, Nan; Li, Xing-Shan

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary study to examine whether Chinese readers’ spontaneous word segmentation processing is consistent with the national standard rules of word segmentation based on the Contemporary Chinese language word segmentation specification for information processing (CCLWSSIP). Participants were asked to segment Chinese sentences into individual words according to their prior knowledge of words. The results showed that Chinese readers did not follow the segmentation rules of the CCLWSSIP, and their word segmentation processing was influenced by the syntactic categories of consecutive words. In many cases, the participants did not consider the auxiliary words, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, verbs, numerals and quantifiers as single word units. Generally, Chinese readers tended to combine function words with content words to form single word units, indicating they were inclined to chunk single words into large information units during word segmentation. Additionally, the “overextension of monosyllable words” hypothesis was tested and it might need to be corrected to some degree, implying that word length have an implicit influence on Chinese readers’ segmentation processing. Implications of these results for models of word recognition and eye movement control are discussed. PMID:23408981

  6. Developing WordSmith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mike

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…

  7. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  8. Decorporation: officially a word.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. PMID:10772031

  9. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R. )

    1999-12-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  10. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  11. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (ρc=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  12. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  13. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  14. Effects of Numerical Surface Form in Arithmetic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; San Romualdo, Sara; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Adults' simple arithmetic performance is more efficient when operands are presented in Arabic digit (3 + 5) than in number word (three + five) formats. An explanation provided is that visual familiarity with digits is higher respect to number words. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In…

  15. Mrs. Malaprop's Neighborhood: Using Word Errors to Reveal Neighborhood Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Folk, Jocelyn R.; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of…

  16. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  17. Neural dichotomy of word concreteness: a view from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Uttam

    2016-02-01

    Our perception about the representation and processing of concrete and abstract concepts is based on the fact that concrete words are highly imagined and remembered faster than abstract words. In order to explain the processing differences between abstract and concrete concepts, various theories have been proposed, yet there is no unanimous consensus about its neural implication. The present study investigated the processing of concrete and abstract words during an orthography judgment task (implicit semantic processing) using functional magnetic resonance imaging to validate the involvement of the neural regions. Relative to non-words, both abstract and concrete words show activation in the regions of bilateral hemisphere previously associated with semantic processing. The common areas (conjunction analyses) observed for abstract and concrete words are bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left superior parietal (BA 7), left fusiform gyrus and bilateral middle occipital. The additional areas for abstract words were noticed in bilateral superior temporal and bilateral middle temporal region, whereas no distinct region was noticed for concrete words. This suggests that words with abstract concepts recruit additional language regions in the brain. PMID:26410213

  18. Revisiting the incremental effects of context on word processing: Evidence from single-word event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brennan R; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-11-01

    The amplitude of the N400-an event-related potential (ERP) component linked to meaning processing and initial access to semantic memory-is inversely related to the incremental buildup of semantic context over the course of a sentence. We revisited the nature and scope of this incremental context effect, adopting a word-level linear mixed-effects modeling approach, with the goal of probing the continuous and incremental effects of semantic and syntactic context on multiple aspects of lexical processing during sentence comprehension (i.e., effects of word frequency and orthographic neighborhood). First, we replicated the classic word-position effect at the single-word level: Open-class words showed reductions in N400 amplitude with increasing word position in semantically congruent sentences only. Importantly, we found that accruing sentence context had separable influences on the effects of frequency and neighborhood on the N400. Word frequency effects were reduced with accumulating semantic context. However, orthographic neighborhood was unaffected by accumulating context, showing robust effects on the N400 across all words, even within congruent sentences. Additionally, we found that N400 amplitudes to closed-class words were reduced with incrementally constraining syntactic context in sentences that provided only syntactic constraints. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeling word-level variability in ERPs reveals mechanisms by which different sources of information simultaneously contribute to the unfolding neural dynamics of comprehension. PMID:26311477

  19. Why Do Pictures, but Not Visual Words, Reduce Older Adults’ False Memories?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both the case of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all three study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. PMID:26213799

  20. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26213799

  1. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  2. Elementary Level Mathematics: Word Problems. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosrur, Ridwanul

    2011-01-01

    Word Problems those are also named as "Story Problems" which are well known to the students around the world. In this book there are 26 chapters which encompass diversified problems of four basic mathematical rules--addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. These problems may help students to practice more and more as well as may help…

  3. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  4. Learning to See Words

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Skilled reading requires recognizing written words rapidly; functional neuroimaging research has clarified how the written word initiates a series of responses in visual cortex. These responses are communicated to circuits in ventral occipitotemporal (VOT) cortex that learn to identify words rapidly. Structural neuroimaging has further clarified aspects of the white matter pathways that communicate reading signals between VOT and language systems. We review this circuitry, its development, and its deficiencies in poor readers. This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences. Such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. PMID:21801018

  5. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  6. SUBTLEX-UK: a new and improved word frequency database for British English.

    PubMed

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Mandera, Pawel; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We present word frequencies based on subtitles of British television programmes. We show that the SUBTLEX-UK word frequencies explain more of the variance in the lexical decision times of the British Lexicon Project than the word frequencies based on the British National Corpus and the SUBTLEX-US frequencies. In addition to the word form frequencies, we also present measures of contextual diversity part-of-speech specific word frequencies, word frequencies in children programmes, and word bigram frequencies, giving researchers of British English access to the full range of norms recently made available for other languages. Finally, we introduce a new measure of word frequency, the Zipf scale, which we hope will stop the current misunderstandings of the word frequency effect. PMID:24417251

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  9. How Early Does the Brain Distinguish between Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Pseudowords during the Reading Process? Evidence from Neurochronometric TMS.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Devlin, Joseph T; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Morais, José; Goldman, Serge; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive theories on reading propose that the characteristics of written stimuli determine how they are processed in the brain. However, whether the brain distinguishes between regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords already at an early stage of the reading process is still subject to debate. Here we used chronometric TMS to address this issue. During the first 140 msec of regular word, irregular word, and pseudoword reading, TMS was used to disrupt the function of the ventral occipitotemporal, posterior middle temporal, and supramarginal gyri, which are key areas involved in orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing, respectively. Early TMS stimulation delivered on posterior middle temporal and supramarginal gyri affected regular and irregular word, but not pseudoword, reading. In contrast, ventral occipitotemporal disruption affected both word and pseudoword reading. We thus found evidence for an early distinction between word and pseudoword processing in the semantic and phonological systems, but not in the orthographic system. PMID:25603024

  10. Children's Patterns of Reasoning about Reading and Addition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Canobi, Katherine H.; Wood, Clare; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Children's reasoning was examined within two educational contexts (word reading and addition) so as to understand the factors that contribute to relational reasoning in the two domains. Sixty-seven 5- to 7-year-olds were given a series of related words to read or single-digit addition items to solve (interspersed with unrelated items). The…

  11. Resolving Semantic Interference During Word Production Requires Central Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The semantic picture-word interference task has been used to diagnose how speakers resolve competition while selecting words for production. The attentional demands of this resolution process were assessed in two dual-task experiments (tone classification followed by picture naming). In Experiment 1, when pictures and distractor words were presented simultaneously, semantic interference was not observed when tasks maximally overlapped. This replicates a key finding from the literature that suggested that semantic picture-word interference does not require capacity-limited central attentional resources and occurs prior to lexical selection, an interpretation that runs counter to the claims of all major theories of word production. In another Experiment 1 condition, when distractors were presented 250 ms after pictures, interference emerged when tasks maximally overlapped. Together, these findings support an account in which interference resolution and lexical selection both require central resources, but the activation of lexical representations from written words does not. Subsequent analysis revealed that discrepant results obtained in previous replication attempts may be attributable to differences in phonological (ir)regularity between languages. In Experiment 2, degree of semantic interference was manipulated using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. Interference was observed regardless of task overlap, confirming that lexical selection requires central resources. Together, these findings indicate that a lexical selection locus of semantic picture-word interference – and models of word production that assume such a locus – may be retained. PMID:23773184

  12. Sub-word based Arabic handwriting analysis for writer identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2013-05-01

    Analysing a text or part of it is key to handwriting identification. Generally, handwriting is learnt over time and people develop habits in the style of writing. These habits are embedded in special parts of handwritten text. In Arabic each word consists of one or more sub-word(s). The end of each sub-word is considered to be a connect stroke. The main hypothesis in this paper is that sub-words are essential reflection of Arabic writer's habits that could be exploited for writer identification. Testing this hypothesis will be based on experiments that evaluate writer's identification, mainly using K nearest neighbor from group of sub-words extracted from longer text. The experimental results show that using a group of sub-words could be used to identify the writer with a successful rate between 52.94 % to 82.35% when top1 is used, and it can go up to 100% when top5 is used based on K nearest neighbor. The results show that majority of writers are identified using 7 sub-words with a reliability confident of about 90% (i.e. 90% of the rejected templates have significantly larger distances to the tested example than the distance from the correctly identified template). However previous work, using a complete word, shows successful rate of at most 90% in top 10.

  13. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  14. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  15. Acoustic-phonetic representations in word recognition*

    PubMed Central

    PISONI, DAVID B.; LUCE, PAUL A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the sensory and perceptual input that is made available to the word recognition system by processes typically assumed to be related to speech sound perception. In the first section, we discuss several of the major problems that speech researchers have tried to deal with over the last thirty years. In the second section, we consider one attempt to conceptualize the speech perception process within a theoretical framework that equates processing stages with levels of linguistic analysis. This framework assumes that speech is processed through a series of analytic stages ranging from peripheral auditory processing, acoustic-phonetic and phonological analysis, to word recognition and lexical access. Finally, in the last section, we consider several recent approaches to spoken word recognition and lexical access. We examine a number of claims surrounding the nature of the bottom-up input assumed by these models, postulated perceptual units, and the interaction of different knowledge sources in auditory word recognition. An additional goal of this paper was to establish the need to employ segmental representations in spoken word recognition. PMID:3581727

  16. Can colours be used to segment words when reading?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Tejero, Pilar; Winskel, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Rayner, Fischer, and Pollatsek (1998, Vision Research) demonstrated that reading unspaced text in Indo-European languages produces a substantial reading cost in word identification (as deduced from an increased word-frequency effect on target words embedded in the unspaced vs. spaced sentences) and in eye movement guidance (as deduced from landing sites closer to the beginning of the words in unspaced sentences). However, the addition of spaces between words comes with a cost: nearby words may fall outside high-acuity central vision, thus reducing the potential benefits of parafoveal processing. In the present experiment, we introduced a salient visual cue intended to facilitate the process of word segmentation without compromising visual acuity: each alternating word was printed in a different colour (i.e., ). Results only revealed a small reading cost of unspaced alternating colour sentences relative to the spaced sentences. Thus, present data are a demonstration that colour can be useful to segment words for readers of spaced orthographies. PMID:26002618

  17. Word Links: A Strategy for Developing Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen

    2007-01-01

    Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…

  18. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  19. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  20. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  1. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  2. Have Words, Will Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  3. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  4. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  5. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  6. From Visuals to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    This speech indicates how teachers can use visual materials in classrooms to promote writing by children in primary school. Five classroom tested motivating experiences discussed are: (1) adding words to wordless picture books, (2) writing about artist's paintings, (3) writing story lines from films, (4) comparing variant editions of the same…

  7. They Love Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Adel G.; Bayer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes how teachers implement a spelling decoding strategy within a first-grade language arts curriculum. Considers how the investigation of one spelling-decoding instructional strategy was a coming-to-know process that led the authors to value intentional word study that was connected to but not necessarily embedded in authentic contexts. (SG)

  8. Lost for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

  9. Working on Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Every assessment is a literacy test. It matters not whether the content is science, social studies, or mathematics; if students are not able to make sense of the words, their ability to decipher the meaning of the assessment questions is suspect. Comprehending the language of a task becomes even more important as educators strive to move the…

  10. Stuck for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Carol; Sharp, John

    2011-01-01

    What are children trying to tell when they can't find the words that they need? Children's gestures are valuable in informing teaching practice and how one goes about assessing children's work in science. These children's gestures may have more meaning attached to it than is at first apparent. Use such gesturing to learn what children know and can…

  11. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  12. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  13. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  14. Storing and Retrieving Word Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, F. J.; Devine, K.

    1985-01-01

    Zipfian laws for frequency distributions of word pairs and longer phrases are derived from text sample analysis. From crossing of Zipfian curves, it is deduced that number of multi-word phrases that occur frequently in text is surprisingly small, of same order of magnitude as number of individual word-types. (8 references) (EJS)

  15. Word Learning as Bayesian Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

  16. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  17. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  18. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  19. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias). PMID:27029105

  20. Learning word meanings by instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K.

    1996-12-31

    We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.

  1. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R.; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F.; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N = 17; mean age 10;5) and adults (N = 17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  2. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  3. Recipes: beyond the words.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made. PMID:21591315

  4. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  5. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  6. What Homophones Say about Words.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent") do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B). To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex) set of objects, either a) because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b) because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words). PMID:27583384

  7. Consolidation of novel word learning in native English-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to improve the retention of newly learned words. However, most methodologies have used artificial or foreign language stimuli, with learning limited to word/novel word or word/image pairs. Such stimuli differ from many word-learning scenarios in which definition strings are learned with novel words. Thus, we examined sleep's benefit on learning new words within a native language by using very low-frequency words. Participants learned 45 low-frequency English words and, at subsequent recall, attempted to recall the words when given the corresponding definitions. Participants either learned in the morning with recall in the evening (wake group), or learned in the evening with recall the following morning (sleep group). Performance change across the delay was significantly better in the sleep than the wake group. Additionally, the Levenshtein distance, a measure of correctness of the typed word compared with the target word, became significantly worse following wake, whereas sleep protected correctness of recall. Polysomnographic data from a subsample of participants suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be particularly important for this benefit. These results lend further support for sleep's function on semantic learning even for word/definition pairs within a native language. PMID:25768336

  8. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words.

    PubMed

    Vejdemo, Susanne; Hörberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words-in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only. PMID:26820737

  9. Long frame sync words for binary PSK telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation criteria have previously been established for identifying whether a given binary sequence would be a good frame sync word for phase-shift keyed telemetry. In the past, the search for a good K-bit sync word has involved the application of these criteria to the entire set of 2 exponent K binary K-tuples. It is shown that restricting this search to a much smaller subset consisting of K-bit prefixes of pseudonoise sequences results in sync words of comparable quality, with greatly reduced computer search times for larger values of K. As an example, this procedure is used to find good sync words of length 16-63; from a storage viewpoint, each of these sequences can be generated by a 5- or 6-bit linear feedback shift register.

  10. The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

  11. Multiple neural mechanisms for coloring words in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takemasa; Noguchi, Yasuki; Koga, Hiroki; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Saiki, Jun; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Kita, Shinichi

    2014-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a phenomenon in which achromatic letters/digits automatically induce particular colors. When multiple letters are integrated into a word, some synesthetes perceive that all those letters are changed into the same color, reporting lexical color to that word. Previous psychological studies found several "rules" that determine those lexical colors. The colors to most words are determined by the first letters of the words, while some words in ordinal sequences have their specific colors. Recent studies further reported the third case where lexical colors might be influenced by semantic information of words. Although neural mechanisms determining those lexical colors remained unknown, here we identified three separate neural systems in the synesthete's brain underlying three rules for illusory coloring of words. In addition to the occipito-temporal and parietal regions previously found to be associated with the grapheme-color synesthesia, neural systems for lexical coloring extended to linguistic areas in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions that were engaged in semantic analyses of words. Those results indicate an involvement of wider and higher neural networks than previously assumed in a production of synesthetic colors to visual stimuli and further showed a multiplicity of synesthetic mechanisms represented in the single brain. PMID:24486829

  12. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  13. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800–2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis. PMID:22423321

  14. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  15. The unbearable articulatory nature of naming: on the reliability of word naming responses at the item level.

    PubMed

    Rey, Arnaud; Courrieu, Pierre; Madec, Sylvain; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Single-word naming is one of the most widely used experimental paradigms for studying how we read words. Following the seminal study by Spieler and Balota (Psychological Science 8:411-416, 1997), accounting for variance in item-level naming databases has become a major challenge for computational models of word reading. Using a new large-scale database of naming responses, we first provided a precise estimate of the amount of reproducible variance that models should try to account for with such databases. Second, by using an item-level measure of delayed naming, we showed that it captures not only the variance usually explained by onset phonetic properties, but also an additional part of the variance related to output processes. Finally, by comparing the item means from this new database with the ones reported in a previous study, we found that the two sets of item response times were highly reliable (r = .94) when the variance related to onset phonetic properties and voice-key sensitivity was factored out. Overall, the present results provide new guidelines for testing computational models of word naming with item-level databases. PMID:23132607

  16. From switch-words to stitch-words.

    PubMed

    Litowitz, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    During the course of treatment with some patients a word or phrase reappears that functions to connect layers of fantasies and to identify a history of conflicts and defenses. These stitch-words are compared to the switch-words proposed by Freud as points of condensation in dreams, as well as to other forms of idiolectic evidence (e.g. metaphors) that inform therapeutic listening. Stitch-words expand on Freud's concept by taking into account syntactic aspects of language that function to hold together layers of unconscious fantasies. A description of the grammatical type of words (syncategorematic) best suited to function as stitch-words is presented and illustrated by their use in two clinical examples ('normal', 'fair'). The therapeutic value of listening to, as well as through, the surface of patients' language is discussed. PMID:24628221

  17. The Temporal Dynamics of Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Delphine; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with…

  18. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  19. Contextualising Higher Education Assessment Task Words with an "'Anti'-Glossary" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Kendall; Pilcher, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Key "generic" assessment task words such as "discuss" and "critically evaluate" are integral to higher education assessment. Although sources such as study skills guides give generic decontextualised glossaries of these words, much research rightly argues for greater dialogue between students (particularly…

  20. Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: distinct patterns of functional connectivity from common processing hubs.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Katherine S; Bailey, Stephen K; Petrill, Stephen A; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-07-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation (word-level processing; WL) and extracting meaning from text (discourse-level processing; DL); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as unique regions for DL processing; however, less is known about how WL and DL processes interact. Here we examined functional connectivity from seed regions derived from where BOLD signal overlapped during word and passage reading in 38 adolescents ranging in reading ability, hypothesizing that even though certain regions support word- and higher-level language, connectivity patterns from overlapping regions would be task modulated. Results indeed revealed that the left-lateralized semantic and working memory (WM) seed regions showed task-dependent functional connectivity patterns: during DL processes, semantic and WM nodes all correlated with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in semantic memory/coherence building. In contrast, during WL, these nodes coordinated with a traditional WL area (left occipitotemporal region). In addition, these WL and DL findings were modulated by decoding and comprehension abilities, respectively, with poorer abilities correlating with decreased connectivity. Findings indicate that key regions may uniquely contribute to multiple levels of reading; we speculate that these connectivity patterns may be especially salient for reading outcomes and intervention response. PMID:27147257

  1. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed. PMID:24092359

  2. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  3. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  4. Misperceptions of spoken words: Data from a random sample of American English words

    PubMed Central

    Albert Felty, Robert; Buchwald, Adam; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports a detailed analysis of incorrect responses from an open-set spoken word recognition experiment of 1428 words designed to be a random sample of the entire American English lexicon. The stimuli were presented in six-talker babble to 192 young, normal-hearing listeners at three signal-to-noise ratios (0, +5, and +10 dB). The results revealed several patterns: (1) errors tended to have a higher frequency of occurrence than did the corresponding target word, and frequency of occurrence of error responses was significantly correlated with target frequency of occurrence; (2) incorrect responses were close to the target words in terms of number of phonemes and syllables but had a mean edit distance of 3; (3) for syllables, substitutions were much more frequent than either deletions or additions; for phonemes, deletions were slightly more frequent than substitutions; both were more frequent than additions; and (4) for errors involving just a single segment, substitutions were more frequent than either deletions or additions. The raw data are being made available to other researchers as supplementary material to form the beginnings of a database of speech errors collected under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:23862832

  5. Drawings and Dialogue: Word Solving in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Envisioning oneself as a competent reader is an important first step to reading well. This article describes an intervention that employs drawings coupled with teacher-student dialogue, which sets the stage for strategy learning as a key to word-solving. A process for the interventionist, Title I or any teacher working with students who find…

  6. Linguistic determinants of word colouring in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Glover, Louise; Mowat, Alice

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies of grapheme-colour synaesthesia have suggested that words tend to be coloured by their initial letter or initial vowel (e.g., Baron-Cohen et al., 1993; Ward et al., 2005). We examine this assumption in two ways. First, we show that letter position and syllable stress have been confounded, such that the initial letters of a word are often in stressed position (e.g., 'wo-man, 'ta-ble, 'ha-ppy). With participant JW, we separate these factors (e.g., with stress homographs such as 'con-vict vs. con-'vict) and show that the primary determinant of word colour is syllable stress, with only a secondary influence of letter position. We show that this effect derives from conceptual rather than perceptual stress, and that the effect is more prominent for synaesthetes whose words are coloured by vowels than by consonants. We examine, too, the time course of word colour generation. Slower colour naming occurs for spoken versus written stimuli, as we might expect from the additional requirement of grapheme conversion in the former. Reaction time data provide evidence, too, of incremental processing, since word colour is generated faster when the dominant grapheme is flagged early rather than late in the spoken word. Finally, we examine the role of non-dominant graphemes in word colouring and show faster colour naming when later graphemes match the dominant grapheme (e.g., ether) compared to when they do not (e.g., ethos). Taken together, our findings suggest that words are coloured incrementally by a process of competition between constituent graphemes, in which stressed graphemes and word-initial graphemes are disproportionately weighted. PMID:16683502

  7. Public Key Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  8. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884

  9. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  10. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force. The reports are as…

  11. Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words

    PubMed Central

    Vejdemo, Susanne; Hörberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only. PMID:26820737

  12. The effect of word familiarity on actual and perceived text difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence that readability formula outcomes relate to text understanding. The potential cause may lie in their strong reliance on word and sentence length. We evaluated word familiarity rather than word length as a stand-in for word difficulty. Word familiarity represents how well known a word is, and is estimated using word frequency in a large text corpus, in this work the Google web corpus. We conducted a study with 239 people, who provided 50 evaluations for each of 275 words. Our study is the first study to focus on actual difficulty, measured with a multiple-choice task, in addition to perceived difficulty, measured with a Likert scale. Actual difficulty was correlated with word familiarity (r=0.219, p<0.001) but not with word length (r=−0.075, p=0.107). Perceived difficulty was correlated with both word familiarity (r=−0.397, p<0.001) and word length (r=0.254, p<0.001). PMID:24100710

  13. SUBTLEX-CH: Chinese Word and Character Frequencies Based on Film Subtitles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qing; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Background Word frequency is the most important variable in language research. However, despite the growing interest in the Chinese language, there are only a few sources of word frequency measures available to researchers, and the quality is less than what researchers in other languages are used to. Methodology Following recent work by New, Brysbaert, and colleagues in English, French and Dutch, we assembled a database of word and character frequencies based on a corpus of film and television subtitles (46.8 million characters, 33.5 million words). In line with what has been found in the other languages, the new word and character frequencies explain significantly more of the variance in Chinese word naming and lexical decision performance than measures based on written texts. Conclusions Our results confirm that word frequencies based on subtitles are a good estimate of daily language exposure and capture much of the variance in word processing efficiency. In addition, our database is the first to include information about the contextual diversity of the words and to provide good frequency estimates for multi-character words and the different syntactic roles in which the words are used. The word frequencies are freely available for research purposes. PMID:20532192

  14. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  15. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  16. Ten Important Words Plus: A Strategy for Building Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay

    2007-01-01

    In this strategy, students individually select and record 10 important words on self-adhesive notes as they read a text. Then students build a group bar graph displaying their choices, write a sentence that summarizes the content, and then respond to prompts that ask them to think about words in powerful ways. Several prompts are suggested, each…

  17. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects of emotional word semantics in reading Chinese sentences: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Sommer, Werner

    2015-07-01

    Despite the well-known influence of emotional meaning on cognition, relatively less is known about its effects on reading behavior. We investigated whether fixation behavior during the reading of Chinese sentences is influenced by emotional word meaning in the parafovea. Two-character target words embedded into the same sentence frames provided emotionally positive, negative, or neutral contents. Fixation durations on neutral pretarget words were prolonged for positive parafoveal words and for highly frequent negative parafoveal words. In addition, fixation durations on foveal emotional words were shorter than those on neutral words. We also found that the role of emotional words varied as a function of their valence during foveal and parafoveal processing. These findings suggest a processing advantage for emotional words relative to emotionally neutral stimuli in foveal and parafoveal vision. We discuss implications for the notion of attention attraction due to emotional content. PMID:25581226

  18. Yup'ik Eskimo Word Chooser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.; Jacobson, Anna W.

    This word list is designed for students of Yup'ik Eskimo to assist them in choosing the appropriate word when there are several Yup'ik words that correspond to a single English word. This alphabetical list contains 77 English words that might cause confusion, and includes simple examples of usage to clarify the meanings of the various…

  19. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  20. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition-including visual word recognition-have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  1. Word pair classification during imagined speech using direct brain recordings.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephanie; Brunner, Peter; Iturrate, Iñaki; Millán, José Del R; Schalk, Gerwin; Knight, Robert T; Pasley, Brian N

    2016-01-01

    People that cannot communicate due to neurological disorders would benefit from an internal speech decoder. Here, we showed the ability to classify individual words during imagined speech from electrocorticographic signals. In a word imagery task, we used high gamma (70-150 Hz) time features with a support vector machine model to classify individual words from a pair of words. To account for temporal irregularities during speech production, we introduced a non-linear time alignment into the SVM kernel. Classification accuracy reached 88% in a two-class classification framework (50% chance level), and average classification accuracy across fifteen word-pairs was significant across five subjects (mean = 58%; p < 0.05). We also compared classification accuracy between imagined speech, overt speech and listening. As predicted, higher classification accuracy was obtained in the listening and overt speech conditions (mean = 89% and 86%, respectively; p < 0.0001), where speech stimuli were directly presented. The results provide evidence for a neural representation for imagined words in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe and sensorimotor cortex, consistent with previous findings in speech perception and production. These data represent a proof of concept study for basic decoding of speech imagery, and delineate a number of key challenges to usage of speech imagery neural representations for clinical applications. PMID:27165452

  2. Word pair classification during imagined speech using direct brain recordings

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Stephanie; Brunner, Peter; Iturrate, Iñaki; Millán, José del R.; Schalk, Gerwin; Knight, Robert T.; Pasley, Brian N.

    2016-01-01

    People that cannot communicate due to neurological disorders would benefit from an internal speech decoder. Here, we showed the ability to classify individual words during imagined speech from electrocorticographic signals. In a word imagery task, we used high gamma (70–150 Hz) time features with a support vector machine model to classify individual words from a pair of words. To account for temporal irregularities during speech production, we introduced a non-linear time alignment into the SVM kernel. Classification accuracy reached 88% in a two-class classification framework (50% chance level), and average classification accuracy across fifteen word-pairs was significant across five subjects (mean = 58%; p < 0.05). We also compared classification accuracy between imagined speech, overt speech and listening. As predicted, higher classification accuracy was obtained in the listening and overt speech conditions (mean = 89% and 86%, respectively; p < 0.0001), where speech stimuli were directly presented. The results provide evidence for a neural representation for imagined words in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe and sensorimotor cortex, consistent with previous findings in speech perception and production. These data represent a proof of concept study for basic decoding of speech imagery, and delineate a number of key challenges to usage of speech imagery neural representations for clinical applications. PMID:27165452

  3. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  4. The embodied mind extended: using words as social tools

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Scorolli, Claudia; Caligiore, Daniele; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Tummolini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The extended mind view and the embodied-grounded view of cognition and language are typically considered as rather independent perspectives. In this paper we propose a possible integration of the two views and support it proposing the idea of “Words As social Tools” (WAT). In this respect, we will propose that words, also due to their social and public character, can be conceived as quasi-external devices that extend our cognition. Moreover, words function like tools in that they enlarge the bodily space of action thus modifying our sense of body. To support our proposal, we review the relevant literature on tool-use and on words as tools and report recent evidence indicating that word use leads to an extension of space close to the body. In addition, we outline a model of the neural processes that may underpin bodily space extension via word use and may reflect possible effects on cognition of the use of words as external means. We also discuss how reconciling the two perspectives can help to overcome the limitations they encounter if considered independently. PMID:23641224

  5. Response variations to Stroop color-word stimuli.

    PubMed

    Izawa, C; Silver, N C

    1988-05-01

    Reaction times (RTs) and net interference measures were obtained for 64 Stroop color-word stimuli from 8 common colors. Subjects were 64 college students, 32 of each sex. The incongruous stimulus was designated as either the ink interpretation different from the word or the word interpretation different from the ink. Consistently large variations within Stroop stimuli and Word x Ink interactions were found. Complex qualitative and quantitative differences were revealed between sexes. Females had faster RTs, but showed no significant superiority in measured net interference. The derived rank orders of net interference between sexes were correlated when using the ink, but not when using the word. Neither word nor ink were related in ranking RTs. For net interference, however, derived RTs were highly related for women using the ink interpretation, but not when using the word; they were unrelated for men using either interpretation. Two interrference types were highly correlated for women, but not for men. An additional experiment with a color-blind group cast an interesting light on the issue. Our Stroop data, rank ordered by sex for each measure, may assist viable theory constructions, including the context-dependent interaction hypothesis. PMID:3402729

  6. Semantic–Syntactic Partial Word Knowledge Growth Through Reading

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Margaret S.; Petroski, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Incidental reading provides a powerful opportunity for partial word knowledge growth in the school-age years. The extent to which children of differing language abilities can use reading experiences to glean partial knowledge of words is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth of children with higher language skills (HL group; overall language standard scores of 85 or higher) to that of children with relatively lower language skills (LL group; overall receptive or expressive standard score below 85). Method Thirty-two children, 16 per group, silently read stories containing unfamiliar nouns and verbs 3 times over a 1-week period. Semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth was assessed after each reading and 2–3 days later to assess retention. Results Over time, both groups showed significant partial word knowledge growth, with the HL group showing significantly more growth. In addition, both groups retained knowledge several days later. Conclusion Regardless of language skill level, children benefit from multiple exposures to unfamiliar words in reading in their development and retention of semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth. PMID:25409978

  7. The Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Recognition of French Words: A Study in Skilled and Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of syllable activation during visual recognition of French words. In addition, it was investigated whether word orthographic information underlies syllable effects. To do so, words were selected according to the frequency of their first syllable (high versus low) and the frequency of the orthographic…

  8. Application of Cement Science to Improved Wellbore Infrastructures Mileva Radonjic and Darko Kupresan Craft & Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, USA Corresponding author: mileva@lsu.edu Key words: micro-annular gas flow, nano-properties of wellbore cements, micro-porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radonjic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent focus on carbon emission from cement industry inspired researchers to improve CSH properties by reducing Ca/Si ratio at the nanoscale, and lower porosity (permeability) of hydrated cement at micro scale. If implemented in wellbore cement technology, both of these efforts could provide advanced properties for wellbore infrastructure. These advancements would further reduce the issue of leaky wellbores in fluid injections, hydraulic fracturing and subsurface storage for existing operating wells. Numerous inadequately abandoned wells, however, pose more complex engineering problems, primarily due to the difficulty in locating fluid flow pathways along the wellbore structure. In order to appreciate the difficulty of this problem, we need to remind ourselves that: a typical 30,000-ft. wellbore with an average production casing of 8 inches in diameter can be presented in scale by a 6-m long human hair of 150 μm these structures are placed in the subsurface, often not just vertical in geometry but deviated close to 90° tangent where monitoring and remediation becomes demanding and if we consider that wellbore cement is not continuously placed along the wellbore and it is approximately 1/10 of a wellbore diameter, we can see that the properties of these materials demand application of nano-science and a different scale phenomena than perhaps previously acknowledged. The key concept behind Ca/Si reduction associated with improved mechanical properties is traditionally achieved chemically, by addition of supplemental cementitious materials. In our study we have tried to evaluate CSH alterations due to mechanically induced phase transformation. The data suggest that confined compression-extrusion of hydrated wellbore cement and the consequent propagation of pore water can change cement composition by dissolving and removing Ca, therefore reducing Ca/Si of cement phases. The advantage of this approach is that the process is less impacted by pressure

  9. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  10. Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon

    2009-01-01

    The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

  11. Repetition of Words and Non-Words in Typically Developing Children: The Role of Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina; Lyxell, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44…

  12. Effects of Word and Morpheme Familiarity on Reading of Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Katz, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence students' reading of derived words. Recent research suggests that the lexical quality of a derived word depends on the familiarity of the word, its morphemic constituents (i.e., base word and affixes), and the frequency with which the base word appears in other words (i.e., members of…

  13. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

  14. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  15. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  16. Children's Word-Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    1985-01-01

    Two studies were performed to determine the process used by young children to figure out the meaning of a new word. It was hypothesized that the children would use one of two strategies: (1) ignore the word and wait for more information, or learn only what is unambiguous about it, or (2) make a reasonable but uncertain guess, quickly setting up…

  17. Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

    Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

  18. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…

  19. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  20. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  1. Learning to Learn: A Key-Competence for All Adults?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Learning to learn is important and increasingly vital for people trying to deal with a rapidly changing world! Or, in the words of the European Union, learning to learn is one of the eight "key competences that citizens require for their personal fulfilment, social inclusion, active citizenship and employability in our knowledge-based society."…

  2. Retrieval of concrete words involves more contextual information than abstract words: multiple components for the concreteness effect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chun-yan

    2012-03-01

    The current study used the directed forgetting paradigm in implicit and explicit memory to investigate the concreteness effect. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore the neural basis of this phenomenon. The behavioral results showed a clear concreteness effect in both implicit and explicit memory tests; participants responded significantly faster to concrete words than to abstract words. The ERP results revealed a concreteness effect (N400) in both the encoding and retrieval phases. In addition, behavioral and ERP results showed an interaction between word concreteness and memory instruction (to-be-forgotten vs. to-be-remembered) in the late epoch of the explicit retrieval phase, revealing a significant concreteness effect only under the to-be-remembered instruction condition. This concreteness effect was realized as an increased P600-like component in response to concrete words relative to abstract words, likely reflecting retrieval of contextual details. The time course of the concreteness effect suggests advantages of concrete words over abstract words due to greater contextual information. PMID:22041121

  3. Frequent Words Do Not Break Continuous Flash Suppression Differently from Infrequent or Nonexistent Words: Implications for Semantic Processing of Words in the Absence of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) has been used as a paradigm to probe the extent to which word stimuli are processed in the absence of awareness. In the two experiments reported here, no evidence is obtained that word stimuli are processed up to the semantic level when suppressed through CFS. In Experiment 1, word stimuli did not break suppression faster than their pseudo-word variants nor was suppression time modulated by word frequency. Experiment 2 replicated these findings, but more critically showed that differential effects can be obtained with this paradigm using a simpler stimulus. In addition, pixel density of the stimuli did prove to be related to suppression time in both experiments, indicating that the paradigm is sensitive to differences in detectability. A third and final experiment replicated the well-known face inversion effect using the same set-up as Experiments 1 and 2, thereby demonstrating that the employed methodology can capture more high-level effects as well. These results are discussed in the context of previous evidence on unconscious semantic processing and two potential explanations are advanced. Specifically, it is argued that CFS might act at a level too low in the visual system for high-level effects to be observed or that the widely used breaking CFS paradigm is merely ill-suited to capture effects in the context of words. PMID:25116265

  4. Frequent words do not break continuous flash suppression differently from infrequent or nonexistent words: implications for semantic processing of words in the absence of awareness.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; Moors, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) has been used as a paradigm to probe the extent to which word stimuli are processed in the absence of awareness. In the two experiments reported here, no evidence is obtained that word stimuli are processed up to the semantic level when suppressed through CFS. In Experiment 1, word stimuli did not break suppression faster than their pseudo-word variants nor was suppression time modulated by word frequency. Experiment 2 replicated these findings, but more critically showed that differential effects can be obtained with this paradigm using a simpler stimulus. In addition, pixel density of the stimuli did prove to be related to suppression time in both experiments, indicating that the paradigm is sensitive to differences in detectability. A third and final experiment replicated the well-known face inversion effect using the same set-up as Experiments 1 and 2, thereby demonstrating that the employed methodology can capture more high-level effects as well. These results are discussed in the context of previous evidence on unconscious semantic processing and two potential explanations are advanced. Specifically, it is argued that CFS might act at a level too low in the visual system for high-level effects to be observed or that the widely used breaking CFS paradigm is merely ill-suited to capture effects in the context of words. PMID:25116265

  5. Unstructured quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick; Metodiev, Eric; Lutkenhaus, Norbert

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas are known for protocols with a high degree of symmetry, since symmetry simplifies the analysis. However, experimental imperfections break symmetries, hence the effect of imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could outperform symmetric ones. In this work, we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this will allow researchers to study ``unstructured'' protocols, i.e., those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which dramatically reduces the number of parameters and hence the calculation time. We illustrate our method by investigating some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown.

  6. Testing a word is not a test of word learning.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2013-10-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition requires children learn names for multiple things, many investigations of word learning mechanisms teach children the name for only one of the objects presented. This is problematic because it is unclear whether children's performance reflects recall of the correct name-object association or simply selection of the only object that was singled out by being the only object named. Children introduced to one novel name may perform at ceiling as they are not required to discriminate on the basis of the name per se, and appear to rapidly learn words following minimal exposure to a single word. We introduced children to four novel objects. For half the children, only one of the objects was named and for the other children, all four objects were named. Only children introduced to one word reliably selected the target object at test. This demonstration highlights the over-simplicity of one-word learning paradigms and the need for a shift in word learning paradigms where more than one word is taught to ensure children disambiguate objects on the basis of their names rather than their degree of salience. PMID:23928497

  7. Functional Neuroimaging of Word Priming in Males with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Nestor, Paul G.; Hale-Spencer, Magdalena; Cohen, Adam; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2007-01-01

    Word-priming studies have suggested that the associative disturbance of schizophrenia may reflect aberrant spread of activation through the lexicon of the brain. To explore this, we examined lexical activation using a semantic word-priming paradigm coupled with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We also wanted to determine whether brain activation to this paradigm correlated with relevant clinical symptom measures. In addition to completing clinical symptom measures, twelve chronic patients and twelve demographically-matched control subjects completed a lexical-decision semantic-priming paradigm developed as an event-related BOLD fMRI task. This paradigm consisted of words that differed in connectivity. Words with many connections between shared semantic associates are considered high in connectivity and produce the largest behavioral semantic priming effects in control subjects, while words with few connections between shared semantic associates are considered low in connectivity and produce a relatively smaller amount of semantic priming. In fMRI, a respective step-wise increase in activation from high connectivity to low connectivity to unrelated word pairs was expected for normal subjects. Controls showed the expected pattern of activation to word connectivity; however, patients showed a less robust pattern of activation to word connectivity. Furthermore, this aberrant response correlated with measures of Auditory Hallucinations, Distractive Speech, Illogicality, and Incoherence. The patients did not display left frontal and temporal activation as a function of the degree of word connectivity as seen in healthy controls. This may reflect a disease-related disturbance in functional connectivity of lexical activation, which in turn may be associated with clinical symptomatology. PMID:17215145

  8. The role of spatial attention in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Folk, Charles L.; Johnston, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects made lexical decisions on a target letter string presented above or below fixation. In Experiments 1 and 2, target location was cued 100 ms in advance of target onset. Responses were faster on validly than on invalidly cued trials. In Experiment 3, the target was sometimes accompanied by irrelevant stimuli on the other side of fixation; in such cases, responses were slowed (a spatial filtering effect). Both cuing and filtering effects on response time were additive with effects of word frequency and lexical status (words vs. nonwords). These findings are difficult to reconcile with claims that spatial attention is less involved in processing familiar words than in unfamiliar words and nonwords. The results can be reconciled with a late-selection locus of spatial attention only with difficulty, but are easily explained by early-selection models.

  9. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture-Word, and Word-Word Interference Tasks.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  10. The Development of Students' Use of Additive and Proportional Methods along Primary and Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Ceneida; Llinares, Salvador; Van Dooren, Wim; De Bock, Dirk; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of proportional and additive methods along primary and secondary school. In particular, it simultaneously investigates the use of additive methods in proportional word problems and the use of proportional methods in additive word problems. We have also studied the role played by integer and non-integer…

  11. The visual representations of words and style in text: an adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Hashim M; Perler, Brielle L; Jason J S, Barton

    2013-06-26

    While the nature of face representations in the human perceptual system has been extensively studied using adaptation, there has been little investigation using this technique of the neural basis of another parallel class of high-level objects, words. We used the perceptual-bias technique to determine if aftereffects could be generated for either the word content or stylistic properties of textual stimuli, and if these aftereffects showed invariance for the non-adapted dimension. In a first experiment, we examined adaptation for word versus handwriting style. In a second experiment we contrasted adaptation for words with adaptation for computer font. The third experiment performed a similar study of aftereffects for words and case. In all three experiments we consistently found adaptation for words, which were not diminished by changing the style between the adapting and probe stimuli: hence word aftereffects are invariant for handwriting, font and case. Aftereffects were negligible for style. Additional analyses showed that discriminative ability was better for word than for style content. These results confirm that the neural representations of words can be probed with the adaptation technique and suggest that adaptation accesses word representations at an abstract level, where the identity of a word is invariant for stylistic properties. PMID:23623812

  12. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  13. Talker variation and word learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollich, George; Jusczyk, Peter; Brent, Michael

    2002-05-01

    While infants must go beyond talker-specific information in recognizing a given word, regardless of the talker, they must also process talker-specific information in order to extract meaning from a particular sound source. Otherwise, for example, they could never recognize whether [hct] referred to a talker's pronunciation of hot, hut, or even hat. This poster suggests that not only do infants process talker-specific information, but they also make use of it both to extract invariant properties in learning a new word and in recognizing talker-specific tokens faster. Using the splitscreen preferential looking paradigm, two studies were conducted that examined how talker-specific properties and variation among talkers could facilitate word learning. Results of study 1 indicated that word learning was facilitated in the case where infants heard different talkers. Thus, talker variation is critical for the extraction of invariant properties of a word. However, the results of study 2 indicated that talker-specific properties were encoded and used to help these infants recognize and learn the referents of these words. Given this evidence, it is suggested that infants appear to be using talker-specific information to form abstract representations of the invariant properties of words.

  14. Cortical dynamics of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mainy, Nelly; Jung, Julien; Baciu, Monica; Kahane, Philippe; Schoendorff, Benjamin; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-11-01

    While functional neuroimaging studies have helped elucidate major regions implicated in word recognition, much less is known about the dynamics of the associated activations or the actual neural processes of their functional network. We used intracerebral electroencephalography recordings in 10 patients with epilepsy to directly measure neural activity in the temporal and frontal lobes during written words' recognition, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The patients were presented visually with consonant strings, pseudo-words, and words and performed a hierarchical paradigm contrasting semantic processes (living vs. nonliving word categorization task), phonological processes (rhyme decision task on pseudo-words), and visual processes (visual analysis of consonant strings). Stimuli triggered a cascade of modulations in the gamma-band (>40 Hz) with reproducible timing and task-sensitivity throughout the functional reading network: the earliest gamma-band activations were observed for all stimuli in the mesial basal temporal lobe at 150 ms, reaching the word form area in the mid fusiform gyrus at 200 ms, evidencing a superiority effect for word-like stimuli. Peaks of gamma-band activations were then observed for word-like stimuli after 400 ms in the anterior and middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus (BA 38 and BA 22 respectively), in the pars triangularis of Broca's area for the semantic task (BAs 45 and 47), and in the pars opercularis for the phonological task (BA 44). Concurrently, we observed a two-pronged effect in the prefrontal cortex (BAs 9 and 46), with nonspecific sustained dorsal activation related to sustained attention and, more ventrally, a strong reflex deactivation around 500 ms, possibly due to semantic working memory reset. PMID:17712785

  15. The spatial Stroop effect: a comparison of color-word and position-word interference.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Sven; Nakagawa, Tristan Toyo; Bindl, Manuela; Bühner, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Stroop effect is one of the most famous examples of interference in human perception. The present study demonstrates that a position Stroop paradigm, comparable to the classical color-word interference paradigm, resulted in the same pattern of interference for the spatial dimension; however, the interference was significantly weaker. By exchanging the original oral response for a manual response in the spatial paradigm, we showed that the verbal component is crucial for the Stroop effect: Manual responses lead to a disappearance of the interference effect. Moreover, with manual responses word position was recognized at the same speed for the baseline condition and for words that were incongruent as well as congruent with the spatial position. The results indicate (1) that the Stoop effect depends heavily on verbal components and (2) that differing processing speeds between reading and position recognition do not serve as a proper explanation for the effect. In addition, the provided paradigm plausibly transfers the classical color-word interference to the spatial dimension. PMID:24706050

  16. Ultra-rapid access to words in the brain

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; van Casteren, Maarten; Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Rapid information processing in the human brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key tool humans use to exchange information is spoken language, but the exact speed of the neuronal mechanisms underpinning speech comprehension is still unknown. Here we investigate the time course of neuro-lexical processing by analysing neuromagnetic brain activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically and acoustically matched groups of words and pseudowords. We show an ultra-early dissociation in cortical activation elicited by these stimulus types, emerging ~50 ms after acoustic information required for word identification first becomes available. This dissociation is the earliest brain signature of lexical processing of words so far reported, and may help explain the evolutionary advantage of human spoken language. PMID:22426232

  17. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  18. Optical key system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

    2000-04-25

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  19. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. PMID:26669620

  20. The impact of text repetition on content and function words during reading: further evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Cindy; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Légère, Marie-Andrée

    2013-06-01

    There is ample evidence that reading speed increases when participants read the same text more than once. However, less is known about the impact of text repetition as a function of word class. Some authors suggested that text repetition would mostly benefit content words with little or no effect on function words. In the present study, we examined the effect of multiple readings on the processing of content and function words. Participants were asked to read a short text two times in direct succession. Eye movement analyses revealed the typical multiple readings effect: Repetition decreased the time readers spent fixating words and the probability of fixating critical words. Most importantly, we found that the effect of multiple readings was of the same magnitude for content and function words, and for low- and high-frequency words. Such findings suggest that lexical variables have additive effects on eye movement measures in reading. PMID:22686151

  1. Words to Know (Alzheimer's Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Institute on Aging Words to Know Aggression (uh-GRESH-un). When a person lashes out ... AD feel. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression. Alzheimer's disease (AD) (ALlz-high-merz duh-ZEEZ). ...

  2. An Alternative to Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, James

    1977-01-01

    For the secondary school, the author discourages the use of dichotomous keys in favor of a punch-card system. The system is readily constructed by students for use in plant and animal classification. (CP)

  3. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children. PMID:20563783

  4. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. PMID:27287267

  5. Acquiring a Single New Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa

    Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…

  6. Secret Key Crypto Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Guido Marco; Melzani, Filippo

    This chapter presents the algorithm selected in 2001 as the Advanced Encryption Standard. This algorithm is the base for implementing security and privacy based on symmetric key solutions in almost all new applications. Secret key algorithms are used in combination with modes of operation to provide different security properties. The most used modes of operation are presented in this chapter. Finally an overview of the different techniques of software and hardware implementations is given.

  7. Public Key FPGA Software

    2013-07-25

    The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.

  8. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  9. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  10. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  11. Word Processing. A Handbook for Business Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey R., Jr., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to help teachers keep abreast of changes in word processing and to develop necessary teaching skills. The handbook is divided into two main parts: understanding word processing and teaching word processing skills. In the introduction the part word processing plays in the business scheme of a company…

  12. Learning about Word Parts with Kidspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Knowing the meanings of common root words, prefixes, and suffixes may help students read and spell the longer words they begin to run into in the upper elementary grades. This article describes how students can use the Kidspiration computer program to quickly and easily create word webs that illustrate the meanings of common root words and…

  13. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  14. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  15. Visual recognition of permuted words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  16. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  17. Different Neurophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Word and Rule Extraction from Speech

    PubMed Central

    De Diego Balaguer, Ruth; Toro, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400) in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2) is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity) and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation). The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language. PMID:18000546

  18. Lexical factors in the word-superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, N; Caplan, D; Sokol, S; Torreano, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm, fluent readers can identify letters better when they appear in a word than when they appear in either a pronounceable pseudoword (a lexicality effect) or a single letter (a word-letter effect). It was predicted that if both of these effects involve a lexical factor, then adult acquired dyslexic subjects whose deficit prevents access to visual word form should show disruptions of the normal effects on the Reicher-Wheeler task. The results were that dyslexic subjects as well as matched control subjects showed a lexicality effect; however, while the control subjects showed a normal word-letter effect, the dyslexic subjects showed a reverse letter-superiority effect. Both effects, however, showed a systematic variation: As performance on lexical decision improved, the subjects' performance on words in the Reicher-Wheeler task was better than that for all the other conditions. These subject correlations were replicated by using data from a second lexical decision experiment, which utilized the same words and pseudowords that were used in the Reicher-Wheeler task. In addition, an item analysis showed that the words that the subjects had discriminated correctly in lexical decision showed a significant advantage over those that they had not, as well as an improvement relative to the other conditions. These results suggest that there is a lexical factor underlying the lexicality and word-letter effects, and it is proposed that the abnormal letter-superiority effect can be accounted for as the manifestation of other competing factors. PMID:7885263

  19. The last words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylhmas, V. M.

    Much of what I'm going to say can be subsumed under the title: the meaning of merging or reconnection. When I look back at the controversy which has surrounded the concept for the past thirty years and try to understand historically how it arose, I find it rather remarkable that there has been that much controversy. The word reconnection becomes in some cases almost an emotional symbol, and some people seem to object merely to the name. One can find papers where the concept is violently objected to, but if one examines what the author is doing, one finds he is doing essentially the same physics; he is only absolutely refusing to use that name and insisting that anyone who uses it is wrong. So I would like to, so to speak, demythologize that and discuss what it is we really talk about when we talk about reconnection or merging. Leaving aside the precise legal definitions, I think what we are talking about is very simple. It's a system with a complex magnetic topology, where we have a plasma flow in it of some sort: plasma flow in a complex topology. In the case of the earth, initially there may have been some argument as to whether the topology is really complex or whether all the field lines are just nicely contained in one volume—there was a big battle about that some 15 years ago—but today I think it's generally accepted that the magnetosphere is open; so we do have a complex topology, and of course we know that the solar wind is flowing.

  20. Identifying Trends in Word Frequency Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Whichard, Zakary L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2013-04-01

    The word-stock of a language is a complex dynamical system in which words can be created, evolve, and become extinct. Even more dynamic are the short-term fluctuations in word usage by individuals in a population. Building on the recent demonstration that word niche is a strong determinant of future rise or fall in word frequency, here we introduce a model that allows us to distinguish persistent from temporary increases in frequency. Our model is illustrated using a 108-word database from an online discussion group and a 1011-word collection of digitized books. The model reveals a strong relation between changes in word dissemination and changes in frequency. Aside from their implications for short-term word frequency dynamics, these observations are potentially important for language evolution as new words must survive in the short term in order to survive in the long term.

  1. Interfering Neighbours: The Impact of Novel Word Learning on the Identification of Visually Similar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Hanley, Derek A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the impact of visual similarity on written word identification by having participants learn new words (e.g. BANARA) that were neighbours of familiar words that previously had no neighbours (e.g. BANANA). Repeated exposure to these new words made it more difficult to semantically categorize the familiar words. There was some evidence of…

  2. Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

  3. Word Meaning in Academic English: Homography in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000) consists of 570 word families that are frequent and wide ranging in academic texts. It was created by counting the frequency, range, and evenness of spread of word forms in a specially constructed academic corpus. This study examines the words in the Academic Word List (AWL) to see if the existence of…

  4. The influence of clustering coefficient on word-learning: how groups of similar sounding words facilitate acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rutherford; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a word are also neighbors of each other, and has been shown to influence speech production, speech perception, and several memory-related processes. In this study we examined how C influences word-learning. Participants were trained over three sessions at 1-week intervals, and tested with a picture-naming task on nonword-nonobject pairs. We found an advantage for novel words with high C (the neighbors of this novel word are likely to be neighbors with each other), but only after the 1-week retention period with no additional exposures to the stimuli. The results are consistent with the spreading-activation network-model of the lexicon proposed by Chan and Vitevitch (2009). The influence of C on various language-related processes suggests that characteristics of the individual word are not the only things that influence processing; rather, lexical processing may also be influenced by the relationships that exist among words in the lexicon. PMID:25477837

  5. The Uses of Word Processing Programs for Clinical Writing. Part II: Program Features for Developing Report Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Arthur H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article demonstrates the use of word processing commands for the creation of sections of diagnostic reports, intervention plans, and progress summaries. The use of basic commands for searching and finding key words in a core report is illustrated, along with chaining sequences for writing objectives. (Author/CL)

  6. The Model Method: Singapore Children's Tool for Representing and Solving Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Swee Fong; Lee, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Solving arithmetic and algebraic word problems is a key component of the Singapore elementary mathematics curriculum. One heuristic taught, the model method, involves drawing a diagram to represent key information in the problem. We describe the model method and a three-phase theoretical framework supporting its use. We conducted 2 studies to…

  7. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  8. Effects of word length on eye movement control: The evidence from Arabic.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A; McGowan, Victoria A; White, Sarah J; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-10-01

    The finding that word length plays a fundamental role in determining where and for how long readers fixate within a line of text has been central to the development of sophisticated models of eye movement control. However, research in this area is dominated by the use of Latinate languages (e.g., English, French, German), and little is known about eye movement control for alphabetic languages with very different visual characteristics. To address this issue, the present experiment undertook a novel investigation of the influence of word length on eye movement behavior when reading Arabic. Arabic is an alphabetic language that not only is read from right to left but has visual characteristics fundamentally different from Latinate languages, and so is ideally suited to testing the generality of mechanisms of eye movement control. The findings reveal that readers were more likely to fixate and refixate longer words, and also that longer words tended to be fixated for longer. In addition, word length influenced the landing positions of initial fixations on words, with the effect that readers fixated the center of short words and fixated closer to the beginning letters for longer words, and the location of landing positions affected both the duration of the first fixation and probability of refixating the word. The indication now, therefore, is that effects of word length are a widespread and fundamental component of reading and play a central role in guiding eye-movement behavior across a range of very different alphabetic systems. PMID:25690581

  9. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a diagram of the…

  10. Sequence, Program Words, and Sequence Rationale for the 1971 Revised First-Grade Spelling Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdiansky, Betty

    Pupils participating in the 1971-1972 tryout of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) First Grade Spelling Program were taught to combine consonants and consonant clusters with word elements to form program words. This paper presents the sequence of instruction for these elements and the rationale used in deriving this sequence. In addition, it…

  11. Word Processing Programs and Weaker Writers/Readers: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Paul; Graham, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Since its advent word processing has become a common writing tool, providing potential advantages over writing by hand. Word processors permit easy revision, produce legible characters quickly, and may provide additional supports (e.g., spellcheckers, speech recognition). Such advantages should remedy common difficulties among weaker…

  12. Dissociating Word Frequency and Predictability Effects in Reading: Evidence from Coregistration of Eye Movements and EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Staub, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Two very reliable influences on eye fixation durations in reading are word frequency, as measured by corpus counts, and word predictability, as measured by cloze norming. Several studies have reported strictly additive effects of these 2 variables. Predictability also reliably influences the amplitude of the N400 component in event-related…

  13. Morphological Decomposition in the Recognition of Prefixed and Suffixed Words: Evidence from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Say Young; Wang, Min; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Korean has visually salient syllable units that are often mapped onto either prefixes or suffixes in derived words. In addition, prefixed and suffixed words may be processed differently given a left-to-right parsing procedure and the need to resolve morphemic ambiguity in prefixes in Korean. To test this hypothesis, four experiments using the…

  14. Processing Words and Short Message Service Shortcuts in Sentential Contexts: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Krott, Andrea; Frisson, Steven; Meyer, Antje S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Short Message Service shortcuts are more difficult to process in sentence context than the spelled-out word equivalent and, if so, how any additional processing difficulty arises. Twenty-four student participants read 37 Short Message Service shortcuts and word equivalents embedded in semantically plausible…

  15. Lock and key colloids.

    PubMed

    Sacanna, S; Irvine, W T M; Chaikin, P M; Pine, D J

    2010-03-25

    New functional materials can in principle be created using colloids that self-assemble into a desired structure by means of a programmable recognition and binding scheme. This idea has been explored by attaching 'programmed' DNA strands to nanometre- and micrometre- sized particles and then using DNA hybridization to direct the placement of the particles in the final assembly. Here we demonstrate an alternative recognition mechanism for directing the assembly of composite structures, based on particles with complementary shapes. Our system, which uses Fischer's lock-and-key principle, employs colloidal spheres as keys and monodisperse colloidal particles with a spherical cavity as locks that bind spontaneously and reversibly via the depletion interaction. The lock-and-key binding is specific because it is controlled by how closely the size of a spherical colloidal key particle matches the radius of the spherical cavity of the lock particle. The strength of the binding can be further tuned by adjusting the solution composition or temperature. The composite assemblies have the unique feature of having flexible bonds, allowing us to produce flexible dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric colloidal molecules as well as more complex colloidal polymers. We expect that this lock-and-key recognition mechanism will find wider use as a means of programming and directing colloidal self-assembly. PMID:20336142

  16. The interplay of cross-situational word learning and sentence-level constraints.

    PubMed

    Koehne, Judith; Crocker, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to word learning. Learners can track co-occurring words and referents across situations in a bottom-up manner (cross-situational word learning, CSWL). Equally, they can exploit sentential contexts, relying on top-down information such as verb-argument relations and world knowledge, offering immediate constraints on meaning (word learning based on sentence-level constraints, SLCL). When combined, CSWL and SLCL potentially modulate each other's influence, revealing how word learners deal with multiple mechanisms simultaneously: Do they use all mechanisms? Prefer one? Is their strategy context dependent? Three experiments conducted with adult learners reveal that learners prioritize SLCL over CSWL. CSWL is applied in addition to SLCL only if SLCL is not perfectly disambiguating, thereby complementing or competing with it. These studies demonstrate the importance of investigating word-learning mechanisms simultaneously, revealing important characteristics of their interaction in more naturalistic learning environments. PMID:25244041

  17. Data: Not Just Another Four-Letter Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavadsky, Heather; Dolejs, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Long considered four-letter words by many in education, "data," "testing," and "assessments" have come to signify more than additional burdens and distractions from instruction for most educators. Although many educators are still wary of data, many top-performing school systems have embraced data as a means to drive educational decision making…

  18. Morphological Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: Evidence from Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the processing of morphologically complex words in Danish using auditory lexical decision. We document a second critical point in auditory comprehension in addition to the Uniqueness Point (UP), namely the point at which competing morphological continuation forms of the base cease to be compatible with the input,…

  19. Finite word length effects on digital filter implementation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, J. D.; Clark, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of two known techniques to analyze finite word length effects on digital filters. These techniques are extended to several additional programming forms and the results verified experimentally. A correlation of the analytical weighting functions for the two methods is made through the Mason Gain Formula.

  20. Lexical and Sublexical Feedback in Auditory Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    1995-01-01

    Results from 3 experiments in auditory word recognition involving a total of 266 undergraduates supported interactive models of lexical processing, but required additional sublexical processes. The hypothesized sublexical mechanism is fast acting and frequency sensitive and produces top-down effects, but its operation has not yet been fully…

  1. Key Competencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, David; Browne, Geoff

    Key competencies (or generic skills) have been specified in four sources: Further Education Unit (FEU), United Kingdom (1987); Finn Report (1991) and Mayer Committee (1992), Australia; U.S. Labor Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) (June 1991); and Butterworth and Lovell (1983), New South Wales. A comparison of the four…

  2. Cryptographic Key Management System

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  3. Five Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peddy, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The first year as a principal is filled with self-doubt. As one already knows, there is no book or guide that can fully prepare someone for what the principal's position entails. All first-year principals have to learn by doing. In this article, the author discusses five keys to success that will guide and help first-year principals with the…

  4. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis. PMID:27593455

  5. Implicit and explicit mechanisms of word learning in a narrative context: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context, rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple times, embedded in consistent, meaningful contexts (referred to as meaning condition, M+) or inconsistent, meaningless contexts (M−). Word learning was then assessed implicitly using a lexical decision task and explicitly through recall and recognition tasks. Overall, during story reading, M− words elicited a larger N400 than M+ words, suggesting that participants were better able to semantically integrate M+ words than M− words throughout the story. In addition, M+ words whose meanings were subsequently correctly recognized and recalled elicited a more positive ERP in a later time-window compared to M+ words whose meanings were incorrectly remembered, consistent with the idea that the late positive component (LPC) is an index of encoding processes. In the lexical decision task, no behavioral or electrophysiological evidence for implicit priming was found for M+ words. In contrast, during the explicit recognition task, M+ words showed a robust N400 effect. The N400 effect was dependent upon recognition performance, such that only correctly recognized M+ words elicited an N400. This pattern of results provides evidence that the explicit representations of word meanings can develop rapidly, while implicit representations may require more extensive exposure or more time to emerge. PMID:21452941

  6. Implicit and explicit mechanisms of word learning in a narrative context: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2011-11-01

    The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple times, embedded in consistent, meaningful contexts (referred to as meaning condition, M+) or inconsistent, meaningless contexts (M-). Word learning was then assessed implicitly using a lexical decision task and explicitly through recall and recognition tasks. Overall, during story reading, M- words elicited a larger N400 than M+ words, suggesting that participants were better able to semantically integrate M+ words than M- words throughout the story. In addition, M+ words whose meanings were subsequently correctly recognized and recalled elicited a more positive ERP in a later time window compared with M+ words whose meanings were incorrectly remembered, consistent with the idea that the late positive component is an index of encoding processes. In the lexical decision task, no behavioral or electrophysiological evidence for implicit priming was found for M+ words. In contrast, during the explicit recognition task, M+ words showed a robust N400 effect. The N400 effect was dependent upon recognition performance, such that only correctly recognized M+ words elicited an N400. This pattern of results provides evidence that the explicit representations of word meanings can develop rapidly, whereas implicit representations may require more extensive exposure or more time to emerge. PMID:21452941

  7. The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathaniel J; Levy, Roger

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that real-time human language processing is highly incremental and context-driven, and that the strength of a comprehender's expectation for each word encountered is a key determinant of the difficulty of integrating that word into the preceding context. In reading, this differential difficulty is largely manifested in the amount of time taken to read each word. While numerous studies over the past thirty years have shown expectation-based effects on reading times driven by lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and other information sources, there has been little progress in establishing the quantitative relationship between expectation (or prediction) and reading times. Here, by combining a state-of-the-art computational language model, two large behavioral data-sets, and non-parametric statistical techniques, we establish for the first time the quantitative form of this relationship, finding that it is logarithmic over six orders of magnitude in estimated predictability. This result is problematic for a number of established models of eye movement control in reading, but lends partial support to an optimal perceptual discrimination account of word recognition. We also present a novel model in which language processing is highly incremental well below the level of the individual word, and show that it predicts both the shape and time-course of this effect. At a more general level, this result provides challenges for both anticipatory processing and semantic integration accounts of lexical predictability effects. And finally, this result provides evidence that comprehenders are highly sensitive to relative differences in predictability - even for differences between highly unpredictable words - and thus helps bring theoretical unity to our understanding of the role of prediction at multiple levels of linguistic structure in real-time language comprehension. PMID:23747651

  8. Multicolored words: Uncovering the relationship between reading mechanisms and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Blazej, Laura J; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2016-02-01

    Grapheme-color and lexical-color synesthesia, the association of colors with letters and words, respectively, are some of the most commonly studied forms of synesthesia, yet relatively little is known about how synesthesia arises from and interfaces with the reading process. To date, synesthetic experiences in reading have only been reported in relation to a word's graphemes and meaning. We present a case study of WBL, a 21-year old male who experiences synesthetic colors for letters and words. Over 3 months, we obtained nearly 3000 color judgments for visually presented monomorphemic, prefixed, suffixed, and compound words as well as judgments for pseudocompound words (e.g., carpet), and nonwords. In Experiment 1, we show that word color is nearly always determined by the color of the first letter. Furthermore, WBL reported two separate colors for prefixed and compound words approximately 14% of the time, with the additional color determined by the first letter of the second morpheme. In Experiment 2, we further investigated how various morphological factors influenced WBL's percepts using the compound norms of Juhasz, Lai, and Woodcock (2014). In a logistic regression analysis of color judgments for nearly 400 compounds, we observed that the likelihood that WBL would perceive a compound as bearing 1 lexical color or 2 lexical colors was influenced by a variety of factors including stem frequency, compound frequency, and the relationship between the meaning of the compound and the meaning of its stems. This constitutes the first study reporting an effect of morphological structure in synesthesia and demonstrates that synesthetic colors result from a complex interaction of perceptual, graphemic, morphological, and semantic factors. PMID:26794531

  9. Flexibility in Statistical Word Segmentation: Finding Words in Foreign Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Bastos, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments investigated the flexibility of statistical word segmentation. There is ample evidence that infants can use statistical cues (e.g., syllable transitional probabilities) to segment fluent speech. However, it is unclear how effectively infants track these patterns in unfamiliar phonological systems. We examined whether…

  10. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  11. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  12. Word Frequency, Function Words and the Second Gavagai Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochmann, Jean-Remy

    2013-01-01

    The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean ""a" rabbit" or ""that" rabbit". How can a learner know…

  13. Size-dependent word frequencies and translational invariance of books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; da Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; Minnhagen, Petter

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a real novel shares many characteristic features with a null model in which the words are randomly distributed throughout the text. Such a common feature is a certain translational invariance of the text. Another is that the functional form of the word-frequency distribution of a novel depends on the length of the text in the same way as the null model. This means that an approximate power-law tail ascribed to the data will have an exponent which changes with the size of the text-section which is analyzed. A further consequence is that a novel cannot be described by text-evolution models such as the Simon model. The size-transformation of a novel is found to be well described by a specific Random Book Transformation. This size transformation in addition enables a more precise determination of the functional form of the word-frequency distribution. The implications of the results are discussed.

  14. Spotting words in handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish; Babu, Pavithra; Bhole, Chetan

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a system for spotting handwritten Arabic words in scanned document images is presented. Three main components of the system are a word segmenter, a shape based matcher for words and a search interface. The user types in a query in English within a search window, the system finds the equivalent Arabic word, e.g., by dictionary look-up, locates word images in an indexed (segmented) set of documents. A two-step approach is employed in performing the search: (1) prototype selection: the query is used to obtain a set of handwritten samples of that word from a known set of writers (these are the prototypes), and (2) word matching: the prototypes are used to spot each occurrence of those words in the indexed document database. A ranking is performed on the entire set of test word images-- where the ranking criterion is a similarity score between each prototype word and the candidate words based on global word shape features. A database of 20,000 word images contained in 100 scanned handwritten Arabic documents written by 10 different writers was used to study retrieval performance. Using five writers for providing prototypes and the other five for testing, using manually segmented documents, 55% precision is obtained at 50% recall. Performance increases as more writers are used for training.

  15. Effects of Word Width and Word Length on Optimal Character Size for Reading of Horizontally Scrolling Japanese Words

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Wataru; Nakazaki, Takuyuki; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Mori, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated, whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of four Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3°, 0.6°, 1.0°, and 3.0°) and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces). Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word). Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (three, four, and six character words). Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length in scrolling Japanese words. PMID:26909052

  16. Why Words are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. METHOD: Sixty-nine 18-25-year-olds with LI or without (ND) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings immediately after training (encoding) and 12-hours, 24-hours, and 1-week later (remembering). Half of the participants trained in the morning and half in the evening. RESULTS: At immediate posttest, those with LI performed more poorly on form and meaning than those with ND. Poor performance was more likely among those with more severe LI. The LI and ND groups demonstrated no difference in remembering word meanings over one week. In both groups, participants who trained in the evening, and therefore slept shortly after training, demonstrated greater gains in meaning recall than those who trained in the morning. In contrast, the LI-ND gap for word form recall widened over the week. CONCLUSIONS: Some adults with LI have encoding deficits that limit the addition of word forms and meanings to the lexicon. Similarities and differences in patterns of remembering in the LI and ND groups motivate the hypothesis that consolidation of declarative memory is a strength for adults with LI. PMID:24023376

  17. Unilateral brain damage effects on processing homonymous and polysemous words.

    PubMed

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baum, Shari R

    2005-06-01

    Using an auditory semantic priming paradigm, the present study investigated the abilities of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) non-fluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and normal control individuals to access, out of context, the multiple meanings of three types of ambiguous words, namely homonyms (e.g., "punch"), metonymies (e.g., "rabbit"), and metaphors (e.g., "star"). In addition, the study tested certain predictions of the "suppression deficit" and "coarse semantic coding" hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the linguistic deficits typically observed after RH damage. Homonymous, metonymous, and metaphorical words were used as primes followed after a short (100 ms) or a long (1000 ms) inter-stimulus interval (ISI) by dominant-meaning-related, subordinate-meaning-related or unrelated target words. No significant group effects were found, and for both ISIs, dominant- and subordinate-related targets were facilitated relative to unrelated control targets for the homonymy and metonymy conditions. In contrast, for the metaphor condition, only targets related to the dominant meaning were facilitated. These findings provide only partial support for the "suppression deficit" hypothesis and no support for the "coarse semantic coding" hypothesis (as interpreted herein) indicating that patients with focal LH or RH damage can access the multiple meanings of ambiguous words and exhibit processing abilities comparable to those of older normal control subjects, at least at the single-word level. PMID:15862856

  18. “I Can Read These Colors.” Orthographic Manipulations and the Development of the Color-Word Stroop

    PubMed Central

    Arsalidou, Marie; Agostino, Alba; Maxwell, Sarah; Taylor, Margot J.

    2013-01-01

    The color-word Stroop is a popular measure in psychological assessments. Evidence suggests that Stroop performance relies heavily on reading, an ability that improves over childhood. One way to influence reading proficiency is by orthographic manipulations. To determine the degree of interference posed by orthographic manipulations with development, in addition to standard color-Words (purple) we manipulated letter-positions: First/last letter in correct place (prulpe) and Scrambled (ulrpep). We tested children 7–16 years (n = 128) and adults (n = 23). Analyses showed that Word- and First/last-incongruent were qualitatively similar, whereas Word-congruent was different than other conditions. Results suggest that for children and adults, performance was hindered the most for incongruent and incorrectly spelled words and was most facilitated when words were congruent with the ink color and correctly spelled. Implications on visual word recognition and reading are discussed. PMID:23316179

  19. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. PMID:26102192

  20. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  1. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Fu, Charlene S L; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals' cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals' and bilinguals' performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage. PMID:27574513

  2. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E.; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals’ cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals’ and bilinguals’ performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage. PMID:27574513

  3. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  4. Fast mapping of words and story recall by individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S; Schwartz, Scott E

    2004-12-01

    This study compared adolescents with Down syndrome to nonverbal mental-age matched controls in their ability to fast map new noun vocabulary in spoken story contexts. Context for novel words varied within subjects in the distance between mentions (close-distant) and the ease of inferring a real word for the referent (specificity). The 23 participants with Down syndrome (DS) were aged 12.8-20.3 years. The 24 typically developing (TD) children, matched on visual nonverbal mental age (MA), were 4.1 to 6.1 years old. Participants listened to 4 tape-recorded stories, each containing 3 mentions of 2 novel words in close or distant proximity and with clear or uncertain reference, and recalled each story after presentation. Fast-mapping production was measured by the occurrence of the novel word in story recall. Fast-mapping comprehension was measured by asking children to define the novel words. The DS group did not differ from the TD group in novel word production but seemed to have more difficulty with novel word definition. For both groups, novel word production was higher in the nonspecific than the specific referent condition, suggesting that availability of a real word label interfered with fast mapping. Recall of story propositions was poorer for the DS group. For both groups, story recall was better for text units not directly associated with novel words than for text units containing novel words, suggesting a trade-off effect in processing. Regression analyses indicated that syntax comprehension, rather than mean length of utterance, predicted novel word production in both groups; MA additionally contributed to predict DS story recall. PMID:15842011

  5. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  6. Serious Words for Serious Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilbeck, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I create philosophical space for the importance of how we say things as an adjunct to attending to what is said, drawing on Stanley Cavell's discussions of moral perfectionism and passionate utterance. In the light of this, I assess claims made for the contribution drama makes to moral education. In "Cities of Words,"…

  7. Associative Asymmetry of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…

  8. Word Fluency: A Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti

    It is suggested that models of human problem solving are useful in the analysis of word fluency (WF) test performance. In problem-solving terms, WF tasks would require the subject to define and clarify the conditions of the task (task acquisition), select and employ appropriate strategies, and monitor one's performance. In modern neuropsychology,…

  9. Images, Words, and Narrative Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews work suggesting that imagery and language function in tandem to constitute a sense of being, and that metaphors of sight hold as much formative power as metaphors of word. Describes the limitations of language and the ways in which imagery compensates for that limitation. Discusses narrative of epistemology as a fusion of image and…

  10. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  11. Word Processing: Coordination without Centralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  12. More than a Word Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filatova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Word cloud generating applications were originally designed to add visual attractiveness to posters, websites, slide show presentations, and the like. They can also be an effective tool in reading and writing classes in English as a second language (ESL) for all levels of English proficiency. They can reduce reading time and help to improve…

  13. PCM synchronization by word stuffing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butman, S.

    1969-01-01

    When a transmitted word, consisting of a number of pulses, is detected and removed from the data stream, the space left by the removal is eliminated by a memory buffer. This eliminates the need for a clock synchronizer thereby removing instability problems.

  14. Children, Word Processors and Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Marcus

    1999-01-01

    Students aged 11-12, placed in groups of four, used word processors to write about a dramatized event using persuasive, newspaper, recount, or report styles. Students' talk as they engaged in the task was analyzed to illuminate the linguistic and cognitive processes involved in group construction of text. (Author/SV)

  15. Making Psychology a Household Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  16. People Considerations in Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Marion L.

    1984-01-01

    Business educators preparing students for jobs in business and industry should become aware of the problems faced by workers in a typical large office environment. Word processor operators face many of the same problems as factory assembly line workers--lack of personalization, lack of incentive, and removal from the mainstream. (JOW)

  17. Word Processor Training on Intelligent Videodisc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolsky, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Wang Word Processing Intelligent Learning Program on interactive videodisc, which is used at Eastman Kodak to train hundreds of word processing operators. Operation of the program is discussed in detail. (MBR)

  18. Word Processing Through the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Lee R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the two worlds of word processing: a theoretical world found in textbooks and magazines, and a "real" world found in offices where some form of word processing has been introduced. Suggestions for business teachers are included. (CT)

  19. Cluster analysis of word frequency dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikova, Yu S.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Belashova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations.

  20. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  1. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  2. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    PubMed Central

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265

  3. Word Processors and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, D. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Word processors can assist teachers and students by focusing on writing as a process, rather than a product. Word processing breaks writing up into manageable chunks that permit writing skills to develop in an integraged manner. (10 references) (CJH)

  4. Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use the sharing features ... no Internet connection is available. Download: Understanding Medical Words [16MB zip file] Download instructions : Click on the ...

  5. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (as distinct from skin and eye irritation), the word “Poison” must appear in red on a background of... word “Poison.” (2) Toxicity Category II. Any pesticide product meeting the criteria of...

  6. Efficient detection of unusual words.

    PubMed

    Apostolico, A; Bock, M E; Lonardi, S; Xu, X

    2000-01-01

    Words that are, by some measure, over- or underrepresented in the context of larger sequences have been variously implicated in biological functions and mechanisms. In most approaches to such anomaly detections, the words (up to a certain length) are enumerated more or less exhaustively and are individually checked in terms of observed and expected frequencies, variances, and scores of discrepancy and significance thereof. Here we take the global approach of annotating the suffix tree of a sequence with some such values and scores, having in mind to use it as a collective detector of all unexpected behaviors, or perhaps just as a preliminary filter for words suspicious enough to undergo a more accurate scrutiny. We consider in depth the simple probabilistic model in which sequences are produced by a random source emitting symbols from a known alphabet independently and according to a given distribution. Our main result consists of showing that, within this model, full tree annotations can be carried out in a time-and-space optimal fashion for the mean, variance and some of the adopted measures of significance. This result is achieved by an ad hoc embedding in statistical expressions of the combinatorial structure of the periods of a string. Specifically, we show that the expected value and variance of all substrings in a given sequence of n symbols can be computed and stored in (optimal) O(n2) overall worst-case, O (n log n) expected time and space. The O (n2) time bound constitutes an improvement by a linear factor over direct methods. Moreover, we show that under several accepted measures of deviation from expected frequency, the candidates over- or underrepresented words are restricted to the O(n) words that end at internal nodes of a compact suffix tree, as opposed to the theta(n2) possible substrings. This surprising fact is a consequence of properties in the form that if a word that ends in the middle of an arc is, say, overrepresented, then its extension to

  7. The last word

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioaanis A.

    This is the third in a series of essays on terms used in solar-terrestrial physics that are thought to be in need of clarification. Terms are identified and essays are commissioned by a committee chartered by Division II (Sun and Heliosphere) of the International Astronomical Union. Terminology Committee members include Ed Oliver (chair), Jean-Louis Bougeret, Hilary Cane, Takeo Kosugi, Sara Martin, Rainer Schwenn, Lidia van Driel-Gestelyi, and Joe Borovsky.Writers are asked to review the origins of a term and its current usage/misusage. The main point is to open a discussion and inform the community. We solicit letters to Eos on the following article by Ioannis Daglis on the term “magnetic storm,” which is certainly one of the most venerable names in solar-terrestrial physics. In addition, we welcome suggestions to any committee member on other terms to address in this forum.

  8. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  9. Word Boxes Help Children with Learning Disabilities Identify and Spell Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Marie Clay's word boxes that help children attend to phonological and orthographic features of words, developing phonemic awareness and improving word recognition and spelling. Describes a study showing that the use of word boxes with several elementary school students with learning disabilities was effective for improving and…

  10. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  11. Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Oswald, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Making and Writing Words (MWW), a variation of the Making Words word study activity by Cunningham and Cunningham (1992), on second-grade students word learning. MWW was implemented daily with a group of second-grade students' over a five-month period. Results indicated that students who received the MWW treatment…

  12. Verbal Comprehension: Learning To Derive Word Meaning from Context versus Individual Direct Word Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maberry, Rebecca S.

    A study compared the effects of words in isolation (WI) and words in context (WC) instruction on the word learning and retention of word meanings of 11 average readers from a multi-age classroom (grades 4 and 5). To investigate whether WC instruction improved a child's ability to use context cues to determine the meaning of an unknown word…

  13. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  14. Electrophysiological Evidence of Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a…

  15. Embodied Attention and Word Learning by Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Many theories of early word learning begin with the uncertainty inherent to learning a word from its co-occurrence with a visual scene. However, the relevant visual scene for infant word learning is neither from the adult theorist's view nor the mature partner's view, but is rather from the learner's personal view. Here we show that when 18-month…

  16. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  17. Constraints on the Meanings of Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, N.; And Others

    Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

  18. Borrowed Words in English and Chinese Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yingying

    2009-01-01

    Borrowed words are the products of language development and cultural contact. This paper probes into the brief study of borrowed words in both English and Chinese vocabulary. At the very beginning it generally introduces issues being covered, and the following two parts center on the study of borrowed words on the basis of dictionary research.…

  19. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

  20. Word Problems: Where Test Bias Creeps In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Susan F.

    The problem of sex bias in mathematics word problems is discussed, with references to the appropriate literature. Word problems are assessed via cognitive science analysis of word problem solving. It has been suggested that five basic semantic relations are adequate to classify nearly all story problems, namely, change, combine, compare, vary, and…

  1. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  2. Outcome Evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Adrienne Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The Instant Word Notebook study was a program evaluation completed by two educators who saw a need for an instructional tool to teach and assess Instant Words. In order to address reading deficits of students in first and second grades, teachers were expected to teach Instant Words. Unfortunately, teachers did not have a systematic process to…

  3. How Taboo Are Taboo Words for Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Klerk, Vivian

    1992-01-01

    The assumption that only males use derogatory and taboo words is challenged by citing evidence that young females in South Africa widely use highly taboo/slang items. Particular attention is devoted to pejorative words common to both males and females and to whether there are only a few pejorative words used to describe males. (30 references) (JL)

  4. Using Word Clouds to Develop Proactive Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, Frances; Read, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article examines student responses to a technique for summarizing electronically available information based on word frequency. Students used this technique to create word clouds, using those word clouds to enhance personal and small group study. This is a qualitative study. Small focus groups were used to obtain student feedback. Feedback…

  5. Process Evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jeannie Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This program evaluation of The Instant Word Notebook was conducted by two educators who created an instructional tool to teach and assess the most frequently occurring words in written text, commonly known as Instant Words. In an effort to increase the reading scores of first and second grade students, teachers were instructed to teach Instant…

  6. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  7. English Teacher's Book of Instant Word Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ruth

    Presenting over 200 ready-to-use word games, this book introduces secondary English students of all ability levels to the joy of word play while they practice and review a wide variety of skills, including vocabulary, punctuation, word origins, spelling and pronunciation, grammar and usage, and literary devices. Many of the 5- to 15-minute word…

  8. Learning and Consolidation of Novel Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…

  9. Three Dirty Words Are Killing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Three words used frequently in debates about education actually cloud the issues. Those words are standardization, rigor, and reform. Standardization is often confused with standards, though they are not the same thing. Similarly, rigor is confused with relevance, and reform with renaissance. Those three words are used because they sound tough and…

  10. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  11. Spanish Words in the Jicarilla Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pono, Filomena P.; And Others

    As contact with the American Indian people increased, Indian words, expressions, and terms filtered into the English language. On the other hand, the Indians also borrowed words from those people who came to the New World. The Jicarillas, because of their early contact with the Spanish culture and civilization, tended to borrow more words from the…

  12. Segmentation of Written Words in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Syllabification of spoken words has been largely used to define syllabic properties of written words, such as the number of syllables or syllabic boundaries. By contrast, some authors proposed that the functional structure of written words stems from visuo-orthographic features rather than from the transposition of phonological structure into the…

  13. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  14. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  15. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  16. Morphosyntax in Children with Word Finding Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Victoria A.; Dockrell, Julie; Messer, David; Farr, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    Children with word finding difficulties (CwWFDs) are slower and less accurate at naming monomorphemic words than typically developing children (Dockrell, Messer & George, 2001), but their difficulty in naming morphologically complex words has not yet been investigated. One aim of this paper was to identify whether CwWFDs are similar to typically…

  17. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  18. Making Your Music Word Wall Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhardt, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at what a word wall is and its use in the music classroom. The author outlines steps for creation of a word wall within the music classroom as well as the importance of such a resource. The author encourages the creation and consistent use of the word wall as leading to the development of stronger musicians and also independent,…

  19. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically-Developing Peers

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable to interference than peers. Forty 7- and 8-year-old children, half with SLI, took part in a fast mapping, word learning task. In addition to producing the word, there was a mispronunciation detection task that included mispronunciations of the target word in the initial position, final position or that modified the word's syllable structure. Children with SLI showed a different learning profile than peers, demonstrating stronger representations of the word-initial phonemes, but less information about word-final phonemes. They were more prone to interference overall, but especially from word-final foils. Children with SLI did not demonstrate less-defined phonological representations, but did attend to different features than TD children, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for problems learning longer words. The greatest weakness of children with SLI appears to be their susceptibility to interference, particularly for word-final information. PMID:22225571

  20. Effects of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness on spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    The relative abilities of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness to predict accuracy of spoken word recognition in noise were compared using two data sets. Word frequency is the number of times a word appears in a corpus of text. Contextual diversity is the number of different documents in which the word appears in that corpus. Semantic distinctiveness takes into account the number of different semantic contexts in which the word appears. Semantic distinctiveness and contextual diversity were both able to explain variance above and beyond that explained by word frequency, which by itself explained little unique variance. PMID:22894319

  1. Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency…

  2. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    PubMed

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  3. Exploiting domain information for Word Sense Disambiguation of medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Agirre, Eneko; Soroa, Aitor

    2011-01-01

    Objective Current techniques for knowledge-based Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) of ambiguous biomedical terms rely on relations in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus but do not take into account the domain of the target documents. The authors' goal is to improve these methods by using information about the topic of the document in which the ambiguous term appears. Design The authors proposed and implemented several methods to extract lists of key terms associated with Medical Subject Heading terms. These key terms are used to represent the document topic in a knowledge-based WSD system. They are applied both alone and in combination with local context. Measurements A standard measure of accuracy was calculated over the set of target words in the widely used National Library of Medicine WSD dataset. Results and discussion The authors report a significant improvement when combining those key terms with local context, showing that domain information improves the results of a WSD system based on the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus alone. The best results were obtained using key terms obtained by relevance feedback and weighted by inverse document frequency. PMID:21900701

  4. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues". PMID:26117488

  5. Interactive Language Learning by Robots: The Transition from Babbling to Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical distribution of linguistic elements. As well as being necessary for learning word meanings, the acquisition of anchor word forms facilitates the segmentation of an acoustic stream through other mechanisms. In our experiments some salient one-syllable word forms are learnt by a humanoid robot in real-time interactions with naive participants. Words emerge from random syllabic babble through a learning process based on a dialogue between the robot and the human participant, whose speech is perceived by the robot as a stream of phonemes. Numerous ways of representing the speech as syllabic segments are possible. Furthermore, the pronunciation of many words in spontaneous speech is variable. However, in line with research elsewhere, we observe that salient content words are more likely than function words to have consistent canonical representations; thus their relative frequency increases, as does their influence on the learner. Variable pronunciation may contribute to early word form acquisition. The importance of contingent interaction in real-time between teacher and learner is reflected by a reinforcement process, with variable success. The examination of individual cases may be more informative than group results. Nevertheless, word forms are usually produced by the robot after a few minutes of dialogue, employing a simple, real-time, frequency dependent mechanism. This work shows the potential of human-robot interaction systems in studies of the dynamics of early language

  6. Interactive language learning by robots: the transition from babbling to word forms.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical distribution of linguistic elements. As well as being necessary for learning word meanings, the acquisition of anchor word forms facilitates the segmentation of an acoustic stream through other mechanisms. In our experiments some salient one-syllable word forms are learnt by a humanoid robot in real-time interactions with naive participants. Words emerge from random syllabic babble through a learning process based on a dialogue between the robot and the human participant, whose speech is perceived by the robot as a stream of phonemes. Numerous ways of representing the speech as syllabic segments are possible. Furthermore, the pronunciation of many words in spontaneous speech is variable. However, in line with research elsewhere, we observe that salient content words are more likely than function words to have consistent canonical representations; thus their relative frequency increases, as does their influence on the learner. Variable pronunciation may contribute to early word form acquisition. The importance of contingent interaction in real-time between teacher and learner is reflected by a reinforcement process, with variable success. The examination of individual cases may be more informative than group results. Nevertheless, word forms are usually produced by the robot after a few minutes of dialogue, employing a simple, real-time, frequency dependent mechanism. This work shows the potential of human-robot interaction systems in studies of the dynamics of early language

  7. Naturalistic and Experimental Analyses of Word Frequency and Neighborhood Density Effects in Slips of the Ear*

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of the lexical characteristics of 88 auditory misperceptions (i.e., slips of the ear) showed no difference in word-frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency between the actual and the perceived utterances. Another comparison of slip of the ear tokens (i.e., actual and perceived utterances) and words in general (i.e., randomly selected from the lexicon) showed that slip of the ear tokens had denser neighborhoods and higher neighborhood frequency than words in general, as predicted from laboratory studies. Contrary to prediction, slip of the ear tokens were higher in frequency of occurrence than words in general. Additional laboratory-based investigations examined the possible source of the contradictory word frequency finding, highlighting the importance of using naturalistic and experimental data to develop models of spoken language processing. PMID:12866911

  8. Age of acquisition's effect on memory for semantically associated word pairs.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Juhasz, Barbara J

    2008-08-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of age of acquisition (AoA) in memory for associated word pairs in a cued recall task. Participants studied a list of frequency-controlled early- and late-acquired words in semantically related pairs and then were asked to recall the second word of the pair when cued with the first. Reaction time effects were found, showing that a late-acquired cue for an early-acquired target word was responded to significantly faster than other combinations. Additionally, late-acquired target words resulted in significantly more accurate responses. As significant differences were found even when frequency was controlled, the effects must therefore stem from the manipulations ofAoA. Given this evidence, the implications for AoA's effects on the organization of semantic memory are explored. PMID:18609409

  9. Relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Baker, Anne E; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The effect of using signed communication on the spoken language development of deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) is much debated. We report on two studies that investigated relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with a CI who are exposed to signs in addition to spoken language. Study 1 assessed rapid word and sign learning in 13 children with a CI and found that performance in both language modalities correlated positively. Study 2 tested the effects of using sign-supported speech on spoken word processing in eight children with a CI, showing that simultaneously perceiving signs and spoken words does not negatively impact their spoken word recognition or learning. Together, these two studies suggest that sign exposure does not necessarily have a negative effect on speech processing in some children with a CI. PMID:24080074

  10. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    experiments. Just don't waste any time testing the software'! In case the concept of not calling testing 'testing' appeals to you, and there may be an opportunity for you to take the sting out of the name at your place of employment, I have compiled a table of things that testing could be called besides 'testing'. Of course we can embellish this by adding some good sounding prefixes and suffixes also. To come up with alternate names for testing, pick a word from columns A, B, and C in the table below. For instance Unified Acceptance Trials (A2,B7,C3) or Tailored Observational Demonstration (A6,B5,C5) or Agile Criteria Scoring (A3,B8,C8) or Rapid Requirement Proof (A1,B9,C7) or Satisfaction Assurance (B10,C1). You can probably think of some additional combinations appropriate for your industry.

  11. And the last word ...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    Considerable coverage appeared in the national media in April following a talk by Averil Macdonald at the Institute of Physics Annual Congress in Salford. Averil, who recently received the 1999 Bragg Medal of the Institute for her contributions to physics education, notably advocated single-sex science classes for all school students over the age of 11 and flashy cars for physics teachers! This would, she hoped, go a long way towards encouraging girls to take up careers in science and engineering. It is well known that girls from single-sex schools do better at science than those in mixed schools, whereas boys perform better when both boys and girls are present. Averil wondered whether we should be prepared to sacrifice girls' potential achievements just so that boys can do better in mixed classes, as well as the latter benefiting from the `civilizing' influence of their female counterparts. Teaching styles could also be adding to the problem since boys prefer the model of an explanation followed by a test of understanding adopted by most teachers. Girls, however, benefit most from a more cooperative teaching style and also get better results with continuous assessment - so Averil wondered why we are still using a qualifications system in which most marks are given for examination performance. Science, and particularly physics, needs to be seen as a rewarding, high prestige career - hence the mention of the expensive car! In addition, girls need to be reassured that they can cope well with physics, even when it forms part of a `science' syllabus, since everyone should have their work in each science properly recognized and rewarded more fairly. Averil concluded that if some of the factors that hinder girls' success could be removed then more women might share the challenges of a science-based career and the UK's scientific and technical achievements would undoubtedly benefit. Shortly before Averil's talk, a new resource became available for girls and women seeking

  12. Cascadedness in Chinese written word production

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F.

    2015-01-01

    In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with colored line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the color while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming was found when on a trial, the written response shared an orthographic radical with the written name of the object. This finding constitutes clear evidence that task-irrelevant lexical codes activate their corresponding orthographic representation, and hence suggests that activation flows in a cascaded fashion within the written production system. Additionally, the results speak to how the time interval between processing of target and distractor dimensions affects and modulates the emergence of orthographic facilitation effects. PMID:26379595

  13. Word recognition and phonetic structure acquisition: Possible relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James

    2002-05-01

    Several accounts of possible relations between the emergence of the mental lexicon and acquisition of native language phonological structure have been propounded. In one view, acquisition of word meanings guides infants' attention toward those contrasts that are linguistically significant in their language. In the opposing view, native language phonological categories may be acquired from statistical patterns of input speech, prior to and independent of learning at the lexical level. Here, a more interactive account will be presented, in which phonological structure is modeled as emerging consequentially from the self-organization of perceptual space underlying word recognition. A key prediction of this model is that early native language phonological categories will be highly context specific. Data bearing on this prediction will be presented which provide clues to the nature of infants' statistical analysis of input.

  14. Word Diffusion and Climate Science

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Garnett, Philip; O'Brien, Michael J.; Brock, William A.

    2012-01-01

    As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow “boom and bust” fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society. PMID:23144839

  15. Nonliteral understanding of number words

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Justine T.; Wu, Jean Y.; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans’ interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

  16. Infant speech perception bootstraps word learning.

    PubMed

    Werker, Janet F; Yeung, H Henny

    2005-11-01

    By their first birthday, infants can understand many spoken words. Research in cognitive development has long focused on the conceptual changes that accompany word learning, but learning new words also entails perceptual sophistication. Several developmental steps are required as infants learn to segment, identify and represent the phonetic forms of spoken words, and map those word forms to different concepts. We review recent research on how infants' perceptual systems unfold in the service of word learning, from initial sensitivity for speech to the learning of language-specific sound patterns. Building on a recent theoretical framework and emerging new methodologies, we show how speech perception is crucial for word learning, and suggest that it bootstraps the development of a separate but parallel phonological system that links sound to meaning. PMID:16202639

  17. Immediate lexical integration of novel word forms

    PubMed Central

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that familiar words inhibit each other during spoken word recognition. However, we do not know how and under what circumstances newly learned words become integrated with the lexicon in order to engage in this competition. Previous work on word learning has highlighted the importance of offline consolidation (Gaskell & Dumay, 2003) and meaning (Leach & Samuel, 2007) to establish this integration. In two experiments we test the necessity of these factors by examining the inhibition between newly learned items and familiar words immediately after learning. Participants learned a set of nonwords without meanings in active (Exp 1) or passive (Exp 2) exposure paradigms. After training, participants performed a visual world paradigm task to assess inhibition from these newly learned items. An analysis of participants’ fixations suggested that the newly learned words were able to engage in competition with known words without any consolidation. PMID:25460382

  18. Scaling laws in emotion-associated words and corresponding network topology.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Takuma; Ochiai, Fumio; Suzuki, Naoto

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether scaling laws were present in the appearance-frequency distribution of emotion-associated words and determined whether the network constructed from those words had small-world or scale-free properties. Over 1,400 participants were asked to write down the first single noun that came to mind in response to nine emotional cue words, resulting in a total of 12,556 responses. We identified Zipf's law in the distribution of the data, as the slopes of the regression lines reached approximately -1.0 in the appearance frequencies for each emotional cue word. This suggested that the emotion-associated words had a clear regularity, were not randomly generated, were scale-invariant, and were influenced by unification/diversification forces. Thus, we predicted that the emotional intensity of the words might play an important role for a Zipf's law. Moreover, we also found that the 1-mode network of emotion-associated words clearly had small-world properties in terms of the network topologies of clustering, average distance, and small-worldness value, indicating that all nodes (words) were highly interconnected with each other and were only a few short steps apart. Furthermore, the data suggested the possibility of a scale-free property. Interestingly, we were able to identify hub words with neutral emotional content, such as 'dog', 'woman', and 'face', indicating that these neutral words might be an intermediary between words with conflicting emotional valence. Additionally, efficiency and optimal navigation in terms of complex networks were discussed. PMID:25399403

  19. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Anthony F.; Benitez, Viridian L.; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body – and its momentary posture – may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1–3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1–5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies’ momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6–9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge –not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping – but through the body’s momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  20. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    PubMed

    Morse, Anthony F; Benitez, Viridian L; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  1. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the variety of…

  2. Additive and Interactive Effects of Stimulus Degradation: No Challenge for CDP+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is…

  3. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed. PMID:19530560

  4. Why the body comes first: effects of experimenter touch on infants' word finding.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Amanda; Tincoff, Ruth; Baker, Christopher; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    The lexicon of 6-month-olds is comprised of names and body part words. Unlike names, body part words do not often occur in isolation in the input. This presents a puzzle: How have infants been able to pull out these words from the continuous stream of speech at such a young age? We hypothesize that caregivers' interactions directed at and on the infant's body may be at the root of their early acquisition of body part words. An artificial language segmentation study shows that experimenter-provided synchronous tactile cues help 4-month-olds to find words in continuous speech. A follow-up study suggests that this facilitation cannot be reduced to the highly social situation in which the directed interaction occurs. Taken together, these studies suggest that direct caregiver-infant interaction, exemplified in this study by touch cues, may play a key role in infants' ability to find word boundaries, and suggests that early vocabulary items may consist of words often linked with caregiver touches. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/NfCj5ipatyE. PMID:24734895

  5. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M; Miller, R E

    1984-04-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  6. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  7. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  8. Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: infants' language experience influences the development of a word-learning heuristic.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Werker, Janet F

    2009-09-01

    How infants learn new words is a fundamental puzzle in language acquisition. To guide their word learning, infants exploit systematic word-learning heuristics that allow them to link new words to likely referents. By 17 months, infants show a tendency to associate a novel noun with a novel object rather than a familiar one, a heuristic known as disambiguation. Yet, the developmental origins of this heuristic remain unknown. We compared disambiguation in 17- to 18-month-old infants from different language backgrounds to determine whether language experience influences its development, or whether disambiguation instead emerges as a result of maturation or social experience. Monolinguals showed strong use of disambiguation, bilinguals showed marginal use, and trilinguals showed no disambiguation. The number of languages being learned, but not vocabulary size, predicted performance. The results point to a key role for language experience in the development of disambiguation, and help to distinguish among theoretical accounts of its emergence. PMID:19702772

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry in visual recognition of words and motor response in schizophrenic and depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Min, S K; Oh, B H

    1992-02-01

    Two-letter Hangul words were presented tachistoscopically as target words to either the right or left visual field of normal subjects, schizophrenics, and depressive patients. The subjects' task was to judge the similarity or difference between the target words and the words used for comparison. They were to signal as soon as possible by pressing a key with their hands. In normal subjects, the correct response rate was significantly higher in the left hemisphere; there was little difference in the speed of motor response between the two hemispheres, however. Compared with normal subjects, both patient groups showed generalized impairment. Schizophrenia was associated with impairment in the left hemisphere, depression was associated with impairment in the right hemisphere. PMID:1547299

  10. Intentional forgetting of emotional words after trauma: a study with victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Blix, Ines; Brennen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive, and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F) words or to-be-remembered (R) words. However, when recalling words from R-list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F-list. "Intrusive" recall of F-trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder reported on the Impact of Event Scale and the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. The results are discussed in term of a source-monitoring account. PMID:21994497

  11. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone. PMID:25034443

  12. Replicability of sight word training and phonics training in poor readers: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kohnen, S; Jones, K; Eve, P; Banales, E; Larsen, L; Castles, A

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of effective treatments for children with reading impairment, paired with growing concern about the lack of scientific replication in psychological science, the aim of this study was to replicate a quasi-randomised trial of sight word and phonics training using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. One group of poor readers (N = 41) did 8 weeks of phonics training (i.e., phonological decoding) and then 8 weeks of sight word training (i.e., whole-word recognition). A second group did the reverse order of training. Sight word and phonics training each had a large and significant valid treatment effect on trained irregular words and word reading fluency. In addition, combined sight word and phonics training had a moderate and significant valid treatment effect on nonword reading accuracy and fluency. These findings demonstrate the reliability of both phonics and sight word training in treating poor readers in an era where the importance of scientific reliability is under close scrutiny. PMID:26019992

  13. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids. PMID:20676214

  14. SSME Key Operations Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian; Bradley, Michael; Ives, Janet

    1997-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test program was conducted between August 1995 and May 1996 using the Technology Test Bed (TTB) Engine. SSTO vehicle studies have indicated that increases in the propulsion system operating range can save significant weight and cost at the vehicle level. This test program demonstrated the ability of the SSME to accommodate a wide variation in safe operating ranges and therefore its applicability to the SSTO mission. A total of eight tests were completed with four at Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Engine Test Facility and four at the Stennis Space Center (SSC) A-2 attitude test stand. Key demonstration objectives were: 1) Mainstage operation at 5.4 to 6.9 mixture ratio; 2) Nominal engine start with significantly reduced engine inlet pressures of 50 psia LOX and 38 psia fuel; and 3) Low power level operation at 17%, 22%, 27%, 40%, 45%, and 50% of Rated Power Level. Use of the highly instrumented TTB engine for this test series has afforded the opportunity to study in great detail engine system operation not possible with a standard SSME and has significantly contributed to a greater understanding of the capabilities of the SSME and liquid rocket engines in general.

  15. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, A. L.; Lewis, D. E.; Hoover, B. M.; Stelmachowicz, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined rapid word learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that: 1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, 2) word learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and 3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Design Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Prior to testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). Results The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word learning scores suggested that although word learning was delayed in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase

  16. Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec Word Prosody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Lucien Serapio

    This dissertation presents a phonological description and acoustic analysis of the word prosody of Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec, which involves both a complex tone system and a default stress system. The analysis of Nieves Mixtec word prosody is complicated by a close association between morphological structure and prosodic structure, and by the interactions between word prosody and phonation type, which has both contrastive and non-contrastive roles in the phonology. I contextualize these systems within the phonology of Nieves Mixtec as a whole, within the literature on other Mixtec varieties, and within the literature on cross-linguistic prosodic typology. The literature on prosodic typology indicates that stress is necessarily defined abstractly, as structured prominence realized differently in each language. Descriptions of stress in other Mixtec varieties widely report default stress on the initial syllable of the canonical bimoraic root, though some descriptions suggest final stress or mobile stress. I first present phonological evidence---from distributional restrictions, phonological processes, and loanword adaptation---that Nieves Mixtec word prosody does involve a stress system, based on trochaic feet aligned to the root. I then present an acoustic study comparing stressed syllables to unstressed syllables, for ten potential acoustic correlates of stress. The results indicate that the acoustic correlates of stress in Nieves Mixtec include segmental duration, intensity and periodicity. Building on analyses of other Mixtec tone systems, I show that the distribution of tone and the tone processes in Nieves Mixtec support an analysis in which morae may bear H, M or L tone, where M tone is underlyingly unspecified, and each morpheme may sponsor a final +H or +L floating tone. Bimoraic roots thus host up to two linked tones and one floating tone, while monomoraic clitics host just one linked tone and one floating tone, and tonal morphemes are limited to a single

  17. Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

  18. Assessing the usefulness of google books' word frequencies for psycholinguistic research on word processing.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  19. Assessing the Usefulness of Google Books’ Word Frequencies for Psycholinguistic Research on Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  20. Brain mechanisms for reading words and pseudowords: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Breier, Joshua I; Fletcher, Jack M; Foorman, Barbara R; Castillo, Eduardo M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2002-03-01

    The present study tested two predictions of dual-process models of reading: (i) that the brain structures involved in sublexical phonological analysis and those involved in whole-word phonological access during reading are different; and (ii) that reading of meaningful items, by means of the addressed phonology process, is mediated by different brain structures than reading of meaningless letter strings. We obtained brain activation profiles using Magnetic Source Imaging and, in addition, pronunciation latencies during reading of: (i) exception words (primarily involving addressed phonology and having meaning), (ii) pseudohomophones (requiring assembled phonology and having meaning), and (iii) pseudowords (requiring assembled phonology but having no meaning). Reading of meaningful items entailed a high degree of activation of the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp) and mesial temporal lobe areas, whereas reading the meaningless pseudowords was associated with much reduced activation of these two regions. Reading of all three types of print resulted in activation of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STGp), inferior parietal and basal temporal areas. In addition, pronunciation speed of exception words correlated significantly with the onset of activity in MTGp but not STGp, whereas the opposite was true for pseudohomophones and pseudowords. These findings are consistent with the existence of two different brain mechanisms that support phonological processing in word reading: one mechanism that subserves assembled phonology and depends on the posterior part of STGp, and a second mechanism that is responsible for pronouncing words with rare print-to-sound correspondences and does not necessarily involve this region but instead appears to depend on MTGp. PMID:11839603

  1. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.

    PubMed

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction. PMID:23108241

  2. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  3. The Varieties of Pathways to Dysfluent Reading: Comparing Subtypes of Children with Dyslexia at Letter, Word, and Connected Text Levels of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Tami; Kim, Young-Suk; Wolf, Maryanne; Morris, Robin; Lovett, Maureen W.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of work on the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of dyslexia has been done at the letter and word levels of reading. Key research questions addressed in this study are (a) do readers with different subtypes of dyslexia display differences in fluency at particular reading levels (e.g., letter, word, and connected text)? and (b) do…

  4. [#1 Word for Family Medicine: ideas beyond words].

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Celotto, Stefano; Demurtas, Jacopo

    2015-06-01

    Social media has proven to be a powerful method in which ideas can be formed and shared publicly. Within the global family medicine community, the #1 Word for Family Medicine project has gained widespread popularity with participation in over 30 countries on 5 continents. With over 3000 responses - and counting - this idea has crossed the globe to engage both the general public and medical community at an exponential rate. Further exploration into the use of social media for the benefit of our profession should continue as patients and physicians become increasing connected to the internet. PMID:26076418

  5. Key to nematodes reported in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Malcolm E.

    1974-01-01

    This key, covering 171 species and subspecies of nematodes in 49 genera, is based on the the listings in the author's "Catalogue of Helminths of Waterfowl" (McDonald, 1969b), but includes 19 additional forms from his continuing survey of new literature.

  6. Evidence for a limited-cascading account of written word naming.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sébastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-11-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic processing (contextual constraint), and at the level of the lexical retrieval of orthographic word forms (e.g., word frequency). In Experiment 1, pictures were presented either in color or in black and white and had names with either high-to-low or low-to-high frequency trajectories. Both factors had reliable but entirely additive effects on written naming times. In Experiment 2, pictures were presented clearly, in visual noise or blurred, and had names of either high or low word frequency. Again, both factors had reliable but additive effects on written naming latencies. In Experiments 3 and 4, pictures were preceded by a sentence that provided either strong or weak contextual constraint and had names of either high or low word frequency. These 2 variables interacted: The advantage for high-frequency words was observed only with low contextual constraint. We argue that, in combination, these findings support a limited-cascading account of written word production. PMID:22612168

  7. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  8. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  9. Age of acquisition and imageability norms for base and morphologically complex words in English and in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Davies, Shakiela K; Izura, Cristina; Socas, Rosy; Dominguez, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The extent to which processing words involves breaking them down into smaller units or morphemes or is the result of an interactive activation of other units, such as meanings, letters, and sounds (e.g., dis-agree-ment vs. disagreement), is currently under debate. Disentangling morphology from phonology and semantics is often a methodological challenge, because orthogonal manipulations are difficult to achieve (e.g., semantically unrelated words are often phonologically related: casual-casualty and, vice versa, sign-signal). The present norms provide a morphological classification of 3,263 suffixed derived words from two widely spoken languages: English (2,204 words) and Spanish (1,059 words). Morphologically complex words were sorted into four categories according to the nature of their relationship with the base word: phonologically transparent (friend-friendly), phonologically opaque (child-children), semantically transparent (habit-habitual), and semantically opaque (event-eventual). In addition, ratings were gathered for age of acquisition, imageability, and semantic distance (i.e., the extent to which the meaning of the complex derived form could be drawn from the meaning of its base constituents). The norms were completed by adding values for word frequency; word length in number of phonemes, letters, and syllables; lexical similarity, as measured by the number of neighbors; and morphological family size. A series of comparative analyses from the collated ratings for the base and derived words were also carried out. The results are discussed in relation to recent findings. PMID:25939978

  10. Word segmentation of off-line handwritten documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2008-01-01

    Word segmentation is the most critical pre-processing step for any handwritten document recognition and/or retrieval system. When the writing style is unconstrained (written in a natural manner), recognition of individual components may be unreliable, so they must be grouped together into word hypotheses before recognition algorithms can be used. This paper describes a gap metrics based machine learning approach to separate a line of unconstrained handwritten text into words. Our approach uses a set of both local and global features, which is motivated by the ways in which human beings perform this kind of task. In addition, in order to overcome the disadvantage of different distance computation methods, we propose a combined distance measure computed using three different methods. The classification is done by using a three-layer neural network. The algorithm is evaluated using an unconstrained handwriting database that contains 50 pages (1026 line, 7562 words images) handwritten documents. The overall accuracy is 90.8%, which shows a better performance than a previous method.

  11. Stimulus-based similarity and the recognition of spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Spoken word recognition has been hypothesized to be achieved via a competitive process amongst perceptually similar lexical candidates in the mental lexicon. In this process, lexical candidates are activated as a function of their perceived similarity to the spoken stimulus. The evidence supporting this hypothesis has largely come from studies of auditory word recognition. In this talk, evidence from our studies of visual spoken word recognition will be reviewed. Visual speech provides the opportunity to highlight the importance of stimulus-driven perceptual similarity because it presents a different pattern of segmental similarity than is afforded by auditory speech degraded by noise. Our results are consistent with stimulus-driven activation followed by competition as general spoken word recognition mechanism. In addition, results will be presented from recent investigations of the direct prediction of perceptual similarity from measurements of spoken stimuli. High levels of correlation have been observed between the predicted and perceptually obtained distances for a large set of spoken consonants. These results support the hypothesis that the perceptual structure of English consonants and vowels is predicted by stimulus structure without the need for an intervening level of abstract linguistic representation. [Research supported by NSF IIS 9996088 and NIH DC04856.

  12. Exploration in free word association networks: models and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ludueña, Guillermo A; Behzad, Mehran Djalali; Gros, Claudius

    2014-05-01

    Free association is a task that requires a subject to express the first word to come to their mind when presented with a certain cue. It is a task which can be used to expose the basic mechanisms by which humans connect memories. In this work, we have made use of a publicly available database of free associations to model the exploration of the averaged network of associations using a statistical and the adaptive control of thought-rational (ACT-R) model. We performed, in addition, an online experiment asking participants to navigate the averaged network using their individual preferences for word associations. We have investigated the statistics of word repetitions in this guided association task. We find that the considered models mimic some of the statistical properties, viz the probability of word repetitions, the distance between repetitions and the distribution of association chain lengths, of the experiment, with the ACT-R model showing a particularly good fit to the experimental data for the more intricate properties as, for instance, the ratio of repetitions per length of association chains. PMID:24264368

  13. Using Internet search engines to estimate word frequency.

    PubMed

    Blair, Irene V; Urland, Geoffrey R; Ma, Jennifer E

    2002-05-01

    The present research investigated Internet search engines as a rapid, cost-effective alternative for estimating word frequencies. Frequency estimates for 382 words were obtained and compared across four methods: (1) Internet search engines, (2) the Kucera and Francis (1967) analysis of a traditional linguistic corpus, (3) the CELEX English linguistic database (Baayen, Piepenbrock, & Gulikers, 1995), and (4) participant ratings of familiarity. The results showed that Internet search engines produced frequency estimates that were highly consistent with those reported by Kucera and Francis and those calculated from CELEX, highly consistent across search engines, and very reliable over a 6-month period of time. Additional results suggested that Internet search engines are an excellent option when traditional word frequency analyses do not contain the necessary data (e.g., estimates for forenames and slang). In contrast, participants' familiarity judgments did not correspond well with the more objective estimates of word frequency. Researchers are advised to use search engines with large databases (e.g., AltaVista) to ensure the greatest representativeness of the frequency estimates. PMID:12109025

  14. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of 'words known' mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  15. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of ‘words known’ mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  16. Temporospatial analysis of explicit and implicit processing of negative content during word comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J A; Albert, J; López-Martín, S; Carretié, L

    2014-06-01

    Although divergences between explicit and implicit processing of affective content during word comprehension have been reported, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. Prior studies focused on either the timing or the spatial location of the effects. The present study examined the precise dynamics of the processing of negative words when attention is directed to affective content or to non-emotional properties by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the event-related potentials (ERPs) and recent advances in source localization. Tasks were used that required accessing knowledge about different semantic properties of negative and neutral words. In the direct task, participants' attention was directed towards emotional information. By contrast, subjects had to decide whether the words' referent could be touched or not in the indirect task. Regardless of being processed explicitly or implicitly, negative compared to neutral words were associated with more errors and greater key pressure responses. Electrophysiologically, affective processing was reflected in larger amplitudes to negative words in a late positive component (LPC) at the scalp level, and in increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) at the voxel level. Interestingly, an interaction between emotion and type of task was observed. Negative words were associated with more errors, larger anterior distributed LPC amplitudes and increased activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the direct compared to the indirect task. This LPC effect was modulated by the concreteness of the words. Finally, a task effect was found in a posterior negativity around 220ms, with enhanced amplitudes to words in the direct compared to the indirect task. The present results suggest that negative information contained in written language is processed irrespective of controlled attention is directed to it or not, but that this processing is reinforced in the former case

  17. Words and Melody Are Intertwined in Perception of Sung Words: EEG and Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Schön, Daniele; Magne, Cyrille; Astésano, Corine; Besson, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target) presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word) elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music. PMID:20360991

  18. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  19. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100 ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400 ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  20. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    PubMed

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  1. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. PMID:20384417

  2. The Keys to Election 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Allan J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the role of the "Keys to the White House" in predicting future U.S. presidents during political campaigns for office. Explains that the "Keys to the White House" consist of 13 statements favoring the reelection of the incumbent party. Provides a table demonstrating the status of the keys for Election 2000. (CMK)

  3. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  4. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and phrases used…

  5. Crossmodal Semantic Priming by Naturalistic Sounds and Spoken Words Enhances Visual Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multisensory framework based on Glaser and Glaser's (1989) general reading-naming interference model to account for the semantic priming effect by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture sensitivity. Four experiments were designed to investigate two key issues: First, can auditory stimuli enhance visual sensitivity when…

  6. Network Alterations Supporting Word Retrieval in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protzner, Andrea B.; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is not considered a key structure in semantic memory, patients with medial-temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) have deficits in semantic access on some word retrieval tasks. We hypothesized that these deficits reflect the negative impact of focal epilepsy on remote cerebral structures. Thus, we expected that the networks that…

  7. A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary…

  8. Second Language Learners' Contiguous and Discontiguous Multi-Word Unit Use over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuldashev, Aziz; Fernandez, Julieta; Thorne, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has described the key role of formulaic language use in both written and spoken communication (Schmitt, 2004; Wray, 2002), as well as in relation to L2 learning (Ellis, Simpson--Vlach, & Maynard, 2008). Relatively few studies have examined related fixed and semi-fixed multi-word units (MWUs), which comprise fixed parts with the potential…

  9. Straight Talk about the N-Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The n-word is unique in the English language. On one hand, it is the ultimate insult- a word that has tormented generations of African Americans. Yet over time, it has become a popular term of endearment by the descendents of the very people who once had to endure it. Among many young people today--black and white--the n-word can mean "friend".…

  10. Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise…

  11. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  12. 27 CFR 19.605 - Additional marks on portable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall be marked as provided in 27 CFR part 28; or (2) Tax-free alcohol shall be marked with the word... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional marks on... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and...

  13. Novedades en el diccionario (New Additions to the Dictionary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicer, Ramon

    1975-01-01

    A total of 271 items--words, phrases and affixes--were added to the common Spanish dictionary in the period between October and December 1974. This article lists the principal additions, each organized within a larger semantic category. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  14. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    PubMed Central

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  15. Names in frames: infants interpret words in sentence frames faster than words in isolation

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2011-01-01

    In child-directed speech (CDS), adults often use utterances with very few words; many include short, frequently used sentence frames, while others consist of a single word in isolation. Do such features of CDS provide perceptual advantages for the child? Based on descriptive analyses of parental speech, some researchers argue that isolated words should help infants in word recognition by facilitating segmentation, while others predict no advantage. To address this question directly, we used online measures of speech processing in a looking-while-listening procedure. In two experiments, 18-month-olds were presented with familiar object names in isolation and in a sentence frame. Infants were 120 ms slower to interpret target words in isolation than when the same words were preceded by a familiar carrier phrase, suggesting that the sentence frame facilitated word recognition. Familiar frames may enable the infant to ‘listen ahead’ more efficiently for the focused word at the end of the sentence. PMID:16669790

  16. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority.

    PubMed

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE. PMID:24027510

  17. Harmony Search Algorithm for Word Sense Disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Abed, Saad Adnan; Tiun, Sabrina; Omar, Nazlia

    2015-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the task of determining which sense of an ambiguous word (word with multiple meanings) is chosen in a particular use of that word, by considering its context. A sentence is considered ambiguous if it contains ambiguous word(s). Practically, any sentence that has been classified as ambiguous usually has multiple interpretations, but just one of them presents the correct interpretation. We propose an unsupervised method that exploits knowledge based approaches for word sense disambiguation using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) based on a Stanford dependencies generator (HSDG). The role of the dependency generator is to parse sentences to obtain their dependency relations. Whereas, the goal of using the HSA is to maximize the overall semantic similarity of the set of parsed words. HSA invokes a combination of semantic similarity and relatedness measurements, i.e., Jiang and Conrath (jcn) and an adapted Lesk algorithm, to perform the HSA fitness function. Our proposed method was experimented on benchmark datasets, which yielded results comparable to the state-of-the-art WSD methods. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dependency generator, we perform the same methodology without the parser, but with a window of words. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce effective solutions for most instances of the datasets used. PMID:26422368

  18. Modular networks of word correlations on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Yde, Pernille; Jensen, Mogens H.

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks are important tools for analyzing the information flow in many aspects of nature and human society. Using data from the microblogging service Twitter, we study networks of correlations in the occurrence of words from three different categories, international brands, nouns and US major cities. We create networks where the strength of links is determined by a similarity measure based on the rate of co-occurrences of words. In comparison with the null model, where words are assumed to be uncorrelated, the heavy-tailed distribution of pair correlations is shown to be a consequence of groups of words representing similar entities. PMID:23139863

  19. Harmony Search Algorithm for Word Sense Disambiguation

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Saad Adnan; Tiun, Sabrina; Omar, Nazlia

    2015-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the task of determining which sense of an ambiguous word (word with multiple meanings) is chosen in a particular use of that word, by considering its context. A sentence is considered ambiguous if it contains ambiguous word(s). Practically, any sentence that has been classified as ambiguous usually has multiple interpretations, but just one of them presents the correct interpretation. We propose an unsupervised method that exploits knowledge based approaches for word sense disambiguation using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) based on a Stanford dependencies generator (HSDG). The role of the dependency generator is to parse sentences to obtain their dependency relations. Whereas, the goal of using the HSA is to maximize the overall semantic similarity of the set of parsed words. HSA invokes a combination of semantic similarity and relatedness measurements, i.e., Jiang and Conrath (jcn) and an adapted Lesk algorithm, to perform the HSA fitness function. Our proposed method was experimented on benchmark datasets, which yielded results comparable to the state-of-the-art WSD methods. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dependency generator, we perform the same methodology without the parser, but with a window of words. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce effective solutions for most instances of the datasets used. PMID:26422368

  20. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.